WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy spectral information

  1. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  2. Information theory, spectral geometry, and quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Martin, Robert

    2008-01-18

    We show that there exists a deep link between the two disciplines of information theory and spectral geometry. This allows us to obtain new results on a well-known quantum gravity motivated natural ultraviolet cutoff which describes an upper bound on the spatial density of information. Concretely, we show that, together with an infrared cutoff, this natural ultraviolet cutoff beautifully reduces the path integral of quantum field theory on curved space to a finite number of ordinary integrations. We then show, in particular, that the subsequent removal of the infrared cutoff is safe.

  3. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  4. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  5. Extraction of neutron spectral information from Bonner-Sphere data

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, J H; Zaidins, C S

    1999-01-01

    We have extended a least-squares method of extracting neutron spectral information from Bonner-Sphere data which was previously developed by Zaidins et al. (Med. Phys. 5 (1978) 42). A pulse-height analysis with background stripping is employed which provided a more accurate count rate for each sphere. Newer response curves by Mares and Schraube (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 366 (1994) 461) were included for the moderating spheres and the bare detector which comprise the Bonner spectrometer system. Finally, the neutron energy spectrum of interest was divided using the philosophy of fuzzy logic into three trapezoidal regimes corresponding to slow, moderate, and fast neutrons. Spectral data was taken using a PuBe source in two different environments and the analyzed data is presented for these cases as slow, moderate, and fast neutron fluences. (author)

  6. Energy information directory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.

  7. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  8. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  9. Information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatt, William C.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Boye, Clinton A.; Grotbeck, Carter L.; Stallard, Brian R.; Descour, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene. This system provides for a very efficient optical determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  10. Radiographic information theory: correction for x-ray spectral distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, I.; Gutcheck, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A more complete computational method is developed to account for the effect of the spectral distribution of the incident x-ray fluence on the minimum exposure required to record a specified information set in a diagnostic radiograph. It is shown that an earlier, less rigorous, but simpler computational technique does not introduce serious errors provided that both a good estimate of the mean energy per photon can be made and the detector does not contain an absorption edge in the spectral range. Also shown is that to a first approximation, it is immaterial whether the detecting surface counts the number of photons incident from each pixel or measures the energy incident on each pixel. A previous result is confirmed that, for mammography, the present methods of processing data from the detector utilize only a few percent of the incident information, suggesting that techniques can be developed for obtaining mammograms at substantially lower doses than those presently used. When used with film-screen combinations, x-ray tubes with tungsten anodes should require substantially lower exposures than devices using molybdenum anodes, when both are operated at their optimal voltage

  11. Energy Information Directory 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquires to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information

  12. Energy information directory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-28

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information.

  13. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like

  14. Energy information directory 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are: (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory lists most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters.

  15. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, MR; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Lenorzer, A; de Koter, A; Tielens, AGGA

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0 main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  16. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; Martín-Hernández, N.L.; Lenorzer, A.; de Koter, A.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of O main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  17. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  19. Energy information directory 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, state, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are: (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory lists some of the Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It includes those DOE offices which deal with the public or public information. For the purposes of this publication, each entry has been given a numeric identification symbol. The index found in the back of this publication uses these identification numbers to refer the reader to relevant entries.

  20. Image enhancement by spectral-error correction for dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Kook; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Akay, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) was reintroduced recently to use the additional spectral information of X-ray attenuation and aims for accurate density measurement and material differentiation. However, the spectral information lies in the difference between low and high energy images or measurements, so that it is difficult to acquire accurate spectral information due to amplification of high pixel noise in the resulting difference image. In this work, an image enhancement technique for DECT is proposed, based on the fact that the attenuation of a higher density material decreases more rapidly as X-ray energy increases. We define as spectral error the case when a pixel pair of low and high energy images deviates far from the expected attenuation trend. After analyzing the spectral-error sources of DECT images, we propose a DECT image enhancement method, which consists of three steps: water-reference offset correction, spectral-error correction, and anti-correlated noise reduction. It is the main idea of this work that makes spectral errors distributed like random noise over the true attenuation and suppressed by the well-known anti-correlated noise reduction. The proposed method suppressed noise of liver lesions and improved contrast between liver lesions and liver parenchyma in DECT contrast-enhanced abdominal images and their two-material decomposition.

  1. Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, P. B.

    1980-06-10

    Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

  2. The broadband spectral energy distributions of SDSS blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zhen; Chen, Luo-En; Jiang, Yun-Guo; Yi, Ting-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broadband spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. On the other hand, the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to the fact that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme is also revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  3. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the fir...

  4. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  5. Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of radiogallium. Progress report, October 1, 1980-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The gamma camera-computer interface was modified to allow the computer to accept both a spatial and energy address from each incoming photon. We have used this system to study the effect of scatter on measurement of ventricular function by ejection fraction (EF). Our preliminary results indicate that energy windowing, which decreases scatter fraction, increases recorded ejection fraction, EF. These results indicate that energy resolution and windowing must be considered when normal EF values are established, patients are studied on different instruments, or old equipment is replaced with newer model cameras. We have also further elucidated possible mechanisms by which Gallium-67 localizes in inflammatory lesions and tumors. Gallium-67 can transfer from transferrin and lactoferrin to ferritin. Transfer can be influenced by a number of mediators. We have studied the localization of Gallium-67 in a benign non-infected bone lesion (fracture). Although Gallium-67 uptake in such lesions appears on imaging to be less than /sup 99m/Tc-MDP uptake, the actual quantitative uptake in bone is identical. We are currently conducting studies of Gallium-67 uptake in an osteomyelitis model in rabbits in order to determine if such uptake accurately reflects the effect of antibiotic treatment

  6. Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of radiogallium. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the planned modifications on the gamma camera-computer interface are completed. These modifications will allow to determine the contribution of scatter radiation to inaccuracies in cardiac volume and ejection fraction determinations and allow for correction of these inaccuracies. The modifications will also allow testing of the weighted window imaging concept. Specific accomplishments include construction of an energy interface between ZLC-75 camera and DEC gamma 11/34 computer and development and testing of new programs to allow region of interest energy analysis and determination of photopeak and scatter contributions. A new type of converging collimator was built and is being tested which corrects for tissue attenuation at the average cardiac ventricular depth and may prove useful in cardiac chamber volume estimates. A new generator system using a /sup 195m/Hg parent to produce a /sup 195m/Au daughter which will be useful for cardiac studies is being evaluated. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 localizes in abscess and tumor were further elucidated by demonstrating that Ga-67 can transfer from transferrin to ferritin directly. This transfer is facilitated by certain mediators, especially the organic phosphates and does not appear to be energy dependent. A method of labelling viable bacteria with 111 In oxine was developed, and the exact role of siderophores in Ga-67 uptake in bacteria and also Ga-67 uptake in monocytes are being investigated

  7. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  8. Visual Method for Spectral Energy Distribution Calculation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we propose to use 'The Geometer's Sketchpad' to the fitting of a spectral energy distribution of blazar based on three effective spectral indices, αRO, αOX, and αRX and the flux density in the radio band. It can make us to see the fitting in detail with both the peak frequency and peak luminosity given ...

  9. Evolving spectral transformations for multitemporal information extraction using evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momm, Henrique; Easson, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in assessing temporal changes in land features. The challenge often resides in the conversion of large quantities of raw data into actionable information in a timely and cost-effective fashion. To address this issue, research was undertaken to develop an innovative methodology integrating biologically-inspired algorithms with standard image classification algorithms to improve information extraction from multitemporal imagery. Genetic programming was used as the optimization engine to evolve feature-specific candidate solutions in the form of nonlinear mathematical expressions of the image spectral channels (spectral indices). The temporal generalization capability of the proposed system was evaluated by addressing the task of building rooftop identification from a set of images acquired at different dates in a cross-validation approach. The proposed system generates robust solutions (kappa values > 0.75 for stage 1 and > 0.4 for stage 2) despite the statistical differences between the scenes caused by land use and land cover changes coupled with variable environmental conditions, and the lack of radiometric calibration between images. Based on our results, the use of nonlinear spectral indices enhanced the spectral differences between features improving the clustering capability of standard classifiers and providing an alternative solution for multitemporal information extraction.

  10. Nuclear energy and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baisong

    1996-01-01

    The information tells us that since the first chain reaction discovery about 50 years ago up to now, there are more than 400 commercial nuclear power plants connected to electricity supply net works. The electricity supplied by nuclear power plants has exceeded 2000 TWH, which represents almost 17% of the total electricity generated in the world and this proportion is still increasing. The accumulated operating experience of nuclear power plants reach more than 6000 reactor-year. Quite high average life time energy availability factors demonstrate the good reliability of nuclear power plants. The present status of the electricity development in the world shows that nuclear power has become an imperative and exclusively realistic alternative energy source. All of these information demonstrate that nuclear power as a safe, clean and less cost power source has already been widely accepted in the world. In Asia and Pacific region, the fast development of economy provides a vast possibility for the development of nuclear power. In China, shortage of electricity has become the 'bottle neck' which retards the economic development nowadays. China has already drawn up the plan for the development of nuclear power. The information is of great significance to promote the development of nuclear power. It could be said that without information, nuclear power could not be smoothly introduced in any country or region. (J.P.N.)

  11. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  12. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  13. Spectral Gap Energy Transfer in Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, S.; Walters, K.; Barros, A. P.; Nogueira, M.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental measurements of atmospheric turbulence energy spectra show E(k) ~ k-3 slopes at synoptic scales (~ 600 km - 2000 km) and k-5/3 slopes at the mesoscales (theory, it is expected that a strong backward energy cascade would develop at the synoptic scale, and that circulation would grow infinitely. To limit this backward transfer, energy arrest at macroscales must be introduced. The most commonly used turbulence models developed to mimic the above energy transfer include the energy backscatter model for 2D turbulence in the horizontal plane via Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models, dissipative URANS models in the vertical plane, and Ekman friction for the energy arrest. One of the controversial issues surrounding the atmospheric turbulence spectra is the explanation of the generation of the 2D and 3D spectra and transition between them, for energy injection at the synoptic scales. Lilly (1989) proposed that the existence of 2D and 3D spectra can only be explained by the presence of an additional energy injection in the meso-scale region. A second issue is related to the observations of dual peak spectra with small variance in meso-scale, suggesting that the energy transfer occurs across a spectral gap (Van Der Hoven, 1957). Several studies have confirmed the spectral gap for the meso-scale circulations, and have suggested that they are enhanced by smaller scale vertical convection rather than by the synoptic scales. Further, the widely accepted energy arrest mechanism by boundary layer friction is closely related to the spectral gap transfer. This study proposes an energy transfer mechanism for atmospheric turbulence with synoptic scale injection, wherein the generation of 2D and 3D spectra is explained using spectral gap energy transfer. The existence of the spectral gap energy transfer is validated by performing LES for the interaction of large scale circulation with a wall, and studying the evolution of the energy spectra both near to and far from the wall

  14. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniaux, Martin; De Zordo, Tobias; Santner, Wolfram; Amort, Birgit; Koppelstätter, Florian; Jaschke, Werner; Dromain, Clarisse; Oberaigner, Willi; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is one of the latest developments in breast care. Imaging with contrast agents in breast cancer was already known from previous magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography studies. However, high costs, limited availability-or high radiation dose-led to the development of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). We reviewed the current literature, present our experience, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of CESM and look at the future of this innovative technique.

  15. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-06-07

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of 'colour vision' that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals.

  16. SNSEDextend: SuperNova Spectral Energy Distributions extrapolation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierel, Justin D. R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Avelino, Arturo; Bianco, Federica; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew; Hicken, Malcolm; Hounsell, Rebekah; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kessler, Richard; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, Gautham; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Scolnic, Daniel; Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2018-05-01

    SNSEDextend extrapolates core-collapse and Type Ia Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) into the UV and IR for use in simulations and photometric classifications. The user provides a library of existing SED templates (such as those in the authors' SN SED Repository) along with new photometric constraints in the UV and/or NIR wavelength ranges. The software then extends the existing template SEDs so their colors match the input data at all phases. SNSEDextend can also extend the SALT2 spectral time-series model for Type Ia SN for a "first-order" extrapolation of the SALT2 model components, suitable for use in survey simulations and photometric classification tools; as the code does not do a rigorous re-training of the SALT2 model, the results should not be relied on for precision applications such as light curve fitting for cosmology.

  17. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  18. Correlation-induced spectral changes and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G.S.; Wolf, E.

    1996-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for fields generated by random, statistically stationary, scalar sources of any state of coherence. It is shown that correlation-induced spectral changes are in strict agreement with this law and that, basic to the understanding of such changes, is a distinction that must be made between the spectrum of a source and the spectrum of the field that the source generates. This distinction, which is obviously relevant for spectroscopy, does not appear to have been previously recognized. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Lossless compression of multispectral images using spectral information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Shi, Zelin; Tang, Xusheng

    2009-10-01

    Multispectral images are available for different purposes due to developments in spectral imaging systems. The sizes of multispectral images are enormous. Thus transmission and storage of these volumes of data require huge time and memory resources. That is why compression algorithms must be developed. A salient property of multispectral images is that strong spectral correlation exists throughout almost all bands. This fact is successfully used to predict each band based on the previous bands. We propose to use spectral linear prediction and entropy coding with context modeling for encoding multispectral images. Linear prediction predicts the value for the next sample and computes the difference between predicted value and the original value. This difference is usually small, so it can be encoded with less its than the original value. The technique implies prediction of each image band by involving number of bands along the image spectra. Each pixel is predicted using information provided by pixels in the previous bands in the same spatial position. As done in the JPEG-LS, the proposed coder also represents the mapped residuals by using an adaptive Golomb-Rice code with context modeling. This residual coding is context adaptive, where the context used for the current sample is identified by a context quantization function of the three gradients. Then, context-dependent Golomb-Rice code and bias parameters are estimated sample by sample. The proposed scheme was compared with three algorithms applied to the lossless compression of multispectral images, namely JPEG-LS, Rice coding, and JPEG2000. Simulation tests performed on AVIRIS images have demonstrated that the proposed compression scheme is suitable for multispectral images.

  20. Informing parliamentarians on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains a selection of the papers presented at an international seminar on informing parliamentarians in the nuclear field. This seminar has been organized by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to respond to important information needs. As a matter of fact, providing clear and accurate information to decision-makers is a key element that contributes to the quality of work for legislation for a safe use of nuclear energy. The sessions dealt with : meeting the information needs of parliamentarians and other elected representatives on nuclear energy questions, actors and their respective roles in the information process, means and tools for communicating information on nuclear energy, case studies in communication with elected officials. Abstracts have been prepared for all of the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  1. On Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis: a full informational spectral representation for nonlinear and non-stationary data

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Norden E.; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C. C.; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Peng, Chung Kang; Meijer, Johanna H.; Wang, Yung-Hung; Long, Steven R.; Wu, Zhauhua

    2016-01-01

    The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through c...

  2. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  3. iSEDfit: Bayesian spectral energy distribution modeling of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, John

    2017-08-01

    iSEDfit uses Bayesian inference to extract the physical properties of galaxies from their observed broadband photometric spectral energy distribution (SED). In its default mode, the inputs to iSEDfit are the measured photometry (fluxes and corresponding inverse variances) and a measurement of the galaxy redshift. Alternatively, iSEDfit can be used to estimate photometric redshifts from the input photometry alone. After the priors have been specified, iSEDfit calculates the marginalized posterior probability distributions for the physical parameters of interest, including the stellar mass, star-formation rate, dust content, star formation history, and stellar metallicity. iSEDfit also optionally computes K-corrections and produces multiple "quality assurance" (QA) plots at each stage of the modeling procedure to aid in the interpretation of the prior parameter choices and subsequent fitting results. The software is distributed as part of the impro IDL suite.

  4. Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2015-10-05

    This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots. The destination combines the L sequences using maximal ratio combining and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination feeds back a negative acknowledgment and then the source sends the same L sequences to the destination. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination with no limit on the number of retransmissions. We consider two optimization problems. In the first problem, we maximize the spectral efficiency of the system with respect to the rate for a fixed power. In the second problem, we maximize the energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power for a fixed rate. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have deve...

  6. [Study on the arc spectral information for welding quality diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun

    2009-03-01

    Through collecting the spectral signals of TIG and MIG welding arc with spectrometer, the arc light radiations were analyzed based on the basic theory of plasma physics. The radiation of welding arc distributes over a broad range of frequency, from infrared to ultraviolet. The arc spectrum is composed of line spectra and continuous spectra. Due to the variation of metal density in the welding arc, there is great difference between the welding arc spectra of TIG and MIG in both their intensity and distribution. The MIG welding arc provides more line spectra of metal and the intensity of radiation is greater than TIG. The arc spectrum of TIG welding is stable during the welding process, disturbance factors that cause the spectral variations can be reflected by the spectral line related to the corresponding element entering the welding arc. The arc spectrum of MIG welding will fluctuate severely due to droplet transfer, which produces "noise" in the line spectrum aggregation zone. So for MIG welding, the spectral zone lacking spectral line is suitable for welding quality diagnosis. According to the characteristic of TIG and MIG, special spectral zones were selected for welding quality diagnosis. For TIG welding, the selected zone is in ultraviolet zone (230-300 nm). For MIG welding, the selected zone is in visible zone (570-590 nm). With the basic theory provided for welding quality diagnosis, the integral intensity of spectral signal in the selected zone of welding process with disturbing factor was studied to prove the theory. The results show that the welding quality and disturbance factors can be diagnosed with good signal to noise ratio in the selected spectral zone compared with signal in other spectral zone. The spectral signal can be used for real-time diagnosis of the welding quality.

