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Sample records for energy statistics yearbook

  1. Energy statistics yearbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2002 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-sixth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  2. Energy statistics yearbook 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2001 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-fifth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  3. Energy statistics yearbook 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2000 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-third in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  4. 1992 Energy statistics Yearbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from annual questionnaires distributed by the United Nations Statistical Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistical Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  5. Energy statistics yearbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphs the evolution of the world energy production, consumption, imports, exports and stock changes since 1996 with some details about the consumption per sector, per country, and per energy source (petroleum products, natural gas, coal and lignite, electricity). The evolution of the CO 2 emissions per country and since 1990 are also given. (J.S.)

  6. 1997 statistical yearbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The international office of energy information and studies (Enerdata), has published the second edition of its 1997 statistical yearbook which includes consolidated 1996 data with respect to the previous version from June 1997. The CD-Rom comprises the annual worldwide petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity statistics from 1991 to 1996 with information about production, external trade, consumption, market shares, sectoral distribution of consumption and energy balance sheets. The world is divided into 12 zones (52 countries available). It contains also energy indicators: production and consumption tendencies, supply and production structures, safety of supplies, energy efficiency, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  7. Enerdata statistical yearbook. ''the key-data of energy worldwide''. 1999 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The new edition of the Enerdata statistical yearbook provides the most recent statistical data on energy (oil, gas, coal and power production) and CO 2 emissions worldwide for the 1994-1999 period of time. These data cover 52 countries and 12 geographic areas and are presented in the form of tables and graphs (production, foreign exchanges, consumptions, market shares, sectoral consumption, 1999 energy status, long-term tendencies). More data for a longer period (1970-1999) and for all countries worldwide are available on the CD-Rom version of the yearbook. (J.S.)

  8. The world energy consumption in 2001. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Statistical data on the world energy consumption are given to illustrate the following situation in 2001: the deceleration of the world economic growth and the high prices of oil slowed down the progression of the energy consumption: 0,7 % in 2001; stagnation of the gas and oil consumption and strong progression for coal and electricity in 2001; the deceleration for gas marks a strong inflection compared to the past trends. (A.L.B.)

  9. The energy world in 2002. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the world energy key data for 2002 (total energy consumption and per gross domestic product unit, petroleum, gas, coal and lignite, and electric power consumptions, CO 2 emissions). Data are grouped according to five main areas (Africa and Middle East, America, Asia and Pacific area, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and ex-USSR). The data show a restart of the world energy consumption (1.4% in 2002 with respect to 0.5% in 2001) despite a relatively low economic growth (1.6% with respect to 2.6% for the previous decade, as an average), a strong growth of the electricity and coal consumption, a restart of the gas consumption and a stagnation of the petroleum consumption. (J.S.)

  10. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  11. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  12. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  13. Ontario Hydro statistical yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro was created in 1906 by a special statute of the Province of Ontario. It is a financially self-sustaining corporation without share capital. The yearbook is a compilation of financial data detailed by financial statements and sales and revenue figures for the year 1990. It is broken down by municipalities served in Ontario

  14. Ontario Hydro statistical yearbook 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Ontario Hydro was created in 1906 by a special statute of the Province of Ontario. It is a financially self-sustaining corporation without share capital. The yearbook is a compilation of financial data detailed by financial statements and sales and revenue figures for the year 1990. It is broken down by municipalities served in Ontario.

  15. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  16. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  17. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  18. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  19. Statistical yearbook 2002-2004. Data available as of February 2005. 49 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This is the forty-ninth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. The data included generally cover the years between 1993 and 2003 and are, for the most part, those statistics which were available to the Statistics Division as of February 2005. The 81 tables of the Yearbook are based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 35 international and national sources. These sources include the United Nations Statistics Division in the fields of national accounts, industry, energy, transport and international trade, the United Nations Statistics Division and Population Division in the field of demographic statistics, and over 20 offices of the United Nations system and international organizations in other specialized fields. The Yearbook is organized in four parts. The first part, World and Region Summary, presents key world and regional aggregates and totals. In the other three parts, the subject matter is generally presented by countries or areas, with world and regional aggregates shown in some cases only. Parts two, three and four cover, respectively, population and social topics, national economic activity, and international economic relations. Each chapter ends with brief technical notes on statistical sources and methods for the tables it includes. References to sources and related methodological publications are provided at the end of the Yearbook in the section 'Statistical sources and references'. Annex I provides complete information on country and area nomenclature, and regional and other groupings used in the Yearbook. Annex II lists conversion coefficients and factors used in various tables. A list of tables added to or omitted from the last issue of the Yearbook is given in annex III. Symbols and conventions used in the Yearbook are shown in the section 'Explanatory notes, preceding the Introduction

  20. Statistical yearbook. 2000. Data available as of 31 January 2003. 47 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the forty-seventh issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1989-1998 or 1990-1999, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 November 2000. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources. These include the United Nations Statistics Division in the fields of national accounts, industry, energy, transport and international trade; the United Nations Statistics Division and Population Division in the field of demographic statistics; and data provided by over 20 offices of the United Nations system and international organizations in other specialized fields.United Nations agencies and other international organizations which furnished data are listed under 'Statistical sources and references' at the end of the Yearbook. Acknowledgement is gratefully made for their generous cooperation in providing data. The Statistics Division also publishes the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, which provides a valuable complement to the Yearbook covering current international economic statistics for most countries and areas of the world and quarterly world and regional aggregates. Subscribers to the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics may also access the Bulletin on-line via the World Wide Web on Internet. MBS On-line allows time-sensitive statistics to reach users much faster than the traditional print publication. For further information see . The present issue of the Yearbook reflects a phased programme of major changes in its organization and presentation undertaken in 1990 which until then was relatively unchanged since the first issue was released in 1948. The Yearbook has also been published on CD-ROM for IBM-compatible microcomputers, since the thirty-eighth issue

  1. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschk, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [de

  2. Energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    World data from the United Nation's latest Energy Statistics Yearbook, first published in our last issue, are completed here. The 1984-86 data were revised and 1987 data added for world commercial energy production and consumption, world natural gas plant liquids production, world LP-gas production, imports, exports, and consumption, world residual fuel oil production, imports, exports, and consumption, world lignite production, imports, exports, and consumption, world peat production and consumption, world electricity production, imports, exports, and consumption (Table 80), and world nuclear electric power production

  3. Statistical yearbook. 1998. Data available as of 30 November 2000. 45 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1989-1998 or 1990-1999, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 November 2000. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources. These include the United Nations Statistics Division in the fields of national accounts, industry, energy, transport and international trade; the United Nations Statistics Division and Population Division in the field of demographic statistics; and data provided by over 20 offices of the United Nations system and international organizations in other specialized fields.United Nations agencies and other international organizations which furnished data are listed under 'Statistical sources and references' at the end of the Yearbook. Acknowledgement is gratefully made for their generous cooperation in providing data. The Statistics Division also publishes the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, which provides a valuable complement to the Yearbook covering current international economic statistics for most countries and areas of the world and quarterly world and regional aggregates. Subscribers to the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics may also access the Bulletin on-line via the World Wide Web on Internet. MBS On-line allows time-sensitive statistics to reach users much faster than the traditional print publication. For further information see . The present issue of the Yearbook reflects a phased programme of major changes in its organization and presentation undertaken in 1990 which until then was relatively unchanged since the first issue was released in 1948. One result of this process has been to reduce the total number of tables from 140 in the 37th issue to 80 in the present issue and to include

  4. Statistical yearbook 2001. Data available as of 15 December 2003. 48 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the forty-eight issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. It contains series covering, in general, 1990-1999 or 1991-2000, based on statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 15 December 2003. The major purpose of the Statistical Yearbook is to provide in a single volume a comprehensive compilation of internationally available statistics on social and economic conditions and activities, at world, regional and national levels, covering roughly a ten-year period. Most of the statistics presented in the Yearbook are extracted from more detailed, specialized publications prepared by the Statistics Division and by many other international statistical services. Thus, while the specialized publications concentrate on monitoring topics and trends in particular social and economic fields, the Statistical Yearbook tables provide data for a more comprehensive, overall description of social and economic structures, conditions, changes and activities. The objective has been to collect, systematize and coordinate the most essential components of comparable statistical information which can give a broad and, to the extent feasible, a consistent picture of social and economic processes at world, regional and national levels. More specifically, the Statistical Yearbook provides systematic information on a wide range of social and economic issues which are of concern in the United Nations system and among the governments and peoples of the world. A particular value of the Yearbook, but also its greatest challenge, is that these issues are extensively interrelated. Meaningful analysis of these issues requires systematization and coordination of the data across many fields. These issues include: General economic growth and related economic conditions; economic situation in developing countries and progress towards the objectives adopted for the

  5. Statistical yearbook. 1995 Data available as of 30 June 1997. 42. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the forty-second issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1985-1994 or 1986-1995, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 June 1997. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  6. Statistical yearbook 1993. Data available as of 31 December 1994. 40 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fortieth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistical Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1983-1992 or 1984-1993, using statistics available to the Statistical Division up to 31 December 1994. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistical Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  7. Statistical yearbook. 1996. Data available as of 30 September 1988. 43 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the forty-third issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1986-1995 or 1987-1996, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 September 1998. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  8. Statistical yearbook 1994. Data available as of 31 March 1996. 41 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the forty-first issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1984-1993 or 1985-1994, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 31 December 1995. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  9. Yearbook on European Energy and Raw-Materials Industry 2013. 120. ed.; Jahrbuch der europaeischen Energie- und Rohstoffwirtschaft 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Marc; Meller, Eberhard; Milojcic, George; Mueller, Hildegard; Rappuhn, Thomas; Schmidt, Michael; Vahrenholt, Fritz; Wodopia, Franz-Josef (eds.)

    2013-04-01

    The yearbook contains information on mining, oil and gas, electricity, energy distribution, renewable energy sources, power supply industry, environmental protection and natural resources management, trade, authorities, and training and research in Germany and Europe. Organizations are listed, a statistics section contains current data, and a purchasing guide informs on industrial equipment and services.

  10. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [de

  11. Statistical yearbook. 1999. Data available as of 30 November 2001. 46 ed. Annuaire statistique. 1999. Donnees disponibles au 30 novembre 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. It contains series covering, in general, 1990-1999 or 1991-2000, based on statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 November 2001. The major purpose of the Statistical Yearbook is to provide in a single volume a comprehensive compilation of internationally available statistics on social and economic conditions and activities, at world, regional and national levels, covering roughly a ten-year period. Most of the statistics presented in the Yearbook are extracted from more detailed, specialized publications prepared by the Statistics Division and by many other international statistical services. Thus, while the specialized publications concentrate on monitoring topics and trends in particular social and economic fields, the Statistical Yearbook tables provide data for a more comprehensive, overall description of social and economic structures, conditions, changes and activities. The objective has been to collect, systematize and coordinate the most essential components of comparable statistical information which can give a broad and, to the extent feasible, a consistent picture of social and economic processes at world, regional and national levels. More specifically, the Statistical Yearbook provides systematic information on a wide range of social and economic issues which are of concern in the United Nations system and among the governments and peoples of the world. A particular value of the Yearbook, but also its greatest challenge, is that these issues are extensively interrelated. Meaningful analysis of these issues requires systematization and coordination of the data across many fields. These issues include: General economic growth and related economic conditions; economic situation in developing countries and progress towards the objectives adopted for the

  12. Yearbook of wind energy law 2014; Jahrbuch Windenergierecht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Edmund (ed.) [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht sowie Verwaltungswissenschaften; Koordinierungsstelle Windenergierecht k:wer, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the yearbook 2014, the technical contributions surround mainly the position and shape of the wind energy, small wind turbines, the compatibility of the EEG with higher-ranking law, as well as to the implementation of recent instrumental requirements. In other contributions the central lines of development of the jurisdiction are identified and (legal) political developments, judical decisions and literature are documented. [German] Im Jahrbuch 2014 ranken sich die Fachbeitraege schwerpunktmaessig um die Stellung und Ausformung der Windenergie, um Kleinwindanlagen, um die Vereinbarkeit des EEG mit hoeherrangigem Recht sowie um die Umsetzung neuerer instrumenteller Anforderungen. In weiteren Beitraegen werden die zentralen Entwicklungslinien der Rechtsprechung herausgearbeitet und (rechts-)politische Entwicklungen, Gerichtsentscheidungen und Literatur dokumentiert.

  13. Statistical yearbook 2005. Data available as of March 2006. 50 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    The Statistical Yearbook is an annual compilation of a wide range of international economic, social and environmental statistics on over 200 countries and areas, compiled from sources including UN agencies and other international, national and specialized organizations. The 50th issue contains data available to the Statistics Division as of March 2006 and presents them in 76 tables. The number of years of data shown in the tables varies from one to ten, with the ten-year tables covering 1994 to 2003 or 1995 to 2004. Accompanying the tables are technical notes providing brief descriptions of major statistical concepts, definitions and classifications

  14. SIHTI 2. Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1995. Project presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, M.; Thun, R.

    1997-01-01

    Detrimental impacts of various energy production forms, their prevention and costs to enterprises and to the society are studied in the National Research Programme on Energy and Environmental Technology - SIHTI 2. For this evaluation work databases on Finland's energy production, fuels and boilers and emissions of various production forms are needed. This is one of the main subtasks of the SIHTI Programme. Development of methods and tools required for environmental decision making and for the assessment of environmental costs and testing of their usability and reliability are equally important. Emission measurements are a problem field that continuously sets new challenges. In addition to energy production and its environmental impacts, environmental issues of the woodprocessing industries form another important research field of SIHTI 2 programme. A common aim of both fields is to reduce emissions of detrimental substances, to recycle raw materials, and to minimise and reuse wastes. Research and development projects are being carried out by a number of universities of different fields of science and technology, by research organisations and enterprises, and many projects are realised in close co-operation. In 1995, the programme comprised 28 R and D projects by universities and 22 enterprise-led projects. Results of these projects are presented in this yearbook. Part of the research projects continued from the preceding year and part were new projects continuing in 1996

  15. Energy Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    For the years 1992 and 1993, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period. The tables and figures shown in this publication are: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption; Coal consumption; Natural gas consumption; Peat consumption; Domestic oil deliveries; Import prices of oil; Price development of principal oil products; Fuel prices for power production; Total energy consumption by source; Electricity supply; Energy imports by country of origin in 1993; Energy exports by recipient country in 1993; Consumer prices of liquid fuels; Consumer prices of hard coal and natural gas, prices of indigenous fuels; Average electricity price by type of consumer; Price of district heating by type of consumer and Excise taxes and turnover taxes included in consumer prices of some energy sources

  16. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015; Jahrbuch Windenergierecht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Edmund (ed.) [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht sowie Verwaltungswissenschaften; Koordinierungsstelle Windenergierecht k:wer, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [German] Im Jahrbuch 2015 beschaeftigen sich die Fachbeitraege mit den Abstandsempfehlungen der Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft der Vogelschutzwarten, mit Aesthetik als oeffentlichem Belang im Planungs- und Genehmigungsregime fuer Windenergieanlagen, dem Entwurf zum Buerger- und Gemeindenbeteiligungsgesetz Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, dem Konflikt zwischen Windenergieanlagen und Wetterradaren und mit der obergerichtlichen Rechtsprechung zum Einspeisemanagement.

  17. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  18. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016; Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden. Jahrbuch 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschk, Juergen (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [German] Standpunkte, Konzepte und Projekte aus Politik und Praxis bilden auch in 2016 die Schwerpunkte des Jahrbuchs, das sich zum Standardwerk der Wohnungs- und Immobilienwirtschaft in Deutschland entwickelt hat. Die Energiewende war lange Zeit ausschliesslich eine Stromwende. Nun aber rueckt das Themenfeld ''Gebaeude'' immer staerker in den Fokus der politischen wie oeffentlichen Diskussion - und zwar durchaus kontrovers. In vorliegenden Jahrbuch wird der Versuch unternommen, das Themenfeld Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden in seiner Vielschichtigkeit zu beleuchten. Die ueber 30 Beitraege renommierter Fachautoren gliedern sich in folgende Kapitel: Politische Strategien und Positionen, Studien und Konzepte, Energieforschung fuer Gebaeude und Quartiere; Vorbilder aus der Praxis, Mieterstrom: Konzepte und Projekte; Faktor Mensch: Information - Motivation - Verhaltensaenderung.

  19. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  20. SIHTI 2. Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1994 of the research programme. Project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, M.; Saviharju, K.

    1995-01-01

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilisation of wastes. In additions, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other national research programmes. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The area of research also covers environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. The programme will be carried out in 1993 - 1998. As of 1 January 1995 the Technology development Centre TEKES took over the responsibility for energy technology research and development activities, which were previously administered by the Energy Department of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. This yearbook 1994 contains project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions. (orig.)

  1. SULA 2 - Energy-efficient steel and metal production. Yearbook 1996; SULA 2 - Perusmetallien energiataloudellinen valmistus. Vuosikirja 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulin, H [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of SULA 2 programme are (1) reduction of specific energy consumption, (2) reduction of harmful emissions and impact on the environment, (3) promoting technology export. Participants in the programme are the steel and base metal producers; Fundia wire, Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy, as well as universities with laboratories for research on metal producing processes and their control such as Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, Aabo Akademi and Tampere University of Technology. The programme consists of 32 research projects, of which 14 are applied technology. The total funding for 1995-1996 is 52,5 mill. FIM. Information on the research results is exchanged at the SULA-seminars arranged in 1994, 1996 and at the beginning of 1999. In connection with the seminars a yearbook will be published. The yearbook contains the reports of all the programme projects

  2. SULA 2 - Energy-efficient steel and metal production. Yearbook 1996; SULA 2 - Perusmetallien energiataloudellinen valmistus. Vuosikirja 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulin, H. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of SULA 2 programme are (1) reduction of specific energy consumption, (2) reduction of harmful emissions and impact on the environment, (3) promoting technology export. Participants in the programme are the steel and base metal producers; Fundia wire, Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy, as well as universities with laboratories for research on metal producing processes and their control such as Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, Aabo Akademi and Tampere University of Technology. The programme consists of 32 research projects, of which 14 are applied technology. The total funding for 1995-1996 is 52,5 mill. FIM. Information on the research results is exchanged at the SULA-seminars arranged in 1994, 1996 and at the beginning of 1999. In connection with the seminars a yearbook will be published. The yearbook contains the reports of all the programme projects

  3. SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1993 of the research programme. Project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, M.; Saviharju, K.

    1994-01-01

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology, established by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilization of wastes. In addition, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other research programmes financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The programme, to be carried out in 1993 - 1998, is in part a continuation of the previous SIHTI programme. New areas of research are environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. This publication is yearbook 1993 of the programme. It contains the project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions

  4. 2002 energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report has 12 chapters. The first chapter includes world energy reserves, the second chapter is about world primary energy production and consumption condition. Other chapters include; world energy prices, energy reserves in Turkey, Turkey primary energy production and consumption condition, Turkey energy balance tables, Turkey primary energy reserves production, consumption, imports and exports conditions, sectoral energy consumptions, Turkey secondary electricity plants, Turkey energy investments, Turkey energy prices.This report gives world and Turkey statistics on energy

  5. Wind energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.; Tammelin, B.; Hyvoenen, R.

    1997-01-01

    The recording, analyzing and publishing of statistics of wind energy production has been reorganized in cooperation of VTT Energy, Finnish Meteorological (FMI Energy) and Finnish Wind Energy Association (STY) and supported by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). VTT Energy has developed a database that contains both monthly data and information on the wind turbines, sites and operators involved. The monthly production figures together with component failure statistics are collected from the operators by VTT Energy, who produces the final wind energy statistics to be published in Tuulensilmae and reported to energy statistics in Finland and abroad (Statistics Finland, Eurostat, IEA). To be able to verify the annual and monthly wind energy potential with average wind energy climate a production index in adopted. The index gives the expected wind energy production at various areas in Finland calculated using real wind speed observations, air density and a power curve for a typical 500 kW-wind turbine. FMI Energy has produced the average figures for four weather stations using the data from 1985-1996, and produces the monthly figures. (orig.)

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  11. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  12. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2010. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2010 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  14. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  16. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  17. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  18. IAEA yearbook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Part A of the Yearbook describes the role played by the IAEA in helping to advance sustainable development by the transfer of nuclear and radiation technology. The introduction to this section this year discusses the application of quality assurance practices to this important work. The main article describes new planning procedures that are being adopted to ensure that these technical co-operation activities are of significant and practical benefit to the States concerned. The work routinely carried out by the IAEA on the development and dissemination of nuclear and radiation techniques covers a wide range of subjects - the practical aspects of physics and chemistry, hydrology, industrial applications, human health, and food and agriculture. Part B of the Yearbook concentrates on food irradiation and the use of nuclear monitoring techniques in programmes for improving human nutrition. Part C of the Yearbook deals with nuclear power and its fuel cycle and waste management technology. The section on nuclear power describes developments during 1995 in a wide range of countries. It also details the IAEA's work on the comparative health and environmental impacts of different types of energy systems. Of particular interest this year in the fuel cycle area is the report of the downturn in world uranium activities that has lasted for more than 15 years may be coming to an end. In the waste management section, emphasis is given to the technology of environmental restoration of sites after contamination resulting from past nuclear activities. A discussion of different aspects of the safety of nuclear power and of the uses of radiation is to be found in Part D, The Nuclear Safety Review. As in previous years, Part E of the IAEA Yearbook 1996 deals with the IAEA's major contribution to the non-proliferation regime - international safeguards. Part E also contains a description of IAEA activities designed to assist Member States in preventing trafficking in nuclear materials

  19. Energy statistics 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Denmark's gross energy consumption increased in 1999 with almost 0,5% while the CO 2 emission decreased with 1,4%. Energy Statistics 1999 shows that the energy consumption in households and the production industries was the same as the year before. The consumption in the trade and service sectors and for transportation increased. The Danish production of petroleum, natural gas and renewable energy increased in 1999 to 1000 PJ which is an increase of 17% compared to 1998. The degree of self-supply increased to 118%, which means that the energy production was 18% higher than the energy consumption in 1999. This was primarily due to a very high increase of production of petroleum of 26%. (LN)

  20. Mineral statistics yearbook, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual reports on production, sales, provincial revenue, exports, and value of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, coal, potash, sodium sulfate, salt, and uranium. Drilling data and historical summaries of annual well completions and abandonments are given, as well as Crown land disposition

  1. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; RWTH Aachen Univ.; World Energy Council, London

    2014-01-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  2. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The points developed are introduced with a basic question, such as: What do people mean by 'fuels' and 'energy'? What units are used to express oil? How are energy data presented? Answers are given in simple terms and illustrated by graphs, charts and tables. More technical explanations are found in the annexes. The Manual contains seven chapters. The first one presents the fundamentals of energy statistics, five chapters deal with the five different fuels (electricity and heat; natural gas; oil; solid fuels and manufactured gases; renewables and waste) and the last chapter explains the energy balance. Three technical annexes and a glossary are also included. For the five chapters dedicated to the fuels, there are three levels of reading: the first one contains general information on the subject, the second one reviews issues which are specific to the joint IEA/OECD-Eurostat-UNECE questionnaires and the third one focuses on the essential elements of the subject. 43 figs., 22 tabs., 3 annexes.

  3. IAEA yearbook 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Yearbook 1991 contains the following 6 chapters: Transfer of Nuclear Technology; Applications of Nuclear Techniques and Research (Also published separately as Part B of the IAEA Yearbook 1991); Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management (Also published separately as Part C of the IAEA Yearbook 1991); Nuclear Safety Review (Also published separately as Part D of the IAEA Yearbook 1991); IAEA Safeguards; The IAEA (operating framework and functions). A separate abstract and indexing was provided for each chapter. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Energy statistical data. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes in a series of tables the key energy data of 1999 for 9 European countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, UK, Sweden). Data concern: the energy intensity, the share of renewable energy sources in the total primary consumption, the structure of power production, the CO 2 emissions and their structure, and the end-use, primary consumption and energy prices per energy source. (J.S.)

  5. Australian energy statistics - Australian energy update 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, K.

    2005-06-15

    ABARE's energy statistics include comprehensive coverage of Australian energy consumption, by state, by industry and by fuel. Australian Energy Update 2005 provides an overview of recent trends and description of the full coverage of the dataset. There are 14 Australian energy statistical tables available as free downloads (product codes 13172 to 13185).

  6. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  7. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  8. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  9. Swiss overall energy statistics 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The comprehensive statistics are produced by the Federal Department of Energy and the Swiss National Committee of the World Energy Conference, and are divided into three sections, (1) Consumption of energy in 1979, (2) Development of the energy balance-sheet from 1974 to 1979, and (3) Comments relative to the energy balance-sheet. Appendices are also included giving tables of energy consumption in the year 1950 and for the period 1960 - 1979, and the energy consumption by industry and other branches in 1979. (A.G.P.)

  10. Energy statistics. France. August 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the statistical data relative to the production, consumption, supplies, resources, and prices of energies in France: 1 - all energies (coal, oil, gas, electric power, renewable energies): supplies, uses per sector, national production and consumption of primary energies, final consumption, general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices index, prices of imported crude oil, energy independence, internal gross product, evolution between 1973 and 2000, and projections for 2020). 2 - detailed data per energy source (petroleum, natural gas, electric power, solid mineral fuels): resources, uses, and prices. An indicative comparison is made with the other countries of the European Union. (J.S.)

  11. Energy Statistics Manual [Arabic version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  12. Energy Statistics Manual; Handbuch Energiestatistik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  13. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2013; Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden. Jahrbuch 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschk, Juergen (ed.)

    2013-06-01

    The book under consideration presents current political controversies and technical solutions. Numerous practical examples show in detail how the German building stock for energy transition can be made fit. 40 technical papers shed light on the following topics: policy strategies, efficiency concepts on the test stand, districts and quarters, positive results: The house as an energy source, energy storage facilities for buildings, and smart energy.

  14. Energy statistics: Fourth quarter, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains 100 tables compiling data into the following broad categories: energy, drilling, natural gas, gas liquids, oil, coal, peat, electricity, uranium, and business indicators. The types of data that are given include production and consumption statistics, reserves, imports and exports, prices, fossil fuel and nuclear power generation statistics, and price indices

  15. UNCTAD commodity yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Commodity Yearbook is intended to provide disaggregated data at the world, regional and country levels for trade and consumption in selected agricultural primary commodities and minerals, ores and metals. Production series have been included for the latter group of commodities, since comprehensive diaggregated data are unavailable elsewhere. Basic tables have been designed, from both the commodity and the country point of view, to serve as background material to international commodity discussions and negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The classification of countries and territories by region has been adopted for statistical convenience only, and follows that employed by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Four main regions are defined: Developed market economy countries, Countries of Eastern Europe, Socialist countries of Asia and Developing countries and territories. For developed and developing countries and territories, the main regions have been further subdivided (e.g., EEC, EFTA, Africa, etc.) to provide additional information. The exact composition of each region is shown in section V of the general notes

  16. Energy Statistics Manual; Manual Statistik Energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  17. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  18. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2017; Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden. Jahrbuch 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschk, Juergen (ed.)

    2017-08-01

    In this year's book ''Energy Efficiency in Buildings'' the subject area is illuminated in its entire complexity. Chances, restrictions and innovative approaches are treated equally by competent specialist authors. The more than 30 research papers reflect the following topics: Political strategies and positions; Building innovations on the test; Quarters as innovation labs; Digital - Smart - Safe?; Economy and ecology in the check; ''Human factor'' in law and practice. [German] Im vorliegenden Jahrbuch ''Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden'' wird der Themenbereich in seiner ganzen Vielschichtigkeit beleuchtet. Dabei werden Chancen, Restriktionen und innovative Ansaetze gleichermassen von kompetenten Fachautoren und -autorinnen behandelt. Die ueber 30 Fachbeitraege reflektieren folgende Themenfelder: Politische Strategien und Positionen; Gebaeudeinnovationen auf dem Pruefstand; Quartiere als Innovationslabore; Digital - Smart - Sicher?; Wirtschaftlichkeit und Oekologie im Check; ''Faktor Mensch'' in Recht und Praxis.

  19. Yearbook on energy from Central Germany 2012; Jahrbuch Energie aus Mitteldeutschland 2012. Die Energiewende beginnt im Kopf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Simone; Kresse, Olaf (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration promote the regional cooperation and networking in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia by means of the following contributions: (1) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - Where do we go?; (2) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - Opportunities for local communities; (3) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - Opportunities for companies in the area of energy efficiency; (4) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - A challenge for education and science; (5) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - A challenge for the human resource development of companies.

  20. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  1. Key world energy statistics. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Key World Energy Statistics from the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-Rom provide annual historical energy data extracted from four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2002 and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2002. The CDs and/or hard-copies and PDFs can be purchased individually: Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Balances of Non OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2004

  2. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    ). Sales of energy between actors of the power system made of sales of the Balance Responsible Entities, sales of generation capacity auctions and sales on Powernext Day-Ahead Market reached 385.1 TWh, an increase of 1.0 % compared with 2007 (381.4 TWh). The statistics concerning the quality of supply are marked in 2008 by an increase of the long outages mainly due to the incident happened in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur after a violent storm on November 3, 2008. Contents: 1 - Electrical energy balances: Monthly balance of the electrical energy flows on the RTE network and in France 2 - Capacity and energy: Daily capacity curves, National consumption and temperature, Daily high and low energy and capacity figures for 2008; 3 - Networks: Lines and cables in operation, Substations, Transformers owned by RTE, Cross-border lines at HVB voltage excluding Corsica; 4 - Physical exchanges: Trend in the balance of physical exchanges - France, Monotone of export balance - France excluding Corsica, Monthly monitoring of physical exchanges on the borders of the RTE network; 5 - Market mechanism: Contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries, Daily market coupling between Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE) and France (FR), Balance Responsible Entities (BR), Use of the VPP, Energy sales on Powernext, Balancing mechanism; 6 - Consumption of electricity: Trend of national consumption of electricity in France, Annual breakdown of end customers connected to the RTE network, Consumption of Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs: annual breakdown per activity, Monotone of capacity values called by national consumption in 2008; 7 - Generation of electricity: Developments in generating facilities in France, Injections on the RTE network by connection voltage, Injections on the RTE network by installation type; 8 - Technical performance of RTE: Quality of supply, Safety of the electric system; 9 - Regional data: Administrative limits, Description of the RTE network and technical performance

  3. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  4. Digital Enlightenment Yearbook 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bus, J; Hildebrandt, M

    2012-01-01

    There have been many inevitable transformations in society due to digitization - the introduction of digital technology, including communication technology, through the Internet and its use via the Web.This book is the first Yearbook of the Digital Enlightenment Forum. Whilst it cannot cover all the many aspects which the forum encompasses, the book gives an impression of the broad spectrum of the forum and a clear picture of the multi-disciplinary nature of the issues at stake.The first paper in the book is a contribution from the father of the Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, and Harry Halpin. They

  5. Statistical thermodynamics and energy exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, X.

    1987-01-01

    The probability of finding the energy of a particle in the vicinity of a given energy is determined, taking into account of the conservation of energy during the exchanges of energy. As a result the exchanges which determine the different probabilities also introduce a dependence between them, allowing a full calculation. The solution has the main properties of the distribution of Fermi-Dirac, with the mean energy per particle as variable in place of temperature. It allows to propose a localized model for the conduction electrons [fr

  6. Statistics for High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The lectures emphasize the frequentist approach used for Dark Matter search and the Higgs search, discovery and measurements of its properties. An emphasis is put on hypothesis test using the asymptotic formulae formalism and its derivation, and on the derivation of the trial factor formulae in one and two dimensions. Various test statistics and their applications are discussed.  Some keywords: Profile Likelihood, Neyman Pearson, Feldman Cousins, Coverage, CLs. Nuisance Parameters Impact, Look Elsewhere Effect... Selected Bibliography: G. J. Feldman and R. D. Cousins, A Unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals, Phys.\\ Rev.\\ D {\\bf 57}, 3873 (1998). A. L. Read, Presentation of search results: The CL(s) technique,'' J.\\ Phys.\\ G {\\bf 28}, 2693 (2002). G. Cowan, K. Cranmer, E. Gross and O. Vitells,  Asymptotic formulae for likelihood-based tests of new physics,' Eur.\\ Phys.\\ J.\\ C {\\bf 71}, 1554 (2011) Erratum: [Eur.\\ Phys.\\ J.\\ C {\\bf 73}...