  7. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97–1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20–4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17–0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  8. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  9. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Brassington, Nicola, E-mail: llanz@ipac.caltech.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  10. Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E peak obs , the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E peak , E obs and the peak luminosity L iso ) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E peak obs , the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E peak obs by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E peak obs -fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E peak obs -F and E peak obs -P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E peak obs -F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E peak obs -P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.

  11. Energy efficiency information systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that different cultures and countries are receptive in different ways to information transfer. Modern information technology, including computers, videos, and telecommunications, can provide a very useful tool for the dissemination of information. At the same time, however, the use of new media involves many new and varied challenges. It is important therefore that the new dissemination methods are developed and utilised in the most effective way depending on the subjects distinctive character, needs and traditions. This workshop was designed to gather experts from all the CADDET member countries, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas about the use of new methods of information exchange and training in the field of energy efficiency. The workshop was divided into four plenary sessions: dissemination of information on energy efficient technologies; training technologies and effective learning; computer-based training tools on energy efficiency; databases and network resources. Two discussion groups followed the plenary sessions, to concentrate on: different aspects of information exchange; and different aspects of state-of-the-art training tools. The workshop was attended by 44 participants from 17 countries, and included 14 speakers

  12. IDEN2-A program for visual identification of spectral lines and energy levels in optical spectra of atoms and simple molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, V. I.; Kramida, A.; Vokhmentsev, M. Ya.

    2018-04-01

    The article describes a Java program that can be used in a user-friendly way to visually identify spectral lines observed in complex spectra with theoretically predicted transitions between atomic or molecular energy levels. The program arranges various information about spectral lines and energy levels in such a way that line identification and determination of positions of experimentally observed energy levels become much easier tasks that can be solved fast and efficiently.

  13. Energy - achieving an optimum through information. Energie - optimal durch Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith.

  14. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    OpenAIRE

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue...

  15. The NASA earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation, second supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System (ERSIS) and the information contained therein are described. It is intended for use as a second supplement to the NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation, NASA CR-31650-24-T, May 1971. The current supplement includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, and 375 vegetation directional reflectance spectral curves in the optical region from 0.2 to 22.0 microns. The data were categorized by subject and each curve plotted on a single graph. Each graph is fully titled to indicate curve source and indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval from ERSIS magnetic tape records.

  16. Spectral and dual-energy X-ray imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging is an umbrella term for energy-resolved X-ray imaging in medicine. The technique makes use of the energy dependence of X-ray attenuation to either increase the contrast-to-noise ratio, or to provide quantitative image data and reduce image artefacts by so-called material decomposition. Spectral imaging is not new, but has gained interest in recent years because of rapidly increasing availability of spectral and dual-energy CT and the dawn of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors. This review examines the current technological status of spectral and dual-energy imaging and a number of practical applications of the technology in medicine.

  17. Spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral data with mutual information based segmented stacked autoencoder approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Subir; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral (HS) data comprises of continuous spectral responses of hundreds of narrow spectral bands with very fine spectral resolution or bandwidth, which offer feature identification and classification with high accuracy. In the present study, Mutual Information (MI) based Segmented Stacked Autoencoder (S-SAE) approach for spectral-spatial classification of the HS data is proposed to reduce the complexity and computational time compared to Stacked Autoencoder (SAE) based feature extraction. A non-parametric dependency measure (MI) based spectral segmentation is proposed instead of linear and parametric dependency measure to take care of both linear and nonlinear inter-band dependency for spectral segmentation of the HS bands. Then morphological profiles are created corresponding to segmented spectral features to assimilate the spatial information in the spectral-spatial classification approach. Two non-parametric classifiers, Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Gaussian kernel and Random Forest (RF) are used for classification of the three most popularly used HS datasets. Results of the numerical experiments carried out in this study have shown that SVM with a Gaussian kernel is providing better results for the Pavia University and Botswana datasets whereas RF is performing better for Indian Pines dataset. The experiments performed with the proposed methodology provide encouraging results compared to numerous existing approaches.

  18. Spectrally and Energy Efficient OFDM (SEE-OFDM) for Intensity Modulated Optical Wireless Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Emily; Wilson, Sarah Kate; Elgala, Hany; Little, Thomas D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Spectrally and energy efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SEE-OFDM) is an optical OFDM technique based on combining multiple asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) signals into one OFDM signal. By summing different components together, SEE-OFDM can achieve the same spectral efficiency as DC-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM) without an energy-inefficient DC-bias. This paper introduces multiple methods for decoding a SEE-OFDM symbol and shows that an iterative decoder wit...

  19. Electron-energy-loss spectral library and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1983-09-01

    An electron energy loss spectral library can be an invaluable tool in materials research from a fundamental as well as a practical standpoint. Although it will not alleviate all the complications associated with quantification, this type of library can help to elucidate details of spectral profiles previously found intractable. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy. The author also wishes to express his gratitude to the organizing committee for partial financial support provided to attend this meeting.

  20. Terrain Extraction by Integrating Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data and Spectral Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C. L.; Halim, S.; Zulkepli, M.; Azwan, A. M.; Tang, W. L.; Chong, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of true terrain points from unstructured laser point cloud data is an important process in order to produce an accurate digital terrain model (DTM). However, most of these spatial filtering methods just utilizing the geometrical data to discriminate the terrain points from nonterrain points. The point cloud filtering method also can be improved by using the spectral information available with some scanners. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of using the three-channel (red, green and blue) of the colour image captured from built-in digital camera which is available in some Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) for terrain extraction. In this study, the data acquisition was conducted at a mini replica landscape in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai campus using Leica ScanStation C10. The spectral information of the coloured point clouds from selected sample classes are extracted for spectral analysis. The coloured point clouds which within the corresponding preset spectral threshold are identified as that specific feature point from the dataset. This process of terrain extraction is done through using developed Matlab coding. Result demonstrates that a higher spectral resolution passive image is required in order to improve the output. This is because low quality of the colour images captured by the sensor contributes to the low separability in spectral reflectance. In conclusion, this study shows that, spectral information is capable to be used as a parameter for terrain extraction.

  1. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Optimised sensitivity to leptonic CP violation from spectral information: the LBNO case at 2300 km baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Aittola, M; Alekou, A; Andrieu, B; Antoniou, F; Asfandiyarov, R; Autiero, D; Bésida, O; Balik, A; Ballett, P; Bandac, I; Banerjee, D; Bartmann, W; Bay, F; Biskup, B; Blebea-Apostu, A M; Blondel, A; Bogomilov, M; Bolognesi, S; Borriello, E; Brancus, I; Bravar, A; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Caiulo, D; Calin, M; Calviani, M; Campanelli, M; Cantini, C; Cata-Danil, G; Chakraborty, S; Charitonidis, N; Chaussard, L; Chesneanu, D; Chipesiu, F; Crivelli, P; Dawson, J; De Bonis, I; Declais, Y; Sanchez, P Del Amo; Delbart, A; Di Luise, S; Duchesneau, D; Dumarchez, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eliseev, A; Emery, S; Enqvist, T; Enqvist, K; Epprecht, L; Erykalov, A N; Esanu, T; Franco, D; Friend, M; Galymov, V; Gavrilov, G; Gendotti, A; Giganti, C; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Gomoiu, C M; Gornushkin, Y A; Gorodetzky, P; Haesler, A; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, S; Huitu, K; Izmaylov, A; Jipa, A; Kainulainen, K; Karadzhov, Y; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kopylov, A N; Korzenev, A; Kosyanenko, S; Kryn, D; Kudenko, Y; Kuusiniemi, P; Lazanu, I; Lazaridis, C; Levy, J -M; Loo, K; Maalampi, J; Margineanu, R M; Marteau, J; Martin-Mari, C; Matveev, V; Mazzucato, E; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Mirizzi, A; Mitrica, B; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Narita, S; Nesterenko, D A; Nguyen, K; Nikolics, K; Noah, E; Novikov, Yu; Oprima, A; Osborne, J; Ovsyannikova, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascoli, S; Patzak, T; Pectu, M; Pennacchio, E; Periale, L; Pessard, H; Popov, B; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M; Resnati, F; Ristea, O; Robert, A; Rubbia, A; Rummukainen, K; Saftoiu, A; Sakashita, K; Sanchez-Galan, F; Sarkamo, J; Saviano, N; Scantamburlo, E; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shaposhnikova, E; Slupecki, M; Smargianaki, D; Stanca, D; Steerenberg, R; Sterian, A R; Sterian, P; Stoica, S; Strabel, C; Suhonen, J; Suvorov, V; Toma, G; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W H; Tsenov, R; Tuominen, K; Valram, M; Vankova-Kirilova, G; Vannucci, F; Vasseur, G; Velotti, F; Velten, P; Venturi, V; Viant, T; Vihonen, S; Vincke, H; Vorobyev, A; Weber, A; Wu, S; Yershov, N; Zambelli, L; Zito, M

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) is to study the $L/E$ behaviour (spectral information) of the electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance probabilities, in order to determine the unknown CP-violation phase $\\delta_{CP}$ and discover CP-violation in the leptonic sector. The result is based on the measurement of the appearance probabilities in a broad range of energies, covering t he 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima, at a very long baseline of 2300 km. The sensitivity of the experiment can be maximised by optimising the energy spectra of the neutrino and anti-neutrino fluxes. Such an optimisation requires exploring an extended range of parameters describing in details the geometries and properties of the primary protons, hadron target and focusing elements in the neutrino beam line. In this paper we present a numerical solution that leads to an optimised energy spectra and study its impact on the sensitivity of LBNO to discover leptonic CP violation. In the optimised flux ...

  3. Spectral information for detection of acoustic time to arrival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Russo, Frank A.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of intensity for an approaching sound source provides salient information for a listener to make judgments of time to arrival (TTA). Specifically, a listener will experience a greater rate of increasing intensity for higher than for lower frequencies during a sound source...

  4. Energy Efficient LED Spectrally Matched Smart Lighting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research and the University of Houston Clear Lake have teamed to develop a widely extensible, affordable, energy efficient, smart lighting...

  5. A mass and energy conserving spectral element atmospheric dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M A; Edwards, J; Thomas, S; Nair, R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a conservative formulation of the spectral element method applied to global atmospheric circulation modeling. Exact local conservation of both mass and energy is obtained via a new compatible formulation of the spectral element method. Compatibility insures that the key integral property of the divergence and gradient operators required to show conservation also hold in discrete form. The spectral element method is used on a cubed-sphere grid to discretize the horizontal directions on the sphere. It can be coupled to any conservative vertical/radial discretization. The accuracy and conservation properties of the method are illustrated using a baroclinic instability test case

  6. Energy information systems: a general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The unprecedented energy crises that engulfed the world in early 1970s brought about a spurt in energy research all over the world, which in turn caused the rapid growth of literature in the field. In order to achieve effective bibliographical control, proper dissemination of information, and rapid access to the desired document, energy information systems of diverse scope came into being. The paper describes the special features of several information systems like (i) International Nuclear Information Systems, which covers world literature on nuclear science and technology (ii) Energy Information Services which takes cares of energy information transfer among the Commonwealth countries of the Asia and Pacific region; (ii) Information Network on New Energy Sources and Technologies for Asia And Pacific. This system is being developed to ensure smooth energy information transfer amongst non-commonwealth countries of Asia and the Pacific. (author)

  7. Guided-wave approaches to spectrally selective energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, G. I.; Burke, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments designed to demonstrate spectrally selective absorption in dielectric waveguides on semiconductor substrates are reported. These experiments were conducted with three waveguides formed by sputtering films of PSK2 glass onto silicon-oxide layers grown on silicon substrates. The three waveguide samples were studied at 633 and 532 nm. The samples differed only in the thickness of the silicon-oxide layer, specifically 256 nm, 506 nm, and 740 nm. Agreement between theoretical predictions and measurements of propagation constants (mode angles) of the six or seven modes supported by these samples was excellent. However, the loss measurements were inconclusive because of high scattering losses in the structures fabricated (in excess of 10 dB/cm). Theoretical calculations indicated that the power distribution among all the modes supported by these structures will reach its steady state value after a propagation length of only 1 mm. Accordingly, the measured loss rates were found to be almost independent of which mode was initially excited. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment leads to the conclusion that low loss waveguides confirm the predicted loss rates.

  8. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  9. Development of Neutron Energy Spectral Signatures for Passive Monitoring of Spent Nuclear Fuels in Dry Cask Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Ira; Zhu, Ting; Liang, Yinong; Rauch, Eric; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2018-01-01

    Demand for spent nuclear fuel dry casks as an interim storage solution has increased globally and the IAEA has expressed a need for robust safeguards and verification technologies for ensuring the continuity of knowledge and the integrity of radioactive materials inside spent fuel casks. Existing research has been focusing on "fingerprinting" casks based on count rate statistics to represent radiation emission signatures. The current research aims to expand to include neutron energy spectral information as part of the fuel characteristics. First, spent fuel composition data are taken from the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Libraries, representative for Westinghouse 17ˣ17 PWR assemblies. The ORIGEN-S code then calculates the spontaneous fission and (α,n) emissions for individual fuel rods, followed by detailed MCNP simulations of neutrons transported through the fuel assemblies. A comprehensive database of neutron energy spectral profiles is to be constructed, with different enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time conditions. The end goal is to utilize the computational spent fuel library, predictive algorithm, and a pressurized 4He scintillator to verify the spent fuel assemblies inside a cask. This work identifies neutron spectral signatures that correlate with the cooling time of spent fuel. Both the total and relative contributions from spontaneous fission and (α,n) change noticeably with respect to cooling time, due to the relatively short half-life (18 years) of the major neutron source 244Cm. Identification of this and other neutron spectral signatures allows the characterization of spent nuclear fuels in dry cask storage.

  10. Information report about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the the International Conference on the climatic changes at La Haye, the projects of the nuclear industry reorganizing and the network energies market deregulation, the french government organized some discussions on the energy. Four subjects have been chosen to answer to the following four questions: What about the energy supply and demand in the future? How take up the environmental challenges of the energy? What is the future of the electro- nuclear industry? Towards which new economic organization of network energies will emerge the deregulation of the electric power and gas market? This document presents the conclusions of these four thematic meetings. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy Information Augmented Community-Based Energy Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rembert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available More than one-half of all U.S. states have instituted energy efficiency mandates requiring utilities to reduce energy use. To achieve these goals, utilities have been permitted rate structures to help them incentivize energy reduction projects. This strategy is proving to be only modestly successful in stemming energy consumption growth. By the same token, community energy reduction programs have achieved moderate to very significant energy reduction. The research described here offers an important tool to strengthen the community energy reduction efforts—by providing such efforts energy information tailored to the energy use patterns of each building occupant. The information provided most importantly helps each individual energy customer understand their potential for energy savings and what reduction measures are most important to them. This information can be leveraged by the leading community organization to prompt greater action in its community. A number of case studies of this model are shown. Early results are promising.

  12. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pleural effusion with dual-energy spectral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xirong; Duan, Haifeng; Yu, Yong; Ma, Chunling; Ren, Zhanli; Lei, Yuxin; He, Taiping; Zhang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the value of spectral CT in the differential diagnosis of benign from malignant pleural effusion. 14 patients with benign pleural effusion and 15 patients with malignant pleural effusion underwent non-contrast spectral CT imaging. These patients were later verified by the combination of disease history, clinical signs and other information with the consensus of surgeons and radiologists. Various Spectral CT image parameters measured for the effusion were as follows: CT numbers of the polychromatic 140kVp images, monochromatic images at 40keV and 100keV, the material density contents from the water, fat and blood-based material decomposition images, the effective atomic number and the spectral curve slope. These values were statistically compared with t test and logistic regression analysis between benign and malignant pleural effusion. The CT value of benign and malignant pleural effusion in the polychromatic 140kVp images showed no differences (12.61±3.39HU vs. 14.71±5.03HU) (P>0.05), however, they were statistically different on the monochromatic images at 40keV (43.15±3.79 vs. 39.42±2.60, p = 0.005) and 100keV (9.11±1.38 vs. 6.52±2.04, p<0.001). There was difference in the effective atomic number value between the benign (7.87±0.08) and malignant pleural effusion (7.90±0.02) (P = 0.02). Using 6.32HU as the threshold for CT value measurement at 100keV, one could obtain sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 66.7% with area-under-curve of 0.843 for differentiating benign from malignant effusion. In addition, age and disease history were potential confounding factors for differentiating malignant pleural effusion from benign, since the older age (61.13±12.51 year-old vs48.57±12.33 year-old) as well as longer disease history (70.00±49.28 day vs.28.36±21.64 day) were more easily to be found in the malignant pleural effusion group than those in the benign pleural effusion group. By combining above five factors, one could obtain sensitivity

  13. An enterprise energy-information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swords, B.; Coyle, E. [School of Control Systems and Electrical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); Norton, B. [President, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier St., Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2008-01-15

    This paper outlines the background, development, and assessment of a prototype enterprise energy information system (EEIS) that supports strategic energy-management by providing comprehensive energy monitoring and targeting, integrating with energy modelling software and enterprise business databases, and supporting measurement and verification (M and V). The EEIS prototype system was developed and assessed in an industrial site and a third-level education institution with colleges throughout Dublin. The industrial site provided the opportunity for the EEIS to meet the requirements of a large energy intensive site, and to integrate with energy modelling software. The higher education establishment accommodated the development of a networked energy-information system. (author)

  14. Fusion of LBP and SWLD using spatio-spectral information for hyperspectral face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Shuai; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging, recording intrinsic spectral information of the skin cross different spectral bands, become an important issue for robust face recognition. However, the main challenges for hyperspectral face recognition are high data dimensionality, low signal to noise ratio and inter band misalignment. In this paper, hyperspectral face recognition based on LBP (Local binary pattern) and SWLD (Simplified Weber local descriptor) is proposed to extract discriminative local features from spatio-spectral fusion information. Firstly, the spatio-spectral fusion strategy based on statistical information is used to attain discriminative features of hyperspectral face images. Secondly, LBP is applied to extract the orientation of the fusion face edges. Thirdly, SWLD is proposed to encode the intensity information in hyperspectral images. Finally, we adopt a symmetric Kullback-Leibler distance to compute the encoded face images. The hyperspectral face recognition is tested on Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hyperspectral Face database (PolyUHSFD). Experimental results show that the proposed method has higher recognition rate (92.8%) than the state of the art hyperspectral face recognition algorithms.

  15. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a tractable mathematical framework to analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an operator initiated deployment of the small-cells (e.g., femtocells) where the small-cell base stations are deliberately positioned around the edge of the macrocell. The considered deployment facilitates the cell-edge mobile users in terms of their coverage, spectral, and energy efficiency and is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) configuration. The reduction in energy consumption is achieved by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency and exact expressions for the energy efficiency of the mobile users in the considered COE configuration over generalized-K fading channels. Besides the COE configuration, the derived bounds are also shown to be useful in evaluating the performance of random small-cell deployments, e.g., uniformly distributed small-cells. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the improvements in spectral and energy efficiency of the COE configuration with respect to macro-only networks and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  17. Nanoscale applications for information and energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Korkin, Anatoli

    2012-01-01

    This book presents nanotechnology fundamentals and applications in the key research areas of information technology and solar energy: plasmonics, photovoltaics, transparent conducting electrodes, silicon electroplating, and resistive switching.

  18. Wind energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  19. Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots

  20. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  1. Localness of energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence, II. Sharp spectral filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scale-locality of subgrid-scale (SGS) energy flux and interband energy transfers defined by the sharp spectral filter. We show by rigorous bounds, physical arguments, and numerical simulations that the spectral SGS flux is dominated by local triadic interactions in an extended turbulent inertial range. Interband energy transfers are also shown to be dominated by local triads if the spectral bands have constant width on a logarithmic scale. We disprove in particular an alternative picture of 'local transfer by nonlocal triads,' with the advecting wavenumber mode at the energy peak. Although such triads have the largest transfer rates of all individual wavenumber triads, we show rigorously that, due to their restricted number, they make an asymptotically negligible contribution to energy flux and log-banded energy transfers at high wavenumbers in the inertial range. We show that it is only the aggregate effect of a geometrically increasing number of local wavenumber triads which can sustain an energy cascade to small scales. Furthermore, nonlocal triads are argued to contribute even less to the space-average energy flux than is implied by our rigorous bounds, because of additional cancellations from scale-decorrelation effects. We can thus recover the -4/3 scaling of nonlocal contributions to spectral energy flux predicted by Kraichnan's abridged Lagrangian-history direct-interaction approximation and test-field model closures. We support our results with numerical data from a 512{sup 3} pseudospectral simulation of isotropic turbulence with phase-shift dealiasing. We also discuss a rigorous counterexample of Eyink [Physica D 78, 222 (1994)], which showed that nonlocal wavenumber triads may dominate in the sharp spectral flux (but not in the SGS energy flux for graded filters). We show that this mathematical counter example fails to satisfy reasonable physical requirements for a turbulent velocity field, which are employed in our

  2. Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Nathalie; Ferrier, Alban; Thiel, Charles W.; Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E.; Cone, Rufus L.; Ikesue, Akio; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the 7F0→5D0 transition in Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ˜15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu3+ concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.

  3. Information report on wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled the European environmental objectives (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, improving energy efficiency by 20%, renewable energies representing at least 20% of the whole energy consumption), this report describes the recent and fast development of wind energy in France (installed power in 2009, still not much developed industry, ambitious projects, numerous tools) and worldwide (important growth in Europe and worldwide). It describes this development as a rather disordered one in terms of pricing, in terms of land planning and of preservation of landscapes, sites and other activities. It outlines some technical problems which are still to be solved: connection to the network, intermittent production and prediction issues. It briefly presents choices made in Denmark. Some issues are then discussed for a better controlled development: a strengthened public policy, a better acceptance by the population. The report finally questions the future for an offshore wind energy production: economical, technological, landscape, and legal issues, examples of foreign projects, presentation of some planned French projects

  4. Validation of Spectral Unmixing Results from Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) of Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral instruments are a growing class of Earth observing sensors designed to improve remote sensing capabilities beyond discrete multi-band sensors by providing tens to hundreds of continuous spectral channels. Improved spectral resolution, range and radiometric accuracy allow the collection of large amounts of spectral data, facilitating thorough characterization of both atmospheric and surface properties. We describe the development of an Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) spectral unmixing method to exploit this spectral information and separate atmospheric and surface signals based on their physical sources. INMF offers marked benefits over other commonly employed techniques including non-negativity, which avoids physically impossible results; and adaptability, which tailors the method to hyperspectral source separation. The INMF algorithm is adapted to separate contributions from physically distinct sources using constraints on spectral and spatial variability, and library spectra to improve the initial guess. Using this INMF algorithm we decompose hyperspectral imagery from the NASA Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), with a focus on separating surface and atmospheric signal contributions. HICO's coastal ocean focus provides a dataset with a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions. These include atmospheres with varying aerosol optical thicknesses and cloud cover. HICO images also provide a range of surface conditions including deep ocean regions, with only minor contributions from the ocean surfaces; and more complex shallow coastal regions with contributions from the seafloor or suspended sediments. We provide extensive comparison of INMF decomposition results against independent measurements of physical properties. These include comparison against traditional model-based retrievals of water-leaving, aerosol, and molecular scattering radiances and other satellite products, such as aerosol optical thickness from

  5. General information about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The following briefing notes were written to provide background information about nuclear power in Europe for journalists covering ENC 2002. They deal with four separate aspects of nuclear electricity generation: Economics; Environment; Safety; Waste Management. (authors)

  6. Energy Information Directory (Formerly: Energy Information Referral Directory). First quarter 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC) provides energy information and referral assistance to federal, state, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal; functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). To assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper office within DOE or other federal agencies, the Energy Information Referral Directory was developed. With this issue, the directory has a new title: the Energy Information Directory

  7. Investigation of JI and DI CMOS FXR response at different spectral energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnold, V.R.; Goldberg, M.; Schreiner, W.A.; Witteles, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The transient response of both junction isolated (JI) and dielectrically isolated (DI) CMOS circuits has been investigated in three FXR environments of differing energy spectrums. The offset recovery times have been measured and analyzed for both structures. It is shown that while the DI circuit (HD4007) did not exhibit a four layer type latchup action, its transient response persisted for a time longer than is expected for this type of device. A possible mechanism for this observed response is developed and discussed. JI circuits (CD4007) exposed under the same conditions exhibited four layer device action and one sample at low spectral energies latched-up. The conditions for the latchup to occur including the four layer device paths are discussed. Finally, the dependence of the x-ray transient response on the spectral energy is considered. For the lower energy FXR source, latchup was observed in a CD4007 sample. This latchup was not observed at more than double the dose rate when a high energy FXR was used. This result is attributed to dose enhancement, and a device enhancement factor may also be involved. The dose enhancement factor is estimated from the work of Long, and points up the importance of accounting for the spectral energy content in simulating a given nuclear threat spectrum

  8. Information Retrieval from SAGE II and MFRSR Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Direct beam spectral extinction measurements of solar radiation contain important information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from multiple scattering contributions that otherwise tend to complicate the data analysis and information retrieval. Such direct beam extinction measurements are available from the solar occultation satellite-based measurements made by the Stratospheric and Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) instrument and by ground-based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The SAGE II data provide cross-sectional slices of the atmosphere twice per orbit at seven wavelengths between 385 and 1020 nm with approximately 1 km vertical resolution, while the MFRSR data provide atmospheric column measurements at six wavelengths between 415 and 940 nm but at one minute time intervals. We apply the same retrieval technique of simultaneous least-squares fit to the observed spectral extinctions to retrieve aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance, and ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor amounts from the SAGE II and MFRSR measurements. The retrieval technique utilizes a physical model approach based on laboratory measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide extinction, line-by-line and numerical k-distribution calculations for water vapor absorption, and Mie scattering constraints on aerosol spectral extinction properties. The SAGE II measurements have the advantage of being self-calibrating in that deep space provides an effective zero point for the relative spectral extinctions. The MFRSR measurements require periodic clear-day Langley regression calibration events to maintain accurate knowledge of instrument calibration.

  9. Interactive Joint Transfer of Energy and Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Fouladgar, A. M.; Simeone, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    In some communication networks, such as passive RFID systems, the energy used to transfer information between a sender and a recipient can be reused for successive communication tasks. In fact, from known results in physics, any system that exchanges information via the transfer of given physical...... key design insights. Index Terms— Two-way channel, interactive communication, energy transfer, energy harvesting....... resources, such as radio waves, particles and qubits, can conceivably reuse, at least part, of the received resources. This paper aims at illustrating some of the new challenges that arise in the design of communication networks in which the signals exchanged by the nodes carry both information and energy...

  10. URBox : High tech energy and informal housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Y.J.; Smets, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the URBox concept encompassing the high tech end of solar energy and informal low cost and affordable housing. It aims to contribute to solving the global energy crisis by building solar energy settlements in deserts where land is affordable and sunshine in abundance. First the

  11. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  12. The energy cost of quantum information losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Alejandro; de Lima Marquezino, Franklin; Portugal, Renato; Donangelo, Raul

    2018-05-01

    We explore the energy cost of the information loss resulting from the passage of an initial density operator to a reduced one. We use the concept of entanglement temperature in order to obtain a lower bound for the energy change associated with this operation. We determine the minimal energy required for the case of the information losses associated with the trace over the space coordinates of a two-dimensional quantum walk.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  14. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  15. Modelling performance of a small array of Wave Energy Converters: Comparison of Spectral and Boussinesq models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, Charles; Christie, David; Venugopal, Vengatesan; Morrison, James; Vogler, Arne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from numerical simulations of three Oscillating Wave Surge Converters (OWSC) using two different computational models, Boussinesq wave (BW) and Spectral wave (SW) of the commercial software suite MIKE. The simulation of a shallow water wave farm applies alternative methods for implementing a frequency dependent absorption in both the BW and SW models, where energy extraction is based on experimental data from a scaled Oyster device. The effects of including wave diffraction within the SW model is tested by using diffraction smoothing steps and various directional wave conditions. The results of this study reveal important information on the models realms of validity that is heavily dependent on the incident sea state and the removal of diffraction for the SW model. This yields an increase in simulation accuracy for far-field disturbances when diffraction is entirely removed. This highlights specific conditions where the BW and SW model may thrive but also regions where reduced performance is observed. The results presented in this paper have not been validated with real sea site wave device array performance, however, the methodology described would be useful to device developers to arrive at preliminary decisions on array configurations and to minimise negative environmental impacts.

  16. SURVEY DESIGN FOR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING: A FISHER MATRIX APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bickerton, Steven J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook

    2012-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority (∼90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.

  17. The Interaction of Temporal and Spectral Acoustic Information with Word Predictability on Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavarani, Somayeh Bahar

    High-level, top-down information such as linguistic knowledge is a salient cortical resource that influences speech perception under most listening conditions. But, are all listeners able to exploit these resources for speech facilitation to the same extent? It was found that children with cochlear implants showed different patterns of benefit from contextual information in speech perception compared with their normal-haring peers. Previous studies have discussed the role of non-acoustic factors such as linguistic and cognitive capabilities to account for this discrepancy. Given the fact that the amount of acoustic information encoded and processed by auditory nerves of listeners with cochlear implants differs from normal-hearing listeners and even varies across individuals with cochlear implants, it is important to study the interaction of specific acoustic properties of the speech signal with contextual cues. This relationship has been mostly neglected in previous research. In this dissertation, we aimed to explore how different acoustic dimensions interact to affect listeners' abilities to combine top-down information with bottom-up information in speech perception beyond the known effects of linguistic and cognitive capacities shown previously. Specifically, the present study investigated whether there were any distinct context effects based on the resolution of spectral versus slowly-varying temporal information in perception of spectrally impoverished speech. To that end, two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, a noise-vocoded technique was adopted to generate spectrally-degraded speech to approximate acoustic cues delivered to listeners with cochlear implants. The frequency resolution was manipulated by varying the number of frequency channels. The temporal resolution was manipulated by low-pass filtering of amplitude envelope with varying low-pass cutoff frequencies. The stimuli were presented to normal-hearing native speakers of American

  18. Coherent Structures and Spectral Energy Transfer in Turbulent Plasma: A Space-Filter Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Califano, F.; Retinò, A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma turbulence at scales of the order of the ion inertial length is mediated by several mechanisms, including linear wave damping, magnetic reconnection, the formation and dissipation of thin current sheets, and stochastic heating. It is now understood that the presence of localized coherent structures enhances the dissipation channels and the kinetic features of the plasma. However, no formal way of quantifying the relationship between scale-to-scale energy transfer and the presence of spatial structures has been presented so far. In the Letter we quantify such a relationship analyzing the results of a two-dimensional high-resolution Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulation. In particular, we employ the technique of space filtering to derive a spectral energy flux term which defines, in any point of the computational domain, the signed flux of spectral energy across a given wave number. The characterization of coherent structures is performed by means of a traditional two-dimensional wavelet transformation. By studying the correlation between the spectral energy flux and the wavelet amplitude, we demonstrate the strong relationship between scale-to-scale transfer and coherent structures. Furthermore, by conditioning one quantity with respect to the other, we are able for the first time to quantify the inhomogeneity of the turbulence cascade induced by topological structures in the magnetic field. Taking into account the low space-filling factor of coherent structures (i.e., they cover a small portion of space), it emerges that 80% of the spectral energy transfer (both in the direct and inverse cascade directions) is localized in about 50% of space, and 50% of the energy transfer is localized in only 25% of space.

  19. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  20. [Study on Application of NIR Spectral Information Screening in Identification of Maca Origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang

    2016-02-01

    Medicinal and edible plant Maca is rich in various nutrients and owns great medicinal value. Based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra, 139 Maca samples collected from Peru and Yunnan were used to identify their geographical origins. Multiplication signal correction (MSC) coupled with second derivative (SD) and Norris derivative filter (ND) was employed in spectral pretreatment. Spectrum range (7,500-4,061 cm⁻¹) was chosen by spectrum standard deviation. Combined with principal component analysis-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD), the appropriate number of principal components was selected as 5. Based on the spectrum range and the number of principal components selected, two abnormal samples were eliminated by modular group iterative singular sample diagnosis method. Then, four methods were used to filter spectral variable information, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), monte carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and subwindow permutation analysis (SPA). The spectral variable information filtered was evaluated by model population analysis (MPA). The results showed that RMSECV(SPA) > RMSECV(CARS) > RMSECV(MC-UVE) > RMSECV(GA), were 2. 14, 2. 05, 2. 02, and 1. 98, and the spectral variables were 250, 240, 250 and 70, respectively. According to the spectral variable filtered, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build the model, with random selection of 97 samples as training set, and the other 40 samples as validation set. The results showed that, R²: GA > MC-UVE > CARS > SPA, RMSEC and RMSEP: GA Maca. The method was aimed to lay the foundation for traditional Chinese medicine identification and quality evaluation.