  7. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  8. Wind energy statistics 2012; Vindkraftsstatistik 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The publication 'Wind Energy Statistics' is an annual publication. Since 2010, the reported statistics of installed power, number of plants and regional distribution, even semi-annually, and in tabular form on the Agency's website. The publication is produced in a new way this year, which will result in some data differ from previous publications. Due to the certificate system there is basically full statistics on wind energy in this publication which are presented in different styles. Here we present the regional distribution, ie. how the number of turbines and installed capacity is allocated to counties and municipalities. The electricity produced divided by county, where for reasons of confidentiality possible, are also reported. The wind power is becoming increasingly important in the Swedish energy system which provides an increased demand for statistics and other divisions than that presented in the official statistics. Therefore, this publication, which are not official statistics, has been developed.

  9. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  10. Energy Statistics Manual; Manual de Estadisticas Energeticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  11. Energy Statistics Manual; Enerji Istatistikleri El Kitabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  12. Foundation of statistical energy analysis in vibroacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bot, A

    2015-01-01

    This title deals with the statistical theory of sound and vibration. The foundation of statistical energy analysis is presented in great detail. In the modal approach, an introduction to random vibration with application to complex systems having a large number of modes is provided. For the wave approach, the phenomena of propagation, group speed, and energy transport are extensively discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the emergence of diffuse field, the central concept of the theory.

  13. Energy statistics: A manual for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made by developing countries during the last 20 years in the collection and compilation of energy statistics. the present Manual is a guide, which it is hoped will be used in countries whose system of statistics is less advanced to identify the main areas that should be developed and how this might be achieved. The generally accepted aim is for countries to be able to compile statistics annually on the main characteristics shown for each fuel, and for energy in total. These characteristics are mainly concerned with production, supply and consumption, but others relating to the size and capabilities of the different energy industries may also be of considerable importance. The initial task of collecting data from the energy industries (mines, oil producers, refineries and distributors, electrical power stations, etc.) may well fall to a number of organizations. ''Energy'' from a statistical point of view is the sum of the component fuels, and good energy statistics are therefore dependent on good fuel statistics. For this reason a considerable part of this Manual is devoted to the production of regular, comprehensive and reliable statistics relating to individual fuels. Chapters V to IX of this Manual are concerned with identifying the flows of energy, from production to final consumption, for each individual fuel, and how data on these flows might be expected to be obtained. The very different problems concerned with the collection of data on the flows for biomass fuels are covered in chapter X. The data needed to complete the picture of the national scene for each individual fuel, more concerned with describing the size, capabilities and efficiency of the industries related to that fuel, are discussed in chapter XI. Annex I sets out the relationships between the classifications of the various types of fuels. The compilation of energy balances from the data obtained for individual fuels is covered in chapter XIII. Finally, chapter

  14. Wind energy statistics 2011; Vindkraftsstatistik 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Wind energy statistics 2011 is the fifth publication in the annual series. The report's focus is on regional distribution, i e the number of plants and installed capacity allocated to counties and municipalities. The publication also reports a division between sea- and land-based plants and the size of wind farms in Sweden in terms of installed capacity. The publication is published in spring in report form and since 2010 statistics on number of plants, installed capacity, and regional distribution semi-annually are also presented on the Swedish Energy Agency's website. The statistics relating to installed capacity, number of wind farms and location in this publication is taken from the electricity certificate system, introduced in May 2003. Thanks to the electricity certificate system there is in principle comprehensive statistics of wind energy which in this publication is presented in different intersections. Statistics related to electricity production is taken from the Swedish Kraftnaets [Swedish national grid's] registry Cesar.

  15. Aftershock Energy Distribution by Statistical Mechanics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, R.; Marcellini, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our work is to research the most probable distribution of the energy of aftershocks. We started by applying one of the fundamental principles of statistical mechanics that, in case of aftershock sequences, it could be expressed as: the greater the number of different ways in which the energy of aftershocks can be arranged among the energy cells in phase space the more probable the distribution. We assume that each cell in phase space has the same possibility to be occupied, and that more than one cell in the phase space can have the same energy. Seeing that seismic energy is proportional to products of different parameters, a number of different combinations of parameters can produce different energies (e.g., different combination of stress drop and fault area can release the same seismic energy). Let us assume that there are gi cells in the aftershock phase space characterised by the same energy released ɛi. Therefore we can assume that the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics can be applied to aftershock sequences with the proviso that the judgment on the validity of this hypothesis is the agreement with the data. The aftershock energy distribution can therefore be written as follow: n(ɛ)=Ag(ɛ)exp(-βɛ)where n(ɛ) is the number of aftershocks with energy, ɛ, A and β are constants. Considering the above hypothesis, we can assume g(ɛ) is proportional to ɛ. We selected and analysed different aftershock sequences (data extracted from Earthquake Catalogs of SCEC, of INGV-CNT and other institutions) with a minimum magnitude retained ML=2 (in some cases ML=2.6) and a time window of 35 days. The results of our model are in agreement with the data, except in the very low energy band, where our model resulted in a moderate overestimation.

  16. Watt-Lite; Energy Statistics Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Broms, Loove; Katzeff, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    of consumers its consequences are poorly understood. In order to better understand how we can use design to increase awareness of electricity consumption in everyday life, we will discuss the design of Watt-Lite, a set of three oversized torches projecting real time energy statistics of a factory...... in the physical environments of its employees. The design of Watt-Lite is meant to explore ways of representing, understanding and interacting with electricity in industrial workspaces. We discuss three design inquiries and their implications for the design of Watt-Lite: the use of tangible statistics...

  17. Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2005-06-16

    This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot

  18. Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot be controlled in a

  19. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  20. Watt-Lite; Energy Statistics Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Broms, Loove; Katzeff, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge of how design affects behaviour in the workplace has a large potential for reducing electricity consumption. This would be beneficial for the environment as well as for industry and society at large. In Western society energy use is hidden and for the great mass...... in the physical environments of its employees. The design of Watt-Lite is meant to explore ways of representing, understanding and interacting with electricity in industrial workspaces. We discuss three design inquiries and their implications for the design of Watt-Lite: the use of tangible statistics...

  1. Recent advances in statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has traditionally been developed using modal summation and averaging approach, and has led to the need for many restrictive SEA assumptions. The assumption of 'weak coupling' is particularly unacceptable when attempts are made to apply SEA to structural coupling. It is now believed that this assumption is more a function of the modal formulation rather than a necessary formulation of SEA. The present analysis ignores this restriction and describes a wave approach to the calculation of plate-plate coupling loss factors. Predictions based on this method are compared with results obtained from experiments using point excitation on one side of an irregular six-sided box structure. Conclusions show that the use and calculation of infinite transmission coefficients is the way forward for the development of a purely predictive SEA code.

  2. Energy statistics of pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Simonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creation and development of the energy statistics of the Russian Empire of the initial stage of electrification and the formation of the energy economy, which is related to: 1 the economic upsurge of the 1890s; 2 the new economic recovery of 1907–1913 and 3 the militarization of industry in 1914–1916. The real technical and economic indicators and complex statistical data of the pre-revolutionary electric power industry were either hushed up or deliberately distorted during the Soviet era. Even in the encyclopaedic literature it was considered that pre-revolutionaryRussia“was on one of the last places in the world” for the production of electricity. The author analyzes statistical surveys (censuses of the manufacturing industry for 1900 and 1908 (the “varzar censuses”, which gave the first material on the state of its energy sector, namely: the composition, quantity and power of primary engines and electric motors. For the first time in historiography, the data of the “energy censuses” of the Ministry of Finance for 1905 and 1913 on the number and capacity of central public power stations and private power stations (block stations of industrial enterprises, organizations and institutions are cited. The data of the census were conducted with the participation of the apparatus of factory and factory inspections in 1906 and in1916 inall provinces of the Russian Empire, with the exception of six provinces of the frontline zone. A lot of work was done to record electricity production / consumption, which was conducted by the Russian electrotechnical community. According to incomplete data published in 1917 by the Secretariat of the Standing Committee of the VII All-Russia Electrotechnical Congress, from 1905 to 1913 (that is, for 8 years the total number of power stations in the Russian Empire increased by 1.7 times, and the amount of electricity produced by them Has grown in 3,8 times. The

  3. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources; Energiemarkt Deutschland. Jahrbuch 2014. Daten und Fakten zu konventionellen und erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE AG, Essen (Germany). Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Technologie der Energierohstoffe; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2014-07-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  4. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  5. 1998 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Yearbook (formerly the Yearbook of World Energy Statistics). The Yearbook contains annual data on production, trade, stock changes, bunkers and apparent consumption for individual commodities for approximately 215 countries and areas of the world

  6. 2000 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Statistics Yearbook (formerly the Yearbook of World Energy Statistics). The Yearbook contains annual data on production, trade, stock changes, bunkers and apparent consumption for individual commodities for approximately 215 countries and areas of the world

  7. 2002 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Statistics Yearbook (formerly the Yearbook of World Energy Statistics). The Yearbook contains annual data on production, trade, stock changes, bunkers and apparent consumption for individual commodities for approximately 215 countries and areas of the world

  8. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.

    2001-09-14

    Many observers have raised doubts about the accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics, which show an unprecedented decline in recent years, while reported economic growth has remained strong. This paper explores the internal consistency of China's energy statistics from 1990 to 2000, coverage and reporting issues, and the state of the statistical reporting system. Available information suggests that, while energy statistics were probably relatively good in the early 1990s, their quality has declined since the mid-1990s. China's energy statistics should be treated as a starting point for analysis, and explicit judgments regarding ranges of uncertainty should accompany any conclusions.

  11. Electrical Energy Statistics for France - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    consumption has risen by 14%. During 2010, a total of 20 new substations for various voltage levels were connected to the transmission network. Work carried out on the RTE network allowed underground circuits to be lengthened by 119 km, and the total length of overhead power lines to be cut by 64 km. RTE also reclaimed 3,825 km of circuits, mostly overhead, which previously belonged to SNCF, as well as 120 substations. On the distribution networks, extension was of the order of 8,000 km in 2010. Contractual exchanges with other countries are down by 7.2%, reaching a cumulative total value for exports and imports of 103.7 TWh (compared with 111.7 TWh in 2009). The sharp decrease in imports of 6.4 TWh (14.7%) and the decrease in exports of 1.6 TWh (2.5%) caused the balance of exchanges to rise by 4.8 TWh. The total figure comprising sales by Balance Responsible Entities via Block Exchange Notifications, sales of generation capacity at auctions, and energy sales on the EPEX SPOT market, reached 407.6 TWh, an increase of 4.6% compared with 2009 (389.6 TWh). Statistics on quality of electricity were characterized mainly in 2010 by some of the best ever results for short and long outage frequencies. In terms of the reliability of the power system, the number of significant events identified in 2010 was down by more than 10% compared with 2009. 2010 was however distinguished by two exceptional events: the Xynthia storm in February in west France, and the floods in June in the Var

  12. A Statistical Model for Energy Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaneh Issapour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach to improve scientific literacy in regards to global warming and climate change is using a simulation as part of a science education course. The simulation needs to employ scientific analysis of actual data from internationally accepted and reputable databases to demonstrate the reality of the current climate change situation. One of the most important criteria for using a simulation in a science education course is the fidelity of the model. The realism of the events and consequences modeled in the simulation is significant as well. Therefore, all underlying equations and algorithms used in the simulation must have real-world scientific basis. The "Energy Choices" simulation is one such simulation. The focus of this paper is the development of a mathematical model for "Energy Intensity" as a part of the overall system dynamics in "Energy Choices" simulation. This model will define the "Energy Intensity" as a function of other independent variables that can be manipulated by users of the simulation. The relationship discovered by this research will be applied to an algorithm in the "Energy Choices" simulation.

  13. Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, 52425 Juelich (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2004-11-21

    We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application.

  14. Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.; Kiesling, C.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application

  15. ACHEMA yearbook '88. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.

    1987-01-01

    Volume 1 entitled 'Chemical Engineering Research and Education' covers the research activities of some 381 scientific institutes from 25 countries. The compact summaries and reports provide a quick reference guide to the activities of the individual institutes in the fields of research and education together with a list of the major publications of these institutes over the last three years. Volume 1 also serves as a guide to help users locate the appropriate scientific institutes in Europe which might be possible partners with regard to the solution of technical problems or the practical application of research results. Innovation also depends on information channels which contribute towards transposing research findings into practice. The ACHEMA yearbook is an excellent channel of information which is conceived for active and intense use. For the first time the information contained in Volume 1 is also worldwide accessible online through the data bank DERES (Dechema Research Institutes Data Bank), which has been set up by DECHEMA. (orig./HK) [de

  16. Information Geometry, Inference Methods and Chaotic Energy Levels Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a novel information-geometric characterization of chaotic (integrable) energy level statistics of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising spin chain in a tilted (transverse) external magnetic field. Finally, we conjecture our results might find some potential physical applications in quantum energy level statistics.

  17. Energy statistics and the role of nuclear energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the very limited indigenous energy resources, Taiwan has to import over 95% of the energy from overseas to meet her need. In this paper, the supply and demand of various kind of major energies will be discussed. Also, in order to lessen the environmental burden and increase the energy independence for Taiwan, the so-called quasi-indigenous energy - nuclear energy, will play an important role in Taiwan's future energy mix. The optimal ratios of the mix in the year of 2005 in Taiwan area using multiobjective method by independent research Institute will also be discussed. (author)

  18. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  19. Constructing an Archive Yearbook 2015/2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte Andersen, Mathias; Axelson, Hlyrnur; Benniche, Khedidja

    2016-01-01

    Constructing an Archive—Yearbook 2015/2016 contains a collection of student works conducted during the Fall semester of 2015 and the Spring semester of 2016 at the Aarhus School of Architecture. The publication has been designed and edited by the students and teachers of the studio Constructing a...

  20. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Hawaii edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  1. The Yearbook of Education Law, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    This yearbook presents legal precedents for a broad spectrum of education-related issues. Drawing on 25 experts' research in education and law, the book opens with legalities concerning school employees. It examines discrimination, constitutional rights, due process, dismissal, nonrenewal, demotion, and discipline; duty; involuntary leaves;…

  2. Free Speech Yearbook 1983. Volume 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Henry L., Ed.

    A collection of nine articles, this yearbook focuses on freedom of speech and censorship. The topics covered include (1) judicial invention in First Amendment governmental regulation cases, (2) the impact of the Moral Majority on book censorship; (3) Justice William Brennan's championship of the First Amendment, (4) the legal tactics that public…

  3. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  4. Study of developing a database of energy statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.S. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    An integrated energy database should be prepared in advance for managing energy statistics comprehensively. However, since much manpower and budget is required for developing an integrated energy database, it is difficult to establish a database within a short period of time. Therefore, this study sets the purpose in drawing methods to analyze existing statistical data lists and to consolidate insufficient data as first stage work for the energy database, and at the same time, in analyzing general concepts and the data structure of the database. I also studied the data content and items of energy databases in operation in international energy-related organizations such as IEA, APEC, Japan, and the USA as overseas cases as well as domestic conditions in energy databases, and the hardware operating systems of Japanese databases. I analyzed the making-out system of Korean energy databases, discussed the KEDB system which is representative of total energy databases, and present design concepts for new energy databases. In addition, I present the establishment directions and their contents of future Korean energy databases, data contents that should be collected by supply and demand statistics, and the establishment of data collection organization, etc. by analyzing the Korean energy statistical data and comparing them with the system of OECD/IEA. 26 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Queensland Energy Advisory Council's, annual review and energy statistics, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Queensland Energy Advisory Council (QEAC) role covers all forms of energy including renewable, non-renewable, commercialised and non-commercialised energy forms or proposals. While coal developments and electricity matters are discussed and monitored at meetings, the Mines Department and the State Electricity Commission, respectively, retain responsibility for most aspects in these energy sectors. In such cases QEAC's expertise and role is limited and is advisory. In other areas such as energy conservation, management of liquid fuel emergencies, natural gas supply and demand, solar energy, coal conversion, and ethanol production, QEAC made a significant contribution to policy development in 1981/82.

  6. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  7. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  8. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  9. 1984 Statistical symposium on national energy issues: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, R.; Doctor, P.

    1985-07-01

    The 1984 Statistical Symposium on National Energy Issues was the tenth in a series of annual symposia bringing together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in the pursuit of solving the nation's energy problems. Initially the symposium was sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) and named the DOE Statistical Symposium. The symposium is organized by a steering committee made up of representatives from the national laboratories. The 1984 symposium was hosted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and it was organized around four special topical sessions: (1) assessing and assuring high reliability, (2) spatial statistical, (3) quantification of informed opinion, and (4) health effects of energy technologies. These were chosen by the steering committee as topics currently of high importance in energy research and data analysis. Several contributed papers were also presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 17 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  10. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  11. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  12. High energy behaviour of particles and unified statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Theories and experiments suggest that particles at high energy appear to possess a new statistics unifying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics via the GAMMA distribution. This hypothesis can be obtained from many models, and agrees quantitatively with scaling, the multiplicty, large transverse momentum, the mass spectrum, and other data. It may be applied to scatterings at high energy, and agrees with experiments and known QED's results. The Veneziano model and other theories have implied new statistics, such as, the B distribution and the Polya distribution. They revert to the GAMMA distribution at high energy. The possible inapplicability of Pauli's exclusion principle within the unified statistics is considered and associated to the quark constituents

  13. Statistical Modeling of Energy Production by Photovoltaic Farms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Pelikán, Emil; Krč, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof; Musílek, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 9 (2011), s. 785-793 ISSN 1934-8975 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electrical energy * solar energy * numerical weather prediction model * nonparametric regression * beta regression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  14. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  15. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  16. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  17. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozger, M.; Altunkaynak, A.; Sen, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S. (author)

  18. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezger, Mehmet; Altunkaynak, Abduesselam; Sen, Zekai

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S

  19. Statistical models describing the energy signature of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Thavlov, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one third of the primary energy production in Denmark is used for heating in buildings. Therefore efforts to accurately describe and improve energy performance of the building mass are very important. For this purpose statistical models describing the energy signature of a building, i...... or varying energy prices. The paper will give an overview of statistical methods and applied models based on experiments carried out in FlexHouse, which is an experimental building in SYSLAB, Risø DTU. The models are of different complexity and can provide estimates of physical quantities such as UA......-values, time constants of the building, and other parameters related to the heat dynamics. A method for selecting the most appropriate model for a given building is outlined and finally a perspective of the applications is given. Aknowledgements to the Danish Energy Saving Trust and the Interreg IV ``Vind i...

  20. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  1. The State of Preschool 2012: State Preschool Yearbook. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Carolan, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, Jen; Squires, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "State Preschool Yearbook" profiles state-funded prekindergarten programs in the United States. The "Yearbook" compares each state program's standards against a checklist of 10 research-based quality standards benchmarks. Although the benchmarks against which the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER)…

  2. Methodological differences behind energy statistics for steel production – Implications when monitoring energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfeldt, Johannes; Silveira, Semida

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency indicators used for evaluating industrial activities at the national level are often based on statistics reported in international databases. In the case of the Swedish iron and steel sector, energy consumption statistics published by Odyssee, Eurostat, the IEA (International Energy Agency), and the United Nations differ, resulting in diverging energy efficiency indicators. For certain years, the specific energy consumption for steel is twice as high if based on Odyssee statistics instead of statistics from the IEA. The analysis revealed that the assumptions behind the allocation of coal and coke used in blast furnaces as energy consumption or energy transformation are the major cause for these differences. Furthermore, the differences are also related to errors in the statistical data resulting from two different surveys that support the data. The allocation of coal and coke has implications when promoting resource as well as energy efficiency at the systems level. Eurostat's definition of energy consumption is more robust compared to the definitions proposed by other organisations. Nevertheless, additional data and improved energy efficiency indicators are needed to fully monitor the iron and steel sector's energy system and promote improvements towards a greener economy at large. - Highlights: • Energy statistics for the iron and steel sector diverge in international databases. • Varying methods have implications when monitoring energy and resource efficiency. • Allocation of blast furnaces as transformation activities is behind the differences. • Different statistical surveys and human error also contribute to diverging results

  3. Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the

  4. Parametric Statistics of Individual Energy Levels in Random Hamiltonians

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyarenko, I. E.; Simons, B. D.

    2002-01-01

    We establish a general framework to explore parametric statistics of individual energy levels in disordered and chaotic quantum systems of unitary symmetry. The method is applied to the calculation of the universal intra-level parametric velocity correlation function and the distribution of level shifts under the influence of an arbitrary external perturbation.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Development Trends in Global Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the economic and statistical analysis of industries associated with the use of renewable energy sources in several countries. The dynamic development and implementation of technologies based on renewable energy sources (hereinafter RES is the defining trend of world energy development. The uneven distribution of hydrocarbon reserves, increasing demand of developing countries and environmental risks associated with the production and consumption of fossil resources has led to an increasing interest of many states to this field. Creating low-carbon economies involves the implementation of plans to increase the proportion of clean energy through renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The priority of this sector is a characteristic feature of modern development of developed (USA, EU, Japan and emerging economies (China, India, Brazil, etc., as evidenced by the inclusion of the development of this segment in the state energy strategies and the revision of existing approaches to energy security. The analysis of the use of renewable energy, its contribution to value added of countries-producers is of a particular interest. Over the last decade, the share of energy produced from renewable sources in the energy balances of the world's largest economies increased significantly. Every year the number of power generating capacity based on renewable energy is growing, especially, this trend is apparent in China, USA and European Union countries. There is a significant increase in direct investment in renewable energy. The total investment over the past ten years increased by 5.6 times. The most rapidly developing kinds are solar energy and wind power.

  6. Dynamical and statistical aspects of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lectures presented deal with three different topics relevant for the discussion of nuclear collisions at medium to high energies. The first lecture concerns a subject of general interest, the description of statistical systems and their dynamics by the concept of missing information. If presents an excellent scope to formulate statistical theories in such a way that they carefully keep track of the known (relevant) information while maximizing the ignorance about the irrelevant, unknown information. The last two lectures deal with quite actual questions of intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. These are the multi-fragmentation dynamics of highly excited nuclear systems, and the so called subthreshold particle production. All three subjects are self-contained, and can be read without the knowledge about the other ones. (orig.)

  7. Wind power statistics and an evaluation of wind energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, M.; Parsa, S.; Majidi, M. [Materials and Energy Research Centre, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the statistical data of fifty days` wind speed measurements at the MERC- solar site are used to find out the wind energy density and other wind characteristics with the help of the Weibull probability distribution function. It is emphasized that the Weibull and Rayleigh probability functions are useful tools for wind energy density estimation but are not quite appropriate for properly fitting the actual wind data of low mean speed, short-time records. One has to use either the actual wind data (histogram) or look for a better fit by other models of the probability function. (Author)

  8. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  9. Statistics and predictions of population, energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    In the situation that world's population, especially in developing countries, is rapidly growing, humankind is facing to global problems that they cannot steadily live unless they find individual places to live, obtain foods, and peacefully get energy necessary for living for centuries. For this purpose, humankind has to think what behavior they should take in the finite environment, talk, agree and execute. Though energy has been long respected as a symbol for improving living, demanded and used, they have come to limit the use making the global environment more serious. If there is sufficient energy not loading cost to the environment. If nuclear energy regarded as such one sustain the resource for long and has market competitiveness. What situation of realization of compensating new energy is now in the case the use of nuclear energy is restricted by the society fearing radioactivity. If there are promising ones for the future. One concerning with the study of energy cannot go without knowing these. The statistical materials compiled here are thought to be useful for that purpose, and are collected mainly from ones viewing future prediction based on past practices. Studies on the prediction is so important to have future measures that these data bases are expected to be improved for better accuracy. (author)

  10. Brazilian energy statistics - 1996. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Domestic production, petroleum and petroleum product imports, as well as natural gas production statistics are furnished in this bulletin

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  14. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  16. ISH. HVAC engineering yearbook 1999; ISH. Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The 1999 HVAC engineering yearbook contains contributions on energy conservation and optimization in the fields of ventilation and air conditioning: inter alia, solar cooling and air conditioning, optimum rating of ventilator units, and cooling ceilings with ventilation function. In the field of heating, the following topics are addressed, equally under the aspect of energy conservation: condensing boiler technology, hydraulic balancing of heating pipe systems and sequential boiler switching using fuzzy control. Further works deal with rational use of electricity in buildings, and building automation. 17 papers are individually listed in the Energy database. [Deutsch] Das Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999 enthaelt Beitraege zur Energieeinsparung und Optimierung auf den Gebieten Lueftung und Klimatisierung, u. a. solare Kuehlung und Klimatisierung, optimale Auslegung von Ventilator-Aggregaten und Kuehldecken mit Lueftungsfunktion. Auf dem Gebiet der Heizung werden ebenfalls unter dem Gesichtspunkt Energieeinsparung die Brennwerttechnologie, der hydraulische Abgleich von Heizungsrohrnetzen sowie Kesselfolgeschaltungen mit Fuzzy Control angesprochen. Weitere Arbeiten befassen sich mit der rationellen Elektrizitaetsverwendung in Geb auden sowie der Gebaeudeautomation. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 17 Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  17. Energy Statistics Manual; Manuel sur les statistiques de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  18. Swiss statistics on renewable energy - Biogas - Partial statistics for 2001; Schweizerische Statistik erneuerbarer Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents comprehensive statistics on biogas installations for the year 2001. Data is presented on biogas installations on farms and in industry, in wastewater treatment facilities. Also, data is given on biogenic wastes and co-fermentation. Summaries are presented in table form of biogas production per installation category and the use of the biogas for the production of heat and electrical power. Also, figures are given on the production of biofuels. Development trends in the various areas of biogas production are reviewed and an example of a fermentation installation is briefly described.

  19. Energy-level statistics and time relaxation in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Aliaga, J.; Mello, P.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1997-05-01

    We study a quantum-mechanical system, prepared, at t = 0, in a model state, that subsequently decays into a sea of other states whose energy levels form a discrete spectrum with given statistical properties. An important quantity is the survival probability P(t), defined as the probability, at time t, to find the system in the original model state. Our main purpose is to analyze the influence of the discreteness and statistical properties of the spectrum on the behavior of P(t). Since P(t) itself is a statistical quantity, we restrict our attention to its ensemble average , which is calculated analytically using random-matrix techniques, within certain approximations discussed in the text. We find, for , an exponential decay, followed by a revival, governed by the two-point structure of the statistical spectrum, thus giving a nonzero asymptotic value for large t's. The analytic result compares well with a number of computer simulations, over a time range discussed in the text. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig

  20. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie; Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward...

  1. Swiss energy statistics 2008; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2008 / Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on total energy production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's energy consumption in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions of consumption of oil-fuels for heating, oil products for mobility, electricity, gas and various other fuels. The development of consumption over the years 1910 to 2008 is illustrated graphically. A second chapter takes a look at energy flow from production (and import) to the consumer and export. An extensive collection of illustrative flow diagrams, tables and graphical representations of energy flows, statistics for various energy carriers and of the various uses of energy in Switzerland is presented.

  2. Topics in statistical data analysis for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.

    2011-01-01

    These lectures concert two topics that are becoming increasingly important in the analysis of high-energy physics data: Bayesian statistics and multivariate methods. In the Bayesian approach, we extend the interpretation of probability not only to cover the frequency of repeatable outcomes but also to include a degree of belief. In this way we are able to associate probability with a hypothesis and thus to answer directly questions that cannot be addressed easily with traditional frequentist methods. In multivariate analysis, we try to exploit as much information as possible from the characteristics that we measure for each event to distinguish between event types. In particular we will look at a method that has gained popularity in high-energy physics in recent years: the boosted decision tree. Finally, we give a brief sketch of how multivariate methods may be applied in a search for a new signal process. (author)

  3. The Coulomb gap and low energy statistics for Coulomb glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Andreas; Vinokur, Valerii M; Bergli, Joakim; Kirkengen, Martin; Galperin, Yuri M

    2008-01-01

    We study the statistics of local energy minima in the configuration space of two-dimensional lattice Coulomb glasses with site disorder and the behavior of the Coulomb gap depending on the strength of random site energies. At intermediate disorder, i.e., when the typical strength of the disorder is of the same order as the nearest-neighbor Coulomb energy, the high energy tail of the distribution of the local minima is exponential. We furthermore analyze the structure of the local minima and show that most sites of the system have the same occupation numbers in all of these states. The density of states (DOS) shows a transition from the crystalline state at zero disorder (with a hard gap) to an intermediate, probably glassy state with a Coulomb gap. We analyze this Coulomb gap in some detail and show that the DOS deviates slightly from the traditional linear behavior in 2D. For finite systems these intermediate Coulomb gap states disappear for large disorder strengths and only a random localized state in which all electrons are in the minima of the random potential exists. Dedication: This paper is dedicated to Thomas Nattermann, our dearest friend, brilliant colleague, and outstanding teacher

  4. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs

  5. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2000; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2000/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2007; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2007/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  9. SIPRI yearbook 1987: World armaments and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the Yearbook is to provide the general public with an objective picture of what has happened in world political-military affairs in the past year (1986). It is divided into four parts. Part one has five chapters on weapons and technology including nuclear, conventional and chemical and biological warfare. One chapter looks at the military uses of outer space. Part 2 covers military expenditure, the arms trade and armed conflicts. There are tables giving facts and figures with these two chapters. Part 3 looks at developments in arms control: US-Soviet nuclear arms control, conventional arms control and the biological warfare convention. Part four has two chapters, one on the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and its consequences which is indexed separately and the other on arms control verification technology which has many facts and figures. (U.K.)