  1. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Biomass energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  3. Using a digital multimeter to capture spectral information generated by a spectrophotometer broadcast / atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Chaves, Alberto E.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral analysis capability of the information generated by a spectrophotometer broadcast / shimadzu AA 640-13 atomic absorption has increased, through the capture of data, using a digital multimeter as the interface between the spectrophotometer and a computer. To facilitate the identification of analytes was created Chromulan format files for the 99 chemical elements reported in the literature, and covering the region between 200 nm and 900 nm, the subject of this study. (author) [es

  4. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  5. Optimisation of chromatographic resolution using objective functions including both time and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Lapasió, J R; Pous-Torres, S; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2015-01-16

    The optimisation of the resolution in high-performance liquid chromatography is traditionally performed attending only to the time information. However, even in the optimal conditions, some peak pairs may remain unresolved. Such incomplete resolution can be still accomplished by deconvolution, which can be carried out with more guarantees of success by including spectral information. In this work, two-way chromatographic objective functions (COFs) that incorporate both time and spectral information were tested, based on the peak purity (analyte peak fraction free of overlapping) and the multivariate selectivity (figure of merit derived from the net analyte signal) concepts. These COFs are sensitive to situations where the components that coelute in a mixture show some spectral differences. Therefore, they are useful to find out experimental conditions where the spectrochromatograms can be recovered by deconvolution. Two-way multivariate selectivity yielded the best performance and was applied to the separation using diode-array detection of a mixture of 25 phenolic compounds, which remained unresolved in the chromatographic order using linear and multi-linear gradients of acetonitrile-water. Peak deconvolution was carried out using the combination of orthogonal projection approach and alternating least squares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Information Data Base: serial titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Department of Energy Technical Information Center (TIC) is responsible for creating bibliographic data bases that are used in the announcement and retrieval of publications dealing with all phases of energy. The TIC interactive information processing system makes use of a number of computerized authorities so that consistency can be maintained and indexes can be produced. One such authority is the Energy Information Data Base: Serial Titles. This authority contains the full and abbreviated journal title, country of publication, CODEN, and certain codes. This revision replaces previous revisions of this document

  7. A rediscussion of the atmospheric extinction and the absolute spectral-energy distribution of Vega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.S.; Latham, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    For both the Lick and the Palomar calibrations of the spectral-energy distribution of Vega, the atmospheric extinction was treated incorrectly. We present a model for extinction in the Earth's atmosphere and use this model to calculate corrections to the Lick and Palomar calibrations. We also describe a method that can be used to fabricate mean extinction coefficients for any mountain observatory. We combine selected portions of the corrected Lick and corrected Palomar calibrations with the new Mount Hopkins calibration to generate an absolute spectral-energy distibution of Vega over the wavelength range 3300--10,800 A. Until better measurements become available, we recommend the use of this calibration for all practical applications

  8. Algorithms for spectral calibration of energy-resolving small-pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuffham, J; Veale, M C; Wilson, M D; Seller, P

    2013-01-01

    Small pixel Cd(Zn)Te detectors often suffer from inter-pixel variations in gain, resulting in shifts in the individual energy spectra. These gain variations are mainly caused by inclusions and defects within the crystal structure, which affect the charge transport within the material causing a decrease in the signal pulse height. In imaging applications, spectra are commonly integrated over a particular peak of interest. This means that the individual pixels must be accurately calibrated to ensure that the same portion of the spectrum is integrated in every pixel. The development of large-area detectors with fine pixel pitch necessitates automated algorithms for this spectral calibration, due to the very large number of pixels. Algorithms for automatic spectral calibration require accurate determination of characteristic x-ray or photopeak positions on a pixelwise basis. In this study, we compare two peak searching spectral calibration algorithms for a small-pixel CdTe detector in gamma spectroscopic imaging. The first algorithm uses rigid search ranges to identify peaks in each pixel spectrum, based on the average peak positions across all pixels. The second algorithm scales the search ranges on the basis of the position of the highest-energy peak relative to the average across all pixels. In test spectra acquired with Tc-99m, we found that the rigid search algorithm failed to correctly identify the target calibraton peaks in up to 4% of pixels. In contrast, the scaled search algorithm failed in only 0.16% of pixels. Failures in the scaled search algorithm were attributed to the presence of noise events above the main photopeak, and possible non-linearities in the spectral response in a small number of pixels. We conclude that a peak searching algorithm based on scaling known peak spacings is simple to implement and performs well for the spectral calibration of pixellated radiation detectors

  9. New informative techniques in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, S.V.; Ukhov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    A number of new informative techniques applied to high energy physics are considered. These are the object-oriented programming, systems integration, UIMS, visualisation, expert systems, neural networks. 100 refs

  10. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  11. Guidelines for Datacenter Energy Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mahdavi, Rod [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shukla, Yash [Center for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide structured guidance to data center owners, operators, and designers, to empower them with information on how to specify and procure data center energy information systems (EIS) for managing the energy utilization of their data centers. Data centers are typically energy-intensive facilities that can consume up to 100 times more energy per unit area than a standard office building (FEMP 2013). This guidance facilitates “data-driven decision making,” which will be enabled by following the approach outlined in the guide. This will bring speed, clarity, and objectivity to any energy or asset management decisions because of the ability to monitor and track an energy management project’s performance.

  12. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  13. Design of atomic energy information network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. C.; Chang, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    As the 21 st century is expected to induce a Knowledge based society, responding to this kind of change on our own initiative could be achieved by establishing networks among atomic energy agencies with the Atomic Energy Portal Site in a pivotal role. Thus, enabling the knowledge information from each agency to be easily shared and utilized. Furthermore, it can contribute to further researches by providing accumulated knowledge in the atomic energy, such as research output and past achievements, and by avoiding the repetition of researches on the same subjects. It could also provide remote educational data to researchers and industrial experts in atomic energy, as well as atomic energy information for general public consistently, so that we can promote our confidence in atomic energy

  14. A spectral blanking-out controller for demonstration of information barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suping; Gong Jian; Hu Guangchun; Zhang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    Information barrier technology has become more and more important in the R and D of radiation fingerprint verification associated with classified items such as nuclear warheads, nuclear components and military-used nuclear materials. The function of information barriers is two-fold: one is to prevent the classified information from leaking out; the other is to provide creditable verification. To fulfill these two functions, the information barriers for a viable verification system (including all its hardware and software) must be designed on the basic principles of protecting classified information and the ability to authenticate. The Spectral Blanking-out Controller (SBC) is developed to illustrate the two functions of the information barriers and to explore some practice measures to meet the required design fundamentals. This paper briefs the task assigned to the SBC, the specific design concerns and the practical information barrier measures. The R and D of the SBC embodies the concepts of information barrier technology and has to conform to the basic guidelines: If a verification system is expected to possess strict information barriers, the design of the system must be integrative with due considerations given to the factors such as the efficiency of the verification technique, the possible measures to protect the classified information from directly or indirectly leaking out, the complete openness in all aspects of the system for the inspectors to authenticate the system for the sake of achieving certain degree of confidence on the verification results. (authors)

  15. Energy Information Referral Directory. Fourth quarter 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This directory provides the name, address, and phone number of various energy information offices within the DOE and other Federal agencies. The arrangement is topical. Each entry presents the name of the office, the address, the main contact person, and a summary of the office's primary activities. There is a comprehensive subject index to the entries as well as a name index. In addition, the publication contains several appendices in which DOE Regional Energy Information Centers, state energy offices, DOE commercialization-resource managers, and DOE research and development and field facilities are listed. Charts illustrate the DOE and the EIA organizational structure

  16. Directory of Energy Information Administration models 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1995, DOE/EIA-0293(95), Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy, July 1995. Four models have been deleted in this directory as they are no longer being used: (1) Market Penetration Model for Ground-Water Heat Pump Systems (MPGWHP); (2) Market Penetration Model for Residential Rooftop PV Systems (MPRESPV-PC); (3) Market Penetration Model for Active and Passive Solar Technologies (MPSOLARPC); and (4) Revenue Requirements Modeling System (RRMS).

  17. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... and intends to find, extract, collect and index HTML documents with standardised META tags that are widely spread across web servers on the Internet. This paper presents the structure of IRIS, the software tools, and gives one example of how to categorise and prepare web-sites with product information...

  18. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the 1993 directory and includes 15 models of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Three other new models in use by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) have also been included: the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), Distillate Market Model (DMM), and the Propane Market Model (PPMM). This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1994

  19. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the 1993 directory and includes 15 models of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Three other new models in use by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) have also been included: the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), Distillate Market Model (DMM), and the Propane Market Model (PPMM). This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1994.

  20. Deuterium depleted water effect on seawater spectral energy and marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Zaharia, Mihaela; Cristescu, T.M.; Titescu, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of new energy in most aquatic ecosystems and it is the sun variability in amount and spectral distribution that drives many of the changes in material flux on different time and space scales. The dependency of ecosystem dynamics on sunlight is largely attributable to the simple fact that plants require solar radiation to carry out photosynthesis. The resulting primary production (the rate of the plant growth and reproduction) is an index of aquatic processes, including food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycling of compounds that affect everything from aquatic chemistry to regional and global weather patterns. Light dependent processes in plants (photo-synthesis, photoinhibition, phototaxis and photoprotection) and in aquatic environment, animal vision and microbial mediation of the photo-dissociation of chemical have evolved over millennia and most of them are regulated or at least influenced by the spectral composition of the light field The paper deals with the investigation of relations between water spectral energy modified by deuterium depleted water (DDW) and the microphyte alga Tetraselmis suecica or the total marine micro-phytoplankton growth. (authors)

  1. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.kunkel@chimie-paristech.fr; Goldner, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.goldner@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech–CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Ferrier, Alban [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech–CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonnes Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E. [Departamento Física de Materiales and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ikesue, Akio [World Laboratory, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0023 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu{sup 3+} doped Y {sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the {sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}D{sub 0} transition in Eu{sup 3+} doped Y {sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ∼15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.

  3. Dual energy spectral CT imaging for the evaluation of small hepatocellular carcinoma microvascular invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang-Bo; Zhang, Shuang; Jia, Yong-Jun; Yu, Yong; Duan, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Xi-Rong; Ma, Guang-Ming; Ren, Chenglong; Yu, Nan

    2017-10-01

    To study the clinical value of dual-energy spectral CT in the quantitative assessment of microvascular invasion of small hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was approved by our ethics committee. 50 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent contrast enhanced spectral CT in arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (VP) were enrolled. Tumour CT value and iodine concentration (IC) were measured from spectral CT images. The slope of spectral curve, normalized iodine concentration (NIC, to abdominal aorta) and ratio of IC difference between AP and VP (RIC AP-VP : [RIC AP-VP =(IC AP -IC VP )/IC AP ]) were calculated. Tumours were identified as either with or without microvascular invasion based on pathological results. Measurements were statistically compared using independent samples t test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of tumours microvascular invasion assessment. The 70keV images were used to simulate the results of conventional CT scans for comparison. 56 small hepatocellular carcinomas were detected with 37 lesions (Group A) with microvascular invasion and 19 (Group B) without. There were significant differences in IC, NIC and slope in AP and RIC AP-VP between Group A (2.48±0.70mg/ml, 0.23±0.05, 3.39±1.01 and 0.28±0.16) and Group B (1.65±0.47mg/ml, 0.15±0.05, 2.22±0.64 and 0.03±0.24) (all phepatocellular carcinoma with and without microvascular invasion. Quantitative iodine concentration measurement in spectral CT may be used to provide a new method to improve the evaluation for small hepatocellular carcinoma microvascular invasion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward Improved Modeling of Spectral Solar Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to extend the capability of the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by computing spectral solar irradiances over both horizontal and inclined surfaces. A new model is developed by computing the optical thickness of the atmosphere using a spectral irradiance model for clear-sky conditions, SMARTS2. A comprehensive lookup table (LUT) of cloud bidirectional transmittance distribution functions (BTDFs) is precomputed for 2002 wavelength bands using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, libRadtran. The solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere is given by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. Our results indicate that this new model has an accuracy that is similar to that of state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, but it is significantly more efficient.

  5. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz......, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase...... of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data...

  6. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  7. Physical and Hydrological Meaning of the Spectral Information from Hydrodynamic Signals at Karst Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoyer, A.; Lecoq, N.; Massei, N.; Marechal, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Physics-based modeling of karst systems remains almost impossible without enough accurate information about the inner physical characteristics. Usually, the only available hydrodynamic information is the flow rate at the karst outlet. Numerous works in the past decades have used and proven the usefulness of time-series analysis and spectral techniques applied to spring flow, precipitations or even physico-chemical parameters, for interpreting karst hydrological functioning. However, identifying or interpreting the karst systems physical features that control statistical or spectral characteristics of spring flow variations is still challenging, not to say sometimes controversial. The main objective of this work is to determine how the statistical and spectral characteristics of the hydrodynamic signal at karst springs can be related to inner physical and hydraulic properties. In order to address this issue, we undertake an empirical approach based on the use of both distributed and physics-based models, and on synthetic systems responses. The first step of the research is to conduct a sensitivity analysis of time-series/spectral methods to karst hydraulic and physical properties. For this purpose, forward modeling of flow through several simple, constrained and synthetic cases in response to precipitations is undertaken. It allows us to quantify how the statistical and spectral characteristics of flow at the outlet are sensitive to changes (i) in conduit geometries, and (ii) in hydraulic parameters of the system (matrix/conduit exchange rate, matrix hydraulic conductivity and storativity). The flow differential equations resolved by MARTHE, a computer code developed by the BRGM, allows karst conduits modeling. From signal processing on simulated spring responses, we hope to determine if specific frequencies are always modified, thanks to Fourier series and multi-resolution analysis. We also hope to quantify which parameters are the most variable with auto

  8. Study of the spectral and energy characteristics of lasing in the green spectral region by lithium fluoride with radiation color centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mikhnov, S.A.; Ovseichuk, S.I.

    1987-06-01

    The spectral and energy characteristics of lasers utilizing lithium fluoride with F2 and F3(+) color centers in transverse and longitudinal pumping schemes are studied. The feasibility of obtaining stable narrow-band radiation in the 510-570 nm range using a selective resonator is demonstrated. Consideration is given to the effect of lithium-fluoride crystal processing by excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of 308 nm on the spectroscopic and lasing characteristics of the F3(+) color center. After this processing, the laser efficiency in the green spectral region increases by more than a factor of two (reaching an efficiency of 14 percent). 7 references.

  9. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-01-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  10. The importance of spectral separation: an assessment of dual-energy spectral separation for quantitative ability and dose efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Bernhard; Grant, Katharine L; Schmidt, Bernhard T; Flohr, Thomas G

    2015-02-01

    One method to acquire dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) data is to perform CT scans at 2 different x-ray tube voltages, typically 80 and 140 kV, either as 2 separate scans, by means of rapid kV switching, or with the use of 2 x-ray sources as in dual-source CT (DSCT) systems. In DSCT, it is possible to improve spectral separation with tin prefiltration (Sn) of the high-kV beam. Recently, x-ray tube voltages beyond the established range of 80 to 140 kV were commercially introduced, which enable additional voltage combinations for DE acquisitions, such as 80/150 Sn or 90/150 Sn kV. Here, we investigate the DE performance of several x-ray tube voltages and prefilter combinations on 2 DSCT scanners and the impact of the spectra on quantitative analysis and dose efficiency. Circular phantoms of different sizes (10-40 cm in diameter) equipped with cylindrical inserts containing water and diluted iodine contrast agent (14.5 mg/cm) were scanned using 2 different DSCT systems (SOMATOM Definition Flash and SOMATOM Force; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany). Five x-ray tube voltage combinations (80/140 Sn, 100/140 Sn, 80/150 Sn, 90/150 Sn, and 100/150 Sn kV) were investigated, and the results were compared with the previous standard acquisition technique (80/140 kV). As an example, 80/140 Sn kV means that 1 x-ray tube of the DSCT system was operated at 80 kV, whereas the other was operated at 140 kV with additional tin prefiltration (Sn). Dose values in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) were kept constant between the different voltage combinations but adjusted with regard to object size according to automatic exposure control recommendations. Reconstructed images were processed using linear blending of the low- and high-kV CT images to combined images, as well as 3-material decomposition techniques to generate virtual noncontrast (VNC) images and iodine images. Contrast and pixel noise were evaluated, as well as DE ratios, which are defined as the CT value

  11. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  12. Proposal of a New Method for Neutron Dosimetry Based on Spectral Information Obtained by Application of Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Schuetz, R.; Hahn, K.; Sprunck, M.; Cordes, E.; Biersack, J.P.; Wahl, W.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the monitoring of neutron radiation is proposed. It is based on the determination of spectral information on the neutron field in order to derive dose quantities like the ambient dose equivalent, the dose equivalent, or other dose quantities which depend on the neutron energy. The method uses a multi-element system consisting of converter type silicon detectors. The unfolding procedure is based on an artificial neural network (ANN). The response function of each element is determined by a computational model considering the neutron interaction with the dosemeter layers and the subsequent transport of produced ions. An example is given for a multi-element system. The ANN is trained by a given set of neutron spectra and then applied to count responses obtained in neutron fields. Four examples of spectra unfolded using the ANN are presented. (author)

  13. Energy and environmental management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.K. (Energy Auditing Agency Ltd., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The threat of global warming, environmental instability and the possible use of green or carbon taxes on fossil fuels has increased the need for energy efficiency. Energy Conservation is now recognised as one of the easiest and most cost-effective ways of limiting or reducing CO[sub 2] emissions. Large UK companies are now assessing how much CO[sub 2] they dissipate to the environment and reviewing strategies to reduce this either in response to consumer demand or as a corporate policy decision. Computer-based information systems already exist to monitor and report on fluctuations in energy consumption. These are called Monitoring and Targeting (M and T) systems. This paper explains what M and T systems are and how they are being extended to cover reporting on corporate fuel-based CO[sub 2] emissions to help provide an integrated energy and environmental-management information system. (author).