  10. Canadian minerals yearbook : 2004 review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of the CMY publication is the non-fuel mineral industry, together with uranium, although all mineral fuels are normally included when the total value of Canada's mineral production is reported. The Yearbook includes chapters devoted to each major mineral commodity produced in Canada: aluminum, coal, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, magnesium, nickel, potash, salt, silica, and uranium. The subject matter spans all stages of mineral industry activity from geoscience and exploration, through mining and processing, to markets and use. Although domestic issues receive the greatest attention in each chapter, international developments may also be reviewed because of the global nature of the mineral industry and the significant impact that such developments could have on the Canadian industry

  11. Yearbook of environmental and engineering law 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1990-01-01

    The yearbook 1990 again contains individual contributions on German, foreign, and international environmental and engineering law. Beginning with this volume, there will always be a detailed report on previous year developments in environmental and engineering law in order to master the continuously increasing legal material. Some contributions - there are others - deal with the following subjects: Legislative need to act in matters of genetic engineering; ethics commissions and constitutional law; nature's own rights; legal protection of local government against brown coal plans; mining laws; sports and air-traffic noise; questions of nuclear waste management; removal of long-standing multi-party liability in environmental law; waste and restoration of abandoned industrial sites; technological development and liability insurance; problems of legislation coming into effect in pollution abatement procedures; Dutch air pollution abatement fund; environmental absolute liability in Austria; EC environmental legislation and solo actions by individual member states. (HSCH) [de

  12. Brazilian energy statistics - 1989. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some aspects about nuclear energy in Brazil. Graphs, annual statistics and historical data of electric power, petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 17 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Brazilian energy statistics - 1988. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some information about the Brazilian Action Plan for the petroleum sector, nuclear energy, ecology and Chernobyl. Graphs, annual statistics and long range data of electric power, petroleum and derivates, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  16. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  17. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  18. Technology and society. Yearbook 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Rammert, W.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial-scale systems more and more come to be the determining form of scientific-technological progress, and contribute, together with the system of standards and values, to social integration in technological civilization. Sociology has discovered industrial-scale systems rather late as an independent research subject. In view of nuclear energy systems; newly arising, worldwide information systems, or even the increasing cross-linking of transport systems, men became aware of the fact that technology in addition to industry, politics, economy or science had developed into an independent social sphere which, to a growing extent, was structured by large-scale systems. Nowadays it is not determinism, the inescapable superstructure or the one-dimensionality of technology that play a role, but questions of controlling, complexity, unpredictability and contingency, and of the uncontrollable consequences of industrial- scale technologies stir up emotions. Since industrial-scale systems have become a determining factor of social development, the questions of their social and environmental compatibility, and how to integrate them into a democratic order, become more and more urgent. The papers compiled in the Annual Report give some hints to this effect. The papers on theoretical concepts are individually retrievable from the database. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2003 for consumption, prices of electric power, power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  20. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2000 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  1. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2002 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  2. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1999-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  3. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  4. Corrected Statistical Energy Analysis Model for Car Interior Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical energy analysis (SEA is a well-known method to analyze the flow of acoustic and vibration energy in a complex structure. For an acoustic space where significant absorptive materials are present, direct field component from the sound source dominates the total sound field rather than a reverberant field, where the latter becomes the basis in constructing the conventional SEA model. Such environment can be found in a car interior and thus a corrected SEA model is proposed here to counter this situation. The model is developed by eliminating the direct field component from the total sound field and only the power after the first reflection is considered. A test car cabin was divided into two subsystems and by using a loudspeaker as a sound source, the power injection method in SEA was employed to obtain the corrected coupling loss factor and the damping loss factor from the corrected SEA model. These parameters were then used to predict the sound pressure level in the interior cabin using the injected input power from the engine. The results show satisfactory agreement with the directly measured SPL.

  5. Oil and gas journal energy database's energy statistics sourcebook, 5th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The book is a library of energy industry data in a single volume. It's the fastest way to get the information you need to analyze your market, make intelligent and informed decisions, develop various economic scenarios and prepare crucial business plans. And it's researched by energy professionals who know how to save you time and money. International, national and state statistics in monthly and/or annual formats are detailed. Current through 1989, most tables show from 15 to 50 years of data. Key statistical indicators for analyzing energy industry trends have been compiled by industry divisions such as: Exploration and drilling, production, reserves, refining, stocks, demands/consumption, imports and exports, energy, financial, offshore and transportation

  6. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  7. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-08-23

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  8. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  9. Predicting energy performance of a net-zero energy building: A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A regression model is applied to actual energy data from a net-zero energy building. • The model is validated through a rigorous statistical analysis. • Comparisons are made between model predictions and those of a physics-based model. • The model is a viable baseline for evaluating future models from the energy data. - Abstract: Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid Climate Zone, and compares these

  10. Electrical engineering yearbook 95. Data, facts, trends. 14. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Electrical Engineering Yearbook' in its 14th edition, contains eight chapters with current contributions from reputable expert authors, which give information from practice on the following main subjects: - Communication; -Data networks; - Micro-electronics; - Electromagnetic compatibility; -Overvoltage protection; - VDE guide; - The electrical industry in the German Federal Republic in 1993; - The electricity economy in the German Federal Republic; - Calendar, special dates for electrical engineering, dates of events in 1995. Practical experts again inform their colleagues and interested laymen in the 'Electrical Engineering Yearbook 95' on current data, important circumstances and significant developments . (orig.) [de

  11. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  12. Research on statistical methodology to investigate energy consumption in public buildings sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuqin; Li Nianping; Guan Jun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find a statistical methodology to investigate the national energy consumption in the public buildings sector in China, in order to look into the actuality of the national energy consumption of public buildings and to provide abundant data for building energy efficiency work. The frame of a national statistical system of energy consumption for public buildings is presented in this paper. The statistical index system of energy consumption is constituted, which refers to the general characteristics of public buildings, their possession and utilization of energy consumption equipment and their energy consumption quantities. Sequentially, a set of statistical report forms is designed to investigate the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country, respectively. On this base, the above statistical methodology is used to gather statistics of a public building for annual energy consumption

  13. Analysis of Norwegian bio energy statistics. Quality improvement proposals; Analyse av norsk bioenergistatistikk. Forslag til kvalitetsheving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the current model and presentation form of bio energy statistics. It appears proposed revision and enhancement of both collection and data representation. In the context of market development both in general for energy and particularly for bio energy and government targets, a good bio energy statistics form the basis to follow up the objectives and means.(eb)

  14. The building network energy statistics 2002[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report surveys a Norwegian network within the construction business and the energy utilization particularly in various buildings. There are sections on the network structure, the energy use in 2002, the building aspects and various project types. The emphasis is on energy conservation aspects. Various technologies and energy systems as well as building types, are discussed. (tk)

  15. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  16. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 19: 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament taking place each year, together with a brief history of the major issues. The series began with the 1976 edition. The Yearbook makes no claim to present fully the views of Member States of the Organization. For further information on the official positions of States, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly and other sources. General Assembly resolutions and decisions are quoted in The Yearbook in the form in which they were adopted by the General Assembly. For the edited texts of these documents for 1994, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/49/49). For an overview of the work of the United Nations in the field of disarmament, one should consult The United Nations and Disarmament: A short History (UN, 1988). A more detailed account is included in The United Nations and Disarmament: 1945-1970; United Nations and Disarmament: 1970-1975, and previous volumes of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook

  17. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  18. Stories of Smartness and Whiteness in School Pictures and Yearbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Eric Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the way that discourses of smartness and whiteness are produced and reproduced in schooling. Using an approach grounded in narrative research, I explore the convergences and contradictions between my own educational autobiography and the representations of schooling found in my school pictures and yearbooks. In my analysis, I…

  19. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  20. Lombardy (Italy) regional energy balance: 1984-1990 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, P.; Di Marzio, T.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the scope and key econometric elements of the energy balance analysis, this paper tables energy supply and demand data for Italy's Lombardy Region. The primary and secondary energy data are expressed in metric quantities and in equivalent calorific values and are sub-divided according to type of energy source and consuming sector. Assessments are made of the degree of reliability of the information and sources of information

  1. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  2. Statistical data on energy. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year 2001: supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since 1973, general indicators (evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since 1973), projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union. (J.S.)

  3. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    for research and policy analysis. An improved understanding of the quality and reliability of Chinese economic and energy data is becoming more important to to understanding global energy markets and future greenhouse gas emissions. China’s national statistical system to track such changes is however still...... developing and, in some instances, energy data remain unavailable in the public domain. This working paper discusses China’s energy and economic statistics in view of identifying suitable indicators to develop a simplified regional energy systems for China from a variety of publicly available data. As China......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used...

  4. A regression analysis of the effect of energy use in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkacier, Osman; Gokalp Goktolga, Z.; Cicek, Adnan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of energy use on productivity of Turkey's agriculture. It reports the results of a regression analysis of the relationship between energy use and agricultural productivity. The study is based on the analysis of the yearbook data for the period 1971-2003. Agricultural productivity was specified as a function of its energy consumption (TOE) and gross additions of fixed assets during the year. Least square (LS) was employed to estimate equation parameters. The data of this study comes from the State Institute of Statistics (SIS) and The Ministry of Energy of Turkey

  5. Statistical error of spin transfer to hyperon at RHIC energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ran; Mao Yajun

    2009-01-01

    From the RHIC/PHENIX experiment data, it is found that the statistical error of spin transfer is few times larger than the statistical error of the single spin asymmetry. In order to verify the difference between σDLL and σAL, the linear least squares method was used to check it first, and then a simple Monte-Carlo simulation to test this factor again. The simulation is consistent with the calculation result which indicates that the few times difference is reasonable. (authors)

  6. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanc, Z.; Kerner, A.

    1997-01-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xin Yajuan; Tong Dingding

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data, classifying and calculating EUIs, standardizing EUIs, determining the measure method of central tendency. The paper also illustrated the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation based on the samples of 10 commercial buildings and 19 hotel buildings. According to the analysis of the frequency distribution of standardized EUIs of sample buildings and combining the characteristics of each measure method of central tendency, comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is selected to be the best method for determining the energy consumption quota of public buildings. Finally the paper gave some policy proposals on energy consumption quota to help achieve the goal of further energy conservation. - Highlights: ► We introduce the procedure of determining energy consumption quota (ECQ). ► We illustrate the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation of samples. ► Measures of central tendency are brought into determine the ECQ. ► Comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is the best method for ECQ. ► Punitive or incentive measures for ECQ are proposed.

  8. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanc, Z; Kerner, A [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs.

  9. Energy statistical data (overseas). 1995 issue; Energy tokei shiryo (kaigaihen). 1995 nen ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-10

    The energy statistical data (a 1995 overseas issue) were made public by the Energy Metrics Analysis Center, the Institute of Energy Economics. As for energy in general, described are the reserve/existing amount, a change of the production amount, the consumption amount of primary energy in the world, etc. As to oil, natural gas and coal, stated were the confirmed reserve, a change of the production amount, a change of the consumption amount, world import/export flows, etc. Concerning electric power, the paper deals with a change of the amount of electric power consumption in the world, constitution of the power generation amount by power source, a change of power generation capability, changes of capabilities of thermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear power, etc. With regard to data by country, a lot of data are included on the U.S., Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy, Australia, Russian Federation, and China. The paper also describes situations in OPEC countries, changes of the situation of Majors, and prices of crude oil, petroleum products, coal, natural gas and LPG, and electric power, etc.

  10. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewable combustible and waste. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. The data contained in this publication are presented in comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent in Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1993-1994, the sister volume of this publication. (authors). figs., tabs

  11. Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.; von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

    This yearbook compiles information on research findings on children and youth and media violence, as seen from the perspective of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of the yearbook is on the influence of children's exposure to media violence. Section 1 of the yearbook, "Children and Media on the…

  12. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, combustible renewables and waste. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. (authors). 242 tabs

  13. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 22: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament and arms regulation each year. The Centre for Disarmament Affairs has endeavoured to make the publication as concise as possible without diminishing its usefulness as a reference work. Background information is greatly condensed; thus readers may wish to consult previous editions of The Yearbook. Factual information in tabular form is provided in the appendices. The status of multilateral and regional disarmament agreements is presented in appendix 1. With regard to resolutions on disarmament adopted by the General Assembly, texts are consolidated in appendix IV, information on sponsorship and voting is presented in appendix V and voting patterns are reproduced in appendix VI. Appendices II and Ill contain the texts of the Ottawa Convention on anti-personnel mines and the Inter-American Convention on trafficking in firearms, respectively

  14. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 26: 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook is designed to be a concise reference work. As a good amount of background information is condensed, it may be helpful to consult previous editions. Factual information, presented where possible in tabular form, is provided in the appendices, and website addresses of other UN departments and services, intergovernmental organizations, research institutes and non-governmental organizations appear as footnotes. The Department for Disarmament Affairs takes this opportunity to remind you that you can access current information on disarmament issues throughout the year by clicking onto the Department's home page on the Internet: www.un.org/Depts/dda. Among the many electronic resources, you will find updated on a daily basis, the status of multilateral treaties, containing the full texts of the treaties covered in appendix I of The Yearbook

  15. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil gas and electricity. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Production is shown for 'other solid fuels' such as wood and waste, as well as for heat. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. (author)

  16. Statistical interpretation of low energy nuclear level schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidy, T von; Schmidt, H H; Behkami, A N

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear level schemes and neutron resonance spacings yield information on level densities and level spacing distributions. A total of 75 nuclear level schemes with 1761 levels and known spins and parities was investigated. The A-dependence of level density parameters is discussed. The spacing distributions of levels near the groundstate indicate transitional character between regular and chaotic properties while chaos dominates near the neutron binding energy.

  17. Energy statistics for non-residential premises in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The dominating heating system in premises is district heating, 56 per cent of the surface area is heated that way. Oil is used for heating in 9 per cent of the surface area and about the same area is heated by electricity only. The total surface area for premises is about 138 million square metres in 2001. Since the beginning of the 1980s the surface area of offices has been increasing and is now about 33 million square metres. As an average the energy use is: 15.5 litres of oil/m 2 ; 139 kWh/m 2 district heating; 148 kWh/m 2 electricity. All together the use is: 309,000 m 3 oil, 12.4 TWh district heating; 3.5 TWh electricity; 0.5 TWh natural gas/gaswork gas; 0.4 TWh o ther furnace ; 0.4 TWh biofuel or peat. This survey covers non-residential premises in Sweden. It is based on a sample of 8228 properties built before 2001 and on a total survey of properties owned by some of the major owners in the country (about 1700 properties). The survey was carried out in February 2002 as a mail survey. The property owners were asked to give information about type of premises, type of heating system, deliveries of energy for heating, etc. The presentation gives data on deliveries of energy, heated surface area, average consumption, etc., for the total population and for various subdivisions

  18. High statistics inclusive phi-meson production at SPS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes an experiment studying the inclusive reaction hadron + Be → phi + anything → K + + K - + anything in 100 GeV/c, 120 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c hadron interactions. A total of 8x10 6 events were recorded using both positively and negatively charged unseparated hadron beams supplied by the CERN SPS. The experiment made use of an intelligent on-line event selection system based on micro-processors (FAMPs) in conjunction with a system of large MWPCs to increase the number of phi-events recorded per unit time. In 32 days of data taking over 600,000 phi-mesons were recorded onto magnetic tape. The physics motivation for collecting a large statistics sample of inclusive phi-mesons was the investigation of the inclusive phi-meson production mechanism and phi-spectroscopy. (Auth.)

  19. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy statistics in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2004 to find causes for these irregularities. We discovered that chemical products have occasionally been included, resulting in statistics with an inconsistent system boundary. Lack of guidance in the survey for the complex energy conversions in the chemical industry in the survey also resulted in large fluctuations for certain energy commodities. The findings of our analysis have been the basis for a new survey that has been used since 2007. We demonstrate that the annual questionnaire used for the international energy statistics can result in comparable problems as observed in the Netherlands. We suggest to include chemical residual gas as energy commodity in the questionnaire and to include the energy conversions in the chemical industry in the international energy statistics. In addition, we think the questionnaire should be explicit about the treatment of basic chemical products produced at refineries and in the petrochemical industry to avoid system boundary problems

  20. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) Predictions for a Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software founded on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) and Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA). Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) was validated on a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and experimental results. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions were made using the commercial software program VA One 2009 from ESI Group. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  1. Energy statistics for non-residential premises in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The dominating heating system in premises is distant heating, 52 per cent of the surface area is heated that way. Oil is used for heating in 34 per cent of the surface area and the use of oil is decreasing. Today oil is used in about 9 per cent of the premises compared to 43 per cent in 1981. Natural gas can so far only be used in the southwestern parts of Sweden and is heating 2.6 million of square metres. The total surface area for premises is about 139 million square metres in 1999. Since the beginning of the 1980s the surface area of offices has been increasing and is now about 30 million square metres, or 22 per cent of the premises. The total use of energy in premises is about the same 1999 as in 1998. Still the average consumption has decreased because of an increase of the surface area of premises. Surface area heated merely by heat pumps is almost three times as big as in 1998 which means that the average consumption has considerably decreased. This survey covers non-residential premises in Sweden. It is based on a sample of 7961 properties built before 1999 and on a total survey of properties owned by some of the major owners in the country (about 2000 properties). The survey was carried out in February 2000 as a mail survey. The property owners were asked to give information about type of premises, type of heating system, deliveries of energy for heating, etc. The presentation gives data on deliveries of energy, heated surface area, average consumption, etc., for the total population and for various subdivisions

  2. Energy statistics for non-residential premises in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The dominating heating system in premises is district heating, 55 per cent of the surface area is heated that way. Oil is used for heating in 19 per cent of the surface area and the use of oil is decreasing. Today oil is used in about 8 per cent of the premises compared to 43 per cent in 1981. Natural gas can so far only be used in the southwestern parts of Sweden and is heating 1.8 million of square metres. The total surface area for premises is about 149 million square metres in 2000. Since the beginning of the 1980s the surface area of offices has been increasing and is now about 44 million square metres, or 30 per cent of the premises. The total use of energy in premises has increased by nearly 400 GWh compared to 1999. Still the average consumption has decreased because of an increase of the surface area of premises. The year 2000 was also warmer than 1999. This survey covers non-residential premises in Sweden. It is based on a sample of 8154 properties built before 2000 and on a total survey of properties owned by some of the major owners in the country (about 1500 properties). The survey was carried out in February 2001 as a mail survey. The property owners were asked to give information about type of premises, type of heating system, deliveries of energy for heating, etc. The presentation gives data on deliveries of energy, heated surface area, average consumption, etc., for the total population and for various subdivisions

  3. Blueprint for Change in New Mexico: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook"…

  4. Mathematics for the Class of 2000. Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1988 Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Robert F., Jr., Ed.; Sigmund, Thomas F., Ed.

    One of the strengths of the Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) is that it gives mathematicians and mathematics educators the opportunity to exchange and contribute to each other's professional growth. The topic for each yearbook is chosen to coincide with the annual PCTM meeting. This 1988 yearbook contains 27 articles which…

  5. The Mathematics Curriculum: Issues and Perspectives. Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1987 Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Robert F., Jr., Ed.; Sigmund, Thomas F., Ed.

    One of the strengths of the Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) is that it gives mathematicians and mathematics educators the opportunity to exchange and contribute to each other's professional growth. The topic for each yearbook is chosen to coincide with the annual PCTM meeting. This 1987 yearbook contains 14 articles which…

  6. Statistical classification techniques in high energy physics (SDDT algorithm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We present our proposal of the supervised binary divergence decision tree with nested separation method based on the generalized linear models. A key insight we provide is the clustering driven only by a few selected physical variables. The proper selection consists of the variables achieving the maximal divergence measure between two different classes. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo simulations of physics processes corresponding to a data sample of top quark-antiquark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets decay channel. The data sample is produced in pp̅ collisions at √S = 1.96 TeV. It corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb"-"1 recorded with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The efficiency of our algorithm achieves 90% AUC in separating signal from background. We also briefly deal with the modification of statistical tests applicable to weighted data sets in order to test homogeneity of the Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. The justification of these modified tests is proposed through the divergence tests. (paper)

  7. Kempe's engineers year-book for 1977. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prockter, C.E. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The second volume of this two-volume yearbook contains data on: electrical and electronic engineering; aerodynamics and aircraft propulsion; gas turbines; internal combustion engines; motor vehicles; fuels; fluidics; nuclear energy; gas and gas engineering; steam engineering and steam turbines; marine diesel engines; naval architecture; mining engineering; industrial explosives; air compression, pneumatic equipment, etc.; refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning; lighting; industrial safety and protection; fire protection; highway engineering; surveying; foundation and earthwork; cements, mortars and clay products; buildings; public health engineering; concretes; design of steel structures; bridges and bridgework; paints and coatings; patents, designs and trade marks; depreciation; legal notes for engineers; factory planning and layout; and agricultural engineering. (1325p.) A subject index is provided. (LCL)

  8. Annual Bulletin of General Energy Statistics for Europe. V. 23, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Bulletin is to provide basic data on the energy situation as a whole in European countries, Canada and the United States of America. This publication is purely statistical in character. As from the 1980 edition of the bulletin the scope of statistics comprises production of energy by form, overall energy balance sheets and deliveries of petroleum products for inland consumption. While less details are given for solid and gaseous fuels as sources of energy than in previous editions of the bulletin, more information is available for liquid fuels and nuclear, hydro- and geothermal energy

  9. Study of energy fluctuation effect on the statistical mechanics of equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysogorskiy, Yu V; Wang, Q A; Tayurskii, D A

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the modeling of energy fluctuation effect on the behavior of small classical thermodynamic systems. It is known that when an equilibrium system gets smaller and smaller, one of the major quantities that becomes more and more uncertain is its internal energy. These increasing fluctuations can considerably modify the original statistics. The present model considers the effect of such energy fluctuations and is based on an overlapping between the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics and the statistics of the fluctuation. Within this o verlap statistics , we studied the effects of several types of energy fluctuations on the probability distribution, internal energy and heat capacity. It was shown that the fluctuations can considerably change the temperature dependence of internal energy and heat capacity in the low energy range and at low temperatures. Particularly, it was found that, due to the lower energy limit of the systems, the fluctuations reduce the probability for the low energy states close to the lowest energy and increase the total average energy. This energy increasing is larger for lower temperatures, making negative heat capacity possible for this case.

  10. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  11. A class of energy-based ensembles in Tsallis statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekar, R; Naina Mohammed, S S

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation is carried out on the class of energy-based ensembles. The eight ensembles are divided into two main classes. In the isothermal class of ensembles the individual members are at the same temperature. A unified framework is evolved to describe the four isothermal ensembles using the currently accepted third constraint formalism. The isothermal–isobaric, grand canonical and generalized ensembles are illustrated through a study of the classical nonrelativistic and extreme relativistic ideal gas models. An exact calculation is possible only in the case of the isothermal–isobaric ensemble. The study of the ideal gas models in the grand canonical and the generalized ensembles has been carried out using a perturbative procedure with the nonextensivity parameter (1 − q) as the expansion parameter. Though all the thermodynamic quantities have been computed up to a particular order in (1 − q) the procedure can be extended up to any arbitrary order in the expansion parameter. In the adiabatic class of ensembles the individual members of the ensemble have the same value of the heat function and a unified formulation to described all four ensembles is given. The nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic ideal gases are studied in the isoenthalpic–isobaric ensemble, the adiabatic ensemble with number fluctuations and the adiabatic ensemble with number and particle fluctuations

  12. The buildings networks' energy statistics 2003; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The report presents analyses and statistics for the energy consumption in various types of building, mostly commercial buildings. It shows how the energy consumption varies with the type of heating system, cooling, size of building, age etc. Also shown are figures for the energy consumption in relation to function, such as number of students in schools, number of people in nursing homes etc. The climate in Norway was the 6th warmest in 137 years. Energy consumption is given for different climatic zones.

  13. Numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of a potential energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, E La; Sciortino, F; Tartaglia, P; Michele, C De; Mossa, S

    2003-01-01

    The techniques which allow the numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape for models of simple liquids are reviewed and critically discussed. Expressions for the liquid free energy and its vibrational and configurational components are reported. Finally, a possible model for the statistical properties of the landscape, which appears to describe correctly fragile liquids in the region where equilibrium simulations are feasible, is discussed

  14. Statistical issues in searches for new phenomena in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Louis; Wardle, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Many analyses of data in High Energy Physics are concerned with searches for New Physics. We review the statistical issues that arise in such searches, and then illustrate these using the specific example of the recent successful search for the Higgs boson, produced in collisions between high energy protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

  15. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of

  16. Non-statistical fluctuations in fragmentation of target nuclei in high energy nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Alokananda; Roy, Jaya [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of target fragmented ''black'' particles in nuclear emulsion from high energy relativistic interactions initiated by [sup 16]O at 2.1 GeV/nucleon and [sup 12]C and [sup 24]Mg at 4.5 GeV/nucleon reveal the existence of non-statistical fluctuations in the azimuthal plane of interaction. The asymmetry or the non-statistical fluctuations, while found to be independent of projectile mass or incident energy, are dependent on the excitation energy of the target nucleus. (Author).

  17. Non-statistical fluctuations in fragmentation of target nuclei in high energy nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Alokananda; Roy, Jaya

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of target fragmented ''black'' particles in nuclear emulsion from high energy relativistic interactions initiated by 16 O at 2.1 GeV/nucleon and 12 C and 24 Mg at 4.5 GeV/nucleon reveal the existence of non-statistical fluctuations in the azimuthal plane of interaction. The asymmetry or the non-statistical fluctuations, while found to be independent of projectile mass or incident energy, are dependent on the excitation energy of the target nucleus. (Author)

  18. A random matrix approach to the crossover of energy-level statistics from Wigner to Poisson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Kunz, Herve

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a class of parametrized random matrix models, introduced by Rosenzweig and Porter, which is expected to describe the energy level statistics of quantum systems whose classical dynamics varies from regular to chaotic as a function of a parameter. We compute the generating function for the correlations of energy levels, in the limit of infinite matrix size. The crossover between Poisson and Wigner statistics is measured by a renormalized coupling constant. The model is exactly solved in the sense that, in the limit of infinite matrix size, the energy-level correlation functions and their generating function are given in terms of a finite set of integrals

  19. Energy statistics and balances of non-OECD countries 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy production and consumption statistics for 85 non-OECD countries and regions, including developing countries, Central and Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union. Data are expressed in original units and in common units for coal, oil, gas, electricity and heat. Historical tables for both individual countries and regions summarize data on coal, gas and electricity production and consumption since 1971. Similar data for OECD are available in the IEA publications Energy Statistics and Energy Balances of OECD Countries

  20. Brazilian energy statistics - 2000. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  1. Brazilian energy statistics - 1999. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  2. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  3. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Bisquer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4π devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author)

  4. Statistical analysis of activation and reaction energies with quasi-variational coupled-cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joshua A.; Knowles, Peter J.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of quasi-variational coupled-cluster (QV) theory applied to the calculation of activation and reaction energies has been investigated. A statistical analysis of results obtained for six different sets of reactions has been carried out, and the results have been compared to those from standard single-reference methods. In general, the QV methods lead to increased activation energies and larger absolute reaction energies compared to those obtained with traditional coupled-cluster theory.

  5. Statistical calculation of complete events in medium-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1984-01-01

    Several heavy-ion accelerators throughout the world are presently able to deliver beams of heavy nuclei with kinetic energies in the range from tens to hundreds of MeV per nucleon, the so-called medium or intermediate energy range. At such energies a large number of final channels are open, each consisting of many nuclear fragments. The disassembly of the collision system is expected to be a very complicated process and a detailed dynamical description is beyond their present capability. However, by virtue of the complexity of the process, statistical considerations may be useful. A statistical description of the disassembly yields the least biased expectations about the outcome of a collision process and provides a meaningful reference against which more specific dynamical models, as well as the data, can be discussed. This lecture presents the essential tools for formulating a statistical model for the nuclear disassembly process. The authors consider the quick disassembly (explosion) of a hot nuclear system, a so-called source, into multifragment final states, which complete according to their statistical weight. First some useful notation is introduced. Then the expressions for exclusive and inclusive distributions are given and the factorization of an exclusive distribution into inclusive ones is carried out. In turn, the grand canonical approximation for one-fragment inclusive distributions is introduced. Finally, it is outlined how to generate a statistical sample of complete final states. On this basis, a model for statistical simulation of complete events in medium-energy nuclear collisions has been developed

  6. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  7. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  8. Brazilian energy statistics - 1998. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  9. Brazilian energy statistics - 1991. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 13 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Brazilian energy statistics - 1994. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 10 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Energy statistics and balances of non-OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption statistics for more than 100 non-OECD countries and regions, including developing countries Central and Eastern European countries and the former USSR. Data are expressed in original units and in common units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat and combustible renewable and waste. Historical tables for both individual countries and regions summarize data on coal, oil, gas and electricity production, trade and consumption as well as main energy and economic indicators since 1971. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and notes on the individual countries as well as conversion factors from original units to common energy units. Similar data for OECD are available in the IEA Energy Statistics and Energy Balances of OECD Countries. (author)

  12. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete....... With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically...... positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high...

  13. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontikis, V., E-mail: Vassilis.Pontikis@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gorse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  14. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, V.; Gorse, D.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  15. Statistical physics inspired energy-efficient coded-modulation for optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2012-04-15

    Because Shannon's entropy can be obtained by Stirling's approximation of thermodynamics entropy, the statistical physics energy minimization methods are directly applicable to the signal constellation design. We demonstrate that statistical physics inspired energy-efficient (EE) signal constellation designs, in combination with large-girth low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, significantly outperform conventional LDPC-coded polarization-division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation schemes. We also describe an EE signal constellation design algorithm. Finally, we propose the discrete-time implementation of D-dimensional transceiver and corresponding EE polarization-division multiplexed system. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  16. Modeling and forecasting energy consumption for heterogeneous buildings using a physical–statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Xiaoshu; Lu, Tao; Kibert, Charles J.; Viljanen, Martti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a new modeling method to forecast energy demands. • The model is based on physical–statistical approach to improving forecast accuracy. • A new method is proposed to address the heterogeneity challenge. • Comparison with measurements shows accurate forecasts of the model. • The first physical–statistical/heterogeneous building energy modeling approach is proposed and validated. - Abstract: Energy consumption forecasting is a critical and necessary input to planning and controlling energy usage in the building sector which accounts for 40% of the world’s energy use and the world’s greatest fraction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, due to the diversity and complexity of buildings as well as the random nature of weather conditions, energy consumption and loads are stochastic and difficult to predict. This paper presents a new methodology for energy demand forecasting that addresses the heterogeneity challenges in energy modeling of buildings. The new method is based on a physical–statistical approach designed to account for building heterogeneity to improve forecast accuracy. The physical model provides a theoretical input to characterize the underlying physical mechanism of energy flows. Then stochastic parameters are introduced into the physical model and the statistical time series model is formulated to reflect model uncertainties and individual heterogeneity in buildings. A new method of model generalization based on a convex hull technique is further derived to parameterize the individual-level model parameters for consistent model coefficients while maintaining satisfactory modeling accuracy for heterogeneous buildings. The proposed method and its validation are presented in detail for four different sports buildings with field measurements. The results show that the proposed methodology and model can provide a considerable improvement in forecasting accuracy

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1993. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Some aspects about the opening or closing of the oil sector are also analysed, including the petroleum and petroleum products business; oil consumption issue; share of energy sources in world scenarios for the year 2020; reserves; prices and investments and the vulnerability of private companies. 12 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Thorium. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1992-10-01

    Domestic mine production data for thorium-bearing monazite are developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines from a voluntary survey of U.S. operations entitled, 'Rare Earths, Thorium, and Scandium.' The one mine to which a survey form was sent responded, representing 100% of domestic production. Mine production data for thorium are withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. Statistics on domestic thorium consumption are developed by surveying various processors and end users, evaluating import-export data, and analyzing Government stockpile shipments

  19. On China's energy intensity statistics: Toward a comprehensive and transparent indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    A transparent and comprehensive statistical system in China would provide an important basis for enabling a better understanding of the country. This paper focuses on energy intensity (EI), which is one of the most important indicators of China. It firstly reviews China's GDP and energy statistics, showing that China has made great improvements in recent years. The means by which EI data are released and adjusted are then explained. It shows that EI data releases do not provide complete data for calculating EI and constant GDP, which may reduce policy transparency and comprehensiveness. This paper then conducts an EI calculation method that is based on official sources and that respects the data availability of different data release times. It finds that, in general, China's EI statistics can be considered as reliable because most of the results generated by author's calculations match the figures in the official releases. However, two data biases were identified, which may necessitate supplementary information on related constant GDP values used in the official calculation of EI data. The paper concludes by proposing short- and long-term measures for improving EI statistics to provide a transparent and comprehensive EI indicator. - Highlights: → This paper examines data release and adjustment process of energy intensity (EI) target of China. → New insights on the comprehensiveness and transparency of EI data. → Potential data bias between author's calculation and official data due to lack of constant GDP data. → Proposition for improving short- and long-term EI statistical works.

  20. Brazilian energy statistics - 1992. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. A brief picture of Brazil's electric power status with regard to bordering countries is also presented, giving an idea of the prospects for progress in electric power integration through the implementation of new international electric power interconnection projects. (author). 13 figs., 19 tabs

  1. Brazilian energy statistics - 1990. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of major importance in Brazil's energy scenario. The Brazilian Power Sector's Environmental Master Plan is also described including the expansion planning and the handling of socio-environmental issues; the power sector's evolution in the treatment of socio-environmental issues; the guidelines for socio-environmental planning and management and the institutional and technical development in the socio-environmental area. 15 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Statistical analysis regarding energy supply and demand in the EU and Romania between 1990 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina GRADINARU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and mankind’s unlimited needs in term of energy, in opposition with the limited nature of our planet energy sources, impose an all new approach regarding the way in which we produce our energy and how efficient we are using it. The European Union is a world leader in promoting sustainability in this field, and Romania, as part of this multi-state organization, follows the same path. We will see further in this paper the evolution of the main statistical indicators regarding energy, with a particular emphasis on electricity, for both the EU and Romania. The starting point will be primary energy production and demand, continuing with the sources of energy, and finishing with electricity and its relevant indicators regarding production and renewable sources. Finally, the relevant conclusions will be drawn.

  3. Statistical modeling in phenomenological description of electromagnetic cascade processes produced by high-energy gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1987-01-01

    A description of a simple phenomenological model of electromagnetic cascade process (ECP) initiated by high-energy gamma quanta in heavy absorbents is given. Within this model spatial structure and fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons and positrons are described. Concrete formulae have been obtained as a result of statistical analysis of experimental data from the xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow)

  4. Statistical mechanical perturbation theory of solid-vapor interfacial free energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, Vitalij Iosifovitsj; Hagmeijer, Rob; Venner, Cornelis H.

    2017-01-01

    The solid–vapor interfacial free energy γsv plays an important role in a number of physical phenomena, such as adsorption, wetting, and adhesion. We propose a closed form expression for the orientation averaged value of this quantity using a statistical mechanical perturbation approach developed in

  5. Statistical Mechanical Perturbation Theory of Solid−Vapor Interfacial Free Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.; Hagmeijer, R.; Venner, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    The solid–vapor interfacial free energy γsv plays an important role in a number of physical phenomena, such as adsorption, wetting, and adhesion. We propose a closed form expression for the orientation averaged value of this quantity using a statistical mechanical perturbation approach developed in

  6. Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A.

    2016-01-01

    Shear peak statistics has gained a lot of attention recently as a practical alternative to the two-point statistics for constraining cosmological parameters. We perform a shear peak statistics analysis of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data, using weak gravitational lensing measurements from a 139 deg"2 field. We measure the abundance of peaks identified in aperture mass maps, as a function of their signal-to-noise ratio, in the signal-to-noise range 0 4 would require significant corrections, which is why we do not include them in our analysis. We compare our results to the cosmological constraints from the two-point analysis on the SV field and find them to be in good agreement in both the central value and its uncertainty. Lastly, we discuss prospects for future peak statistics analysis with upcoming DES data.

  7. Virial-statistic method for calculation of atom and molecule energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Yu.A.

    1977-01-01

    A virial-statistical method has been applied to the calculation of the atomization energies of the following molecules: Mo(CO) 6 , Cr(CO) 6 , Fe(CO) 5 , MnH(CO) 5 , CoH(CO) 4 , Ni(CO) 4 . The principles of this method are briefly presented. Calculation results are given for the individual contributions to the atomization energies together with the calculated and experimental atomization energies (D). For the Mo(CO) 6 complex Dsub(calc) = 1759 and Dsub(exp) = 1763 kcal/mole. Calculated and experimental combination heat values for carbonyl complexes are presented. These values are shown to be adequately consistent [ru

  8. Statistical evaluation of Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Consumption Survey weather data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses an issue relating to energy consumption and conservation in the residential sector. BPA has obtained two meteorological data bases for use with its 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). One data base consists of temperature data from weather stations; these have been aggregated to form a second data base that covers the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic divisions. At BPA's request, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a household energy use model for both electricity and natural gas in order to determine whether the statistically estimated parameters of the model significantly differ when the two different meteorological data bases are used.

  9. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  10. Statistical Characterization of 18650-Format Lithium-Ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William Q.; Rickman, Steven; Darst, John; Finegan, Donal; Bayles, Gary; Darcy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Effective thermal management systems, designed to handle the impacts of thermal runaway (TR) and to prevent cell-to-cell propagation, are key to safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery assemblies. Critical factors for optimizing these systems include the total energy released during a single cell TR event and the fraction of the total energy that is released through the cell casing vs. through the ejecta material. A unique calorimeter was utilized to examine the TR behavior of a statistically significant number of 18650-format Li-ion cells with varying manufacturers, chemistries, and capacities. The calorimeter was designed to contain the TR energy in a format conducive to discerning the fractions of energy released through the cell casing vs. through the ejecta material. Other benefits of this calorimeter included the ability to rapidly test of large quantities of cells and the intentional minimization of secondary combustion effects. High energy (270 Wh/kg) and moderate energy (200 Wh/kg) 18650 cells were tested. Some of the cells had an imbedded short circuit (ISC) device installed to aid in the examination of TR mechanisms under more realistic conditions. Other variations included cells with bottom vent (BV) features and cells with thin casings (0.22 1/4m). After combining the data gathered with the calorimeter, a statistical approach was used to examine the probability of certain TR behavior, and the associated energy distributions, as a function of capacity, venting features, cell casing thickness and temperature.

  11. Full-counting statistics of energy transport of molecular junctions in the polaronic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Gaomin; Yu, Zhizhou; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the full-counting statistics (FCS) of energy transport carried by electrons in molecular junctions for the Anderson–Holstein model in the polaronic regime. Using the two-time quantum measurement scheme, the generating function (GF) for the energy transport is derived and expressed as a Fredholm determinant in terms of Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function in the time domain. Dressed tunneling approximation is used in decoupling the phonon cloud operator in the polaronic regime. This formalism enables us to analyze the time evolution of energy transport dynamics after a sudden switch-on of the coupling between the dot and the leads towards the stationary state. The steady state energy current cumulant GF in the long time limit is obtained in the energy domain as well. Universal relations for steady state energy current FCS are derived under a finite temperature gradient with zero bias and this enabled us to express the equilibrium energy current cumulant by a linear combination of lower order cumulants. The behaviors of energy current cumulants in steady state under temperature gradient and external bias are numerically studied and explained. The transient dynamics of energy current cumulants is numerically calculated and analyzed. Universal scaling of normalized transient energy cumulants is found under both temperature gradient and external bias. (paper)

  12. 1992 yearbook of environmental and technology-related law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 and sixth edition of this yearbook contains papers on environmental and technology-related law in the European Communities and the Federal Republic of Germany including among other things information on the latest jurisdiction by the European Court of Justice; insurability of environmental damage; scientific aspects of limit values. There are also treatises on non-German and comparative as well as international environmental and technology- related law which deal among other things with atomic and immission protection law and on harmonization and codification from a general point of view. Finally, some papers report on developments of national and European environmental and technology-related law. Three of the fifteen contributions have been abstracted separately. (HSCH) [de

  13. Geometric Approach to Quantum Statistical Mechanics and Application to Casimir Energy and Friction Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    2010-01-01

    A geometric approach to general quantum statistical systems (including the harmonic oscillator) is presented. It is applied to Casimir energy and the dissipative system with friction. We regard the (N+1)-dimensional Euclidean coordinate system (X i ,τ) as the quantum statistical system of N quantum (statistical) variables (X τ ) and one Euclidean time variable (t). Introducing paths (lines or hypersurfaces) in this space (X τ ,t), we adopt the path-integral method to quantize the mechanical system. This is a new view of (statistical) quantization of the mechanical system. The system Hamiltonian appears as the area. We show quantization is realized by the minimal area principle in the present geometric approach. When we take a line as the path, the path-integral expressions of the free energy are shown to be the ordinary ones (such as N harmonic oscillators) or their simple variation. When we take a hyper-surface as the path, the system Hamiltonian is given by the area of the hyper-surface which is defined as a closed-string configuration in the bulk space. In this case, the system becomes a O(N) non-linear model. We show the recently-proposed 5 dimensional Casimir energy (ArXiv:0801.3064,0812.1263) is valid. We apply this approach to the visco-elastic system, and present a new method using the path-integral for the calculation of the dissipative properties.

  14. New statistical potential for quality assessment of protein models and a survey of energy functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykunov Dmitry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoring functions, such as molecular mechanic forcefields and statistical potentials are fundamentally important tools in protein structure modeling and quality assessment. Results The performances of a number of publicly available scoring functions are compared with a statistical rigor, with an emphasis on knowledge-based potentials. We explored the effect on accuracy of alternative choices for representing interaction center types and other features of scoring functions, such as using information on solvent accessibility, on torsion angles, accounting for secondary structure preferences and side chain orientation. Partially based on the observations made, we present a novel residue based statistical potential, which employs a shuffled reference state definition and takes into account the mutual orientation of residue side chains. Atom- and residue-level statistical potentials and Linux executables to calculate the energy of a given protein proposed in this work can be downloaded from http://www.fiserlab.org/potentials. Conclusions Among the most influential terms we observed a critical role of a proper reference state definition and the benefits of including information about the microenvironment of interaction centers. Molecular mechanical potentials were also tested and found to be over-sensitive to small local imperfections in a structure, requiring unfeasible long energy relaxation before energy scores started to correlate with model quality.

  15. Assessing thermal comfort and energy efficiency in buildings by statistical quality control for autocorrelated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbeito, Inés; Zaragoza, Sonia; Tarrío-Saavedra, Javier; Naya, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intelligent web platform development for energy efficiency management in buildings. • Controlling and supervising thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. • Statistical quality control procedure to deal with autocorrelated data. • Open source alternative using R software. - Abstract: In this paper, a case study of performing a reliable statistical procedure to evaluate the quality of HVAC systems in buildings using data retrieved from an ad hoc big data web energy platform is presented. The proposed methodology based on statistical quality control (SQC) is used to analyze the real state of thermal comfort and energy efficiency of the offices of the company FRIDAMA (Spain) in a reliable way. Non-conformities or alarms, and the actual assignable causes of these out of control states are detected. The capability to meet specification requirements is also analyzed. Tools and packages implemented in the open-source R software are employed to apply the different procedures. First, this study proposes to fit ARIMA time series models to CTQ variables. Then, the application of Shewhart and EWMA control charts to the time series residuals is proposed to control and monitor thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. Once thermal comfort and consumption variability are estimated, the implementation of capability indexes for autocorrelated variables is proposed to calculate the degree to which standards specifications are met. According with case study results, the proposed methodology has detected real anomalies in HVAC installation, helping to detect assignable causes and to make appropriate decisions. One of the goals is to perform and describe step by step this statistical procedure in order to be replicated by practitioners in a better way.

  16. The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook. V. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Throughout 1991 the end of the cold war continued to have a positive impact on international relations. In the Minsk Declaration, proclaiming the establishment of the CIS, the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine undertook to discharge the international obligations incumbent on them under treaties and agreements entered into by the USSR and in the Alma Ata Declaration, this undertaking was accepted by all the eleven republics constituting the Commonwealth. In the course of 1991 several steps were taken which helped enhance the status of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. France and China had decided to accede. On 10 July, South Africa signed a safeguards agreement with IAEA. By the end of 1991, almost all the front-line States in southern Africa had also acceded to the Treaty. Argentina and Brazil concluded a joint safeguards agreement with IAEA and stated that they were taking measures to permit the full entry into force for them of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (treaty of Tlatelolco). The European Council adopted a Declaration on non-proliferation and arms exports with a view to strengthening the regime of nuclear non-proliferation and, in the light of the Persian Gulf War, further enhancing the effectiveness of ''regimes of non-proliferation''. The heads of State and Government of the seven major industrialized countries reaffirmed their readiness to work in favour of an equitable and stable non-proliferation regime based on balance between nuclear non-proliferation and the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to achieve a strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards system. The work carried out in Iraq by the Special Commission, established by the Security Council broke new ground for the United Nations in several respects, in particular, those of intrusive on-site inspection and destruction of weapons and mass destruction and associated facilities under

  17. Statistical model for expected un supplied energy; Statistisk modell for forventet ILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Results from a statistical analysis of expected un supplied energy for Norwegian network companies are presented. The data are from the years 1996-2004. The estimation model includes several explanatory variables that together reflect the characteristics of the network, climatic aspects and other geographical conditions. The model has a high degree of accuracy when compared to the historical number of un supplied energy for about 90 percent of the network companies. But for 12 companies there are substantial, negative deviances that are not compatible with the available data. There is reason to believe that improved data for some types of variables can improve the accuracy of the model. In addition to establishing a norm for expected un supplied energy in the revenue estimations, the model can be used to reflect geographical constraints in NVEs (Norwegian Water and Energy directorate) efficiency analyses (ml)

  18. Statistical mechanical foundation of the peridynamic nonlocal continuum theory: energy and momentum conservation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoucq, R B; Sears, Mark P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the energy and momentum conservation laws of the peridynamic nonlocal continuum theory using the principles of classical statistical mechanics. The peridynamic laws allow the consideration of discontinuous motion, or deformation, by relying on integral operators. These operators sum forces and power expenditures separated by a finite distance and so represent nonlocal interaction. The integral operators replace the differential divergence operators conventionally used, thereby obviating special treatment at points of discontinuity. The derivation presented employs a general multibody interatomic potential, avoiding the standard assumption of a pairwise decomposition. The integral operators are also expressed in terms of a stress tensor and heat flux vector under the assumption that these fields are differentiable, demonstrating that the classical continuum energy and momentum conservation laws are consequences of the more general peridynamic laws. An important conclusion is that nonlocal interaction is intrinsic to continuum conservation laws when derived using the principles of statistical mechanics.

  19. Preliminary study of energy confinement data with a statistical analysis system in HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuan; Cui Zhengying; Ji Xiaoquan; Dong Chunfeng; Yang Qingwei; O J W F Kardaun

    2010-01-01

    Taking advantage of the HL-2A experimental data,an energy confinement database facing ITERL DB2.0 version has been originally established. As for this database,a world widely used statistical analysis system (SAS) has been adopted for the first time to analyze and evaluate the confinement data from HL-2A and the research on scaling laws of energy confinement time corresponding to plasma density is developed, some preliminary results having been achieved. Finally, through comparing with both ITER scaling law and previous ASDEX database, the investigation about L-mode confinement quality on HL-2A and influence of temperature on Spitzer resistivity will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002; Statistiques de l'energie electrique en France - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  1. Statistical and physical content of low-energy photons in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, D.; Pouliot, N.; Laperriere, L.; Harel, F.; Gregoire, J.; Arsenault, A.

    1990-01-01

    Limit in the energy resolution of present gamma camera technology prevents a total rejection of Compton events: inclusion of bad photons in the image is inescapable. Various methods acquiring data over a large portion of the spectrum have already been described. This paper investigates the usefulness of low energy photons using statistical and physical models. Holospectral Imaging, for instance, exploits correlation between energy frames to build an information related transformation optimizing primary photon image. One can also use computer simulation to show that a portion of low energy photons is detected at the same location (pixel) as pure primary photons. These events are for instance: photons undergoing scatter interaction in the crystal; photons undergoing a small angle backscatter or forwardscatter interaction in the medium, photons backscattered by the Pyrex into the crystal. For a 140 keV source in 10 cm of water and a 1/4 inch thick crystal, more than 6% of all the photons detected do not have the primary energy and still are located in the right 4 mm pixel. Similarly, it is possible to show that more than 5% of all the photons detected at 140 keV deposit their energy in more than one pixel. These results give additional support to techniques considering low energy photons and more sophisticated ways to segregate between good and bad events

  2. On the Statistical Properties of Turbulent Energy Transfer Rate in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Carbone, Francesco; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella; Marino, Raffaele; Bruno, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of energy from large to small scales in solar wind turbulence is an important ingredient of the long-standing question of the mechanism of the interplanetary plasma heating. Previous studies have shown that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is statistically compatible with the observed solar wind heating as it expands in the heliosphere. However, in order to understand which processes contribute to the plasma heating, it is necessary to have a local description of the energy flux across scales. To this aim, it is customary to use indicators such as the magnetic field partial variance of increments (PVI), which is associated with the local, relative, scale-dependent magnetic energy. A more complete evaluation of the energy transfer should also include other terms, related to velocity and cross-helicity. This is achieved here by introducing a proxy for the local, scale-dependent turbulent energy transfer rate ɛ_{Δ t}(t), based on the third-order moment scaling law for MHD turbulence. Data from Helios 2 are used to determine the statistical properties of such a proxy in comparison with the magnetic and velocity fields PVI, and the correlation with local solar wind heating is computed. PVI and ɛ_{Δ t}(t) are generally well correlated; however, ɛ_{Δ t}(t) is a very sensitive proxy that can exhibit large amplitude values, both positive and negative, even for low amplitude peaks in the PVI. Furthermore, ɛ_{Δ t}(t) is very well correlated with local increases of the temperature when large amplitude bursts of energy transfer are localized, thus suggesting an important role played by this proxy in the study of plasma energy dissipation.

  3. Power flow as a complement to statistical energy analysis and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Present methods of analysis of the structural response and the structure-borne transmission of vibrational energy use either finite element (FE) techniques or statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods. The FE methods are a very useful tool at low frequencies where the number of resonances involved in the analysis is rather small. On the other hand SEA methods can predict with acceptable accuracy the response and energy transmission between coupled structures at relatively high frequencies where the structural modal density is high and a statistical approach is the appropriate solution. In the mid-frequency range, a relatively large number of resonances exist which make finite element method too costly. On the other hand SEA methods can only predict an average level form. In this mid-frequency range a possible alternative is to use power flow techniques, where the input and flow of vibrational energy to excited and coupled structural components can be expressed in terms of input and transfer mobilities. This power flow technique can be extended from low to high frequencies and this can be integrated with established FE models at low frequencies and SEA models at high frequencies to form a verification of the method. This method of structural analysis using power flo and mobility methods, and its integration with SEA and FE analysis is applied to the case of two thin beams joined together at right angles.

  4. Graph theory applied to noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Oriol; Cortés, Lluís

    2009-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis (SEA) models consists in first identifying and then reducing the energy flow paths between subsystems. In this work, it is proposed to make use of some results from graph theory to address both issues. On the one hand, linear and path algebras applied to adjacency matrices of SEA graphs are used to determine the existence of any order paths between subsystems, counting and labeling them, finding extremal paths, or determining the power flow contributions from groups of paths. On the other hand, a strategy is presented that makes use of graph cut algorithms to reduce the energy flow from a source subsystem to a receiver one, modifying as few internal and coupling loss factors as possible.

  5. Index decomposition analysis of residential energy consumption in China: 2002–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Hongguang; Kemp, René

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine residential energy use in China and predict household electricity use. • We decompose the dramatic increase of residential energy use in China. • Driving factors consist of population, floor space, energy mix and appliances. • Floor space per capita effect becomes increasingly important over time. • Electricity use from appliances will continue to rise despite a saturation. - Abstract: Residential energy consumption in China increased dramatically over the period of 2002–2010. In this paper, we undertake a decomposition analysis of changes in energy use by Chinese households for five energy-using activities: space heating/cooling, cooking, lighting and electric appliances. We investigate to what extent changes in energy use are due to changes from appliances and to change in floor space, population and energy mix. Our decomposition analysis is based on the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique using data from the China statistical yearbook and China energy statistical yearbook in the period of 2002–2010. According to our results, the increase in energy-using appliances is the biggest contributor to the increase of residential energy consumption during 2002–2010 but the effect declines over time, due to energy efficiency improvements in those appliances. The second most important contributor is floor space per capita, which increased with 28%. Of the four factors, population is the most stable factor and energy mix is the least important factor. We predicted electricity use, with the help of regression-based predictions for ownership of appliances and the energy efficiency of appliances. We found that electricity use will continue to rise despite a gradual saturation of demand

  6. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 25: 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 edition of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook provides a descriptive narrative of events at the United Nations in the field of disarmament during the year of the historic Millennium Assembly. Though The Yearbook is now in its 25th edition, its more distant roots date back to the Armaments Year-Books issued by the League of Nations. Then, as now, nation-States and members of the concerned public have found it useful to have in one place a handy shelf reference documenting the triumphs and setbacks of the world community's efforts to reduce and eliminate the deadliest of weapons. The year 2000 marked a crucial juncture in the history of disarmament. During the Millennium Summit, 22 States responded to the Secretary-General's invitation to ratify six key legal instruments in the field of disarmament. Over the course of the year, 86 States chose to advance their security interests by ratifying or acceding to a wide range of disarmament treaties. The solemn 'ends' of disarmament also guided the deliberation of roughly 50 resolutions in the General Assembly as well as the work of many institutions throughout the United Nations disarmament machinery, including the Disarmament Commission, the Department for Disarmament Affairs and its three regional centres, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, and the Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. Even the Conference on Disarmament, which has been deadlocked for so many years, has persisted in its efforts to forge a new consensus on a multilateral agenda for this difficult field. The Security Council also devoted attention to aspects of disarmament pertaining to peace-keeping and peace-building.With respect to the 'means' of disarmament, the world community reaffirmed its determination to implement agreed disarmament commitments and to work out arrangements in new areas. The States parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) after four weeks of

  7. Random matrix theory of the energy-level statistics of disordered systems at the Anderson transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canali, C M

    1995-09-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density P(H) exp[-TrV(H)]. Dyson`s mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, V(is an element of) {approx} A/2 ln{sup 2}(is an element of). The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when A < 1. By performing systematic Monte Carlo simulations on the plasma model, we compute all the relevant statistical properties of the RME with weak confinement. For A{sub c} approx. 0.4 the distribution function of the level spacings (LSDF) coincides in a large energy window with the energy LSDF of the three dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. For the same A = A{sub c}, the RME eigenvalue-number variance is linear and its slope is equal to 0.32 {+-} 0.02, which is consistent with the value found for the Anderson model at the critical point. (author). 51 refs, 10 figs.

  8. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  9. Correlation analysis of energy indicators for sustainable development using multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Alvaro Luiz Guimaraes; Santos, Francisco Carlos Barbosa dos

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential input for social development and economic growth. The production and use of energy cause environmental degradation at all levels, being local, regional and global such as, combustion of fossil fuels causing air pollution; hydropower often causes environmental damage due to the submergence of large areas of land; and global climate change associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As mentioned in chapter 9 of Agenda 21, the Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technologies were remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. All energy sources will need to be used in ways that respect the atmosphere, human health, and the environment as a whole. The energy in the context of sustainable development needs a set of quantifiable parameters, called indicators, to measure and monitor important changes and significant progress towards the achievement of the objectives of sustainable development policies. The indicators are divided into four dimensions: social, economic, environmental and institutional. This paper shows a methodology of analysis using Multivariate Statistical Technique that provide the ability to analyse complex sets of data. The main goal of this study is to explore the correlation analysis among the indicators. The data used on this research work, is an excerpt of IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica) data census. The core indicators used in this study follows The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) framework: Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development. (author)

  10. Prediction of the Electromagnetic Field Distribution in a Typical Aircraft Using the Statistical Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevsky, Louis; Langley, Robin S.; Caro, Stephane

    2016-05-01

    Due to the high cost of experimental EMI measurements significant attention has been focused on numerical simulation. Classical methods such as Method of Moment or Finite Difference Time Domain are not well suited for this type of problem, as they require a fine discretisation of space and failed to take into account uncertainties. In this paper, the authors show that the Statistical Energy Analysis is well suited for this type of application. The SEA is a statistical approach employed to solve high frequency problems of electromagnetically reverberant cavities at a reduced computational cost. The key aspects of this approach are (i) to consider an ensemble of system that share the same gross parameter, and (ii) to avoid solving Maxwell's equations inside the cavity, using the power balance principle. The output is an estimate of the field magnitude distribution in each cavity. The method is applied on a typical aircraft structure.

  11. Monthly bulletin of statistics. May 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  12. Monthly bulletin of statistics. January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  13. Monthly bulletin of statistics. July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  14. Monthly bulletin of statistics. June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  15. Monthly bulletin of statistics. September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  16. Monthly bulletin of statistics. December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  17. Monthly bulletin of statistics. July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  18. Monthly bulletin of statistics. September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  19. Monthly bulletin of statistics. March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  20. Monthly bulletin of statistics. October 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  1. Monthly bulletin of statistics. October 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  2. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  3. Monthly bulletin of statistics. March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  4. Monthly bulletin of statistics. February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  5. Monthly bulletin of statistics. June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  6. Monthly bulletin of statistics. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present current monthly economic statistics for most of the countries and territories of the world. In addition, each month a different selection of special tables is presented showing annual and/or quarterly data on a variety of subjects illustrating important economic long-term trends and developments. Most of these special tables are also reproduced in the United Nations Statistical Yearbook. It is, however, considered to be useful to publish these data in the Bulletin as soon as they become available so that readers may have immediate access to the most current international statistical information

  7. Pairwise contact energy statistical potentials can help to find probability of point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, K M; Suvaithenamudhan, S; Parthasarathy, S; Selvaraj, S

    2017-01-01

    To adopt a particular fold, a protein requires several interactions between its amino acid residues. The energetic contribution of these residue-residue interactions can be approximated by extracting statistical potentials from known high resolution structures. Several methods based on statistical potentials extracted from unrelated proteins are found to make a better prediction of probability of point mutations. We postulate that the statistical potentials extracted from known structures of similar folds with varying sequence identity can be a powerful tool to examine probability of point mutation. By keeping this in mind, we have derived pairwise residue and atomic contact energy potentials for the different functional families that adopt the (α/β) 8 TIM-Barrel fold. We carried out computational point mutations at various conserved residue positions in yeast Triose phosphate isomerase enzyme for which experimental results are already reported. We have also performed molecular dynamics simulations on a subset of point mutants to make a comparative study. The difference in pairwise residue and atomic contact energy of wildtype and various point mutations reveals probability of mutations at a particular position. Interestingly, we found that our computational prediction agrees with the experimental studies of Silverman et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 2001;98:3092-3097) and perform better prediction than i Mutant and Cologne University Protein Stability Analysis Tool. The present work thus suggests deriving pairwise contact energy potentials and molecular dynamics simulations of functionally important folds could help us to predict probability of point mutations which may ultimately reduce the time and cost of mutation experiments. Proteins 2016; 85:54-64. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Data analysis in high energy physics. A practical guide to statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Olaf; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Kroeninger, Kevin; Schott, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This practical guide covers the essential tasks in statistical data analysis encountered in high energy physics and provides comprehensive advice for typical questions and problems. The basic methods for inferring results from data are presented as well as tools for advanced tasks such as improving the signal-to-background ratio, correcting detector effects, determining systematics and many others. Concrete applications are discussed in analysis walkthroughs. Each chapter is supplemented by numerous examples and exercises and by a list of literature and relevant links. The book targets a broad readership at all career levels - from students to senior researchers.

  9. Prediction of noise in ships by the application of “statistical energy analysis.”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John Ødegaard

    1979-01-01

    If it will be possible effectively to reduce the noise level in the accomodation on board ships, by introducing appropriate noise abatement measures already at an early design stage, it is quite essential that sufficiently accurate prediction methods are available for the naval architects...... or for a special noise abatement measure, e.g., increased structural damping. The paper discusses whether it might be possible to derive an alternative calculation model based on the “statistical energy analysis” approach (SEA). By considering the hull of a ship to be constructed from plate elements connected...

  10. Prediction of transmission loss through an aircraft sidewall using statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ruisen; Sun, Jincai

    1989-06-01

    The transmission loss of randomly incident sound through an aircraft sidewall is investigated using statistical energy analysis. Formulas are also obtained for the simple calculation of sound transmission loss through single- and double-leaf panels. Both resonant and nonresonant sound transmissions can be easily calculated using the formulas. The formulas are used to predict sound transmission losses through a Y-7 propeller airplane panel. The panel measures 2.56 m x 1.38 m and has two windows. The agreement between predicted and measured values through most of the frequency ranges tested is quite good.

  11. Energy statistics on one- and two-dwelling buildings in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The survey of energy statistics on one- and two-dwelling buildings in 1999 is based on a sample of 8264 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in January 2000. The non-response was 20 percent. The presentation provides data on energy consumption, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor spaces for the total population and for various subdivisions. More than one third of the one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated by electricity. About 17 percent are heated by a combination of firewood and electricity, and about 14 percent are heated by oil only. All of these heating types are decreasing, while heating by firewood/wood chips/pellets, heat pumps and distant heating are increasing

  12. Energy statistics for on one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The survey of energy statistics on one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2000 is based on a sample of 6531 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in January 2001. The non-response was 21 percent. The presentation provides data on energy consumption, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor spaces for the total population and for various subdivisions. More than one third of the one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated by electricity. About 18 percent are heated by a combination of firewood and electricity, and about 13 percent are heated by oil only. All of these heating types are decreasing, while heating by firewood/wood chips/pellets, heat pumps and distant heating are increasing

  13. Freezing and extreme-value statistics in a random energy model with logarithmically correlated potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We investigate some implications of the freezing scenario proposed by Carpentier and Le Doussal (CLD) for a random energy model (REM) with logarithmically correlated random potential. We introduce a particular (circular) variant of the model, and show that the integer moments of the partition function in the high-temperature phase are given by the well-known Dyson Coulomb gas integrals. The CLD freezing scenario allows one to use those moments for extracting the distribution of the free energy in both high- and low-temperature phases. In particular, it yields the full distribution of the minimal value in the potential sequence. This provides an explicit new class of extreme-value statistics for strongly correlated variables, manifestly different from the standard Gumbel class. (fast track communication)

  14. Freezing and extreme-value statistics in a random energy model with logarithmically correlated potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyodorov, Yan V [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG72RD (United Kingdom); Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe [Science and Finance, Capital Fund Management 6-8 Bd Haussmann, 75009 Paris (France)

    2008-09-19

    We investigate some implications of the freezing scenario proposed by Carpentier and Le Doussal (CLD) for a random energy model (REM) with logarithmically correlated random potential. We introduce a particular (circular) variant of the model, and show that the integer moments of the partition function in the high-temperature phase are given by the well-known Dyson Coulomb gas integrals. The CLD freezing scenario allows one to use those moments for extracting the distribution of the free energy in both high- and low-temperature phases. In particular, it yields the full distribution of the minimal value in the potential sequence. This provides an explicit new class of extreme-value statistics for strongly correlated variables, manifestly different from the standard Gumbel class. (fast track communication)

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  16. Crossing statistic: Bayesian interpretation, model selection and resolving dark energy parametrization problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieloo, Arman

    2012-01-01

    By introducing Crossing functions and hyper-parameters I show that the Bayesian interpretation of the Crossing Statistics [1] can be used trivially for the purpose of model selection among cosmological models. In this approach to falsify a cosmological model there is no need to compare it with other models or assume any particular form of parametrization for the cosmological quantities like luminosity distance, Hubble parameter or equation of state of dark energy. Instead, hyper-parameters of Crossing functions perform as discriminators between correct and wrong models. Using this approach one can falsify any assumed cosmological model without putting priors on the underlying actual model of the universe and its parameters, hence the issue of dark energy parametrization is resolved. It will be also shown that the sensitivity of the method to the intrinsic dispersion of the data is small that is another important characteristic of the method in testing cosmological models dealing with data with high uncertainties

  17. Accelerator driven reactors, - the significance of the energy distribution of spallation neutrons on the neutron statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fhager, V

    2000-01-01

    In order to make correct predictions of the second moment of statistical nuclear variables, such as the number of fissions and the number of thermalized neutrons, the dependence of the energy distribution of the source particles on their number should be considered. It has been pointed out recently that neglecting this number dependence in accelerator driven systems might result in bad estimates of the second moment, and this paper contains qualitative and quantitative estimates of the size of these efforts. We walk towards the requested results in two steps. First, models of the number dependent energy distributions of the neutrons that are ejected in the spallation reactions are constructed, both by simple assumptions and by extracting energy distributions of spallation neutrons from a high-energy particle transport code. Then, the second moment of nuclear variables in a sub-critical reactor, into which spallation neutrons are injected, is calculated. The results from second moment calculations using number dependent energy distributions for the source neutrons are compared to those where only the average energy distribution is used. Two physical models are employed to simulate the neutron transport in the reactor. One is analytical, treating only slowing down of neutrons by elastic scattering in the core material. For this model, equations are written down and solved for the second moment of thermalized neutrons that include the distribution of energy of the spallation neutrons. The other model utilizes Monte Carlo methods for tracking the source neutrons as they travel inside the reactor material. Fast and thermal fission reactions are considered, as well as neutron capture and elastic scattering, and the second moment of the number of fissions, the number of neutrons that leaked out of the system, etc. are calculated. Both models use a cylindrical core with a homogenous mixture of core material. Our results indicate that the number dependence of the energy

  18. Accelerator driven reactors, - the significance of the energy distribution of spallation neutrons on the neutron statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fhager, V.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make correct predictions of the second moment of statistical nuclear variables, such as the number of fissions and the number of thermalized neutrons, the dependence of the energy distribution of the source particles on their number should be considered. It has been pointed out recently that neglecting this number dependence in accelerator driven systems might result in bad estimates of the second moment, and this paper contains qualitative and quantitative estimates of the size of these efforts. We walk towards the requested results in two steps. First, models of the number dependent energy distributions of the neutrons that are ejected in the spallation reactions are constructed, both by simple assumptions and by extracting energy distributions of spallation neutrons from a high-energy particle transport code. Then, the second moment of nuclear variables in a sub-critical reactor, into which spallation neutrons are injected, is calculated. The results from second moment calculations using number dependent energy distributions for the source neutrons are compared to those where only the average energy distribution is used. Two physical models are employed to simulate the neutron transport in the reactor. One is analytical, treating only slowing down of neutrons by elastic scattering in the core material. For this model, equations are written down and solved for the second moment of thermalized neutrons that include the distribution of energy of the spallation neutrons. The other model utilizes Monte Carlo methods for tracking the source neutrons as they travel inside the reactor material. Fast and thermal fission reactions are considered, as well as neutron capture and elastic scattering, and the second moment of the number of fissions, the number of neutrons that leaked out of the system, etc. are calculated. Both models use a cylindrical core with a homogenous mixture of core material. Our results indicate that the number dependence of the energy

  19. Statistical distribution of components of energy eigenfunctions: from nearly-integrable to chaotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiaozi; Wang, Wen-ge

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistical distribution of components in the non-perturbative parts of energy eigenfunctions (EFs), in which main bodies of the EFs lie. Our numerical simulations in five models show that deviation of the distribution from the prediction of random matrix theory (RMT) is useful in characterizing the process from nearly-integrable to chaotic, in a way somewhat similar to the nearest-level-spacing distribution. But, the statistics of EFs reveals some more properties, as described below. (i) In the process of approaching quantum chaos, the distribution of components shows a delay feature compared with the nearest-level-spacing distribution in most of the models studied. (ii) In the quantum chaotic regime, the distribution of components always shows small but notable deviation from the prediction of RMT in models possessing classical counterparts, while, the deviation can be almost negligible in models not possessing classical counterparts. (iii) In models whose Hamiltonian matrices possess a clear band structure, tails of EFs show statistical behaviors obviously different from those in the main bodies, while, the difference is smaller for Hamiltonian matrices without a clear band structure.