  14. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  15. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MARKARIAN 501: QUIESCENT STATE VERSUS EXTREME OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  16. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State Versus Extreme Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

    2011-03-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  17. Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions and Absorption Feature Indices of Single Stellar Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2004-01-01

    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1-19 Gyr and the metallicities [Fe/H] are in the range -2.3 - 0.2. Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley, Pols and Tout for the stellar e...

  18. Spectral energy distributions of T Tauri stars - disk flaring and limits on accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Adams et al. (1987) conclusion that much of the IR excess emission in the spectral energy distribution of T Tauri stars arises from reprocessing of stellar radiation by a dusty circumstellar disk is presently supported by analyses conducted in light of various models of these stars' spectra. A low mass reprocessing disk can, however, produce these spectra as well as a massive accretion disk. The detection of possible boundary layer radiation in the optical and near-UV regions poses the strongest limits on accretion rates. Disk accretion in the T Tauri phase does not significantly modify stellar evolution. 85 references

  19. Spectral energy transfer of atmospheric gravity waves through sum and difference nonlinear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.M. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Chinese Academey of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment; Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Liu, A.Z.; Li, Z. [Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value. (orig.)

  20. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  1. The Galah Survey: Classification and Diagnostics with t-SNE Reduction of Spectral Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traven, G.; Zwitter, T.; Žerjal, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Matijevič, G. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kos, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; De Silva, G.; Sharma, S. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Asplund, M.; Freeman, K.; Lin, J.; Da Costa, G.; Duong, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Casey, A. R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martell, S. L. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Schlesinger, K. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Simpson, J. D. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Zucker, D. B. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Anguiano, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Horner, J., E-mail: gregor.traven@fmf.uni-lj.si [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, Towoomba QLD 4350 (Australia); and others

    2017-02-01

    Galah is an ongoing high-resolution spectroscopic survey with the goal of disentangling the formation history of the Milky Way using the fossil remnants of disrupted star formation sites that are now dispersed around the Galaxy. It is targeting a randomly selected magnitude-limited ( V ≤ 14) sample of stars, with the goal of observing one million objects. To date, 300,000 spectra have been obtained. Not all of them are correctly processed by parameter estimation pipelines, and we need to know about them. We present a semi-automated classification scheme that identifies different types of peculiar spectral morphologies in an effort to discover and flag potentially problematic spectra and thus help to preserve the integrity of the survey results. To this end, we employ the recently developed dimensionality reduction technique t-SNE ( t -distributed stochastic neighbor embedding), which enables us to represent the complex spectral morphology in a two-dimensional projection map while still preserving the properties of the local neighborhoods of spectra. We find that the majority (178,483) of the 209,533 Galah spectra considered in this study represents normal single stars, whereas 31,050 peculiar and problematic spectra with very diverse spectral features pertaining to 28,579 stars are distributed into 10 classification categories: hot stars, cool metal-poor giants, molecular absorption bands, binary stars, H α /H β emission, H α /H β emission superimposed on absorption, H α /H β P-Cygni, H α /H β inverted P-Cygni, lithium absorption, and problematic. Classified spectra with supplementary information are presented in the catalog, indicating candidates for follow-up observations and population studies of the short-lived phases of stellar evolution.

  2. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    The DOE Energy Information Data Base has been created and is maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center. One of the controls for information entered into the base is the standardized name of the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of this list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. It also serves as a guide for users who retrieve information from a bibliographic data base and who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. This authority is a combination of entries established by the Technical Information Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The format calls, in general, for the name of the organization represented by the literature being cataloged to be cited as follows: the largest element, the place, the smallest element, e.g., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah (USA), Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Code numbers are assigned to each entry to provide manipulation by computer. Cross references are used to reflect name changes and invalid entries

  3. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  4. Solar energy; Product information. Zonne-energie; Produktinformatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisheer, N

    1992-03-20

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills.

  5. Determination of the Spectral Index in the Fission Spectrum Energy Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Neutron reaction cross sections play a vital role in tracking the production and destruction of isotopes exposed to neutron fluence. They are central to the process of reconciling the initial and final atom inventories. Measurements of irradiated samples by radiochemical methods in tangent with an algorithm are used to evaluate the fluence a sample is exposed to over the course of the irradiation. This algorithm is the Isotope Production Code (IPC) created and used by the radiochemistry data assessment team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An integral result is calculated by varying the total neutron fluence seen by a sample. A sample, irradiated in a critical assembly, will be exposed to a unique neutron flux defined by the neutron source and distance of the sample from the source. Neutron cross sections utilized are a function of the hardness of the neutron spectrum at the location of irradiation. A spectral index is used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum. Cross sections fit forms applied in IPC are collapsed from a LANL 30-group energy structure. Several decades of research and development have been performed to formalize the current IPC cross section library. Basis of the current fission spectrum neutron reaction cross section library is rooted in critical assembly experiments performed from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s at LANL. The focus of this report is development of the spectral index used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum in the fission spectrum energy regime.

  6. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  7. Spectral Characterization of the Wave Energy Resource for Puerto Rico (PR) and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. G.; Canals, M.; Irizarry, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays a significant amount of wave energy assessments have taken place due to the development of the ocean energy markets worldwide. Energy contained in surface gravity waves is scattered along frequency components that can be described using wave spectra. Correspondingly, characterization and quantification of harvestable wave energy is inherently dictated by the nature of the two-dimensional wave spectrum. The present study uses spectral wave data from the operational SWAN-based CariCOOS Nearshore Wave Model to evaluate the capture efficiency of multiple wave energy converters (WEC). This study revolves around accurately estimating available wave energy as a function of varying spectral distributions, effectively providing a detailed insight concerning local wave conditions for PR and USVI and the resulting available-energy to generated-power ratio. Results in particular, provide a comprehensive characterization of three years' worth of SWAN-based datasets by outlining where higher concentrations of wave energy are localized in the spectrum. Subsequently, the aforementioned datasets were processed to quantify the amount of energy incident on two proposed sites located in PR and USVI. Results were largely influenced by local trade wind activity, which drive predominant sea states, and the amount of North-Atlantic swells that propagate towards the region. Each wave event was numerically analyzed in the frequency domain to evaluate the capacity of a WEC to perform under different spectral distribution scenarios, allowing for a correlation between electrical power output and spectral energy distribution to be established.

  8. Deblurring sequential ocular images from multi-spectral imaging (MSI) via mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jian; Zheng, Yuanjie; Jiao, Wanzhen; Yan, Fang; Zhao, Bojun

    2018-06-01

    Multi-spectral imaging (MSI) produces a sequence of spectral images to capture the inner structure of different species, which was recently introduced into ocular disease diagnosis. However, the quality of MSI images can be significantly degraded by motion blur caused by the inevitable saccades and exposure time required for maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. This degradation may confuse an ophthalmologist, reduce the examination quality, or defeat various image analysis algorithms. We propose an early work specially on deblurring sequential MSI images, which is distinguished from many of the current image deblurring techniques by resolving the blur kernel simultaneously for all the images in an MSI sequence. It is accomplished by incorporating several a priori constraints including the sharpness of the latent clear image, the spatial and temporal smoothness of the blur kernel and the similarity between temporally-neighboring images in MSI sequence. Specifically, we model the similarity between MSI images with mutual information considering the different wavelengths used for capturing different images in MSI sequence. The optimization of the proposed approach is based on a multi-scale framework and stepwise optimization strategy. Experimental results from 22 MSI sequences validate that our approach outperforms several state-of-the-art techniques in natural image deblurring.

  9. Information sheets on energy; Fiches information sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Energy and information near black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freivogel, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are ''frozen'' by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is ''mined,'' the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a violation of unitarity, effective field theory, or free infall

  11. Energy calibration issues in nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy: observing small spectral shifts and making fast calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D

    2013-09-01

    The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements.

  12. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  13. Resolving spectral information from time domain induced polarization data through 2-D inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Binley, A.

    2013-01-01

    these limitations of conventional approaches, a new 2-D inversion algorithm has been developed using the full voltage decay of the IP response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and receiver transfer function. This allows reconstruction of the spectral information contained in the TD...... sampling necessary in the fast Hankel transform. These features, together with parallel computation, ensure inversion times comparable with those of direct current algorithms. The algorithm has been developed in a laterally constrained inversion scheme, and handles both smooth and layered inversions......; the latter being helpful in sedimentary environments, where quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. In the layered inversion approach, a general method to derive the thickness derivative from the complex conductivity Jacobian is also...

  14. INFORMATIVITY OF SPECTRAL OPTICAL COHERENT TOMOGRAPHY IN AGGRESSIVE POSTERIOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: to evaluate the informativity of optical coherence tomography in patients with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. Patients and methods. spectral optical coherence tomography using portable device iVue-100 with a removable camera (Optovue, USA was held in 32 children (64 eyes with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity with a gestational period 26–31 week. Results. Children with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity at the stage of early clinical manifestations, in addition to the indication that the immaturity of the retina, according to the spectral optical coherence tomography revealed only a few areas of epiretinal proliferation, which are not visualized with a digital retinoscopy and binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. When the process is more pronounced in children with retinopathy of prematurity aggressive rear stage manifestation already determined multiple zones epiretinal proliferation as a "mushroom" and "flake" conglomerates with rear zone hyaloid membrane had an uneven seal. Coarser structural disorders of the retina and the vitreoretinal interface have been identified in patients with advancedstage aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. We determined the shaft extraretinal proliferation as a "comb", as well as portions of epiretinal proliferation on the border of vascularized and avascular retina, which tended to merge, and the formation of massive hyperreflection complexes, lifted back hyaloid membrane, which was not only uneven sealed, but in some places is stratified. Conclusion. Despite the complexity of the procedure and the complexity of its implementation, the data obtained are particularly valuable and informative because they allow to complement the clinical picture and objectify it. It helps to choose the optimal tactics and improvement of a differentiated approach to the treatment of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity.

  15. Exploiting High Resolution Multi-Seasonal Textural Measures and Spectral Information for Reedbed Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Okiemute Onojeghuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reedbeds across the UK are amongst the most important habitats for rare and endangered birds, wildlife and organisms. However, over the past century, this valued wetland habitat has experienced a drastic reduction in quality and spatial coverage due to pressures from human related activities. To this end, conservation organisations across the UK have been charged with the task of conserving and expanding this threatened habitat. With this backdrop, the study aimed to develop a methodology for accurate reedbed mapping through the combined use of multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information contained in high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery. The key objectives were to determine the most effective single-date (autumn or summer and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery suitable for reedbed mapping over the study area; to evaluate the effectiveness of combining multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information for reedbed mapping using a variety of combinations; and to evaluate the most suitable classification technique for reedbed mapping from three selected classification techniques, namely maximum likelihood classifier, spectral angular mapper and artificial neural network. Using two selected grey-level co-occurrence textural measures (entropy and angular second moment, a series of experiments were conducted using varied combinations of single-date and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery. Overall, the results indicate the multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral bands (eight layers combined with all eight grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measures (entropy and angular second moment computed using windows 3 × 3 and 7 × 7 produced the optimal reedbed (76.5% and overall classification (78.1% accuracies using the maximum likelihood classifier technique. Using the optimal 16 layer multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral and texture combined image dataset, a total reedbed area of 9.8 hectares was successfully mapped over the

  16. Analysis of spectral effects on the energy yield of different PV (photovoltaic) technologies: The case of four specific sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.; Nofuentes, G.; Torres-Ramírez, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at looking into the impact of the solar spectrum distribution on the energy yield of some PV (photovoltaic) materials on both monthly and annual time scales. The relative spectral responses of eight different PV solar cells – representative of each considered technology – have been selected. Modeling solar spectra in four sites located in the north hemisphere together with a 12-month experimental campaign in which spectral irradiances were periodically recorded in two of these sites located in Spain have provided highly interesting results. Regardless of the site, the considered amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride PV cells experience the most noticeable modeled and experimental variations of their monthly spectral gains, whilst flatter seasonal ones are identified in the remaining considered PV technologies. Thus, the maximum monthly variations of these spectral gains take place in the a-Si PV cell, ranging from −16% (winter) to 4% (summer) in Stuttgart. Anyway, the monthly spread of the spectral effects decreases as the latitude of the site does. Last, the impact of the solar spectrum distribution is remarkably reduced when the period of integration is enlarged up to a year. In fact, annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites. - Highlights: • Monthly and annual spectral effects on eight different PV (photovoltaic) technologies studied. • Modeled spectra in four sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Measured spectra (12 months) in two sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Higher bandgap technologies: noticeable monthly variations in their spectral gains. • Annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites

  17. Energy - achieving an optimum through information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Directory of energy information administration models 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-13

    This updated directory has been published annually; after this issue, it will be published only biennially. The Disruption Impact Simulator Model in use by EIA is included. Model descriptions have been updated according to revised documentation approved during the past year. This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1995. The first group is the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models. The second group is all other EIA models that are not part of NEMS. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems. Appendix B is a summary of the `Annual Energy Outlook` Forecasting System.

  19. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-06

    This directory contains descriptions about each model, including the title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 35 EIA models active as of May 1, 1993. Models that run on personal computers are identified by ``PC`` as part of the acronym. EIA is developing new models, a National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), and is making changes to existing models to include new technologies, environmental issues, conservation, and renewables, as well as extend forecast horizon. Other parts of the Department are involved in this modeling effort. A fully operational model is planned which will integrate completed segments of NEMS for its first official application--preparation of EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1994. Abstracts for the new models will be included in next year`s version of this directory.

  20. Toward accurate prediction of potential energy surfaces and the spectral density of hydrogen bonded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekik, Najeh

    2014-01-01

    Despite the considerable progress made in quantum theory and computational methods, detailed descriptions of the potential energy surfaces of hydrogen-bonded systems have not yet been achieved. In addition, the hydrogen bond (H-bond) itself is still so poorly understood at the fundamental level that it remains unclear exactly what geometry constitutes a “real” H-bond. Therefore, in order to investigate features essential for hydrogen bonded complexes, a simple, efficient, and general method for calculating matrix elements of vibrational operators capable of describing the stretching modes and the H-bond bridges of hydrogen-bonded systems is proposed. The derived matrix elements are simple and computationally easy to evaluate, which makes the method suitable for vibrational studies of multiple-well potentials. The method is illustrated by obtaining potential energy surfaces for a number of two-dimensional systems with repulsive potentials chosen to be in Gaussian form for the stretching mode and of the Morse-type for the H-bond bridge dynamics. The forms of potential energy surfaces of weak and strong hydrogen bonds are analyzed by varying the asymmetry of the Gaussian potential. Moreover, the choice and applicability of the selected potential for the stretching mode and comparison with other potentials used in the area of hydrogen bond research are discussed. The approach for the determination of spectral density has been constructed in the framework of the linear response theory for which spectral density is obtained by Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the dipole moment operator of the fast mode. The approach involves anharmonic coupling between the high frequency stretching vibration (double well potential) and low-frequency donor-acceptor stretching mode (Morse potential) as well as the electrical anharmonicity of the dipole moment operator of the fast mode. A direct relaxation mechanism is incorporated through a time decaying exponential

  1. Virtual Non-Contrast CT Using Dual-Energy Spectral CT: Feasibility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inyoung; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated V...

  2. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF IMAGES AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAURUS PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  3. A spectral chart method for estimating the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present an empirical but simple and practical spectral chart method for determining the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate DNS spectra, points to this scaling being also valid at small Reynolds numbers, provided effects due to inhomogeneities in the flow are negligible. The methods avoid the difficulty associated with estimating time or spatial derivatives of the velocity fluctuations. It also avoids using the second hypothesis of K41, which implies the existence of a -5/3 inertial subrange only when the Taylor microscale Reynods number R λ is sufficiently large. The method is in fact applied to the lower wavenumber end of the dissipative range thus avoiding most of the problems due to inadequate spatial resolution of the velocity sensors and noise associated with the higher wavenumber end of this range.The use of spectral data (30 ≤ R λ ≤ 400) in both passive and active grid turbulence, a turbulent mixing layer and the turbulent wake of a circular cylinder indicates that the method is robust and should lead to reliable estimates of < \\varepsilon rangle in flows or flow regions where the first similarity hypothesis should hold; this would exclude, for example, the region near a wall.