  20. Random matrix theory of the energy-level statistics of disordered systems at the Anderson transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canali, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density P(H) exp[-TrV(H)]. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, V(is an element of) ∼ A/2 ln 2 (is an element of). The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when A c approx. 0.4 the distribution function of the level spacings (LSDF) coincides in a large energy window with the energy LSDF of the three dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. For the same A = A c , the RME eigenvalue-number variance is linear and its slope is equal to 0.32 ± 0.02, which is consistent with the value found for the Anderson model at the critical point. (author). 51 refs, 10 figs

  1. Statistical model of a flexible inextensible polymer chain: The effect of kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamenshchik, V. M.; Vozniak, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the holonomic constraints, the kinetic energy contribution in the partition function of an inextensible polymer chain is difficult to find, and it has been systematically ignored. We present the first thermodynamic calculation incorporating the kinetic energy of an inextensible polymer chain with the bending energy. To explore the effect of the translation-rotation degrees of freedom, we propose and solve a statistical model of a fully flexible chain of N +1 linked beads which, in the limit of smooth bending, is equivalent to the well-known wormlike chain model. The partition function with the kinetic and bending energies and correlations between orientations of any pair of links and velocities of any pair of beads are found. This solution is precise in the limits of small and large rigidity-to-temperature ratio b /T . The last exact solution is essential as even very "harmless" approximation results in loss of the important effects when the chain is very rigid. For very high b /T , the orientations of different links become fully correlated. Nevertheless, the chain does not go over into a hard rod even in the limit b /T →∞ : While the velocity correlation length diverges, the correlations themselves remain weak and tend to the value ∝T /(N +1 ). The N dependence of the partition function is essentially determined by the kinetic energy contribution. We demonstrate that to obtain the correct energy and entropy in a constrained system, the T derivative of the partition function has to be applied before integration over the constraint-setting variable.

  2. Optimal Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Percentage in Dual-energy Monochromatic CT Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Yang, Zhenghan; Wang, Keyang; He, Wen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to study the influence of different adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) percentages on the image quality of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) portal venography in portal hypertension patients. DECT scans of 40 patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 56 years) at the portal venous phase were retrospectively analyzed. Monochromatic images at 60 and 70 keV were reconstructed with four ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. Computed tomography (CT) numbers of the portal veins (PVs), liver parenchyma, and subcutaneous fat tissue in the abdomen were measured. The standard deviation from the region of interest of the liver parenchyma was interpreted as the objective image noise (IN). The contrast-noise ratio (CNR) between PV and liver parenchyma was calculated. The diagnostic acceptability (DA) and sharpness of PV margins were obtained using a 5-point score. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV were compared among the eight groups with different keV + ASIR level combinations. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV of different keV + ASIR groups were all statistically different (P ASIR and 70 keV + 0% ASIR (filtered back-projection [FBP]) combination, respectively, whereas the largest and smallest objective IN were obtained in the 60 keV + 0% ASIR (FBP) and 70 keV + 70% combination. The highest DA and sharpness values of PV were obtained at 50% ASIR for 60 keV. An optimal ASIR percentage (50%) combined with an appropriate monochromatic energy level (60 keV) provides the highest DA in portal venography imaging, whereas for the higher monochromatic energy (70 keV) images, 30% ASIR provides the highest image quality, with less IN than 60 keV with 50% ASIR. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multivariate statistical analysis of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuerang; Sun Yuekui; Yuan Jun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an expression has been developed to take into account the complex dependence of the fine structure in core-level electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in anisotropic materials on specimen orientation and spectral collection conditions [Y. Sun, J. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 125109]. One application of this expression is the development of a phenomenological theory of magic-angle electron energy-loss spectroscopy (MAEELS), which can be used to extract the isotropically averaged spectral information for materials with arbitrary anisotropy. Here we use this expression to extract not only the isotropically averaged spectral information, but also the anisotropic spectral components, without the restriction of MAEELS. The application is based on a multivariate statistical analysis of core-level EELS for anisotropic materials. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we have conducted a study on a set of carbon K-edge spectra of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) acquired with energy-loss spectroscopic profiling (ELSP) technique and successfully extracted both the averaged and dichroic spectral components of the wrapped graphite-like sheets. Our result shows that this can be a practical alternative to MAEELS for the study of electronic structure of anisotropic materials, in particular for those nanostructures made of layered materials

  4. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, Ed., David; Aden, Ed., Nathaniel; Lu, Ed., Hongyou; Zheng, Ed., Nina

    2008-10-01

    Since 2001, China's energy consumption has grown more quickly than expected by Chinese or international observers. This edition of the China Energy Databook traces the growth of the energy system through 2006. As with version six, the Databook covers a wide range of energy-related information, including resources and reserves, production, consumption, investment, equipment, prices, trade, environment, economy, and demographic data. These data provide an extensive quantitative foundation for understanding China's growing energy system. In addition to providing updated data through 2006, version seven includes revised energy and GDP data back to the 1990s. In the 2005 China Energy Statistical Yearbook, China's National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) published revised energy production, consumption, and usage data covering the years 1998 to 2003. Most of these revisions related to coal production and consumption, though natural gas data were also adjusted. In order to accommodate underestimated service sector growth, the NBS also released revised GDP data in 2005. Beyond the inclusion of historical revisions in the seventh edition, no attempt has been made to rectify known or suspected issues in the official data. The purpose of this volume is to provide a common basis for understanding China's energy system. In order to broaden understanding of China's energy system, the Databook includes information from industry yearbooks, periodicals, and government websites in addition to data published by NBS. Rather than discarding discontinued data series, information that is no longer possible to update has been placed in C section tables and figures in each chapter. As with previous versions, the data are presented in digital database and tabular formats. The compilation of updated data is the result of tireless work by Lu Hongyou and Nina Zheng.

  5. Yearbook and Magazine Layout, English, Journalism. Language Arts: 5113.200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marlene E.

    Developed as a quinmester unit for the high school on yearbook and magazine layout, this guide provides the teacher with suggested teaching strategies for a study of the theory and practice of page layout, photo cropping and editing, use of color and special effects, copy fitting and headline writing and fitting, and principles of typography.…

  6. Issues in Literacy: A Research Perspective. Thirty-Fourth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Jerome A., Ed.; Lalik, Rosary V., Ed.

    Reflecting current themes that scholars in reading/language research, by their selective attention, have indicated are important in the field of literacy and learning in natural settings, this yearbook presents a collection of 62 selected research articles from the National Reading Conference for 1984. Included are the following articles, listed…

  7. A Source Book of Mathematical Applications. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Yearbook 17 [1942].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Edwin G., Comp; And Others

    This yearbook is a reference source of direct applications of mathematics for use in grades 7-12. Topics are listed alphabetically in each of four sections: arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. An explanation is given as to the plan of the book, making the location of desired material easier, and an index is included. In many cases the…

  8. Adults and the Changing Workplace. 1985 Yearbook of the American Vocational Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt, Ed.

    The 31 papers in this yearbook are organized in five sections: I. Changes in the Labor Force, which includes: "Labor Market Needs to the Year 2000" (Morgan V. Lewis) and "Occupational Adaptability and Transferable Skills: Preparing Today's Adults for Tomorrow's Careers" (Frank C. Pratzner and William L. Ashley); II. Educating Adult Students, which…

  9. Evaluation of excitation energy and spin in fission fragments using the statistical model, and the FIPPS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Koester, U.; Kessedjian, G.; Sage, C.; Chebboubi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We review the statistical model and its application for the process of nuclear fission. The expressions for excitation energy and spin distributions for the individual fission fragments are given. We will finally emphasize the importance of measuring prompt gamma decay to further test the statistical model in nuclear fission with the FIPPS project. (authors)

  10. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO DIFFERENT STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS USED TO ESTIMATE THE WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURBAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the wind energy potential of the region is analyzed with Weibull and Reyleigh statistical distribution functions by using the wind speed data measured per 15 seconds in July, August, September, and October of 2005 at 10 m height of 30-m observation pole in the wind observation station constructed in the coverage of the scientific research project titled "The Construction of Hybrid (Wind-Solar Power Plant Model by Determining the Wind and Solar Potential in the Iki Eylul Campus of A.U." supported by Anadolu University. The Maximum likelihood method is used for finding the parameters of these distributions. The conclusion of the analysis for the months taken represents that the Weibull distribution models the wind speeds better than the Rayleigh distribution. Furthermore, the error rate in the monthly values of power density computed by using the Weibull distribution is smaller than the values by Rayleigh distribution.

  11. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  12. Application of a Bayesian algorithm for the Statistical Energy model updating of a railway coach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadri, Mehran; Brunskog, Jonas; Younesian, Davood

    2016-01-01

    into account based on published data on comparison between experimental and theoretical results, so that the variance of the theory is estimated. The Monte Carlo Metropolis Hastings algorithm is employed to estimate the modified values of the parameters. It is shown that the algorithm can be efficiently used......The classical statistical energy analysis (SEA) theory is a common approach for vibroacoustic analysis of coupled complex structures, being efficient to predict high-frequency noise and vibration of engineering systems. There are however some limitations in applying the conventional SEA...... the performance of the proposed strategy, the SEA model updating of a railway passenger coach is carried out. First, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to select the most sensitive parameters of the SEA model. For the selected parameters of the model, prior probability density functions are then taken...

  13. Data analysis in high energy physics a practical guide to statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Olaf; Kröninger, Kevin; Schott, Grégory; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This practical guide covers the most essential statistics-related tasks and problems encountered in high-energy physics data analyses. It addresses both advanced students entering the field of particle physics as well as researchers looking for a reliable source on optimal separation of signal and background, determining signals or estimating upper limits, correcting the data for detector effects and evaluating systematic uncertainties. Each chapter is dedicated to a single topic and supplemented by a substantial number of both paper and computer exercises related to real experiments, with the solutions provided at the end of the book along with references. A special feature of the book are the analysis walk-throughs used to illustrate the application of the methods discussed beforehand. The authors give examples of data analysis, referring to real problems in HEP, and display the different stages of data analysis in a descriptive manner. The accompanying website provides more algorithms as well as up-to-date...

  14. Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium for compact stars: modelling the nuclear energy functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymard, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The core collapse supernova is one of the most powerful known phenomena in the universe. It results from the explosion of very massive stars after they have burnt all their fuel. The hot compact remnant, the so-called proto-neutron star, cools down to become an inert catalyzed neutron star. The dynamics and structure of compact stars, that is core collapse supernovae, proto-neutron stars and neutron stars, are still not fully understood and are currently under active research, in association with astrophysical observations and nuclear experiments. One of the key components for modelling compact stars concerns the Equation of State. The task of computing a complete realistic consistent Equation of State for all such stars is challenging because a wide range of densities, proton fractions and temperatures is spanned. This thesis deals with the microscopic modelling of the structure and internal composition of baryonic matter with nucleonic degrees of freedom in compact stars, in order to obtain a realistic unified Equation of State. In particular, we are interested in a formalism which can be applied both at sub-saturation and super-saturation densities, and which gives in the zero temperature limit results compatible with the microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with modern realistic effective interactions constrained on experimental nuclear data. For this purpose, we present, for sub-saturated matter, a Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium model which corresponds to a statistical superposition of finite configurations, the so-called Wigner-Seitz cells. Each cell contains a nucleus, or cluster, embedded in a homogeneous electron gas as well as a homogeneous neutron and proton gas. Within each cell, we investigate the different components of the nuclear energy of clusters in interaction with gases. The use of the nuclear mean-field theory for the description of both the clusters and the nucleon gas allows a theoretical consistency with the treatment at saturation

  15. Statistical analysis of the electric energy production from photovoltaic conversion using mobile and fixed constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugała, Artur; Bednarek, Karol; Kasprzyk, Leszek; Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the most representative - from the three-year measurement time period - characteristics of daily and monthly electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion using modules installed in a fixed and 2-axis tracking construction. Results are presented for selected summer, autumn, spring and winter days. Analyzed measuring stand is located on the roof of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Poznan University of Technology building. The basic parameters of the statistical analysis like mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, median, range, or coefficient of variation were used. It was found that the asymmetry factor can be useful in the analysis of the daily electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion. In order to determine the repeatability of monthly electricity production, occurring between the summer, and summer and winter months, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used as a statistical solution. In order to analyze the repeatability of daily peak hours, describing the largest value of the hourly electricity production, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied as an extension of the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the analysis of the electric energy distribution from a prepared monitoring system it was found that traditional forecasting methods of the electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion, like multiple regression models, should not be the preferred methods of the analysis.

  16. Nuclear statistics of dysprosium resonance parameters in the energy range 10 - 1000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, G. N.; Namkung, W.; Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R.; Roe, T. I.

    2016-01-01

    A resonance parameter analysis is often performed in the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR) in order to estimate the average level spacing, distribution of the reduced widths and so on. Neutron Capture experiments on dysprosium isotopes were performed at the electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility of the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the neutron energy region from 10 eV to 1 keV. The following nuclear statistics of the resonance parameters will be discussed in this paper. The D 0 for 161 Dy and 163 Dy were judged to be constant up to 120.6 and 163.9 eV, respectively. It was assumed that the D 0 of 162 Dy and 164 Dy is constant up to 1000 eV because they have few resonances. The results were compared with the values from Reference 11 as shown in Figure 1. Statistical distributions of reduced neutron were investigated for the three isotopes in the region from 0 to 1000 eV; 161 Dy, 162 Dy, and 163 Dy, but not for 164 Dy because of a few number of resonances. The reduced neutron widths Γ n 0 were divided by the unweighted average reduced neutron width < Γ n 0 > for each isotope. A cumulative distribution of these unitless ratios is compared with the integral of the Porter-Thomas distribution (χ 2 distribution with one degree of freedom). The results agree reasonably with the Porter Thomas distributions.

  17. A statistical method to estimate low-energy hadronic cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassa, Gábor; Kovács, Péter; Wolf, György

    2018-02-01

    In this article we propose a model based on the Statistical Bootstrap approach to estimate the cross sections of different hadronic reactions up to a few GeV in c.m.s. energy. The method is based on the idea, when two particles collide a so-called fireball is formed, which after a short time period decays statistically into a specific final state. To calculate the probabilities we use a phase space description extended with quark combinatorial factors and the possibility of more than one fireball formation. In a few simple cases the probability of a specific final state can be calculated analytically, where we show that the model is able to reproduce the ratios of the considered cross sections. We also show that the model is able to describe proton-antiproton annihilation at rest. In the latter case we used a numerical method to calculate the more complicated final state probabilities. Additionally, we examined the formation of strange and charmed mesons as well, where we used existing data to fit the relevant model parameters.

  18. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  19. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological and Statistical Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-09

    100 kHz, 1 MHz 100 MHz–1 GHz 1 100 kHz 3. Statistical Processing 3.1 Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis is the mathematical science...quantitative terms. In commercial prognostics and diagnostic vibrational monitoring applications , statistical techniques that are mainly used for alarm...Balakrishnan N, editors. Handbook of statistics . Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science; 1998. p 555–602; (Order statistics and their applications

  20. Yearbook facility engineering 2009. Facility engineering for electric power grids; Jahrbuch Anlagentechnik 2009. Anlagentechnik fuer elektrische Verteilungsnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichowski, Rolf Ruediger (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    The strong changes in the energy market - e.g. deregulation, the influence of the Bundesnetzagentur, globalisation of new technologies, constant issueing and adaptation of standards, require more and deeper knowledge than ever before. Issues like energy efficiency and utilisation of renewable energy sources not only govern public discussions but have also created new, variable professions which challenge experts of energy engineering. The yearbook provides an insight into specific issues, e.g. a calendar of events, trade fairs, product recommendations, services, and further hints for practicians. (orig.) [German] Durch die starken Veraenderungen im Energiemarkt, wie die Liberalisierung, die Einflussnahme auf die Gestaltung der Energieversorgung durch die Bundesnetzagentur, die Globalisierung, die neuen Techniken und damit staendige Anpassungen der Normen bzw. Bewaeltigung neuer Normen durch die Fachleute, nimmt die Vielfalt und der Umfang an notwendigen Kenntnissen staendig zu. Themen wie Energieeffizienz und Nutzung regenerativer Energien bestimmen nicht nur die oeffentliche Diskussion, sondern schlagen sich auch in neuen und sich aendernden beruflichen Taetigkeiten nieder. Dadurch sind die Fachleute der Energietechnik ausserordentlich herausgefordert. Zusaetzlich bietet das Jahrbuch spezifische Themen zu den jeweiligen Jahren, wie Kalendarium, Veranstaltungshinweise, Messen, Produktempfehlungen, Dienstleistungen und weitere Tipps fuer Praktiker. (orig.)

  1. Statistical measurement of the gamma-ray source-count distribution as a function of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechlin, H.-S.; Cuoco, A.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Photon counts statistics have recently been proven to provide a sensitive observable for characterizing gamma-ray source populations and for measuring the composition of the gamma-ray sky. In this work, we generalize the use of the standard 1-point probability distribution function (1pPDF) to decompose the high-latitude gamma-ray emission observed with Fermi-LAT into: (i) point-source contributions, (ii) the Galactic foreground contribution, and (iii) a diffuse isotropic background contribution. We analyze gamma-ray data in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. We measure the source-count distribution dN/dS as a function of energy, and demonstrate that our results extend current measurements from source catalogs to the regime of so far undetected sources. Our method improves the sensitivity for resolving point-source populations by about one order of magnitude in flux. The dN/dS distribution as a function of flux is found to be compatible with a broken power law. We derive upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources. We discuss the composition of the gamma-ray sky and capabilities of the 1pPDF method.

  2. Statistical analysis and dimensioning of a wind farm energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waśkowicz Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth in renewable power generation and more strict local regulations regarding power quality indices will make it necessary to use energy storage systems with renewable power plants in the near future. The capacity of storage systems can be determined using different methods most of which can be divided into either deterministic or stochastic. Deterministic methods are often complicated with numerous parameters and complex models for long term prediction often incorporating meteorological data. Stochastic methods use statistics for ESS (Energy Storage System sizing, which is somewhat intuitive for dealing with the random element of wind speed variation. The proposed method in this paper performs stabilization of output power at one minute intervals to reduce the negative influence of the wind farm on the power grid in order to meet local regulations. This paper shows the process of sizing the ESS for two selected wind farms, based on their levels of variation in generated power and also, for each, how the negative influences on the power grid in the form of voltage variation and a shortterm flicker factor are decreased.

  3. On the efficiency of high-energy particle identification statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingaryan, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze the statistical methods of making decisions on the high-energy particle identification. The Bayesian approach is shown to provide the most complete account of the primary discriminative information between the particles of various tupes. It does not impose rigid requirements on the density form of the probability function and ensures the account of the a priori information as compared with the Neyman-Pearson approach, the mimimax technique and the heristic rules of the decision limits construction in the variant region of the specially chosen parameter. The methods based on the concept of the nearest neighbourhood are shown to be the most effective one among the local methods of the probability function density estimation. The probability distances between the training sample classes are suggested to make a decision on selecting the high-energy particle detector optimal parameters. The method proposed and the software constructed are tested on the problem of the cosmic radiation hadron identification by means of transition radiation detectors (the ''PION'' experiment)

  4. Statistical method for the determination of the ignition energy of dust cloud - experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.; Lebecki, K.; Gillard, P.; Youinou, L.; Baudry, G. [University of Orleans, Bourges (France)

    2010-05-15

    Powdery materials such as metallic or polymer powders play a considerable role in many industrial processes. Their use requires the introduction of preventive safeguard to control the plants safety. The mitigation of an explosion hazard, according to the ATEX 137 Directive (1999/92/EU), requires the assessment of the dust ignition sensitivity. PRISME laboratory (University of Orleans) has developed an experimental set-up and methodology, using the Langlie test, for the quick determination of the explosion sensitivity of dusts. This method requires only 20 shots and ignition sensitivity is evaluated through the E{sub 50} (energy with an ignition probability of 0.5) A Hartmann tube, with a volume of 1.3l, was designed and built. Many results on the energy ignition thresholds of partially oxidised aluminium were obtained using this experimental device and compared to literature. E-50 evolution is the same as MIE but their respective values are different and MIE is lower than E{sub 50} however the link between E{sub 50} and MIE has not been elucidated In this paper, the Langlie method is explained in detail for the determination of the parameters (mean value E{sub 50} and standard deviation {sigma}) of the associated statistic law. The ignition probability versus applied energy is firstly measured for Lycopodium in order to validate the method A comparison between the normal and the lognormal law was achieved and the best fit was obtained with the lognormal law. In a second part, the Langlie test was performed on different dusts such as aluminium, cornstarch, lycopodium, coal, and PA12 in order to determine E-50 and {sigma} for each dust. The energies E{sub 05} and E{sub 10} corresponding respectively to an ignition probability of 0.05 and 0.1 are determined with the lognormal law and compared to MIE find in literature. E{sub 05} and E{sub 10} values of ignition energy were found to be very close and were in good agreement with MIE in the literature.

  5. Wind energy statistics of Finland. Yearly report 2011; Tuulivoiman tuotantotilastot. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkia, V.; Holttinen, H.

    2013-01-15

    Wind power production from grid connected wind turbines in Finland was 481 GWh in 2011. This corresponds to 0.6 % of Finland's electricity consumption. Installed wind capacity was 199 MW at the end of the year and the number of the operating turbines was 131. Two new turbines were installed in 2011 with the total power of 1.75 MW and no turbines were taken out of operation. The average size of all turbines in Finland was 1 519 kW at the end of 2011 (1519 kW at the end of 2010). The new climate and energy strategy has a target of 2 500 MW wind power in 2020. A market based feed-in system with a guaranteed price of 83.5 euro/MWh entered into force on 25 March 2011 in Finland. There will be an increased tariff of 105.3 euro/MWh until end of 2015 (max 3 years). The difference between the guaranteed price and spot price of electricity will be paid to the producers as a premium. Year 2010 had close to long term average wind resource. The weighted production index for the four sea areas was 98 %. Average capacity factor of standard wind turbines, which operated the whole year, was 24 % while the best turbine yielded 45 % capacity factor. Technical availability of the standard wind power plants was 88,5 % in 2011. This report contains production and availability figures of the grid connected wind turbines in Finland as well as component summary of failure statistics. There is an English list of figure and table captions and the yearly statistics table is as an appendix. (orig.)

  6. Vibro-acoustic modelling of aircraft double-walls with structural links using Statistical Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Bruno L.

    The prediction of aircraft interior noise involves the vibroacoustic modelling of the fuselage with noise control treatments. This structure is composed of a stiffened metallic or composite panel, lined with a thermal and acoustic insulation layer (glass wool), and structurally connected via vibration isolators to a commercial lining panel (trim). The goal of this work aims at tailoring the noise control treatments taking design constraints such as weight and space optimization into account. For this purpose, a representative aircraft double-wall is modelled using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Laboratory excitations such as diffuse acoustic field and point force are addressed and trends are derived for applications under in-flight conditions, considering turbulent boundary layer excitation. The effect of the porous layer compression is firstly addressed. In aeronautical applications, compression can result from the installation of equipment and cables. It is studied analytically and experimentally, using a single panel and a fibrous uniformly compressed over 100% of its surface. When compression increases, a degradation of the transmission loss up to 5 dB for a 50% compression of the porous thickness is observed mainly in the mid-frequency range (around 800 Hz). However, for realistic cases, the effect should be reduced since the compression rate is lower and compression occurs locally. Then the transmission through structural connections between panels is addressed using a four-pole approach that links the force-velocity pair at each side of the connection. The modelling integrates experimental dynamic stiffness of isolators, derived using an adapted test rig. The structural transmission is then experimentally validated and included in the double-wall SEA model as an equivalent coupling loss factor (CLF) between panels. The tested structures being flat, only axial transmission is addressed. Finally, the dominant sound transmission paths are

  7. Quantifying the statistical importance of utilizing regression over classic energy intensity calculations for tracking efficiency improvements in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [ORNL; Wenning, Thomas J. [ORNL; Guo, Wei [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, manufacturing facilities account for about 32% of total domestic energy consumption in 2014. Robust energy tracking methodologies are critical to understanding energy performance in manufacturing facilities. Due to its simplicity and intuitiveness, the classic energy intensity method (i.e. the ratio of total energy use over total production) is the most widely adopted. However, the classic energy intensity method does not take into account the variation of other relevant parameters (i.e. product type, feed stock type, weather, etc.). Furthermore, the energy intensity method assumes that the facilities’ base energy consumption (energy use at zero production) is zero, which rarely holds true. Therefore, it is commonly recommended to utilize regression models rather than the energy intensity approach for tracking improvements at the facility level. Unfortunately, many energy managers have difficulties understanding why regression models are statistically better than utilizing the classic energy intensity method. While anecdotes and qualitative information may convince some, many have major reservations about the accuracy of regression models and whether it is worth the time and effort to gather data and build quality regression models. This paper will explain why regression models are theoretically and quantitatively more accurate for tracking energy performance improvements. Based on the analysis of data from 114 manufacturing plants over 12 years, this paper will present quantitative results on the importance of utilizing regression models over the energy intensity methodology. This paper will also document scenarios where regression models do not have significant relevance over the energy intensity method.

  8. Damping layout optimization for ship's cabin noise reduction based on statistical energy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Weiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An optimization analysis study concerning the damping control of ship's cabin noise was carried out in order to improve the effect and reduce the weight of damping. Based on the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA method, a theoretical deduction and numerical analysis of the first-order sensitivity analysis of the A-weighted sound pressure level concerning the damping loss factor of the subsystem were carried out. On this basis, a mathematical optimization model was proposed and an optimization program developed. Next, the secondary development of VA One software was implemented through the use of MATLAB, while the cabin noise damping control layout optimization system was established. Finally, the optimization model of the ship was constructed and numerical experiments of damping control optimization conducted. The damping installation region was divided into five parts with different damping thicknesses. The total weight of damping was set as an objective function and the A-weighted sound pressure level of the target cabin was set as a constraint condition. The best damping thickness was obtained through the optimization program, and the total damping weight was reduced by 60.4%. The results show that the damping noise reduction effect of unit weight is significantly improved through the optimization method. This research successfully solves the installation position and thickness selection problems in the acoustic design of damping control, providing a reliable analysis method and guidance for the design.

  9. Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong

    2012-09-01

    How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.

  10. A statistical theory of cell killing by radiation of varying linear energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    A theory is presented that provides an explanation for the observed features of the survival of cultured cells after exposure to densely ionizing high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. It starts from a phenomenological postulate based on the linear-quadratic form of cell survival observed for low-LET radiation and uses principles of statistics and fluctuation theory to demonstrate that the effect of varying LET on cell survival can be attributed to random variation of dose to small volumes contained within the nucleus. A simple relation is presented for surviving fraction of cells after exposure to radiation of varying LET that depends on the α and β parameters for the same cells in the limit of low-LET radiation. This relation implies that the value of β is independent of LET. Agreement of the theory with selected observations of cell survival from the literature is demonstrated. A relation is presented that gives relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as a function of the α and β parameters for low-LET radiation. Measurements from microdosimetry are used to estimate the size of the subnuclear volume to which the fluctuation pertains. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. A hybrid finite element - statistical energy analysis approach to robust sound transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Langley, Robin S.; Dijckmans, Arne; Vermeir, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    When considering the sound transmission through a wall in between two rooms, in an important part of the audio frequency range, the local response of the rooms is highly sensitive to uncertainty in spatial variations in geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which have a wave scattering effect, while the local response of the wall is rather insensitive to such uncertainty. For this mid-frequency range, a computationally efficient modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for this uncertainty. The partitioning wall is modeled deterministically, e.g. with finite elements. The rooms are modeled in a very efficient, nonparametric stochastic way, as in statistical energy analysis. All components are coupled by means of a rigorous power balance. This hybrid strategy is extended so that the mean and variance of the sound transmission loss can be computed as well as the transition frequency that loosely marks the boundary between low- and high-frequency behavior of a vibro-acoustic component. The method is first validated in a simulation study, and then applied for predicting the airborne sound insulation of a series of partition walls of increasing complexity: a thin plastic plate, a wall consisting of gypsum blocks, a thicker masonry wall and a double glazing. It is found that the uncertainty caused by random scattering is important except at very high frequencies, where the modal overlap of the rooms is very high. The results are compared with laboratory measurements, and both are found to agree within the prediction uncertainty in the considered frequency range.