  4. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  5. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: RyanLane@my.unt.edu, E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  6. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resourcestudies. Comparison results from complex...... terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined withroughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  7. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  8. The spectral energy distributions of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Renxin

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  9. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  10. Energy and spectral efficiency analysis for selective ARQ multi-channel systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shafique, Taniya

    2017-07-31

    In this paper, we develop selective retransmission schemes for multiple-channel systems. The proposed schemes are selective automatic repeat request with fixed bandwidth (SARQ-FB), selective chase combining with fixed bandwidth (SCC-FB) and selective automatic repeat request with variable bandwidth (SARQ-VB). The main objective of the proposed schemes is to use the available power and bandwidth budget effectively along with the selective retransmission to deliver the required data successfully within a limited number of transmissions. To investigate the performance of each scheme, we first analyze the average spectral and energy efficiency and derive closed form expressions for each scheme. Then, we compare the EE and SE of each scheme through numerical results.

  11. A dust spectral energy distribution model with hierarchical Bayesian inference - I. Formalism and benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliano, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a new dust spectral energy distribution (SED) model, named HerBIE, aimed at eliminating the noise-induced correlations and large scatter obtained when performing least-squares fits. The originality of this code is to apply the hierarchical Bayesian approach to full dust models, including realistic optical properties, stochastic heating, and the mixing of physical conditions in the observed regions. We test the performances of our model by applying it to synthetic observations. We explore the impact on the recovered parameters of several effects: signal-to-noise ratio, SED shape, sample size, the presence of intrinsic correlations, the wavelength coverage, and the use of different SED model components. We show that this method is very efficient: the recovered parameters are consistently distributed around their true values. We do not find any clear bias, even for the most degenerate parameters, or with extreme signal-to-noise ratios.

  12. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.

    2016-01-06

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  13. Virtual non-contrast CT using dual energy spectral CT: Feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Lee, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Measured coronary calcium volumes from VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Among the three VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p < 0.001 for all pairs). The use of VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC

  14. Virtual non-contrast CT using dual energy spectral CT: Feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Measured coronary calcium volumes from VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Among the three VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p < 0.001 for all pairs). The use of VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC.

  15. Differentiation of urinary calculi with dual energy CT: effect of spectral shaping by high energy tin filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Krauss, Bernhard; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Reimann, Anja; Werner, Matthias; Schilling, David; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Heuschmid, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT), spectral shaping by additional filtration of the high energy spectrum can theoretically improve dual energy contrast. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the influence of an additional tin filter for the differentiation of human urinary calculi by dual energy CT. A total of 36 pure human urinary calculi (uric acid, cystine, calciumoxalate monohydrate, calciumoxalate dihydrate, carbonatapatite, brushite, average diameter 10.5 mm) were placed in a phantom and imaged with 2 dual source CT scanners. One scanner was equipped with an additional tin (Sn) filter. Different combinations of tube voltages (140/80 kV, 140/100 kV, Sn140/100 kV, Sn140/80 kV, with Sn140 referring to 140 kV with the tin filter) were applied. Tube currents were adapted to yield comparable dose indices. Low- and high energy images were reconstructed. The calculi were segmented semiautomatically in the datasets and DE ratios (attenuation@low_kV/attenuation@high_kV) and were calculated for each calculus. DE contrasts (DE-ratio_material1/DE-ratio_material2) were computed for uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi and compared between the combinations of tube voltages. Using exclusively DE ratios, all uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi (as a group) could be differentiated in all protocols; the calcified calculi could not be differentiated among each other in any examination protocol. The highest DE ratios and DE contrasts were measured for the Sn140/80 protocol (53%-62% higher DE contrast than in the 140/80 kV protocol without additional filtration). The DE ratios and DE contrasts of the 80/140 kV and 100/Sn140 kV protocols were comparable. Uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi could be reliably differentiated by any of the protocols. A dose-neutral gain of DE contrast was found in the Sn-filter protocols, which might improve the differentiation of smaller calculi (Sn140/80 kV) and improve image quality and calculi differentiation in

  16. Spectral Transfer Learning using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy Waytowich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG, which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both offline and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP. For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs, the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  17. Spectral Transfer Learning Using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytowich, Nicholas R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Bohannon, Addison W; Ball, Kenneth R; Lance, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both off-line and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP). For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs), the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  18. Spectral-Efficiency - Illumination Pareto Front for Energy Harvesting Enabled VLC System

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-12-13

    The continuous improvement in optical energy harvesting devices motivates visible light communication (VLC) system developers to utilize such available free energy sources. An outdoor VLC system is considered where an optical base station sends data to multiple users that are capable of harvesting the optical energy. The proposed VLC system serves multiple users using time division multiple access (TDMA) with unequal time and power allocation, which are allocated to improve the system performance. The adopted optical system provides users with illumination and data communication services. The outdoor optical design objective is to maximize the illumination, while the communication design objective is to maximize the spectral efficiency (SE). The design objectives are shown to be conflicting, therefore, a multiobjective optimization problem is formulated to obtain the Pareto front performance curve for the proposed system. To this end, the marginal optimization problems are solved first using low complexity algorithms. Then, based on the proposed algorithms, a low complexity algorithm is developed to obtain an inner bound of the Pareto front for the illumination-SE tradeoff. The inner bound for the Pareto-front is shown to be close to the optimal Pareto-frontier via several simulation scenarios for different system parameters.

  19. The spectral energy distribution and nature of the symbiotic system AS 296 in outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munari, U.; Whitelock, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Photometry covering the spectral range 0.36 to 5 μm is reported for the symbiotic star As 296 about two months after the onset of the first recorded nova-like outburst. Analysis of published pre-outburst photometry provides evidence for the presence of an accreting white dwarf of high luminosity. This information together with the new observations is used to eliminate, for the 1988 event, various mechanisms which have been suggested for the outbursts in symbiotic objects. It is shown that hydrogen burning of accreted material can produce the white dwarf luminosity during quiescence. The outburst is then the result of a thermonuclear runaway in the unburnt material. The evidence is somewhat conflicting on the question of degeneracy conditions prior to the thermonuclear runaway. (author)

  20. Simulation study of the aerosol information content in OMI spectral reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Veihelmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer and is designed and used primarily to retrieve trace gases like O3 and NO2 from the measured Earth reflectance spectrum in the UV-visible (270–500 nm. However, also aerosols are an important science target of OMI. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectral reflectance measurements in up to 20 wavelength bands. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA is performed to quantify the information content of OMI reflectance measurements on aerosols and to assess the capability of the multi-wavelength algorithm to discern various aerosol types. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for desert dust, biomass burning aerosols, and weakly absorbing anthropogenic aerosol with a variety of aerosol optical thicknesses, aerosol layer altitudes, refractive indices and size distributions. The range of aerosol parameters considered covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. This theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum is accurately known and clouds are absent, OMI reflectance measurements have 2 to 4 degrees of freedom that can be attributed to aerosol parameters. This information content depends on the observation geometry and the surface albedo spectrum. An additional wavelength band is evaluated, that comprises the O2-O2 absorption band at a wavelength of 477 nm. It is found that this wavelength band adds significantly more information than any other individual band.

  1. Spectral heterogeneity and carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 light-harvesting complexes from Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaong, Nikki M; LaFountain, Amy M; Hacking, Kirsty; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Gibson, George N; Cogdell, Richard J; Frank, Harry A

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic organisms produce a vast array of spectral forms of antenna pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar energy and also to adapt to growth under the variable environmental conditions of light intensity, temperature, and nutrient availability. This behavior is exemplified by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium that produces different types of LH2 light-harvesting complexes in response to variations in growth conditions. In the present work, three different spectral forms of LH2 from Alc. vinosum, B800-820, B800-840, and B800-850, were isolated, purified, and examined using steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The pigment composition of the LH2 complexes was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and all were found to contain five carotenoids: lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin, spirilloxanthin, rhodopin, and rhodovibrin. Spectral reconstructions of the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra based on the pigment composition revealed significantly more spectral heterogeneity in these systems compared to LH2 complexes isolated from other species of purple bacteria. The data also revealed the individual carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer efficiencies which were correlated with the kinetic data from the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic experiments. This series of LH2 complexes allows a systematic exploration of the factors that determine the spectral properties of the bound pigments and control the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer.

  2. Spectral and Energy Efficiencies in mmWave Cellular Networks for Optimal Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaset M. Hamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter wave (mmWave spectrum has been proposed for use in commercial cellular networks to relieve the already severely congested microwave spectrum. Thus, the design of an efficient mmWave cellular network has gained considerable importance and has to take into account regulations imposed by government agencies with regard to global warming and sustainable development. In this paper, a dense mmWave hexagonal cellular network with each cell consisting of a number of smaller cells with their own Base Stations (BSs is presented as a solution to meet the increasing demand for a variety of high data rate services and growing number of users of cellular networks. Since spectrum and power are critical resources in the design of such a network, a framework is presented that addresses efficient utilization of these resources in mmWave cellular networks in the 28 and 73 GHz bands. These bands are already an integral part of well-known standards such as IEEE 802.15.3c, IEEE 802.11ad, and IEEE 802.16.1. In the analysis, a well-known accurate mmWave channel model for Line of Sight (LOS and Non-Line of Sight (NLOS links is used. The cellular network is analyzed in terms of spectral efficiency, bit/s, energy efficiency, bit/J, area spectral efficiency, bit/s/m2, area energy efficiency, bit/J/m2, and network latency, s/bit. These efficiency metrics are illustrated, using Monte Carlo simulation, as a function of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, channel model parameters, user distance from BS, and BS transmission power. The efficiency metrics for optimum deployment of cellular networks in 28 and 73 GHz bands are identified. Results show that 73 GHz band achieves better spectrum efficiency and the 28 GHz band is superior in terms of energy efficiency. It is observed that while the latter band is expedient for indoor networks, the former band is appropriate for outdoor networks.

  3. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) x 10 -8 ph cm -2 s -1 . Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ∼3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  4. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Weiß, A.; Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Z.-Y. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, 43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Fśica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Harris, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Naylor, D. A. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Smith, H. A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spaans, M., E-mail: t.greve@ucl.ac.uk [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  5. THE HERSCHEL ORION PROTOSTAR SURVEY: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND FITS USING A GRID OF PROTOSTELLAR MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, E. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, W. J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ali, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Booker, J. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Poteet, C. A. [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Allen, L., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present key results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and model fits of 330 young stellar objects, predominantly protostars, in the Orion molecular clouds. This is the largest sample of protostars studied in a single, nearby star formation complex. With near-infrared photometry from 2MASS, mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel , and submillimeter photometry from APEX, our SEDs cover 1.2–870 μ m and sample the peak of the protostellar envelope emission at ∼100 μ m. Using mid-IR spectral indices and bolometric temperatures, we classify our sample into 92 Class 0 protostars, 125 Class I protostars, 102 flat-spectrum sources, and 11 Class II pre-main-sequence stars. We implement a simple protostellar model (including a disk in an infalling envelope with outflow cavities) to generate a grid of 30,400 model SEDs and use it to determine the best-fit model parameters for each protostar. We argue that far-IR data are essential for accurate constraints on protostellar envelope properties. We find that most protostars, and in particular the flat-spectrum sources, are well fit. The median envelope density and median inclination angle decrease from Class 0 to Class I to flat-spectrum protostars, despite the broad range in best-fit parameters in each of the three categories. We also discuss degeneracies in our model parameters. Our results confirm that the different protostellar classes generally correspond to an evolutionary sequence with a decreasing envelope infall rate, but the inclination angle also plays a role in the appearance, and thus interpretation, of the SEDs.

  6. A spectral chart method for estimating the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R.A. [The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    We present an empirical but simple and practical spectral chart method for determining the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate left angle {epsilon}right angle in a variety of turbulent flows. The method relies on the validity of the first similarity hypothesis of Kolmogorov (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci R R SS, NS 30:301-305, 1941) (or K41) which implies that spectra of velocity fluctuations scale on the kinematic viscosity {nu} and left angle {epsilon}right angle at large Reynolds numbers. However, the evidence, based on the DNS spectra, points to this scaling being also valid at small Reynolds numbers, provided effects due to inhomogeneities in the flow are negligible. The methods avoid the difficulty associated with estimating time or spatial derivatives of the velocity fluctuations. It also avoids using the second hypothesis of K41, which implies the existence of a -5/3 inertial subrange only when the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R{sub {lambda}} is sufficiently large. The method is in fact applied to the lower wavenumber end of the dissipative range thus avoiding most of the problems due to inadequate spatial resolution of the velocity sensors and noise associated with the higher wavenumber end of this range.The use of spectral data (30 {<=} R{sub {lambda}}{<=} 400) in both passive and active grid turbulence, a turbulent mixing layer and the turbulent wake of a circular cylinder indicates that the method is robust and should lead to reliable estimates of left angle {epsilon}right angle in flows or flow regions where the first similarity hypothesis should hold; this would exclude, for example, the region near a wall. (orig.)

  7. Optimized energy of spectral CT for infarct imaging: Experimental validation with human validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Veit; Palanisamy, Srikanth; Symons, Rolf; Pourmorteza, Amir; Ahlman, Mark A; Rice, Kelly; Thomas, Tom; Davies-Venn, Cynthia; Krauss, Bernhard; Kwan, Alan; Pandey, Ankur; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Bluemke, David A

    Late contrast enhancement visualizes myocardial infarction, but the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) is low using conventional CT. The aim of this study was to determine if spectral CT can improve imaging of myocardial infarction. A canine model of myocardial infarction was produced in 8 animals (90-min occlusion, reperfusion). Later, imaging was performed after contrast injection using CT at 90 kVp/150 kVpSn. The following reconstructions were evaluated: Single energy 90 kVp, mixed, iodine map, multiple monoenergetic conventional and monoenergetic noise optimized reconstructions. Regions of interest were measured in infarct and remote regions to calculate contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and Bhattacharya distance (a metric of the differentiation between regions). Blinded assessment of image quality was performed. The same reconstruction methods were applied to CT scans of four patients with known infarcts. For animal studies, the highest CNR for infarct vs. myocardium was achieved in the lowest keV (40 keV) VMo images (CNR 4.42, IQR 3.64-5.53), which was superior to 90 kVp, mixed and iodine map (p = 0.008, p = 0.002, p energy in conjunction with noise-optimized monoenergetic post-processing improves CNR of myocardial infarct delineation by approximately 20-25%. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  9. Area Spectral Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Tradeoff in Ultradense Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhua Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demand of explosive data traffic, ultradense base station (BS deployment in heterogeneous networks (HetNets as a key technique in 5G has been proposed. However, with the increment of BSs, the total energy consumption will also increase. So, the energy efficiency (EE has become a focal point in ultradense HetNets. In this paper, we take the area spectral efficiency (ASE into consideration and focus on the tradeoff between the ASE and EE in an ultradense HetNet. The distributions of BSs in the two-tier ultradense HetNet are modeled by two independent Poisson point processes (PPPs and the expressions of ASE and EE are derived by using the stochastic geometry tool. The tradeoff between the ASE and EE is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in which the EE is maximized under the ASE constraint, through optimizing the BS densities. It is difficult to solve the optimization problem analytically, because the closed-form expressions of ASE and EE are not easily obtained. Therefore, simulations are conducted to find optimal BS densities.

  10. MEG connectivity analysis in patients with Alzheimer's disease using cross mutual information and spectral coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Poza, Jesús; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Romero, Sergio; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible brain disorder which represents the most common form of dementia in western countries. An early and accurate diagnosis of AD would enable to develop new strategies for managing the disease; however, nowadays there is no single test that can accurately predict the development of AD. In this sense, only a few studies have focused on the magnetoencephalographic (MEG) AD connectivity patterns. This study compares brain connectivity in terms of linear and nonlinear couplings by means of spectral coherence and cross mutual information function (CMIF), respectively. The variables defined from these functions provide statistically significant differences (p CMIF. The results suggest that AD is characterized by both decreases and increases of functional couplings in different frequency bands as well as by an increase in regularity, that is, more evident statistical deterministic relationships in AD patients' MEG connectivity. The significant differences obtained indicate that AD could disturb brain interactions causing abnormal brain connectivity and operation. Furthermore, the combination of coherence and CMIF features to perform a diagnostic test based on logistic regression improved the tests based on individual variables for its robustness.

  11. A Workflow for Automated Satellite Image Processing : from Raw VHSR Data to Object-Based Spectral Information for Smallholder Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratoulias, D.; Tolpekin, Valentyn; De By, Rolf; Zurita-milla, Raul; Retsios, Bas; Bijker, Wietske; Hasan, Mohammad; Vermote, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Earth Observation has become a progressively important source of information for land use and land cover services over the past decades. At the same time, an increasing number of reconnaissance satellites have been set in orbit with ever increasing spatial, temporal, spectral, and radiometric

  12. Solar Energy Development PEIS Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    skip navigation Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS Home About the EIS Public Involvement Solar Energy Solar Energy Zones Maps Documents secondary menu News Frequently Asked Questions Glossary E the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern

  13. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  14. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Bay Hasager, C.