  12. Continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations for randomly distributed spherical fuels based on statistical geometry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Isao [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan); Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Itakura, Hirofumi

    1996-03-01

    The method to calculate neutronics parameters of a core composed of randomly distributed spherical fuels has been developed based on a statistical geometry model with a continuous energy Monte Carlo method. This method was implemented in a general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP, and a new code MCNP-CFP had been developed. This paper describes the model and method how to use it and the validation results. In the Monte Carlo calculation, the location of a spherical fuel is sampled probabilistically along the particle flight path from the spatial probability distribution of spherical fuels, called nearest neighbor distribution (NND). This sampling method was validated through the following two comparisons: (1) Calculations of inventory of coated fuel particles (CFPs) in a fuel compact by both track length estimator and direct evaluation method, and (2) Criticality calculations for ordered packed geometries. This method was also confined by applying to an analysis of the critical assembly experiment at VHTRC. The method established in the present study is quite unique so as to a probabilistic model of the geometry with a great number of spherical fuels distributed randomly. Realizing the speed-up by vector or parallel computations in future, it is expected to be widely used in calculation of a nuclear reactor core, especially HTGR cores. (author).

  13. Order statistics and energy-ordered histograms: an analytical approach to continuum gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego, J.P.; Cristancho, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Fusion-evaporation heavy ion collisions have enable us to explore new regions of phase space E - I, particularly high spin and excitation energy regions, where level densities are so high that modern detectors are unable to resolve individual gamma-ray transitions and consequently the resulting spectrum is continuous and undoubtedly contains a lot of new physics. In spite of that, very few experiments have been designed to extract conclusions about behavior of nuclei in continuum, thus in order to obtain a continuum spectroscopy it is necessary to apply to numerical simulations. In this sense GAMBLE a Monte Carlo based code- is a powerful tool that with some modifications allows us to test a new method to analyze the outcome of experiments focused on the properties of phase space regions in nuclear continuum: The use of Energy-Ordered Spectra (EOS) . Let's suppose that in a experiment is collected all gamma radiation emitted by a specific nucleus in a fixed intrinsic excitation energy range and that the different EOS are constructed. Although it has been shown that comparisons between such EOS and Monte Carlo simulations give information about the level density and the strength function their interpretation is not too clear because the large number of input values needed in a code like GAMBLE. On the other hand, if we could have an analytical description of EOS, the understanding of the underlying physics would be more simple because one could control exactly the involved variables and eventually simulation would be unnecessary. Promissory advances in that direction come from mathematical theory of Order Statistics (OS) In this work it is described the modified code GAMBLE and some simulated EOS for 170 Hf are shown. The simulations are made with different formulations for both level density (Fermi Gas at constant and variable temperature) and gamma strength function (GDR, single particle). Further it is described in detail how OS are employed in the

  14. Energy statistics for one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2008; Energistatistik foer smaahus 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    The survey of energy statistics in 2008 on one- and two-dwelling buildings, including agricultural one- and two-dwelling buildings, is based on a sample of 6 852 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in June 2008. The non-response rate was 39 percent. The presentation provides data on energy use, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor areas for the total population and for various subdivisions. During the last two years the number one- and two-dwelling buildings heated solely by district heating has greatly increased. The total use of district heating has increased by 32 percent. The use of oil for hot water and heating of one- and two dwelling buildings has decreased by 21 percent compared to 2007, and by 75 percent during the last five-year period. Nearly 40 percent of one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated completely or partially with a heat pump. However, the sharp increase in the number of heat pumps during the last five-year period has nearly come to a standstill in the last two years. About 42 percent of all one- and two-dwelling buildings in Sweden are heated by electricity as the only source of heat, including houses that are heated by heat pumps. Combined heating with electricity and biomass fuel is the second most common heating method, followed by heating with solely biomass fuel. 17 100 kWh electricity per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by direct electricity exclusively and 18 800 kWh in one- and two dwelling buildings heated by water-borne electricity exclusively or 130 kWh per square metre of heated surface area (incl. electricity for household purposes). 2.5 cubic metres of oil per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by oil exclusively or 18.7 litres of oil per square metre of heated surface area. 12.7 TWh electricity for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings, including the electricity used in combinations with other types of heating, but excluding electricity for

  15. Energy statistics for one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2007; Energistatistik foer smaahus 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    The survey of energy statistics in 2007 on one- and two-dwelling buildings, including agricultural one- and two-dwelling buildings, is based on a sample of 6,849 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in June 2007. The non-response rate was 37 percent. The presentation provides data on energy use, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor areas for the total population and for various subdivisions. The use of oil for hot water and heating of one- and two-dwelling buildings has decreased by 23 percent compared to 2006, and by 71 percent the last 5 years. The number of air heat pumps increased by 41 per cent compared to 2006 and the total number of heat pumps increased from over 500 000 to over 650 000. More than 45 percent of the one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated by electricity exclusively, including buildings heated by air heat pump. About 20 percent are heated by a combination of bio fuel and electricity and about 3 percent are heated by oil exclusively. 17,200 kWh electricity per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by direct electricity exclusively and 20,300 kWh in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by water-borne electricity exclusively or 132 kWh per square metre of heated surface area (incl. electricity for household purposes). 2.8 cubic metres of oil per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by oil exclusively or 19.9 litres of oil per square metre of heated surface area. 13.5 TWh electricity for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings, including the electricity used in combinations with other types of heating, but excluding electricity for household purposes which is estimated to 10,4 TWh. 258,000 cubic metres of oil (about 2.6 TWh) for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings. This includes mixed heating. 6.6 millions cubic metres of firewood in one- and two-dwelling buildings, 975,000 cubic metres of wood chips and 461,000 tons of pellets. This amount corresponds to 11

  16. New statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Collins, J.J.; Brown, C.D.; Carnes, B.A.; Curtiss, J.B.; Devine, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present research develops new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases of relevance to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies, and uses these to identify, quantify, and pedict adverse health effects of energy related pollutants. Efforts are in five related areas including: (1) evaluation and development of statistical procedures for the analysis of death rate data, disease incidence data, and large scale data sets; (2) development of dose response and demographic models useful in the prediction of the health effects of energy technologies; (3) application of our method and models to analyses of the health risks of energy production; (4) a reanalysis of the Tri-State leukemia survey data, focusing on the relationship between myelogenous leukemia risk and diagnostic x-ray exposure; and (5) investigation of human birth weights as a possible early warning system for the effects of environmental pollution

  17. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  18. ETF Yearbook 2012: Evaluation and Monitoring of Vocational Education and Training Systems and the Role of Evidence-Based Policy in Their Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "ETF Yearbook 2012" continues the tradition of highlighting a thematic field of particular importance to the work of the European Training Foundation (ETF). The theme of this yearbook is evaluation and monitoring of vocational education and training (VET) systems and the role of evidence-based policy in VET reforms in ETF partner…

  19. Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the Spirit of CRA/ALER after 50 Years. The Thirty-First Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.; Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is a milestone year for the Yearbook, the conference, and the College Reading Association (CRA). At this conference, CRA celebrated its 50th year. The title of this thirty-first yearbook mirrors the theme of the 2008 conference--"Mentoring Literacy Professionals for 50 Years." The title "Mentoring Literacy Professionals:…

  20. Number projected statistics and the pairing correlations at high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esebbag, C.; Egido, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze the use of particle-number projected statistics (PNPS) as an effective way to include the quantum and statistical fluctuations, associated with the pairing degree of freedom, left out in finite-temperature mean-field theories. As a numerical application the exact-soluble degenerate model is worked out. In particular, we find that the sharp temperature-induced superfluid-normal phase transition, predicted in the mean-field approximations, is washed out in the PNPS. Some approximations as well as the Landau prescription to include statistical fluctuations are also discussed. We find that the Landau prescription provides a reasonable approximation to the PNPS. (orig.)

  1. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... energy slack ratio. The proposed algorithm is very efficient in both time and space dimensions, and achieves good solutions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over other approaches....

  2. Random Matrix Theory of the Energy-Level Statistics of Disordered Systems at the Anderson Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density $P({\\bf H})= \\exp[-{\\rm Tr}V({\\bf H})]$. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, $V(\\epsilon)\\sim {A\\over 2}\\ln ^2(\\epsilon)$. The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when $A

  3. Statistical analysis for discrimination of prompt gamma ray peak induced by high energy neutron: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-Kun Yoon; Joo-Young Jung; Tae Suk Suh; Seong-Min Han

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is a statistical analysis for discrimination of prompt gamma ray peak induced by the 14.1 MeV neutron particles from spectra using Monte Carlo simulation. For the simulation, the information of 18 detector materials was used to simulate spectra by the neutron capture reaction. The discrimination of nine prompt gamma ray peaks from the simulation of each detector material was performed. We presented the several comparison indexes of energy resolution performance depending on the detector material using the simulation and statistics for the prompt gamma activation analysis. (author)

  4. Implementation of the new statistics approach on final energy consumption of biomass in household sector in three countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos Grabar Robina, Vlatka; Kinderman Lončarević, Alenka

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved way of collection of data on fuelwood consumption in households. • Quality and accuracy of statistical energy balance can be improved. • Accurate energy statistics is necessary for analysis of future energy demand. • Survey results and methods applied are presented for three selected countries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an improved way of collection and compilation of data about solid biomass consumption in households in order to improve accuracy of official energy statistics data. The accurate, timely and reliable energy data significantly contribute to the consistency in national energy statistics, energy balance, as well as for many other obligatory reporting procedures which are requested and prescribed by national and international standards. When compiling energy statistics, statistics on renewables, particularly biomass consumption, it is often the most questionable as little or no available official data exists in the country. According to the international standards and definitions, solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat production or electricity generation. In households, the most commonly used biomass are fuelwood and wood residues. In the process of compiling national energy statistics, national institutions responsible for official energy statistics usually estimate biomass consumption based on the reports on fuelwood cuts in state forests and official biomass production, although it is known that consumption is much higher. Over the past two decades, Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar worked intensively on the energy consumption data collection and particularly on the development of the tailored-made surveying methods for different final energy consumption sectors, particularly for the household sector. The similar methods were recommended to national statistics institutes in the countries in the region when providing technical

  5. Energy statistics of apartment buildings in 2012; Energistatistik foer flerbostadshus 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data regarding energy used for heating and hot water in Swedish apartment buildings (2012) in terms of heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  6. Electrical Energy Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2012 - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year

  7. Turbulence statistics and energy budget in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Clercx, H.J.H.

    The strongly-modified turbulence statistics of Rayleigh–Bénard convection subject to various rotation rates is addressed by numerical investigations. The flow is simulated in a domain with periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions, and confined vertically by parallel no-slip

  8. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; )

    2009-01-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics

  9. Multiphoton ionization as a probe of molecular photofragmentation: statistical and dynamical energy partitioning in the multiphoton dissociation of nitromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockney, B.H.

    1982-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization (MPI) appears in its first use as a probe of laser-induced photofragmentation. Specifically, MPI here reveals the internal and translational energy content of the nascent fragments from the infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of nitromethane (CH 3 NO 2 ). The apparatus for this work consists of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam crossed by two pulsed and focused lasers - a CO 2 laser to induce collision-free unimolecular dissociation of CH 3 NO 2 , and a tunable dye laser following immediately to ionize selectively one of the pair of dissociation fragments for detection by a mass spectrometer and particle multiplier. A computer simulation of each fragment's MPI spectrum, a series of four photon resonances to members of the npsigma/sub u/ Rydberg state of NO 2 and three photon resonances to two vibrational members of the #betta# 1 Rydberg state of CH 3 , aids in determining the fragment's internal energy content. The dye laser is delayed and its focus is traced through a small quarter circle centered at the focus of the CO 2 laser. The flight times of the fragments from the point of dissociation and their laboratory scattering angular distributions at fixed ionizing laser wavelength provide their center of mass recoil velocity distributions. The energy deposited in the fragments evidences a striking mixture of statistical and dynamical energy partitioning. The statistical RRKM theory of unimolecular decomposition accurately predicts the amount of internal energy found in the fragments

  10. Energy dissipation statistics along the Lagrangian trajectories in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping; Wang, Yong-bo; Qiu, Xiang; Xia, Yu-xian; Liu, Yu-lu

    2018-02-01

    Energy dissipation rate is relevant in the turbulent phenomenology theory, such as the classical Kolmogorov 1941 and 1962 refined similarity hypothesis. However, it is extremely difficult to retrieve experimentally or numerically. In this paper, the full energy dissipation, its proxy and the pseudo-energy dissipation rate along the Lagrangian trajectories in the three-dimensional turbulent flows are examined by using a state-of-art high resolution direct numerical simulation database with a Reynolds number Re λ = 400. It is found that the energy dissipation proxy ɛ P is more correlated with the full energy dissipation rate ɛ. The corresponding correlation coefficient ρ between the velocity gradient and e shows a Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, the coarse-grained dissipation rate is considered. The cross correlation ρ is found to be increased with the increasing of the scale τ. Finally, the hierarchical structure is extracted for the full energy dissipation rate, its proxy and the pseudo one. The results show a power-law behavior in the inertial range 10 ≤ τ/ τ η ≤ 100. The experimental scaling exponent of the full energy dissipation rate is found to be h L =0.69, agrees very well with the one found for the Eulerian velocity. The experimental values for ɛ P and ɛ S are around h L = 0.78, implying a more intermittent Lagrangian turbulence. Therefore, the intermittency parameter provided by ɛ P and ɛ S will be biased.

  11. Summary and statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data in the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Katsuhiro; Kitano, Kyoshiro; Sibanuma, Yukio; Takasaki, Koichi; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1998-03-01

    In the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the environmental monitoring has been conducted for about 29 years since April 1968. The results are discussed for evaluation of long-term and short-term fluctuation in the radiological conditions in the Oarai area. This report summarises the data of the environmental monitoring in Oarai, and statistical analyses were made of the data collected from 1985 through 1994. (author)

  12. The ‘39 steps’: an algorithm for performing statistical analysis of data on energy intake and expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemics of obesity and diabetes have aroused great interest in the analysis of energy balance, with the use of organisms ranging from nematode worms to humans. Although generating energy-intake or -expenditure data is relatively straightforward, the most appropriate way to analyse the data has been an issue of contention for many decades. In the last few years, a consensus has been reached regarding the best methods for analysing such data. To facilitate using these best-practice methods, we present here an algorithm that provides a step-by-step guide for analysing energy-intake or -expenditure data. The algorithm can be used to analyse data from either humans or experimental animals, such as small mammals or invertebrates. It can be used in combination with any commercial statistics package; however, to assist with analysis, we have included detailed instructions for performing each step for three popular statistics packages (SPSS, MINITAB and R. We also provide interpretations of the results obtained at each step. We hope that this algorithm will assist in the statistically appropriate analysis of such data, a field in which there has been much confusion and some controversy.

  13. The trend in current and near future energy consumption from a statistical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoshin, Shiro; Nishiyama, Takashi; Ito, Toshihide

    2000-01-01

    Energy consumption has increased remarkably over the past half century mainly due to increasing population and economic development. The influences of these two factors are considered. In most developed countries, such as Japan, France, Germany and Korea, the growth rate of energy consumption is due to economic development. The effects of population in Germany and Japan will substantially decline. In the USA, it is due to both factors as well as in the developing countries, such as China, India, Indonesia and Latin America. Economic success is more effective than increasing population in China, India and Indonesia, while both factors are roughly equal in Latin America. In Africa, though the growth rate depends on the effect of increasing population, its contribution to world energy consumption is small. On a worldwide scale, the growth rate of energy consumption will be affected by improving standards of living. (author)

  14. An Evaluation Framework for Energy Aware Buildings using Statistical Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, DeHui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    properties of this formalisms. A particular kind of cyber-physical systems are Smart Grids which together with Intelligent, Energy Aware Buildings will play a major role in achieving an energy efficient society of the future. In this paper we present a framework in Uppaal-smc for energy aware buildings...... allowing to evaluate the performance of proposed control strategies in terms of their induced comfort and energy profiles under varying environmental settings (e.g. weather, user behaviour, ...). To demonstrate the intended use and usefulness of our framework, we present an application to the Hybrid......Cyber-physical systems are to be found in numerous applications throughout society. The principal barrier to develop trustworthy cyber-physical systems is the lack of expressive modelling and specification for- malisms supported by efficient tools and methodologies. To overcome this barrier, we...

  15. Energy statistics for non-residential premises 2012; Energistatistik foer lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data on a number of non-residential premises, heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  16. A statistical approach to electrical storage sizing with application to the recovery of braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, V.; Pievatolo, A.; Tironi, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of efficient energy use, electrical energy in electric drives plays a fundamental role. High efficiency energy storage systems permit energy recovery, peak shaving and power quality functions. Due to their cost and the importance of system integration, there is a need for a correct design based on technical-economical optimization. In this paper, a method to design a centralized storage system for the recovery of the power regenerated by a number of electric drives is presented. It is assumed that the drives follow deterministic power cycles, but shifted by an uncertain amount. Therefore the recoverable energy and, consequently, the storage size requires the optimization of a random cost function, embedding both the plant total cost and the saving due to the reduced energy consumption during the useful life of the storage. The underlying stochastic model for the power profile of the drives as a whole is built from a general Markov chain framework. A numerical example, based on Monte Carlo simulations, concerns the maximization of the recoverable potential energy of multiple bridge cranes, supplied by a unique grid connection point and a centralized supercapacitor storage system. -- Highlights: ► Recovery of braking power produced by multiple electric drives. ► Temporal power profile modeled through the multinomial distribution and Markov chains. ► Storage sizing via random cost function optimization. ► The search region for the optimization is given explicitly. ► The value of energy recovered during the useful life of the storage outweighs its cost.

  17. Order no 000004/PRN/ME/P/DS from January 21, 2014 provides for the organization and attributions of divisions and departments of the Statistics Directorate of the Ministry of Energy and Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foumakoye, Gado

    2014-01-01

    This order provides for the organization and attributions of divisions and departments of the Statistics Directorate of the Ministry of Energy and Oil. This direction has two divisions namely Division for Energy Statistics and Division for Oil Statistics . Energy Statistics Division includes the following services: Service collection and data analysis for energy statistics and the service of production, dissemination and conservation of energy statics. The division for Oil Statistics includes the Service collection and data analysis for energy statistics and the service of production, dissemination and conservation of energy statistics. [fr

  18. Toward a formalization of the process to select IMIA Yearbook best papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, J-B; Séroussi, B; Griffon, N; Kerdelhué, G; Jaulent, M-C; Bouaud, J

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the International Medical Informatics Association Yearbook recognizes significant scientific papers, labelled as "best papers", published the previous year in the subfields of biomedical informatics that correspond to the different section topics of the journal. For each section, about fifteen pre-selected "candidate" best papers are externally peer-reviewed to select the actual best papers. Although based on the available literature, little is known about the pre-selection process. To move toward an explicit formalization of the candidate best papers selection process to reduce variability in the literature search across sections and over years. A methodological framework is proposed to build for each section topic specific queries tailored to PubMed and Web of Science citation databases. The two sets of returned papers are merged and reviewed by two independent section editors and citations are tagged as "discarded", "pending", and "kept". A protocolized consolidation step is then jointly conducted to resolve conflicts. A bibliographic software tool, BibReview, was developed to support the whole process. The proposed search strategy was fully applied to the Decision Support section of the 2013 edition of the Yearbook. For this section, 1124 references were returned (689 PubMed-specific, 254 WoS-specific, 181 common to both databases) among which the 15 candidate best papers were selected. The search strategy for determining candidate best papers for an IMIA Yearbook's section is now explicitly specified and allows for reproducibility. However, some aspects of the whole process remain reviewer-dependent, mostly because there is no characterization of a "best paper".

  19. Application of the non-extensive statistical approach to high energy particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Gábor; Barnaföldi, Gergely Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Ürmössy, Károly

    2017-06-01

    In high-energy collisions the number of created particles is far less than the thermodynamic limit, especially in small colliding systems (e.g. proton-proton). Therefore final-state effects and fluctuations in the one-particle energy distribution are appreciable. As a consequence the characterization of identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann - Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insuffcient [1]. Instead particle spectra measured in high-energy collisions can be described very well with Tsallis -Pareto distributions, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics [2, 3]. Using the Tsallis q-entropy formula, a generalization of the Boltzmann - Gibbs entropy, we interpret the microscopic physics by analysing the Tsallis q and T parameters. In this paper we give a quick overview on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center-of-mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on the center-of-mass energy and particle species. Our findings are described well by a QCD inspired evolution ansatz. Based on this comprehensive study, apart from the evolution, both mesonic and barionic components found to be non-extensive (q > 1), beside the mass ordered hierarchy observed in parameter T.

  20. Statistical Delay QoS Provisioning for Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Sharing Based Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the statistical delay quality-of-service (QoS provisioning framework for the energy-efficient spectrum-sharing based wireless ad hoc sensor network (WAHSN, which is characterized by the delay-bound violation probability. Based on the established delay QoS provisioning framework, we formulate the nonconvex optimization problem which aims at maximizing the average energy efficiency of the sensor node in the WAHSN while meeting PU’s statistical delay QoS requirement as well as satisfying sensor node’s average transmission rate, average transmitting power, and peak transmitting power constraints. By employing the theories of fractional programming, convex hull, and probabilistic transmission, we convert the original fractional-structured nonconvex problem to the additively structured parametric convex problem and obtain the optimal power allocation strategy under the given parameter via Lagrangian method. Finally, we derive the optimal average energy efficiency and corresponding optimal power allocation scheme by employing the Dinkelbach method. Simulation results show that our derived optimal power allocation strategy can be dynamically adjusted based on PU’s delay QoS requirement as well as the channel conditions. The impact of PU’s delay QoS requirement on sensor node’s energy efficiency is also illustrated.

  1. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  2. Investigating output and energy variations and their relationship to delivery QA results using Statistical Process Control for helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binny, Diana; Mezzenga, Emilio; Lancaster, Craig M; Trapp, Jamie V; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate machine beam parameters using the TomoTherapy quality assurance (TQA) tool, establish a correlation to patient delivery quality assurance results and to evaluate the relationship between energy variations detected using different TQA modules. TQA daily measurement results from two treatment machines for periods of up to 4years were acquired. Analyses of beam quality, helical and static output variations were made. Variations from planned dose were also analysed using Statistical Process Control (SPC) technique and their relationship to output trends were studied. Energy variations appeared to be one of the contributing factors to delivery output dose seen in the analysis. Ion chamber measurements were reliable indicators of energy and output variations and were linear with patient dose verifications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Statistical theory for calculating energy spectra of β-delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Moeller, Peter; Wilson, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical β-delayed neutron spectra are calculated based on the Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Neutron emissions from an excited daughter nucleus after β-decay to the granddaughter residual are more accurately calculated than previous evaluations, including all the microscopic nuclear structure information, such as a Gamow-Teller strength distribution and discrete states in the granddaughter. The calculated delayed-neutron spectra reasonably agree with those evaluations in the ENDF decay library, which are based on experimental data. The model was adopted to generate the delayed-neutron spectra for all 271 precursors. (authors)

  4. Statistical energy as a tool for binning-free, multivariate goodness-of-fit tests, two-sample comparison and unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, B.; Zech, G.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the novel concept of statistical energy as a statistical tool. We define statistical energy of statistical distributions in a similar way as for electric charge distributions. Charges of opposite sign are in a state of minimum energy if they are equally distributed. This property is used to check whether two samples belong to the same parent distribution, to define goodness-of-fit tests and to unfold distributions distorted by measurement. The approach is binning-free and especially powerful in multidimensional applications

  5. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  6. Scalar energy fluctuations in Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent flames: Statistical budgets and mesh quality criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale; Lodato, Guido [CORIA - CNRS and INSA de Rouen, Technopole du Madrillet, BP 8, 76801 Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Veynante, Denis [EM2C - CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-04-15

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) provides space-filtered quantities to compare with measurements, which usually have been obtained using a different filtering operation; hence, numerical and experimental results can be examined side-by-side in a statistical sense only. Instantaneous, space-filtered and statistically time-averaged signals feature different characteristic length-scales, which can be combined in dimensionless ratios. From two canonical manufactured turbulent solutions, a turbulent flame and a passive scalar turbulent mixing layer, the critical values of these ratios under which measured and computed variances (resolved plus sub-grid scale) can be compared without resorting to additional residual terms are first determined. It is shown that actual Direct Numerical Simulation can hardly accommodate a sufficiently large range of length-scales to perform statistical studies of LES filtered reactive scalar-fields energy budget based on sub-grid scale variances; an estimation of the minimum Reynolds number allowing for such DNS studies is given. From these developments, a reliability mesh criterion emerges for scalar LES and scaling for scalar sub-grid scale energy is discussed. (author)

  7. Statistical Analysis of Power Production from OWC Type Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    Oscillating Water Column based wave energy plants built so far have experienced a low efficiency in the conversion of the bidirectional oscillating flow. A new concept is considered here, the LeanCon Wave Energy Converter (WEC), that unifies the flow direction by use of non-return valves...... (wave period, wave height). Average performance and stochastic variability is thus obtained for any sea state and therefore also for the annual wave climate of interest. An example application of a LeanCon unit is carried out for a location off-shore Cagliari (Italy). Conclusions provide economic......, into a unidirectional flow, making the use of more efficient air turbines possible. Hereby, a more steady flow is also obtained. The general objective of this note is to examine, the power take off (PTO) efficiency under irregular wave conditions, for WECs with flow redirection. Final practical aim is to identify...

  8. Is the primary energy spectrum around the knee a statistical game?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present state of research of the shape of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic ray nuclei and the chemical composition in the region of the so-called, knee, and beyond is highly unsatisfactory. It was not very successful when using extensive air showers. In the present paper an attempt is made to explain what is the cause of such a situation. The experimental results as to which there is no doubt that they were wrongly interpreted, will be indicated

  9. Energy statistics for multi-dwelling buildings in 2008; Energistatistik foer flerbostadshus 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    82 percent of the total heated area in multi-dwelling buildings in 2008 was heated by district heating. District heating was also used in combination with other types of heating to heat another 3 percent of the area. The percentage of area that is only heated by oil is approximately 1 percent, a slight decrease compared to 2007. Oil is also used in combination with other types of heating for approximately 1 percent of the area. The use of heating oil has decreased from 75 000 m3 in 2007 to 51 000 m3 in 2008. Natural gas and gasworks' gas consumption has decreased compared to 2007. The total water consumption was 278 millions m3. The average use was 1 698 litres per m2. Average usage of energy in 2008: 17.7 litres or (176.1 kWh) of oil per for multi-dwelling buildings in 2008, 148 kWh district heating per m2, 123 kWh electricity per m2 Total usage of energy in 2008 25.7 TWh was the total consumption of energy for heating and hot water in multi dwelling buildings in 2008

  10. Changing Perspectives on Research in Reading/Language Processing and Instruction. Thirty-Third Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Jerome A., Ed.; Harris, Larry A., Ed.

    Reflecting current themes that researchers, by their selective attention, have indicated are important in the field of reading/language processing and instruction, this yearbook presents a collection of 51 selected research articles from the National Reading Conference for 1983. Included are the following articles, listed with their authors: (1)…

  11. The statistical prediction of offshore winds from land-based data for wind-energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, J.L.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Burrows, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Land-based meteorological measurements at two locations on the Danish coast are used to predict offshore wind speeds. Offshore wind-speed data are used only for developing the statistical prediction algorithms and for verification. As a first step, the two datasets were separated into nine...... percentile-based bins, with a minimum of 30 data records in each bin. Next, the records were randomly selected with approximately 70% of the data in each bin being used as a training set for development of the prediction algorithms, and the remaining 30% being reserved as a test set for evaluation purposes....... The binning procedure ensured that both training and test sets fairly represented the overall data distribution. To base the conclusions on firmer ground, five permutations of these training and test sets were created. Thus, all calculations were based on five cases, each one representing a different random...

  12. Exact results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: Formalism and applications in chemical kinetics and single-molecule free energy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    In the last two decades or so, a collection of results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics that departs from the traditional near-equilibrium framework introduced by Lars Onsager in 1931 has been derived, yielding new fundamental insights into far-from-equilibrium processes in general. Apart from offering a more quantitative statement of the second law of thermodynamics, some of these results---typified by the so-called "Jarzynski equality"---have also offered novel means of estimating equilibrium quantities from nonequilibrium processes, such as free energy differences from single-molecule "pulling" experiments. This thesis contributes to such efforts by offering three novel results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: (a) The entropic analog of the Jarzynski equality; (b) A methodology for estimating free energies from "clamp-and-release" nonequilibrium processes; and (c) A directly measurable symmetry relation in chemical kinetics similar to (but more general than) chemical detailed balance. These results share in common the feature of remaining valid outside Onsager's near-equilibrium regime, and bear direct applicability in protein folding kinetics as well as in single-molecule free energy estimation.

  13. Statistical mechanical estimation of the free energy of formation of E. coli biomass for use with macroscopic bioreactor balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosz, R; Stephanopoulos, G

    1983-09-01

    The need for the determination of the free energy of formation of biomass in bioreactor second law balances is well established. A statistical mechanical method for the calculation of the free energy of formation of E. coli biomass is introduced. In this method, biomass is modelled to consist of a system of biopolymer networks. The partition function of this system is proposed to consist of acoustic and optical modes of vibration. Acoustic modes are described by Tarasov's model, the parameters of which are evaluated with the aid of low-temperature calorimetric data for the crystalline protein bovine chymotrypsinogen A. The optical modes are described by considering the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of biological monomer crystals such as amino acid crystals. Upper and lower bounds are placed on the entropy to establish the maximum error associated with the statistical method. The upper bound is determined by endowing the monomers in biomass with ideal gas properties. The lower bound is obtained by limiting the monomers to complete immobility. On this basis, the free energy of formation is fixed to within 10%. Proposals are made with regard to experimental verification of the calculated value and extension of the calculation to other types of biomass.

  14. Humanism and technology. Yearbook 1982. Humanismus und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.U.

    1982-01-01

    The present situation of primary energy in the WOCC-countries (world outside communist countries) and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany gives cause to anticipate that coal, in addition to nuclear energy, will gain increasingly more importance as a substitutional energy for petroleum and natural gas in medium-term, i.e. by the year 2000. Furthermore, coal will be the bridge between the present which is characterised mainly by fossil primary energies and the future which is likely to be based on nuclear energy, solar energy and hydrogen. The article deals with the question of whether coal is able to play this role of a substitutional and bridging energy. Is is shown that this seems to be possible as far as the natural resources and reserves and todays mining and transport technologies and the present situation of the world coal market are concerned. Thinking of the necessity of the enormous expansion of the world coal economy and the strong environmental pollution connected with it (bigger area needed, dust emmission, CO/sub 2/-problem) it seems doubtful if this is really desirable from the economical-ecological point-of-view and if it can be enforced politically.

  15. Statistical Multiplexing of Computations in C-RAN with Tradeoffs in Latency and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalør, Anders Ellersgaard; Agurto Agurto, Mauricio Ignacio; Pratas, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    frame duration, then this may result in additional access latency and limit the energy savings. In this paper we investigate the tradeoff by considering two extreme time-scales for the resource multiplexing: (i) long-term, where the computational resources are adapted over periods much larger than...... the access frame durations; (ii) short-term, where the adaption is below the access frame duration.We develop a general C-RAN queuing model that models the access latency and show, for Poisson arrivals, that long-term multiplexing achieves savings comparable to short-term multiplexing, while offering low...

  16. Statistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, S.; Imparato, A.; Naert, A.

    2013-01-01

    Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. We measure the heat flowing between the two reservoirs and the thermodynamic work done by one part of the system on the other. We show that these quantities exhibit a long-time fluctuation theorem. Furthermore, we evaluate...... the fluctuating entropy, which satisfies a conservation law. These experimental results are fully justified by the theoretical analysis. Our results give more insight into the energy transfer in the famous Feynman ratchet, widely studied theoretically but never in an experiment....

  17. Statistical techniques for modeling extreme price dynamics in the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbugua, L N; Mwita, P N

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events have large impact throughout the span of engineering, science and economics. This is because extreme events often lead to failure and losses due to the nature unobservable of extra ordinary occurrences. In this context this paper focuses on appropriate statistical methods relating to a combination of quantile regression approach and extreme value theory to model the excesses. This plays a vital role in risk management. Locally, nonparametric quantile regression is used, a method that is flexible and best suited when one knows little about the functional forms of the object being estimated. The conditions are derived in order to estimate the extreme value distribution function. The threshold model of extreme values is used to circumvent the lack of adequate observation problem at the tail of the distribution function. The application of a selection of these techniques is demonstrated on the volatile fuel market. The results indicate that the method used can extract maximum possible reliable information from the data. The key attraction of this method is that it offers a set of ready made approaches to the most difficult problem of risk modeling.