    2004-11-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resource studies. Comparison results from complex terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined with roughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEM and land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation of SAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain data as similar as possible to mast observations. Maximum-likelihood fitting is used to calculate the Weibull A and k parameters from the constrained data set. Satellite SAR wind maps cover the coastal zone from 3 km and offshore with very detailed information of 400 m by 400 m grid resolution. Spatial trends in mean wind, energy density, Weibull A and k and uncertainty values are provided for the area of interest. Satellite scatterometer wind observations have a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km. These data typically represent a site further offshore, and the tab-file statistics should be used in WASP combined with topography and roughness information to assess the coastal wind power potential. Scatterometer wind data are observed {approx} twice per day, whereas SAR only

  15. Silicon Nanowires for Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting: an Experimental Evaluation on the Trade-off Effects of the Spectral Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekone, Abdoul Karim; Chen, Yu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chen, Wen-Kai; Liu, Chia-An; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanowire possesses great potential as the material for renewable energy harvesting and conversion. The significantly reduced spectral reflectivity of silicon nanowire to visible light makes it even more attractive in solar energy applications. However, the benefit of its use for solar thermal energy harvesting remains to be investigated and has so far not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to provide practical information and insight into the performance of silicon nanowires in solar thermal energy conversion systems. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity and transmissivity of the black silicon nanowire array on silicon wafer substrate were measured. It was observed that the reflectivity is lower in the visible range but higher in the infrared range compared to the plain silicon wafer. A drying experiment and a theoretical calculation were carried out to directly evaluate the effects of the trade-off between scattering properties at different wavelengths. It is clearly seen that silicon nanowires can improve the solar thermal energy harnessing. The results showed that a 17.8 % increase in the harvest and utilization of solar thermal energy could be achieved using a silicon nanowire array on silicon substrate as compared to that obtained with a plain silicon wafer.

  16. Simultaneous spectral and temporal analyses of kinetic energies in nonequilibrium systems: theory and application to vibrational relaxation of O-D stretch mode of HOD in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-28

    A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen

  17. The influence of compressibility on nonlinear spectral energy transfer - Part 2: Effect on hypersonic boundary layer transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ankita; Girimaji, Sharath

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effect of compressible spectral energy transfer in the nonlinear regime of transition to turbulence of hypersonic boundary layers. The nature of spectral energy transfer between perturbation modes is profoundly influenced by two compressibility mechanisms. First and foremost, the emergence of nonlinear pressure-dilatation mechanism leads to kinetic-internal energy exchange within the perturbation field. Such interchange is absent in incompressible flow as pressure merely reorients the perturbation amplitude vector while conserving kinetic energy. Secondly, the nature of triadic interactions also changes due to variability in density. In this work, we demonstrate that the efficiency of nonlinear spectral energy transfer is diminished in compressible boundary layers. Emergence of new perturbation modes or `broad-banding' of the perturbation field is significantly delayed in comparison to incompressible boundary layer undergoing transition. A significant amount of perturbation energy is transformed to internal energy and thus unavailable for `tripping' the flow into turbulent state. These factors profoundly change the nature of the nonlinear stage of transition in compressible boundary layer leading to delayed onset of full-fledged turbulence.

  18. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  19. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  20. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY ADAPTATSYONNOY ABILITIES CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM FOR PHYSICAL EXEMENATION BY MORPHOLOGICAL, TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OSCILLOGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Martsenyuk; D. V. Vakulenko; L. O. Vakulenko

    2015-01-01

    Offer Author Information Technology morphological, temporal and spectral analysis of waveforms (recorded at rest and after exercise), the introduction of analytical treated for clinical interpretation of the results, evaluation and decision-making to doctors significantly increases the information content of the procedure of blood pressure measurement. Can be used for early detection and prenosological premorbid state and functional reserve of the circulatory system, help more effectively to ...

  1. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY ADAPTATSYONNOY ABILITIES CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM FOR PHYSICAL EXEMENATION BY MORPHOLOGICAL, TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OSCILLOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Offer Author Information Technology morphological, temporal and spectral analysis of waveforms (recorded at rest and after exercise, the introduction of analytical treated for clinical interpretation of the results, evaluation and decision-making to doctors significantly increases the information content of the procedure of blood pressure measurement. Can be used for early detection and prenosological premorbid state and functional reserve of the circulatory system, help more effectively to plan preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  2. The Renormalization-Group Method in the Problem on Calculation of the Spectral Energy Density of Fluid Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorovich, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    In order to find the shape of energy spectrum within the framework of the model of stationary homogeneous isotropic turbulence, the renormalization-group equations, which reflect the Markovian nature of the mechanism of energy transfer along the wavenumber spectrum, are used in addition to the dimensional considerations and the energy balance equation. For the spectrum, the formula depends on three parameters, namely, the wavenumber, which determines the upper boundary of the range of the turbulent energy production, the spectral flux through this boundary, and the fluid kinematic viscosity.

  3. Energy Information Administration annual report to Congress 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report to Congress contains energy-related information on the following: petroleum, natural gas and reserves, coal, nuclear and alternate fuels, electric power, energy markets and end us, statistical standards, automated data processing services, information services, and more. (VC)

  4. Resource allocation for phantom cellular networks: Energy efficiency vs spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Mean-while, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies for phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and phantom cells share of the total number of available resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It was found that increasing phantom cells share of resource blocks decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J. [Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, École normale supérieure, F-75005, Paris (France); Lis, D. C. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Schilke, P., E-mail: nindriolo@stsci.edu [I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel /HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel /PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5≤ J{sub u} ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas.

  6. Energy Efficiency - Spectral Efficiency Trade-off: A Multiobjective Optimization Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2015-04-23

    In this paper, we consider the resource allocation problem for energy efficiency (EE) - spectral efficiency (SE) trade-off. Unlike traditional research that uses the EE as an objective function and imposes constraints either on the SE or achievable rate, we propound a multiobjective optimization approach that can flexibly switch between the EE and SE functions or change the priority level of each function using a trade-off parameter. Our dynamic approach is more tractable than the conventional approaches and more convenient to realistic communication applications and scenarios. We prove that the multiobjective optimization of the EE and SE is equivalent to a simple problem that maximizes the achievable rate/SE and minimizes the total power consumption. Then we apply the generalized framework of the resource allocation for the EE-SE trade-off to optimally allocate the subcarriers’ power for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with imperfect channel estimation. Finally, we use numerical results to discuss the choice of the trade-off parameter and study the effect of the estimation error, transmission power budget and channel-to-noise ratio on the multiobjective optimization.

  7. Resource allocation for phantom cellular networks: Energy efficiency vs spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr M.

    2016-07-26

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Mean-while, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies for phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and phantom cells share of the total number of available resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It was found that increasing phantom cells share of resource blocks decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. Energy Efficiency - Spectral Efficiency Trade-off: A Multiobjective Optimization Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Bedeer, Ebrahim; Ahmed, Mohamed; Dobre, Octavia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the resource allocation problem for energy efficiency (EE) - spectral efficiency (SE) trade-off. Unlike traditional research that uses the EE as an objective function and imposes constraints either on the SE or achievable rate, we propound a multiobjective optimization approach that can flexibly switch between the EE and SE functions or change the priority level of each function using a trade-off parameter. Our dynamic approach is more tractable than the conventional approaches and more convenient to realistic communication applications and scenarios. We prove that the multiobjective optimization of the EE and SE is equivalent to a simple problem that maximizes the achievable rate/SE and minimizes the total power consumption. Then we apply the generalized framework of the resource allocation for the EE-SE trade-off to optimally allocate the subcarriers’ power for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with imperfect channel estimation. Finally, we use numerical results to discuss the choice of the trade-off parameter and study the effect of the estimation error, transmission power budget and channel-to-noise ratio on the multiobjective optimization.

  9. A novel approach for characterizing broad-band radio spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, V. M.; Franzen, T.; Morgan, J.; Seymour, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new broad-band radio frequency catalogue across 0.12 GHz ≤ ν ≤ 20 GHz created by combining data from the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, and the literature. Our catalogue consists of 1285 sources limited by S20 GHz > 40 mJy at 5σ, and contains flux density measurements (or estimates) and uncertainties at 0.074, 0.080, 0.119, 0.150, 0.180, 0.408, 0.843, 1.4, 4.8, 8.6, and 20 GHz. We fit a second-order polynomial in log-log space to the spectral energy distributions of all these sources in order to characterize their broad-band emission. For the 994 sources that are well described by a linear or quadratic model we present a new diagnostic plot arranging sources by the linear and curvature terms. We demonstrate the advantages of such a plot over the traditional radio colour-colour diagram. We also present astrophysical descriptions of the sources found in each segment of this new parameter space and discuss the utility of these plots in the upcoming era of large area, deep, broad-band radio surveys.

  10. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE..., DC 20503 And to Mr. Dana O'Hara, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S...

  11. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  12. Modelling the cosmic spectral energy distribution and extragalactic background light over all time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. K.; Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J. M.; Lagos, C. d. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a phenomological model of the cosmic spectral energy distribution (CSED) and the integrated galactic light (IGL) over all cosmic time. This model, based on an earlier model by Driver et al., attributes the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) to two processes - first, chaotic clump accretion and major mergers, resulting in the early-time formation of bulges and secondly, cold gas accretion, resulting in late-time disc formation. Under the assumption of a Universal Chabrier initial mass function, we combine the Bruzual & Charlot stellar libraries, the Charlot & Fall dust attenuation prescription and template spectra for emission by dust and active galactic nuclei to predict the CSED - pre- and post-dust attenuation - and the IGL throughout cosmic time. The phenomological model, as constructed, adopts a number of basic axioms and empirical results and has minimal free parameters. We compare the model output, as well as predictions from the semi-analytic model GALFORM to recent estimates of the CSED out to z = 1. By construction, our empirical model reproduces the full energy output of the Universe from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared extremely well. We use the model to derive predictions of the stellar and dust mass densities, again finding good agreement. We find that GALFORM predicts the CSED for z < 0.3 in good agreement with the observations. This agreement becomes increasingly poor towards z = 1, when the model CSED is ˜50 per cent fainter. The latter is consistent with the model underpredicting the CSFH. As a consequence, GALFORM predicts a ˜30 per cent fainter IGL.

  13. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  14. Information content in spectral dependencies of optical unit volume parameters under action of He-Ne laser on blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.; Oleinik, Tatiana V.

    1995-01-01

    Our previous works concerned with the development of methods for studying blood and action of low-intensity laser radiation on blood and erythrocyte suspensions had shown the light- scattering methods gave a large body of information on a medium studied due to the methodological relationship between irradiation processes and techniques for investigations. Detail analysis of spectral diffuse reflectivities and transmissivities of optically thick blood layers, spectral absorptivities calculated on this basis over 600 - 900 nm, by using different approximations, for a pathological state owing to hypoxia testifies to the optical significance of not only hemoglobin derivatives but also products of hemoglobin decomposition. Laser action on blood is specific and related to an initial state of blood absorption due to different composition of chromoproteids. This work gives the interpretation of spectral observations. Analysis of spectral dependencies of the exinction coefficient e, mean cosine m of phase function, and parameter Q equals (epsilon) (1-(mu) )H/(lambda) (H - hematocrit) testifies to decreasing the relative index of refraction of erythrocytes and to morphological changes during laser action under pathology owing to hypoxia. The possibility to obtain physical and chemical information on the state of blood under laser action in vivo is shown to be based on the method proposed by us for calculating multilayered structures modeling human organs and on the technical implementation of this method.

  15. Determination of the electron-hole pair creation energy for semiconductors from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Scholze, F; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be detected by the measurement of the charge carriers produced in a detector. The improved semiconductor technology now allows detectors operating near the physical limits of the detector materials to be designed. The mean energy required for producing an electron-hole pair, W, is a material property of the semiconductor. Here, the determination of W from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes is demonstrated. Using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation, different types of semiconductor photodiodes have been examined in the UV-, VUV-, and soft X-ray spectral range. Their spectral responsivity was determined with relative uncertainties between 0.4% and 1% using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as primary detector standard. Results are presented for silicon n-on-p junction photodiodes and for GaAsP/Au Schottky diodes at room temperature. The investigations for silicon covered the complete spectral range from 3 to 1500 eV, yielding a constant value W=(3.66+-0.03) eV fo...

  16. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Gemstone Spectral Imaging: A Novel Technique to Determine Human Cardiac Calculus Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Li; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Ko, Shih-Chi; Huang, Pei-Jung; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the chemical composition of any calculus in different human organs is essential for choosing the best treatment strategy for patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of determining the chemical composition of a human cardiac calculus using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) mode on a single-source dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in vitro. The cardiac calculus was directly scanned on the Discovery CT750 HD FREEdom Edition using GSI mode, in vitro. A portable fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy was also applied to verify the quantitative accuracy of the DECT measurements. The results of spectral DECT measurements indicate that effective Z values in 3 designated positions located in this calculus were 15.02 to 15.47, which are close to values of 15.74 to 15.86, corresponding to the effective Z values of calcium apatite and hydroxyapatite. The Raman spectral data were also reflected by the predominant Raman peak at 960 cm for hydroxyapatite and the minor peak at 875 cm for calcium apatite. A potential single-source DECT with GSI mode was first used to examine the morphological characteristics and chemical compositions of a giant human cardiac calculus, in vitro. The CT results were consistent with the Raman spectral data, suggesting that spectral CT imaging techniques could be accurately used to diagnose and characterize the compositional materials in the cardiac calculus.

  17. Resolving Nonstationary Spectral Information in Wind Speed Time Series Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Giebel, Gregor; Pinson, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    a 4-yr time series of 10-min wind speed observations. An adaptive spectral analysis method called the Hilbert–Huang transform is chosen for the analysis, because the nonstationarity of time series of wind speed observations means that they are not well described by a global spectral analysis method...... such as the Fourier transform. The Hilbert–Huang transform is a local method based on a nonparametric and empirical decomposition of the data followed by calculation of instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies using the Hilbert transform. The Hilbert–Huang transformed 4-yr time series is averaged and summarized...

  18. Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission dosimetric information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Vallejos, Patricia Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nuclear radiation that people who work with radioactive material is exposed to and its control by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. A full analysis of the System is presented with information about the Commission and the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety which runs the System. Ana analysis of the System is presented in order to obtain requirements. Management flow diagrams, the processes involved and current problems experienced by the users are described. A design logic is modeled producing Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). based on this physical design, or, Model of Physical Data, is prepared including tables, attributes, types of data, primary and foreign keys. A description is presented of how the System is implemented, the tools that are used and how the testing phase is carried out. The Dosimetry System meets the criteria for a Software Engineering project, where the basic cycle was used as a working methodology. The System developed supports the dosimetric control of people exposed to radioactive material. (author)

  19. Energy, information science, and systems science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Terry C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mercer - Smith, Janet A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-01

    This presentation will discuss global trends in population, energy consumption, temperature changes, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy security programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL's capabilities support vital national security missions and plans for the future. LANL science supports the energy security focus areas of impacts of Energy Demand Growth, Sustainable Nuclear Energy, and Concepts and Materials for Clean Energy. The innovation pipeline at LANL spans discovery research through technology maturation and deployment. The Lab's climate science capabilities address major issues. Examples of modeling and simulation for the Coupled Ocean and Sea Ice Model (COSIM) and interactions of turbine wind blades and turbulence will be given.

  20. Revisiting the Correlations of Peak Luminosity with Spectral Lag and Peak Energy of the Observed Gamma-ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-A Jo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of light curves and spectra of observed gamma-ray bursts in gamma-ray ranges is frequently demanded because the prompt emission contains immediate details regarding the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. We have revisited the relationship between the collimation-corrected peak luminosity and the spectral lag, investigating the lag-luminosity relationships in great detail by focusing on spectral lags resulting from all possible combinations of channels. Firstly, we compiled the opening angle data and demonstrated that the distribution of opening angles of 205 long GRBs is represented by a double Gaussian function having maxima at ~ 0.1 and ~ 0.3 radians. We confirmed that the peak luminosity and the spectral lag are anti-correlated, both in the observer frame and in the source frame. We found that, in agreement with our previous conclusion, the correlation coefficient improves significantly in the source frame. It should be noted that spectral lags involving channel 2 (25-50 keV yield high correlation coefficients, where Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT has four energy channels (channel 1: 15-25 keV, channel 2: 25-50 keV, channel 3: 50-100 keV, channel 4: 100-200 keV. We also found that peak luminosity is positively correlated with peak energy.