  18. China Dimensions Data Collection: China County-Level Data from Provincial Economic Yearbooks, Keyed to 1:1M GIS Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China County-Level Data on Provincial Economic Yearbooks, Keyed To 1:1M GIS Map consists of socioeconomic and boundary data for the administrative regions of China...

  19. Systematic Analysis of the Non-Extensive Statistical Approach in High Energy Particle Collisions—Experiment vs. Theory †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bíró

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of high-energy particle collisions is an excellent testbed for the non-extensive statistical approach. In these reactions we are far from the thermodynamical limit. In small colliding systems, such as electron-positron or nuclear collisions, the number of particles is several orders of magnitude smaller than the Avogadro number; therefore, finite-size and fluctuation effects strongly influence the final-state one-particle energy distributions. Due to the simple characterization, the description of the identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann–Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insufficient. These spectra can be described very well with Tsallis–Pareto distributions instead, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics. Using the q-entropy formula, we interpret the microscopic physics in terms of the Tsallis q and T parameters. In this paper we give a view on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center-of-mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on the center-of-mass energy and particle species (mass. Our findings are described well by a QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics inspired parton evolution ansatz. Based on this comprehensive study, apart from the evolution, both mesonic and baryonic components found to be non-extensive ( q > 1 , besides the mass ordered hierarchy observed in the parameter T. We also study and compare in details the theory-obtained parameters for the case of PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo Generator, perturbative QCD and quark coalescence models.

  20. Statistical homogeneity tests applied to large data sets from high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusina, J.; Franc, J.; Kůs, V.

    2017-12-01

    Homogeneity tests are used in high energy physics for the verification of simulated Monte Carlo samples, it means if they have the same distribution as a measured data from particle detector. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, χ 2, and Anderson-Darling tests are the most used techniques to assess the samples’ homogeneity. Since MC generators produce plenty of entries from different models, each entry has to be re-weighted to obtain the same sample size as the measured data has. One way of the homogeneity testing is through the binning. If we do not want to lose any information, we can apply generalized tests based on weighted empirical distribution functions. In this paper, we propose such generalized weighted homogeneity tests and introduce some of their asymptotic properties. We present the results based on numerical analysis which focuses on estimations of the type-I error and power of the test. Finally, we present application of our homogeneity tests to data from the experiment DØ in Fermilab.

  1. Box-Behnken statistical design to optimize thermal performance of energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Iman Joz; Mohammadiun, Mohammad; Moqadam, Hamid Hashemi; Mohammadiun, Hamid

    2018-05-01

    Latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) is a technology that can help to reduce energy consumption for cooling applications, where the cold is stored in phase change materials (PCMs). In the present study a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is performed on a LHTES system containing RT25 as phase change material (PCM). Process optimization of the experimental conditions (inlet air temperature and velocity and number of slabs) was carried out by means of Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response surface methodology (RSM). Two parameters (cooling time and COP value) were chosen to be the responses. Both of the responses were significantly influenced by combined effect of inlet air temperature with velocity and number of slabs. Simultaneous optimization was performed on the basis of the desirability function to determine the optimal conditions for the cooling time and COP value. Maximum cooling time (186 min) and COP value (6.04) were found at optimum process conditions i.e. inlet temperature of (32.5), air velocity of (1.98) and slab number of (7).

  2. Box-Behnken statistical design to optimize thermal performance of energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Iman Joz; Mohammadiun, Mohammad; Moqadam, Hamid Hashemi; Mohammadiun, Hamid

    2017-11-01

    Latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) is a technology that can help to reduce energy consumption for cooling applications, where the cold is stored in phase change materials (PCMs). In the present study a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is performed on a LHTES system containing RT25 as phase change material (PCM). Process optimization of the experimental conditions (inlet air temperature and velocity and number of slabs) was carried out by means of Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response surface methodology (RSM). Two parameters (cooling time and COP value) were chosen to be the responses. Both of the responses were significantly influenced by combined effect of inlet air temperature with velocity and number of slabs. Simultaneous optimization was performed on the basis of the desirability function to determine the optimal conditions for the cooling time and COP value. Maximum cooling time (186 min) and COP value (6.04) were found at optimum process conditions i.e. inlet temperature of (32.5), air velocity of (1.98) and slab number of (7).

  3. Yearbook of the brickworking industry 1983. Ziegeleitechnisches Jahrbuch 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H A

    1983-01-01

    Various authors discuss the following subjects: 1. Masonry mortar for face stone walls; 2. masonry mortar; 3. contributions by producers of ready-made mortar; 4. requirements made by the new Thermal Insulation Ordinance; 5. consequences of DIN 105 for brick production; 6. simple test methods for production control; 7. statistical methods for evaluation and analysis of test results obtained during in-house and external control of brick products; 8. findings of research work of the Institut fuer Ziegelforschung Essen e.V.; 9. clay ceramics in the unbaked state.

  4. Workshop on energy data of developing countries. Volume II. Basic energy statistics and energy balances of developing countries, 1967 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Extensive data on energy sources and balances are presented for Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, and Venezuela. Domestic consumption, final consumption, and energy end uses by the various sectors of consumer transactions are indicated. Data are compiled on imports and exports, production, and flows of fuels (processes to provide another energy commodity).

  5. Statistical Analysis and ETAS Modeling of Seismicity Induced by Production of Geothermal Energy from Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinske, C.; Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate seismicity related to hydrothermal systems in Germany and Italy, focussing on temporal changes of seismicity rates. Our analysis was motivated by numerical simulations The modeling of stress changes caused by the injection and production of fluid revealed that seismicity rates decrease on a long-term perspective which is not observed in the considered case studies. We analyze the waiting time distributions of the seismic events in both time domain (inter event times) and fluid volume domain (inter event volume). We find clear indications that the observed seismicity comprises two components: (1) seismicity that is directly triggered by production and re-injection of fluid, i.e. induced events, and (2) seismicity that is triggered by earthquake interactions, i.e. aftershock triggering. In order to better constrain our numerical simulations using the observed induced seismicity we apply catalog declustering to seperate the two components. We use the magnitude-dependent space-time windowing approach introduced by Gardner and Knopoff (1974) and test several published algorithms to calculate the space-time windows. After declustering, we conclude that the different hydrothermal reservoirs show a comparable seismic response to the circulation of fluid and additional triggering by earthquake interactions. The declustered catalogs contain approximately 50 per cent of the number of events in the original catalogs. We then perform ETAS (Epidemic Type Aftershock; Ogata, 1986, 1988) modeling for two reasons. First, we want to know whether the different reservoirs are also comparable regarding earthquake interaction patterns. Second, if we identify systematic patterns, ETAS modeling can contribute to forecast seismicity during production of geothermal energy. We find that stationary ETAS models cannot accurately capture real seismicity rate changes. One reason for this finding is given by the rate of observed induced events which is not constant over time. Hence

  6. Yearbook sectoral financial ratios in mexico for business benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Bernal Domínguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial analysis through ratios is a useful tool for improving organizational performance. Databases of financial information in Mexico are limited, therefore the importance of an annual publication of financial ratios per company and industry average. The objectives of this research are: describe the financial ratios with higher predictive potential and their formulas, as well as the design of a research instrument for measuring the relevance of the publication. A descriptive methodology was applied selecting through the analysis ofempirical studies, several ratios of liquidity, leverage, asset management, business cycle, performance and self-financing. The questionnaire contains 43 reagents to be applied to a statistically representative sample of 46 entrepreneurs in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.

  7. A statistical investigation of wind characteristics and wind energy potential based on the Weibull and Rayleigh models in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Bonfils; Gasore, Jimmy [Department of Physics, National University of Rwanda, P.O. Box 117, Huye, South Province (Rwanda)

    2010-12-15

    A wind energy system converts the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical uses and transform the economy of rural areas where access to water and electricity is very restricted and industry is almost nonexistent in most of the developing countries like Rwanda. Assessing wind power potential for a location is an imperative requirement before making a decision for the installation of windmills or a wind electric generator and evaluating plans for relating projects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of wind resource in Rwanda and to constitute a database for the users of the wind power. A time series of hourly daily measured wind speed and wind direction for the period between 1974 and 1993 on five main Rwandan meteorological stations was provided by the National Meteorology Department. Statistical methods applying Weibull and Rayleigh distribution were presented to evaluate the wind speed characteristics and the wind power potential at a height of 10 m above ground level using hourly monthly average data. Those characteristics were extrapolated for higher levels in altitude. The results give a global picture of the distribution of the wind potential in different locations of Rwanda. (author)

  8. Development and application of a statistical methodology to evaluate the predictive accuracy of building energy baseline models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area Div.; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area Div.

    2014-03-01

    This paper documents the development and application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-­building energy savings. The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline 14 and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the model to predict total electricity consumption during a subsequent ``prediction period.’’ We illustrate the methodology by evaluating five baseline models using data from 29 buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption were compared to meter data to determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  9. Historical-statistical analysis of energy consumption in energy management; Analisis historico-estadistico del consumo energetico en la administracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar Bejarano, Ruben [IMENOR (Mexico); Oven, Mark [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Washington (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Traditionally the specific consumption of energy has been considered as the most adequate index to evaluate the efficiencies in the productive processes. Nevertheless, this index, in some instances is highly susceptible to suffer significant variations, due to factors such as equipment condition, raw materials quality, operational parameters, climate and production level. This last one definitely is the most important and requires a deeper analysis. In this presentation a methodology is developed to analyze the energy consumption as well as their specific energy consumption with respect to production. Enough historical data are utilized to allow for a statistical analysis. This study is of equal usefulness in an energy diagnosis, as in a management program of energy saving. In presenting the possibility of identifying potential energy saving, stands out the advantages of the analysis and the conclusions that can be derived from it. Through the actual data collected in several industries during the energy diagnosis, various possible results of the analysis are presented. Finally, how this type of analysis can be adapted to a more precise control of the energy consumption is described and be used as a base for establishing goals in energy efficiency in the long term. [Espanol] Tradicionalmente se ha considerado al consumo especifico de energia como el indice energetico mas adecuado para evaluar las eficiencias de los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, este indice es en ocasiones altamente susceptible a sufrir variaciones importantes, debido a factores como el estado de los equipos, la calidad de la materia prima, los parametros operativos, el clima, y el nivel de produccion. Este ultimo es decididamente el mas importante, y requiere un analisis mas profundo. En esta presentacion se desarrolla una metodologia para analizar tanto consumos de energia como consumos especificos de energia con respecto a la produccion. Se utilizan suficientes datos historicos para permitir

  10. Historical-statistical analysis of energy consumption in energy management; Analisis historico-estadistico del consumo energetico en la administracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar Bejarano, Ruben [IMENOR (Mexico); Oven, Mark [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Washington (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Traditionally the specific consumption of energy has been considered as the most adequate index to evaluate the efficiencies in the productive processes. Nevertheless, this index, in some instances is highly susceptible to suffer significant variations, due to factors such as equipment condition, raw materials quality, operational parameters, climate and production level. This last one definitely is the most important and requires a deeper analysis. In this presentation a methodology is developed to analyze the energy consumption as well as their specific energy consumption with respect to production. Enough historical data are utilized to allow for a statistical analysis. This study is of equal usefulness in an energy diagnosis, as in a management program of energy saving. In presenting the possibility of identifying potential energy saving, stands out the advantages of the analysis and the conclusions that can be derived from it. Through the actual data collected in several industries during the energy diagnosis, various possible results of the analysis are presented. Finally, how this type of analysis can be adapted to a more precise control of the energy consumption is described and be used as a base for establishing goals in energy efficiency in the long term. [Espanol] Tradicionalmente se ha considerado al consumo especifico de energia como el indice energetico mas adecuado para evaluar las eficiencias de los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, este indice es en ocasiones altamente susceptible a sufrir variaciones importantes, debido a factores como el estado de los equipos, la calidad de la materia prima, los parametros operativos, el clima, y el nivel de produccion. Este ultimo es decididamente el mas importante, y requiere un analisis mas profundo. En esta presentacion se desarrolla una metodologia para analizar tanto consumos de energia como consumos especificos de energia con respecto a la produccion. Se utilizan suficientes datos historicos para permitir

  11. Statistical analysis of the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance of the High Energy Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yi, E-mail: jiaoyi@ihep.ac.cn; Duan, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.

  12. Conformational energy calculations on polypeptides and proteins: use of a statistical mechanical procedure for evaluating structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheraga, H A; Paine, G H

    1986-01-01

    We are using a variety of theoretical and computational techniques to study protein structure, protein folding, and higher-order structures. Our earlier work involved treatments of liquid water and aqueous solutions of nonpolar and polar solutes, computations of the stabilities of the fundamental structures of proteins and their packing arrangements, conformations of small cyclic and open-chain peptides, structures of fibrous proteins (collagen), structures of homologous globular proteins, introduction of special procedures as constraints during energy minimization of globular proteins, and structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. Recently, we presented a new methodology for predicting polypeptide structure (described here); the method is based on the calculation of the probable and average conformation of a polypeptide chain by the application of equilibrium statistical mechanics in conjunction with an adaptive, importance sampling Monte Carlo algorithm. As a test, it was applied to Met-enkephalin.

  13. Prediction of interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation using statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of predicting interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation was investigated in experiments in which a statistical energy analysis model (VAPEPS) was used to analyze measurements of the acceleration response and sound transmission of flat aluminum, lucite, and graphite/epoxy plates exposed to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation. The noise reduction of the plate, when backed by a shallow cavity and excited by a turbulent boundary layer, was predicted using a simplified theory based on the assumption of adiabatic compression of the fluid in the cavity. The predicted plate acceleration response was used as input in the noise reduction prediction. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the measured noise reduction in the frequency range 315-1000 Hz.

  14. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  15. Dual Energy CT (DECT) Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR) in Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Xinlian; He, Wen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR) on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT) imaging. DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN) (standard deviation, SD) of portal vein (PV), the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR), and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA) were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups. The IN (in HU) of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90) decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73) increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively), and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (pASIR percentages (pASIR (pASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  16. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1995-05-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  18. Investigating the collision energy dependence of η /s in the beam energy scan at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Jussi; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.; Karpenko, Iurii

    2018-04-01

    We determine the probability distributions of the shear viscosity over the entropy density ratio η /s in the quark-gluon plasma formed in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=19.6 ,39 , and 62.4 GeV , using Bayesian inference and Gaussian process emulators for a model-to-data statistical analysis that probes the full input parameter space of a transport + viscous hydrodynamics hybrid model. We find the most likely value of η /s to be larger at smaller √{sN N}, although the uncertainties still allow for a constant value between 0.10 and 0.15 for the investigated collision energy range.

  19. A Correlated Study of the Response of a Satellite to Acoustic Radiation Using Statistical Energy Analysis and Acoustic Test Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAP, JEROME S.; TRACEY, BRIAN

    1999-01-01

    Aerospace payloads, such as satellites, are subjected to vibroacoustic excitation during launch. Sandia's MTI satellite has recently been certified to this environment using a combination of base input random vibration and reverberant acoustic noise. The initial choices for the acoustic and random vibration test specifications were obtained from the launch vehicle Interface Control Document (ICD). In order to tailor the random vibration levels for the laboratory certification testing, it was necessary to determine whether vibration energy was flowing across the launch vehicle interface from the satellite to the launch vehicle or the other direction. For frequencies below 120 Hz this issue was addressed using response limiting techniques based on results from the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). However, since the CLA Finite Element Analysis FEA model was only correlated for frequencies below 120 Hz, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was considered to be a better choice for predicting the direction of the energy flow for frequencies above 120 Hz. The existing SEA model of the launch vehicle had been developed using the VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) computer code[1]. Therefore, the satellite would have to be modeled using VAPEPS as well. As is the case for any computational model, the confidence in its predictive capability increases if one can correlate a sample prediction against experimental data. Fortunately, Sandia had the ideal data set for correlating an SEA model of the MTI satellite--the measured response of a realistic assembly to a reverberant acoustic test that was performed during MTI's qualification test series. The first part of this paper will briefly describe the VAPEPS modeling effort and present the results of the correlation study for the VAPEPS model. The second part of this paper will present the results from a study that used a commercial SEA software package[2] to study the effects of in-plane modes and to evaluate

  20. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant

  1. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant Physics

  2. Fusion Yearbook. 2008 Annual report Association Euratom-Tekes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nora, M.; Karttunen, S.

    2009-05-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2008. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and new EFDA. A few EFDA Technology Tasks and Contracts were still running in 2008 and are now completed. New R and D Grant work on remote handling for ITER launched by the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' started in 2008. The Physics Programme is carried out at VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and University of Helsinki (UH). The research areas of the Physics Programme are: (i) Heat and particle transport, MHD physics and plasma edge phenomena, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated actively in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2008 and exploitation of JET facilities in experimental campaigns C20-C25. Three persons were seconded to the UKAEA operating team, two physicists in codes and modelling and one engineer in remote handling. One person was a Task Force Leader in TF T (transport). One engineer from VTT was seconded to the ITER IO at Cadarache in 2008 (Assembly). Practically all physics activities of the Research Unit are carried out in co-operation with other Associations with the focus on EFDA JET work. In addition to EFDA JET activities, the Tekes Association participated in the 2008 experimental programme of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Several staff mobility visits of total 530 days took place in 2008. The Technology work is carried out at VTT, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The technology research and development is focused on the remote handling, vessel/in-vessel materials and components plus some activities in

  3. Dual Energy CT (DECT Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR in Portal Venography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Zhao

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT imaging.DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN (standard deviation, SD of portal vein (PV, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR, and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups.The IN (in HU of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90 decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73 increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (p<0.05. The subjective scores showed that the sharpness of portal vein boundaries (3.13±0.59, 2.82±0.44, 2.73±0.54 and 2.07±0.54 decreased with higher ASIR percentages (p<0.05. The subjective diagnostic acceptability was highest at 30% ASIR (p<0.05.30% ASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  4. Application of Ontology Technology in Health Statistic Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minjiang; Hu, Hongpu; Lei, Xingyun

    2017-01-01

    Research Purpose: establish health management ontology for analysis of health statistic data. Proposed Methods: this paper established health management ontology based on the analysis of the concepts in China Health Statistics Yearbook, and used protégé to define the syntactic and semantic structure of health statistical data. six classes of top-level ontology concepts and their subclasses had been extracted and the object properties and data properties were defined to establish the construction of these classes. By ontology instantiation, we can integrate multi-source heterogeneous data and enable administrators to have an overall understanding and analysis of the health statistic data. ontology technology provides a comprehensive and unified information integration structure of the health management domain and lays a foundation for the efficient analysis of multi-source and heterogeneous health system management data and enhancement of the management efficiency.

  5. Walking performance: correlation between energy cost of walking and walking participation. new statistical approach concerning outcome measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Franceschini

    Full Text Available Walking ability, though important for quality of life and participation in social and economic activities, can be adversely affected by neurological disorders, such as Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis or Traumatic Brain Injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the energy cost of walking (CW, in a mixed group of chronic patients with neurological diseases almost 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation wards, can predict the walking performance and any walking restriction on community activities, as indicated by Walking Handicap Scale categories (WHS. One hundred and seven subjects were included in the study, 31 suffering from Stroke, 26 from Spinal Cord Injury and 50 from Multiple Sclerosis. The multivariable binary logistical regression analysis has produced a statistical model with good characteristics of fit and good predictability. This model generated a cut-off value of.40, which enabled us to classify correctly the cases with a percentage of 85.0%. Our research reveal that, in our subjects, CW is the only predictor of the walking performance of in the community, to be compared with the score of WHS. We have been also identifying a cut-off value of CW cost, which makes a distinction between those who can walk in the community and those who cannot do it. In particular, these values could be used to predict the ability to walk in the community when discharged from the rehabilitation units, and to adjust the rehabilitative treatment to improve the performance.

  6. Energy spectrum of flares of the UV Cet stars and physical measunings of several statistical characteristics of these stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershberg, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Accounting the observed power character of the energy spectrum of flares of the UV Cet-type stars, several statistical characterisitics of there stars are considered. It is shown that a mean amplitude of flares is mainly determined with an amplitude of the faintest flare that can be registered at the star under consideration and therefore - contrary to tradition - the mean flare amplitude cannot be used as a measure of a flare activity of the star. Mean frequencuy of flares registered at a flare star dependes statisticaally certainly ona an absolute magneitude of the star - contary to wide spread belief, true mean frequencies are higher at brighter stars. On the basis of the Cataloque of flare stars in Pleiades by Haro, Chavira and Gonzalez a luminosity function of therese stars is constructed. Using this function and the revealed dependence of flare mean frequencies on stellar absolute magnitudes, a distribution of flare stars in Pleiades along flare mean frequencies is constructed. This shows that the cluster contains flare stars with mean frequencies of photographically registered flares from 10 -4 to 10 -2 hour -1 or within even narrower interval of frequencies and the total number of such stars in the cluster exceeds 1100

  7. Energy Level Statistics of SO(5) Limit of Super-symmetry U(6/4) in Interacting Boson-Fermion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongbo; Zhang Jinfu; Zhou Xianrong

    2005-01-01

    We study the energy level statistics of the SO(5) limit of super-symmetry U(6/4) in odd-A nucleus using the interacting boson-fermion model. The nearest neighbor spacing distribution (NSD) and the spectral rigidity (Δ 3 ) are investigated, and the factors that affect the properties of level statistics are also discussed. The results show that the boson number N is a dominant factor. If N is small, both the interaction strengths of subgroups SO B (5) and SO BF (5) and the spin play important roles in the energy level statistics, however, along with the increase of N, the statistics distribution would tend to be in Poisson form.

  8. A statistical adjustment approach for climate projections of snow conditions in mountain regions using energy balance land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Projections of future climate change have been increasingly called for lately, as the reality of climate change has been gradually accepted and societies and governments have started to plan upcoming mitigation and adaptation policies. In mountain regions such as the Alps or the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenue, particular attention is brought to current and future snow availability. The question of the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as avalanches and debris-flows is also under consideration. In order to generate projections of snow conditions, however, downscaling global climate models (GCMs) by using regional climate models (RCMs) is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. In particular, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Simulations from GCMs and RCMs moreover suffer from biases compared to local observations, due to their rather coarse spatial and altitudinal resolution, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted using empirical-statistical downscaling and error correction methods, before they can be used to drive specific models such as energy balance land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees and the French Alps for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. We first introduce a thorough evaluation of the method using using model runs from the ALADIN RCM driven by a global reanalysis over the

  9. Energy-density field approach for low- and medium-frequency vibroacoustic analysis of complex structures using a statistical computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M.; Soize, C.; Gagliardini, L.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, an energy-density field approach applied to the vibroacoustic analysis of complex industrial structures in the low- and medium-frequency ranges is presented. This approach uses a statistical computational model. The analyzed system consists of an automotive vehicle structure coupled with its internal acoustic cavity. The objective of this paper is to make use of the statistical properties of the frequency response functions of the vibroacoustic system observed from previous experimental and numerical work. The frequency response functions are expressed in terms of a dimensionless matrix which is estimated using the proposed energy approach. Using this dimensionless matrix, a simplified vibroacoustic model is proposed.

  10. Energy efficient electrocoagulation using a new flow column reactor to remove nitrate from drinking water - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-07-01

    In this investigation, a new bench-scale electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) has been applied for drinking water denitrification. FCER utilises the concepts of flow column to mix and aerate the water. The water being treated flows through the perforated aluminium disks electrodes, thereby efficiently mixing and aerating the water. As a result, FCER reduces the need for external stirring and aerating devices, which until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors. Therefore, FCER could be a promising cost-effective alternative to the traditional lab-scale EC reactors. A comprehensive study has been commenced to investigate the performance of the new reactor. This includes the application of FCER to remove nitrate from drinking water. Estimation of the produced amount of H 2 gas and the yieldable energy from it, an estimation of its preliminary operating cost, and a SEM (scanning electron microscope) investigation of the influence of the EC process on the morphology of the surface of electrodes. Additionally, an empirical model was developed to reproduce the nitrate removal performance of the FCER. The results obtained indicated that the FCER reduced the nitrate concentration from 100 to 15 mg/L (World Health Organization limitations for infants) after 55 min of electrolysing at initial pH of 7, GBE of 5 mm, CD of 2 mA/cm 2 , and at operating cost of 0.455 US $/m 3 . Additionally, it was found that FCER emits H 2 gas enough to generate a power of 1.36 kW/m 3 . Statistically, the relationship between the operating parameters and nitrate removal could be modelled with R 2 of 0.848. The obtained SEM images showed a large number dents on anode's surface due to the production of aluminium hydroxides. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. a Statistical Analysis on the System Performance of a Bluetooth Low Energy Indoor Positioning System in a 3d Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagmans, G. G.; Verhagen, S.; Voûte, R. L.; Verbree, E.

    2017-09-01

    Since GPS tends to fail for indoor positioning purposes, alternative methods like indoor positioning systems (IPS) based on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) are developing rapidly. Generally, IPS are deployed in environments covered with obstacles such as furniture, walls, people and electronics influencing the signal propagation. The major factor influencing the system performance and to acquire optimal positioning results is the geometry of the beacons. The geometry of the beacons is limited to the available infrastructure that can be deployed (number of beacons, basestations and tags), which leads to the following challenge: Given a limited number of beacons, where should they be placed in a specified indoor environment, such that the geometry contributes to optimal positioning results? This paper aims to propose a statistical model that is able to select the optimal configuration that satisfies the user requirements in terms of precision. The model requires the definition of a chosen 3D space (in our case 7 × 10 × 6 meter), number of beacons, possible user tag locations and a performance threshold (e.g. required precision). For any given set of beacon and receiver locations, the precision, internal- and external reliability can be determined on forehand. As validation, the modeled precision has been compared with observed precision results. The measurements have been performed with an IPS of BlooLoc at a chosen set of user tag locations for a given geometric configuration. Eventually, the model is able to select the optimal geometric configuration out of millions of possible configurations based on a performance threshold (e.g. required precision).

  12. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  13. Writers' & artists' yearbook 2014 the essential guide to the media and publishing industries

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The annual edition of the best-selling guide to all aspects of the media and how to write and get published, the Writers' & Artists' Yearbook is now in its 107th edition. Acknowledged by the publishing industry, authors and would-be writers as the indispensable companion to navigating the world of publishing, it appears for the first time as an e-book and in print. The 80 articles are reviewed and updated each year to provide inspirational and how-to guidance on writing for newspapers, magazines, scripts for film, radio and TV; advice on writing and submitting plays, poetry, non-fiction and fiction of all genres - from fantasy to thrillers to romance; how to contact publishers and agents; managing finances as a writer; negotiating legal issues, such as copyright; understanding the editing process; self-publishing and conventional routes; digital and print. Every single one of over 4,500 listings of who to contact, where and for which disciplines across the whole media, are reviewed and most updated, wit...

  14. Statistical tables 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy statistical table is a selection of statistical data for energies and countries from 1997 to 2002. It concerns the petroleum, the natural gas, the coal, the electric power, the production, the external market, the consumption per sector, the energy accounting 2002 and graphs on the long-dated forecasting. (A.L.B.)

  15. Epilepsy and occupational accidents in Brazil: a national statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Mariana dos Santos; Soliman, Lucas Alexandre Pedrollo; Pauli, Carla; Lin, Katia

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy may restrict the patient's daily life. It causes lower quality of life and increased risk for work-related accidents (WRA). The aim of this study is to analyze the implantation of the Epidemiologic and Technical Security System Nexus (ETSSN) and WRA patterns among patients with epilepsy. Data regarding WRA, between 1999 and 2008, on the historical database of WRA Infolog Statistical Yearbook from Brazilian Ministry of Social Security were reviewed. There was a significant increase of reported cases during the ten year period, mainly after the establishment of the ETSSN. The increased granted benefits evidenced the epidemiologic association between epilepsy and WRA. ETSSN possibly raised the registration of occupational accidents and granted benefits. However, the real number of WRA may remain underestimated due to informal economy and house workers' accidents which are usually not included in the official statistics in Brazil.

  16. Reading in the 80's: Where Are We Going? Volume 5. Fifth Yearbook of the Arizona State University Reading Conference, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Joan, Ed.

    Contained in this yearbook are the proceedings of the fifth annual Arizona State University Reading Conference. This edition reflects an emphasis on a wide range of topics, including study skills, oral language, and teaching strategies. Following a foreword, the conference articles discuss the following: (1) study skills across the curriculum, (2)…

  17. Literacy Is Transformative. The Thirty-Fifth Yearbook A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Haas, Leslie, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    For their 56th annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers (ALER) met in Grand Rapids, Michigan at the Amway Grand Hotel. This year's conference theme was Literacy Is Transformative, which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 35. Included are double-peer reviewed papers, the presidential address,…

  18. The Joy of Teaching Literacy. The Thirty-Fourth Yearbook: A Double Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrision, Timothy, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers (ALER) Yearbook, Volume 34, includes papers presented at the annual conference, which have gone through a double peer review process. It also includes the Presidential Address and the keynote addresses given at the conference. For ALER's 55th annual meeting, the Association of Literacy…

  19. Energy-related scientists and engineers: a statistical profile of recent entrants into the work force, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Sharon E.

    1979-12-01

    This report examines the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates are also compared to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities. Information is based on the results of the 1976 and 1978 National Surveys of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, and the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy. Tabulations are included for the first time on employment involving specific energy sources and activities. Other characteristics discussed include educational level, salary, primary work activity, type of employer, and the proportion of graduates who found employment in their major field.

  20. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2008-03-01

    This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

  1. Statistical sources and methodology of elaboration for the regional, national and European energy indicators; Fonti statistiche e metodologie di elaborazione per gli indicatori energetici regionali, nazionali ed europei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, R; Perrella, G [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    This report is aimed to presenting the energy-economic and structural data system called EIS (energy indicators system), about the statistical sources and the different methodologies of data valuation and indicators elaboration. This system, elaborated in the activity of ERG-PROM Division of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), is aimed to analyze the energy by quantity and quality use, in the different sectors, for each final aim and for every source. In the report are defined all the procedure and unit of measure used to process the data bank, so the reader can to interpret the right meaning of the variables and indicators and can make further process.

  2. Wind-Climate Estimation Based on Mesoscale and Microscale Modeling: Statistical-Dynamical Downscaling for Wind Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Frank, Helmut; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a statistical dynamical method can be used to accurately estimate the wind climate at a wind farm site. In particular, postprocessing of mesoscale model output allows an efficient calculation of the local wind climate required for wind resource estimation at a wind...

  3. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. VII. A perturbative free energy for arbitrary mixtures of H and He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.; Dewitt, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A model free energy is presented which accurately represents results from 45 high-precision Monte Carlo calculations of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-helium mixtures at pressures of astrophysical and planetophysical interest. The free energy is calculated using free-electron perturbation theory (dielectric function theory), and is an extension of the expression given in an earlier paper in this series. However, it fits the Monte Carlo results more accurately, and is valid for the full range of compositions from pure hydrogen to pure helium. Using the new free energy, the phase diagram of mixtures of liquid metallic hydrogen and helium is calculated and compared with earlier results. Sample results for mixing volumes are also presented, and the new free energy expression is used to compute a theoretical Jovian adiabat and compare the adiabat with results from three-dimensional Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. The present theory gives slightly higher densities at pressures of about 10 megabars. 20 references

  4. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. VII - A perturbative free energy for arbitrary mixtures of H and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Dewitt, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    A model free energy is presented which accurately represents results from 45 high-precision Monte Carlo calculations of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-helium mixtures at pressures of astrophysical and planetophysical interest. The free energy is calculated using free-electron perturbation theory (dielectric function theory), and is an extension of the expression given in an earlier paper in this series. However, it fits the Monte Carlo results more accurately, and is valid for the full range of compositions from pure hydrogen to pure helium. Using the new free energy, the phase diagram of mixtures of liquid metallic hydrogen and helium is calculated and compared with earlier results. Sample results for mixing volumes are also presented, and the new free energy expression is used to compute a theoretical Jovian adiabat and compare the adiabat with results from three-dimensional Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. The present theory gives slightly higher densities at pressures of about 10 megabars.

  5. Dynamics of the D(+) + H2 → HD + H(+) reaction at the low energy regime by means of a statistical quantum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lezana, Tomás; Honvault, Pascal; Scribano, Yohann

    2013-08-07

    The D(+) +H2(v = 0, j = 0, 1) → HD+H(+) reaction has been investigated at the low energy regime by means of a statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) method. Reaction probabilities and integral cross sections (ICSs) between a collisional energy of 10(-4) eV and 0.1 eV have been calculated and compared with previously reported results of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) approach. The TIQM results exhibit a dense profile with numerous narrow resonances down to Ec ~ 10(-2) eV and for the case of H2(v = 0, j = 0) a prominent peak is found at ~2.5 × 10(-4) eV. The analysis at the state-to-state level reveals that this feature is originated in those processes which yield the formation of rotationally excited HD(v' = 0, j' > 0). The statistical predictions reproduce reasonably well the overall behaviour of the TIQM ICSs at the larger energy range (Ec ≥ 10(-3) eV). Thermal rate constants are in qualitative agreement for the whole range of temperatures investigated in this work, 10-100 K, although the SQM values remain above the TIQM results for both initial H2 rotational states, j = 0 and 1. The enlargement of the asymptotic region for the statistical approach is crucial for a proper description at low energies. In particular, we find that the SQM method leads to rate coefficients in terms of the energy in perfect agreement with previously reported measurements if the maximum distance at which the calculation is performed increases noticeably with respect to the value employed to reproduce the TIQM results.

  6. Dynamics of the D{sup +}+ H{sub 2}→ HD + H{sup +} reaction at the low energy regime by means of a statistical quantum method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Lezana, Tomás [Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Honvault, Pascal [Lab. Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 6303, Univ. Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex, France and UFR Sciences et Techniques, Univ. de Franche-Comté, 25030 Besançon cedex (France); Scribano, Yohann [Lab. Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Univ. de Montpellier II, LUPM - UMR CNRS 5299, 34095 Montpellier Cedex (France)

    2013-08-07

    The D{sup +}+H{sub 2}(v= 0, j= 0, 1) → HD+H{sup +} reaction has been investigated at the low energy regime by means of a statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) method. Reaction probabilities and integral cross sections (ICSs) between a collisional energy of 10{sup −4} eV and 0.1 eV have been calculated and compared with previously reported results of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) approach. The TIQM results exhibit a dense profile with numerous narrow resonances down to E{sub c}∼ 10{sup −2} eV and for the case of H{sub 2}(v= 0, j= 0) a prominent peak is found at ∼2.5 × 10{sup −4} eV. The analysis at the state-to-state level reveals that this feature is originated in those processes which yield the formation of rotationally excited HD(v′= 0, j′ > 0). The statistical predictions reproduce reasonably well the overall behaviour of the TIQM ICSs at the larger energy range (E{sub c}⩾ 10{sup −3} eV). Thermal rate constants are in qualitative agreement for the whole range of temperatures investigated in this work, 10–100 K, although the SQM values remain above the TIQM results for both initial H{sub 2} rotational states, j= 0 and 1. The enlargement of the asymptotic region for the statistical approach is crucial for a proper description at low energies. In particular, we find that the SQM method leads to rate coefficients in terms of the energy in perfect agreement with previously reported measurements if the maximum distance at which the calculation is performed increases noticeably with respect to the value employed to reproduce the TIQM results.

  7. Dynamics of the D++ H2→ HD + H+ reaction at the low energy regime by means of a statistical quantum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lezana, Tomás; Honvault, Pascal; Scribano, Yohann

    2013-01-01

    The D + +H 2 (v= 0, j= 0, 1) → HD+H + reaction has been investigated at the low energy regime by means of a statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) method. Reaction probabilities and integral cross sections (ICSs) between a collisional energy of 10 −4 eV and 0.1 eV have been calculated and compared with previously reported results of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) approach. The TIQM results exhibit a dense profile with numerous narrow resonances down to E c ∼ 10 −2 eV and for the case of H 2 (v= 0, j= 0) a prominent peak is found at ∼2.5 × 10 −4 eV. The analysis at the state-to-state level reveals that this feature is originated in those processes which yield the formation of rotationally excited HD(v′= 0, j′ > 0). The statistical predictions reproduce reasonably well the overall behaviour of the TIQM ICSs at the larger energy range (E c ⩾ 10 −3 eV). Thermal rate constants are in qualitative agreement for the whole range of temperatures investigated in this work, 10–100 K, although the SQM values remain above the TIQM results for both initial H 2 rotational states, j= 0 and 1. The enlargement of the asymptotic region for the statistical approach is crucial for a proper description at low energies. In particular, we find that the SQM method leads to rate coefficients in terms of the energy in perfect agreement with previously reported measurements if the maximum distance at which the calculation is performed increases noticeably with respect to the value employed to reproduce the TIQM results

  8. Salnamelere Göre XIX. Yüzyılda Kırşehir Sancağı Hakkında Bilgiler (1873-1910) (Coğrafyası, Tarihi, Nüfusu, Nahiye ve Kazaları)
    According Yearbooks XIX. Information about Century Ensign Kırşehir (1873-1910) (Geography, History, Population, Canton and Accidents)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet GÜNDÜZ

    2012-01-01

    In this study, first at the entrance of what is yearbook? Yearbooks features, among them information about the different names they are issued for different purposes. Looking at the contents of Yearbooks on the date of issue of the Ottoman Empire, administrative organization, institutions, personal biographies, scientific, economic, political, military, cultural and other fields comprise the important information. Even the tombs of the hoist, lodges, mosques, public buildings, shops, places t...

  9. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  10. Multi-regional input–output model and ecological network analysis for regional embodied energy accounting in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Yang, Zhifeng; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Li, Yanxian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese regions frequently exchange materials, but regional differences in economic development create unbalanced flows of these resources. In this study, we examined energy by assessing embodied energy consumption to describe the energy-flow structure in China's seven regions. Based on multi-regional monetary input–output tables and energy statistical yearbooks for Chinese provinces in 2002 and 2007, we accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption, respectively, and the integral input and output of the provinces. Most integral inputs of energy flowed from north to south or from east to west, whereas integral output flows were mainly from northeast to southwest. This differed from the direct flows, which were predominantly from north to south and west to east. This demonstrates the importance of calculating both direct and indirect energy flows. Analysis of the distance and direction traveled by the energy consumption centers of gravity showed that the centers for embodied energy consumption and inputs moved southeast because of the movements of the centers of the Eastern region. However, the center for outputs moved northeast because the movement of the Central region. These analyses provide a basis for identifying how regional economic development policies influence the embodied energy consumption and its flows among regions. - Highlights: • We integrated multi-regional input–output analysis with ecological network analysis. • We accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption. • The centers of gravity for embodied energy flows moved southeast from 2002 to 2007. • The results support planning of energy consumption and energy flows among regions.

  11. Time-varying analysis of CO_2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth nexus: Statistical experience in next 11 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Mahalik, Mantu Kumar; Shah, Syed Hasanat; Sato, João Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This paper detects the direction of causality among carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth in Next 11 countries for the period 1972–2013. Changes in economic, energy, and environmental policies as well as regulatory and technological advancement over time, cause changes in the relationship among the variables. We use a novel approach i.e. time-varying Granger causality and find that economic growth is the cause of CO_2 emissions in Bangladesh and Egypt. Economic growth causes energy consumption in the Philippines, Turkey, and Vietnam but the feedback effect exists between energy consumption and economic growth in South Korea. In the cases of Indonesia and Turkey, we find the unidirectional time-varying Granger causality running from economic growth to CO_2 emissions thus validates the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis, which indicates that economic growth is achievable at the minimal cost of environment. The paper gives new insights for policy makers to attain sustainable economic growth while maintaining long-run environmental quality.

  12. Using synthetic data to evaluate multiple regression and principal component analyses for statistical modeling of daily building energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, T.A. (Energy Systems Lab., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Claridge, D.E. (Energy Systems Lab., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Multiple regression modeling of monitored building energy use data is often faulted as a reliable means of predicting energy use on the grounds that multicollinearity between the regressor variables can lead both to improper interpretation of the relative importance of the various physical regressor parameters and to a model with unstable regressor coefficients. Principal component analysis (PCA) has the potential to overcome such drawbacks. While a few case studies have already attempted to apply this technique to building energy data, the objectives of this study were to make a broader evaluation of PCA and multiple regression analysis (MRA) and to establish guidelines under which one approach is preferable to the other. Four geographic locations in the US with different climatic conditions were selected and synthetic data sequence representative of daily energy use in large institutional buildings were generated in each location using a linear model with outdoor temperature, outdoor specific humidity and solar radiation as the three regression variables. MRA and PCA approaches were then applied to these data sets and their relative performances were compared. Conditions under which PCA seems to perform better than MRA were identified and preliminary recommendations on the use of either modeling approach formulated. (orig.)

  13. Statistical description of massless excitations within a sphere with a linear equation of state and the dark energy case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaggiu, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we continue the investigations present in Refs. 1-3. In particular, we extend the theorem proved in Ref. 3 to any massless excitation in a given spherical box. As a first interesting result, we show that it is possible, contrary to the black hole case studied in detail in Refs. 1-3, to build macroscopic configurations with a dark energy equation of state. To this purpose, by requiring a stable configuration, a macroscopic dark fluid is obtained with an internal energy U scaling as the volume V, but with a fundamental correction looking like ˜ 1/R motivated by quantum fluctuations. Thanks to the proposition in Sec. 3 (and in Ref. 3 for gravitons), one can depict the dark energy in terms of massless excitations with a discrete spectrum. This fact opens the possibility to test a possible physical mechanism converting usual radiation into dark energy in a macroscopic configuration, also in a cosmological context. In fact, for example, in a Friedmann flat universe with a cosmological constant, particles are marginally trapped at the Hubble horizon for any given comoving observer.

  14. Relationship between Statistical and Dynamical properties of fragments produced at Fermi Energy in Heavy ion collisions: ng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehaut, G.

    2009-10-01

    The properties of the fragments produced in heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy have been studied through the isospin degree of freedom. First, a theoretical approach based on a lattice gas model with two types of particles (neutron,proton) interacting by an isospin dependent and Coulomb interactions was developed. The study of the phase diagram shows that this system presents three different phases (liquid, gas, fission). In the liquid and gas phases, the energy of the system was described by a density functional, where the temperature dependence acts only on the density. The symmetry term of this functional was related to the isotopic content of the biggest fragment via an iso-scaling analysis. Secondly a systematic study of the stopping power of the nuclear matter and isospin equilibration of light particles in the most violent collisions was carried out using the experimental data taken by the INDRA multidetector at GANIL and GSI. Two stopping power regimes appear; at low energy (< 40 MeV/A) the stopping power decreases with increasing beam energy, whereas at high energy the stopping power is governed by the quantity of matter along the beam direction. An other study has been focused on the Xe+Sn reaction at 32 and 45 MeV/A with different isospin systems. The separation of three different reaction mechanisms by use of a principal component analysis allowed us to observe that the isospin content of light particles seems to be independent on the mechanism, but depends on the violence of the collision (i.e. impact parameter). (author)

  15. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  16. Bioenergy. Data base for the statistics of the renewable energy and emissions balance. Report of results; Bioenergie. Datengrundlagen fuer die Statistik der erneuerbaren Energien und Emissionsbilanzierung. Ergebnisbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, Marion; Memmler, Michael; Rother, Stefan; Schneider, Sven [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Boehme, Dieter [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The constantly growing importance of biomass for heat and power generation in Germany needs more adequate statistical data acquisition and emissions balances. This data is needed for policy consultancy and for the compliance to European reporting commitments. But, how is it possible to statistically portray the biomass-fired plant park in its growing complexity in an adequate manner, in order to gain reliable data for national and international reporting commitments? These were the questions debated among 60 experts from scientific institutions, industry and administration during a workshop jointly organized by the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU), the Working Group Renewable Energy Statistics (AGEE-Stat) and the Germany Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) on 5 and 6 July 2011 in Dessau-Rosslau. To that end, the whole biomass-fired plant stock in Germany, including solid, liquid and gaseous biomass was looked at. In a first step, the current level of knowledge concerning efficiency and emission parameters was discussed. In a second step, a core input data set for statistical use was agreed upon. Moreover, the workshop detected a need for further research on several aspects. The Federal Environment Agency publishes this workshop report in order to document the results of this event. It gives an overview of the publically available data source for biomass installations and usage in Germany and it also depict the need for further research. This shall be used as basis for further work in this area in the years to come. (orig.)

  17. Relative Dating and Classification of Minerals and Rocks Based on Statistical Calculations Related to Their Potential Energy Index

    OpenAIRE

    Labushev, Mikhail M.; Khokhlov, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Index of proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements is proposed for determining the relative age of minerals and rocks. Their chemical analysis results serve to be initial data for calculations. For rocks of different composition the index is considered to be classification value as well. Crystal lattice energy change in minerals and their associations can be measured by the index value change, thus contributing to the solution of important practical problems. There was determined...

  18. SU-D-BRD-07: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Statistical Process Control Methods to Detect Systematic Errors For Routine Electron Energy Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the ability of statistical process control methods to detect systematic errors when using a two dimensional (2D) detector array for routine electron beam energy verification. Methods: Electron beam energy constancy was measured using an aluminum wedge and a 2D diode array on four linear accelerators. Process control limits were established. Measurements were recorded in control charts and compared with both calculated process control limits and TG-142 recommended specification limits. The data was tested for normality, process capability and process acceptability. Additional measurements were recorded while systematic errors were intentionally introduced. Systematic errors included shifts in the alignment of the wedge, incorrect orientation of the wedge, and incorrect array calibration. Results: Control limits calculated for each beam were smaller than the recommended specification limits. Process capability and process acceptability ratios were greater than one in all cases. All data was normally distributed. Shifts in the alignment of the wedge were most apparent for low energies. The smallest shift (0.5 mm) was detectable using process control limits in some cases, while the largest shift (2 mm) was detectable using specification limits in only one case. The wedge orientation tested did not affect the measurements as this did not affect the thickness of aluminum over the detectors of interest. Array calibration dependence varied with energy and selected array calibration. 6 MeV was the least sensitive to array calibration selection while 16 MeV was the most sensitive. Conclusion: Statistical process control methods demonstrated that the data distribution was normally distributed, the process was capable of meeting specifications, and that the process was centered within the specification limits. Though not all systematic errors were distinguishable from random errors, process control limits increased the ability to detect systematic errors

  19. Bioenergy. Data base for the statistics of the renewable energy and emissions balance. Material volume; Bioenergie. Datengrundlagen fuer die Statistik der erneuerbaren Energien und Emissionsbilanzierung. Materialband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, Marion; Memmler, Michael; Rother, Stefan; Schneider, Sven [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Boehme, Dieter [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In July 2011, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) performed the workshop ''Bioenergy. Data base for the statistics of the renewable energy and emissions balance''. The material volume of this workshop under consideration contains plenary lectures on the state of knowledge and information need as well as materials to the working groups solid biomass (working group 1), biogas (working group 2) and liquid biomass (working group 3).

  20. The neutron's Dirac-equation: Its rigorous solution at slab-like magnetic fields, non-relativistic approximation, energy spectra and statistical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongde.

    1987-03-01

    In this paper, the neutron Dirac-equation is presented. After decoupling it into two equations of the simple spinors, the rigorous solution of this equation is obtained in the case of slab-like uniform magnetic fields at perpendicular incidence. At non-relativistic approximation and first order approximation of weak field (NRWFA), our results have included all results that have been obtained in references for this case up to now. The corresponding transformations of the neutron's spin vectors are given. The single particle spectrum and its approximate expression are obtained. The characteristics of quantum statistics with the approximate expression of energy spectrum are studied. (author). 15 refs

  1. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  2. Repulsive energy and the Grueneisen parameter of alkali halides calculated on the basis of a quantum-statistical ab initio theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, M.; Olszewski, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Grueneisen parameter of alkali halides is calculated by an ab initio quantum-statistical method and then compared with the experimental data. The crystal model applied assumes the crystal ions to be compressible but impenetrable spheres. The ions are described with the aid of a modified Thomas-Fermi theory with exchange. At the next step it is possible to calculate the energy needed to transform the system of the non-interacting ions into the ionic system represented by the crystal lattice. This calculation allows for an ab initio estimate of the parameters entering the Born, or the Born-Mayer, repulsive part of the crystal energy. The parameters are then used in the calculation of the Grueneisen parameter and its dependence on the crystal compression. (author)

  3. Statistical Characterization of the Charge State and Residue Dependence of Low-Energy CID Peptide Dissociation Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yingying; Triscari, Joseph M.; Tseng, George C.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2005-01-01

    Data mining was performed on 28 330 unique peptide tandem mass spectra for which sequences were assigned with high confidence. By dividing the spectra into different sets based on structural features and charge states of the corresponding peptides, chemical interactions involved in promoting specific cleavage patterns in gas-phase peptides were characterized. Pairwise fragmentation maps describing cleavages at all Xxx-Zzz residue combinations for b and y ions reveal that the difference in basicity between Arg and Lys results in different dissociation patterns for singly charged Arg- and Lys-ending tryptic peptides. While one dominant protonation form (proton localized) exists for Arg-ending peptides, a heterogeneous population of different protonated forms or more facile interconversion of protonated forms (proton partially mobile) exists for Lys-ending peptides. Cleavage C-terminal to acidic residues dominates spectra from peptides that have a localized proton and cleavage N-terminal to Pro dominates those that have a mobile or partially mobile proton. When Pro is absent from peptides that have a mobile or partially mobile proton, cleavage at each peptide bond becomes much more prominent. Whether the above patterns can be found in b ions, y ions, or both depends on the location of the proton holder(s). Enhanced cleavages C-terminal to branched aliphatic residues (Ile, Val, Leu) are observed in both b and y ions from peptides that have a mobile proton, as well as in y ions from peptides that have a partially mobile proton; enhanced cleavages N-terminal to these residues are observed in b ions from peptides that have a partially mobile proton. Statistical tools have been designed to visualize the fragmentation maps and measure the similarity between them. The pairwise cleavage patterns observed expand our knowledge of peptide gas-phase fragmentation behaviors and should be useful in algorithm development that employs improved models to predict fragment ion

  4. Tsallis Extended Thermodynamics Applied to 2-d Turbulence: Lévy Statistics and q-Fractional Generalized Kraichnanian Energy and Enstrophy Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Egolf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended thermodynamics of Tsallis is reviewed in detail and applied to turbulence. It is based on a generalization of the exponential and logarithmic functions with a parameter q. By applying this nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the Boltzmann-Gibbs thermodynamic approach of Kraichnan to 2-d turbulence is generalized. This physical modeling implies fractional calculus methods, obeying anomalous diffusion, described by Lévy statistics with q < 5/3 (sub diffusion, q = 5/3 (normal or Brownian diffusion and q > 5/3 (super diffusion. The generalized energy spectrum of Kraichnan, occurring at small wave numbers k, now reveals the more general and precise result k−q. This corresponds well for q = 5/3 with the Kolmogorov-Oboukov energy spectrum and for q > 5/3 to turbulence with intermittency. The enstrophy spectrum, occurring at large wave numbers k, leads to a k−3q power law, suggesting that large wave-number eddies are in thermodynamic equilibrium, which is characterized by q = 1, finally resulting in Kraichnan’s correct k−3 enstrophy spectrum. The theory reveals in a natural manner a generalized temperature of turbulence, which in the non-equilibrium energy transfer domain decreases with wave number and shows an energy equipartition law with a constant generalized temperature in the equilibrium enstrophy transfer domain. The article contains numerous new results; some are stated in form of eight new (proven propositions.

  5. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  6. Statistical studies on the light output and energy resolution of small LSO single crystals with different surface treatments combined with various reflector materials

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrichs, U; Bussmann, N; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Weber, S; Ziemons, K

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of light output and energy resolution of scintillators is of special interest for the development of high resolution and high sensitivity PET. The aim of this work is to obtain statistically reliable results concerning optimal surface treatment of scintillation crystals and the selection of reflector material. For this purpose, raw, mechanically polished and etched LSO crystals (size 2x2x10 mm sup 3) were combined with various reflector materials (Teflon tape, Teflon matrix, BaSO sub 4) and exposed to a sup 2 sup 2 Na source. In order to ensure the statistical reliability of the results, groups of 10 LSO crystals each were measured for all combinations of surface treatment and reflector material. Using no reflector material the light output increased up to 551+-35% by mechanical polishing the surface compared to 100+-5% for raw crystals. Etching the surface increased the light output to 441+-29%. The untreated crystals had an energy resolution of 24.6+-4.0%. By mechanical polishing the surfac...

  7. Fuzzy interval Finite Element/Statistical Energy Analysis for mid-frequency analysis of built-up systems with mixed fuzzy and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui; Yu, Dejie; Yin, Shengwen; Xia, Baizhan

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces mixed fuzzy and interval parametric uncertainties into the FE components of the hybrid Finite Element/Statistical Energy Analysis (FE/SEA) model for mid-frequency analysis of built-up systems, thus an uncertain ensemble combining non-parametric with mixed fuzzy and interval parametric uncertainties comes into being. A fuzzy interval Finite Element/Statistical Energy Analysis (FIFE/SEA) framework is proposed to obtain the uncertain responses of built-up systems, which are described as intervals with fuzzy bounds, termed as fuzzy-bounded intervals (FBIs) in this paper. Based on the level-cut technique, a first-order fuzzy interval perturbation FE/SEA (FFIPFE/SEA) and a second-order fuzzy interval perturbation FE/SEA method (SFIPFE/SEA) are developed to handle the mixed parametric uncertainties efficiently. FFIPFE/SEA approximates the response functions by the first-order Taylor series, while SFIPFE/SEA improves the accuracy by considering the second-order items of Taylor series, in which all the mixed second-order items are neglected. To further improve the accuracy, a Chebyshev fuzzy interval method (CFIM) is proposed, in which the Chebyshev polynomials is used to approximate the response functions. The FBIs are eventually reconstructed by assembling the extrema solutions at all cut levels. Numerical results on two built-up systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  8. Network based on statistical multiplexing for event selection and event builder systems in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, D.

    2000-03-01

    Systems for on-line event selection in future high energy physics experiments will use advanced distributed computing techniques and will need high speed networks. After a brief description of projects at the Large Hadron Collider, the architectures initially proposed for the Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TD/DAQ) systems of ATLAS and CMS experiments are presented and analyzed. A new architecture for the ATLAS T/DAQ is introduced. Candidate network technologies for this system are described. This thesis focuses on ATM. A variety of network structures and topologies suited to partial and full event building are investigated. The need for efficient networking is shown. Optimization techniques for high speed messaging and their implementation on ATM components are described. Small scale demonstrator systems consisting of up to 48 computers (∼1:20 of the final level 2 trigger) connected via ATM are described. Performance results are presented. Extrapolation of measurements and evaluation of needs lead to a proposal of implementation for the main network of the ATLAS T/DAQ system. (author)

  9. Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/usestatistics.html MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, ... By Quarter View image full size Quarterly User Statistics Quarter Page Views Unique Visitors Oct-Dec-98 ...

  10. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  11. The challenge of ubiquitous computing in health care: technology, concepts and solutions. Findings from the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, O J; Ammenwerth, E; Brigl, B; Knaup, P; Lang, E; Pilgram, R; Pfeifer, B; Ruderich, F; Wolff, A C; Haux, R; Kulikowski, C

    2005-01-01

    To review recent research efforts in the field of ubiquitous computing in health care. To identify current research trends and further challenges for medical informatics. Analysis of the contents of the Yearbook on Medical Informatics 2005 of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). The Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2005 includes 34 original papers selected from 22 peer-reviewed scientific journals related to several distinct research areas: health and clinical management, patient records, health information systems, medical signal processing and biomedical imaging, decision support, knowledge representation and management, education and consumer informatics as well as bioinformatics. A special section on ubiquitous health care systems is devoted to recent developments in the application of ubiquitous computing in health care. Besides additional synoptical reviews of each of the sections the Yearbook includes invited reviews concerning E-Health strategies, primary care informatics and wearable healthcare. Several publications demonstrate the potential of ubiquitous computing to enhance effectiveness of health services delivery and organization. But ubiquitous computing is also a societal challenge, caused by the surrounding but unobtrusive character of this technology. Contributions from nearly all of the established sub-disciplines of medical informatics are demanded to turn the visions of this promising new research field into reality.

  12. Frog Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole Frog Project and Virtual Frog Dissection Statistics wwwstats output for January 1 through duplicate or extraneous accesses. For example, in these statistics, while a POST requesting an image is as well. Note that this under-represents the bytes requested. Starting date for following statistics

  13. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  14. World energy demand down for the first time in 30 years. Key findings of the world energy demand in 2009 by Enerdata based its global energy database - 8 June 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Key findings of the world energy demand in 2009 by Enerdata based its global energy database: World energy demand down for the first time in 30 years. The first 2009 world energy industry data, now available in the Enerdata Yearbook, confirms trends identified in May 2010 by Enerdata analysts. The economic and financial crisis resulted in a reduction of world energy demand in 2009 by 1% or 130 Mtoe. It is the first demand decrease in 30 years, and the first decrease in electricity demand since World War II. (authors)

  15. Temporal and spatial variations in on-road energy use and CO2 emissions in China, 1978–2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Huo, Hong

    2013-01-01

    China is experiencing rapid motorization and each city has a unique motorization pathway owing to its different characteristics and development progress. The temporal and spatial variation trend in on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions need to be better understood in order to project the future growth and to support policy-making at both local and national levels. This study simulates the on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions of all of China's prefectural-level cities (and above) from 1978 through 2008, on the basis of the collected vehicle data from hundreds of national and local statistical yearbooks. The results show that China's on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions were 119 million metric tons (MMT) and 377 MMT in 2008, respectively—20 times the levels in 1978. The economically developed cities and heavy industrial cities had the highest on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions before the year 2000, but recently the spatial distribution has varied significantly as the uptake of motorization increases successively in these cities. Now and in the near future, the most important driving force of the on-road energy and CO 2 growth in China is the great number of average cities that have just started or will soon start the motorization. - Highlights: • China's cities have unique motorization pathways due to their unique characteristics. • We simulate on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions of all cities in China in 1978–2008. • China's on-road energy use and CO 2 emissions in 2008 were 20 times the levels in 1978. • Large cities had the highest on-road energy usage but the growth rate is declining. • Non-large cities are the main impetus of the growth in China's on-road energy use

  16. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  17. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  18. Harmonic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  19. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  20. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  1. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the…

  2. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  3. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  4. Intra-event correlations and the statistical moments of the identified particle multiplicity distributions in the RHIC beam energy scan data collected by STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llope, W. J.; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Specific products of the statistical moments of the multiplicity distributions of identified particles can be directly compared to susceptibility ratios obtained from lattice QCD calculations. They may also diverge for nuclear systems formed close to a possible QCD critical point due to the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Of particular interest are the moments products for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge, as these are considered proxies for conserved quantum numbers. The moments products have been measured by the STAR experiment for Au+Au collisions at seven beam energies ranging from 7.7 to 200 GeV. In this presentation, the experimental results are compared to data-based calculations in which the intra-event correlations of the numbers of positive and negative particles are broken by construction. The importance of intra-event correlations to the moments products values for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge can thus be evaluated. Work supported by the U.S. Dept of Energy under grant DE-PS02-09ER09.

  5. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  6. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  7. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  8. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  9. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  10. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  11. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  12. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  13. WPRDC Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Data about the usage of the WPRDC site and its various datasets, obtained by combining Google Analytics statistics with information from the WPRDC's data portal.

  14. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  15. Gonorrhea Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Gonorrhea Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gonorrhea ...

  16. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  17. Vital statistics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The drawbacks of using 19th-century mathematics in physics and astronomy are illustrated. To continue with the expansion of the knowledge about the cosmos, the scientists will have to come in terms with modern statistics. Some researchers have deliberately started importing techniques that are used in medical research. However, the physicists need to identify the brand of statistics that will be suitable for them, and make a choice between the Bayesian and the frequentists approach. (Edited abstract).

  18. Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Kinlan, Brian P.; Sussman, Allison; Rypkema, Diana; Wimer, Mark; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating patterns of habitat use is challenging for marine avian species because seabirds tend to aggregate in large groups and it can be difficult to locate both individuals and groups in vast marine environments. We developed an approach to estimate the statistical power of discrete survey events to identify species-specific hotspots and coldspots of long-term seabird abundance in marine environments. We illustrate our approach using historical seabird data from survey transects in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), an area that has been divided into “lease blocks” for proposed offshore wind energy development. For our power analysis, we examined whether discrete lease blocks within the region could be defined as hotspots (3 × mean abundance in the OCS) or coldspots (1/3 ×) for individual species within a given season. For each of 74 species/season combinations, we determined which of eight candidate statistical distributions (ranging in their degree of skewedness) best fit the count data. We then used the selected distribution and estimates of regional prevalence to calculate and map statistical power to detect hotspots and coldspots, and estimate the p-value from Monte Carlo significance tests that specific lease blocks are in fact hotspots or coldspots relative to regional average abundance. The power to detect species-specific hotspots was higher than that of coldspots for most species because species-specific prevalence was relatively low (mean: 0.111; SD: 0.110). The number of surveys required for adequate power (> 0.6) was large for most species (tens to hundreds) using this hotspot definition. Regulators may need to accept higher proportional effect sizes, combine species into groups, and/or broaden the spatial scale by combining lease blocks in order to determine optimal placement of wind farms. Our power analysis approach provides a general framework for both retrospective analyses and future avian survey design and is

  19. Record Statistics and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2009-01-01

    with independent random increments. The term record dynamics covers the rather new idea that records may, in special situations, have measurable dynamical consequences. The approach applies to the aging dynamics of glasses and other systems with multiple metastable states. The basic idea is that record sizes...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....

  20. Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 2002/2003; an independent publication from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram; Thommessen, Oeystein B.

    2002-07-01

    The Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development aims to demonstrate the status of collaboration, the main obstacles to effective international solutions, and how to overcome them. The Yearbook assesses the achievements and the shortcomings of international co-operation, and helps the reader to distinguish between rhetoric and reality. The combination of independent, high-quality analysis and updated reference material makes this Yearbook an indispensable guide for decision-makers in government, international organizations, NGOs, and industry, as well as an essential source book for academic institutions, students, and libraries serving the concerned public. Current Issues and Key Themes in this edition focus on: (1) how effective environmental mega-conferences are in global environmental governance; (2) how the climate change regime can achieve its objective by addressing the very real concerns about climate-change impacts on human beings as much as on healthy ecosystems; (3) how the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme has been an effective regional agent for environmental protection and how it should cope with the challenges ahead; (4) how the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty has contributed to strengthening international cooperation within the Treaty, but nevertheless is hampered by the vagueness of some core requirements and by the unresolved issues of jurisdiction, control, and enforcement in the Antarctic; (5) how the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands-neither rigorous nor extensive in its obligations-has acted as a vehicle for the development of a reasonably detailed policy framework for wetland conservation; (6) how Friends of the Earth International-among the world's largest, most diverse, and most influential environmental NGOs-has such internal diversity, in addition to its geographic spread and lack of agreed political ideology, that it risks its external profile becoming blurred and its internal