  1. Front Surface Tandem Filters using Sapphire (Al2O3) Substrates for Spectral Control in thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Rahmlow, Jr.; J Lazo-Wasem; E Gratrix; P Fourspring; D DePoy

    2005-01-01

    Front surface filters provide an effective means of improving thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system efficiency through spectral control of incident radiant energy. A front surface filter reflects the below band gap photons that can not be converted by the TPV cell back towards the high temperature radiator and allows convertible above band gap photons to pass through the filter into the TPV cell for conversion to electricity. The best spectral control efficiency to date has been demonstrated by front surface, tandem filters that combine an interference filter and an InPAs layer (plasma filter) in series. The InPAs material is a highly doped, epitaxially grown layer on an InP substrate. These tandem filter designs have been fabricated with energy and angle weighted spectral efficiencies of 76% for TPV cells with a 2.08(micro)m (0.6eV) band gap [1]. An alternative to the InPAs layer on an InP substrate is an Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) substrate. The use of Al 2 O 3 may increase transmission of above band gap photons, increase the mechanical strength of the tandem filter, and lower the cost of the tandem filter, all at the expense of lower spectral efficiency. This study presents design and fabrication results for front surface tandem filters that use an Al 2 O 3 substrate for 2.08(micro)m band gap TPV cells

  2. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  3. HERUS: the far-IR/submm spectral energy distributions of local ULIRGs and photometric atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, D. L.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Greenslade, J.; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; González-Alfonso, E.; Afonso, J.; Efstathiou, A.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Hurley, P. D.; Spoon, H.

    2018-04-01

    We present the Herschel-SPIRE photometric atlas for a complete flux limited sample of 43 local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), selected at 60 μm by IRAS, as part of the HERschel ULIRG Survey (HERUS). Photometry observations were obtained using the SPIRE instrument at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We describe these observations, present the results, and combine the new observations with data from IRAS to examine the far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources. We fit the observed SEDs of HERUS objects with a simple parametrized modified blackbody model, where temperature and emissivity β are free parameters. We compare the fitted values to those of non-ULIRG local galaxies, and find, in agreement with earlier results, that HERUS ULIRGs have warmer dust (median temperature T = 37.9 ± 4.7 K compared to 21.3 ± 3.4 K) but a similar β distribution (median β = 1.7 compared to 1.8) to the Herschel reference sample (HRS, Cortese et al. 2014) galaxies. Dust masses are found to be in the range of 107.5-109 M⊙, significantly higher than that of HRS sources. We compare our results for local ULIRGs with higher redshift samples selected at 250 and 850 μm. These latter sources generally have cooler dust and/or redder 100-to-250 μm colours than our 60 μm-selected ULIRGs. We show that this difference may in part be the result of the sources being selected at different wavelengths rather than being a simple indication of rapid evolution in the properties of the population.

  4. Global Infrared–Radio Spectral Energy Distributions of Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene

    2018-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of 30 Galactic massive star-forming regions. We fit multicomponent dust, blackbody, and power-law continuum models to 3.6 µm through 10 mm spectral energy distributions obtained from Spitzer, MSX, IRAS, Herschel, and Planck archival survey data. Averaged across our sample, ~20% of Lyman continuum photons emitted by massive stars are absorbed by dust before contributing to the ionization of H II regions, while ~50% of the stellar bolometric luminosity is absorbed and reprocessed by dust in the H II regions and surrounding photodissociation regions. The most luminous, infrared-bright regions that fully sample the upper stellar initial mass function (ionizing photon rates NC ≥ 1050 s–1 and total infrared luminosity LTIR ≥ 106.8 L⊙) have higher percentages of absorbed Lyman continuum photons (~40%) and dust-reprocessed starlight (~80%). The monochromatic 70-µm luminosity L70 is linearly correlated with LTIR, and on average L70/LTIR = 50%, in good agreement with extragalactic studies. Calibrated against the known massive stellar content in our sampled H II regions, we find that star formation rates based on L70 are in reasonably good agreement with extragalactic calibrations, when corrected for the smaller physical sizes of the Galactic regions. We caution that absorption of Lyman continuum photons prior to contributing to the observed ionizing photon rate may reduce the attenuation-corrected Hα emission, systematically biasing extragalactic calibrations toward lower star formation rates when applied to spatially-resolved studies of obscured star formation.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award CAREER-1454333.

  5. Spectral energy distribution variations of nearby Seyfert galaxies during AGN watch monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece; Vestergaard, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present and analyse quasi-simultaneous multi-epoch spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of seven reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which accurate black hole mass measurements and suitable archival data are available from the `AGN Watch' monitoring programs. We explore the potential of optical-UV and X-ray data, obtained within 2 d, to provide more accurate SED-based measurements of individual AGN and quantify the impact of source variability on key measurements typically used to characterize the black hole accretion process plus on bolometric correction factors at 5100 Å, 1350 Å and for the 2-10 keV X-ray band, respectively. The largest SED changes occur on long time-scales (≳1 year). For our small sample, the 1μm to 10 keV integrated accretion luminosity typically changes by 10 per cent on short time-scales (over 20 d), by ˜30 per cent over a year, but can change by 100 per cent or more for individual AGN. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) gap is the most uncertain part of the intrinsic SED, introducing a ˜25 per cent uncertainty in the accretion-induced luminosity, relative to the model independent interpolation method that we adopt. That aside, our analysis shows that the uncertainty in the accretion-induced luminosity, the Eddington luminosity ratio and the bolometric correction factors can be reduced (by a factor of two or more) by use of the SEDs built from data obtained within 20 d. However, \\dot{M} and η are mostly limited by the unknown EUV emission and the unknown details of the central engine and our aspect angle.

  6. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  7. HerMES: Spectral energy distributions of submillimeter galaxies at z > 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clements, D. L.; Dai, Y.; Fazio, G. G.; Bock, J. J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A. J.; Wang, L.; Page, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Riechers, D.; Roseboom, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties for a sample of seven spectroscopically confirmed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z > 4.0. By combining ground-based near-infrared, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS, Herschel SPIRE, and ground-based submillimeter/millimeter photometry, we construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a composite model to fit the SEDs. The model includes a stellar emission component at λ rest < 3.5 μm, a hot dust component peaking at λ rest ∼ 5 μm, and cold dust component which becomes significant for λ rest > 50 μm. Six objects in the sample are detected at 250 and 350 μm. The dust temperatures for the sources in this sample are in the range of 40-80 K, and their L FIR ∼ 10 13 L ☉ qualifies them as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. The mean FIR-radio index for this sample is around (q) = 2.2 indicating no radio excess in their radio emission. Most sources in the sample have 24 μm detections corresponding to a rest-frame 4.5 μm luminosity of Log 10 (L 4.5 /L ☉ ) = 11 ∼ 11.5. Their L 4.5 /L FIR ratios are very similar to those of starburst-dominated SMGs at z ∼ 2. The L CO – L FIR relation for this sample is consistent with that determined for local ULIRGs and SMGs at z ∼ 2. We conclude that SMGs at z > 4 are hotter and more luminous in the FIR but otherwise very similar to those at z ∼ 2. None of these sources show any sign of the strong QSO phase being triggered.

  8. Semiconductor detectors in current energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betin, J; Zhabin, E; Krampit, I; Smirnov, V

    1980-04-01

    A review is presented of the properties of semiconductor detectors and of the possibilities stemming therefrom of using the detectors in X-ray spectral analysis in industries, in logging, in ecology and environmental control, in medicine, etc.

  9. Spectral-Efficiency - Illumination Pareto Front for Energy Harvesting Enabled VLC System

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    . The adopted optical system provides users with illumination and data communication services. The outdoor optical design objective is to maximize the illumination, while the communication design objective is to maximize the spectral efficiency (SE). The design

  10. Spectral and energy efficiency analysis of uplink heterogeneous networks with small-cells on edge

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan; Tabassum, Hina; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    by considering fast power control where the mobile users transmit with adaptive power to compensate the path loss, shadowing and fading. In particular, we develop a moment generating function (MGF) based approach to derive analytical bounds on the area spectral

  11. Clinical utility of dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for breast microcalcifications without associated mass: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Hsiu-Pei; Lo, Yung-Feng; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Huang, Pei-Chin; Chen, Shin-Chih

    2016-04-01

    To assess the utility of dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (DE-CESM) for evaluation of suspicious malignant microcalcifications. Two hundred and fifty-six DE-CESMs were reviewed from 2012-2013, 59 cases fulfilled the following criteria and were enrolled for analysis: (1) suspicious malignant microcalcifications (BI-RADS 4) on mammogram, (2) no related mass, (3) with pathological diagnoses. The microcalcification morphology and associated enhancement were reviewed to analyse the accuracy of the diagnosis and cancer size measurements versus the results of pathology. Of the 59 microcalcifications, 22 were diagnosed as cancers, 19 were atypical lesions and 18 were benign lesions. Twenty (76.9 %) cancers, three (11.55 %) atypia and three (11.55 %) benign lesions revealed enhancement. The true-positive rate of intermediate- and high-concern microcalcifications was significantly higher than that of low-concern lesions (93.75 % vs. 50 %). Overall, the diagnostic sensitivity of enhancement was 90.9 %, with 83.78 % specificity, 76.92 % positive predictive value, 93.94 % negative predictive value and 86.4 % accuracy. Performance was good (AUC = 0.87) according to a ROC curve and cancer size correlation with a mean difference of 0.05 cm on a Bland-Altman plot. DE-CESM provides additional enhancement information for diagnosing breast microcalcifications and measuring cancer sizes with high correlation to surgicohistology. • DE-CESM provides additional enhancement information for diagnosing suspicious breast microcalcifications. • The enhanced cancer size closely correlates to microscopy by Bland-Altman plot. • DE-CESM could be considered for evaluation of suspicious malignant microcalcifications.

  12. Information report nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesquiou, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This report takes stock on the nuclear energy situation in Europe. The European Union with more than 40% of the nuclear power capacity in the world, is already confronted with the nuclear energy place and stakes in the future energy policy. The report si presented in two main parts. The first part, ''the assets and the weaknesses of the nuclear energy'', deals with the economical aspects which historically based the choice of the nuclear energy and the induced impacts on the environment. The competitiveness of the nuclear energy but also the wastes management problem are discussed. The second part, ''the diplomatic and juridical framework of the nuclear energy development'', details and presents the limits of the EURATOM treaty. (A.L.B.)

  13. Enhancing inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus--spectral energy contrasts in tailor-made notched music matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwina Stein

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM. Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts.

  14. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for...

  15. Energy information data base. Guide to abstracting and indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The Technical Information Center (TIC) acquires and brings under bibliographic control information related to the administrative and research, development, and demonstration activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). Three major data bases are being created and maintained: the Energy Information Data Base (EDB) containing scientific and technical information covering all areas of energy as well as quasi-technical information in the area of energy policy and management; the General and Practical Information Base (GAP) containing mass-distribution information on energy, ''how-to'' information primarily in the areas of energy conservation and solar energy utilization, and information on energy-related legislation and standards; and the Research in Progress Information Base (RIP), which describes current research and development programs in the field of energy. Two smaller, classified data bases are also produced, one on weapons data and the second containing other information that must be given limited distribution. Two of the more significant components of the document records stored are abstracts and subject descriptors. This manual contains the guidelines used in abstract writing and editing and in subject descriptor selection. The associated acquisition and subject categorization functions are also addressed

  16. Using spectral methods to obtain particle size information from optical data: applications to measurements from CARES 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dean B.; Pekour, Mikhail; Chand, Duli; Radney, James G.; Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Zhang, Qi; Setyan, Ari; O'Neill, Norman T.; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Multi-wavelength in situ aerosol extinction, absorption and scattering measurements made at two ground sites during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) are analyzed using a spectral deconvolution method that allows extraction of particle-size-related information, including the fraction of extinction produced by the fine-mode particles and the effective radius of the fine mode. The spectral deconvolution method is typically applied to analysis of remote sensing measurements. Here, its application to in situ measurements allows for comparison with more direct measurement methods and validation of the retrieval approach. Overall, the retrieved fine-mode fraction and effective radius compare well with other in situ measurements, including size distribution measurements and scattering and absorption measurements made separately for PM1 and PM10, although there were some periods during which the different methods yielded different results. One key contributor to differences between the results obtained is the alternative, spectrally based definitions of fine and coarse modes from the optical methods, relative to instruments that use a physically defined cut point. These results indicate that for campaigns where size, composition and multi-wavelength optical property measurements are made, comparison of the results can result in closure or can identify unusual circumstances. The comparison here also demonstrates that in situ multi-wavelength optical property measurements can be used to determine information about particle size distributions in situations where direct size distribution measurements are not available.

  17. Using spectral methods to obtain particle size information from optical data: applications to measurements from CARES 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Atkinson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wavelength in situ aerosol extinction, absorption and scattering measurements made at two ground sites during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES are analyzed using a spectral deconvolution method that allows extraction of particle-size-related information, including the fraction of extinction produced by the fine-mode particles and the effective radius of the fine mode. The spectral deconvolution method is typically applied to analysis of remote sensing measurements. Here, its application to in situ measurements allows for comparison with more direct measurement methods and validation of the retrieval approach. Overall, the retrieved fine-mode fraction and effective radius compare well with other in situ measurements, including size distribution measurements and scattering and absorption measurements made separately for PM1 and PM10, although there were some periods during which the different methods yielded different results. One key contributor to differences between the results obtained is the alternative, spectrally based definitions of fine and coarse modes from the optical methods, relative to instruments that use a physically defined cut point. These results indicate that for campaigns where size, composition and multi-wavelength optical property measurements are made, comparison of the results can result in closure or can identify unusual circumstances. The comparison here also demonstrates that in situ multi-wavelength optical property measurements can be used to determine information about particle size distributions in situations where direct size distribution measurements are not available.

  18. Time evolution of the spectral break in the high-energy extra component of GRB 090926A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, M.; Piron, F.; Mochkovitch, R.; Daigne, F.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: The prompt light curve of the long GRB 090926A reveals a short pulse 10 s after the beginning of the burst emission, which has been observed by the Fermi observatory from the keV to the GeV energy domain. During this bright spike, the high-energy emission from GRB 090926A underwent a sudden hardening above 10 MeV in the form of an additional power-law component exhibiting a spectral attenuation at a few hundreds of MeV. This high-energy break has been previously interpreted in terms of gamma-ray opacity to pair creation and has been used to estimate the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow. In this article, we report on a new time-resolved analysis of the GRB 090926A broadband spectrum during its prompt phase and on its interpretation in the framework of prompt emission models. Methods: We characterized the emission from GRB 090926A at the highest energies with Pass 8 data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), which offer a greater sensitivity than any data set used in previous studies of this burst, particularly in the 30-100 MeV energy band. Then, we combined the LAT data with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in joint spectral fits to characterize the time evolution of the broadband spectrum from keV to GeV energies. We paid careful attention to the systematic effects that arise from the uncertainties on the LAT response. Finally, we performed a temporal analysis of the light curves and we computed the variability timescales from keV to GeV energies during and after the bright spike. Results: Our analysis confirms and better constrains the spectral break, which has been previously reported during the bright spike. Furthermore, it reveals that the spectral attenuation persists at later times with an increase of the break characteristic energy up to the GeV domain until the end of the prompt phase. We discuss these results in terms of keV-MeV synchroton radiation of electrons accelerated during the dissipation of the jet energy and inverse Compton

  19. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy; Rapport annuel 2003. Information et sante, defense, energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  20. THE IMPACT OF EVOLVING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES ON STAR FORMATION RATE ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Magnelli, B.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de al Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, H.; Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Fadda, D. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lagache, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Bat 121, Universite de Paris XI, 91450 Orsay Cedex (France); Maiolino, R., E-mail: nordon@mpe.mpg.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); and others

    2012-02-01

    We combine Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) data from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program with Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 16 {mu}m photometry and ultra deep Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared spectra to measure the mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0.7 < z < 2.5 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main sequence (the redshift-dependent relation of star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass). Our very deep data confirm from individual far-infrared detections that z {approx} 2 SFRs are overestimated if based on 24 {mu}m fluxes and SED templates that are calibrated via local trends with luminosity. Galaxies with similar ratios of rest-frame {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8) to 8-1000 {mu}m infrared luminosity (LIR) tend to lie along lines of constant offset from the main sequence. We explore the relation between SED shape and offset in specific star formation rate (SSFR) from the redshift-dependent main sequence. Main-sequence galaxies tend to have a similar {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR regardless of LIR and redshift, up to z {approx} 2.5, and {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR decreases with increasing offset above the main sequence in a consistent way at the studied redshifts. We provide a redshift-independent calibration of SED templates in the range of 8-60 {mu}m as a function of {Delta}log(SSFR) offset from the main sequence. Redshift dependency enters only through the evolution of the main sequence with time. Ultra deep IRS spectra match these SED trends well and verify that they are mostly due to a change in ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to LIR rather than continua of hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Alternatively, we discuss the dependence of {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR on LIR. The same {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR is reached at increasingly higher LIR at higher redshift, with shifts relative to local by 0.5 and 0.8 dex in log(LIR) at redshifts z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2. Corresponding SED template calibrations

  1. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY SAVING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Валерійович МАРГАСОВ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The information technology structure is considered of energy saving projects. The project management diagram of energy saving projects is developed, using GIS, ICS, BIM and other control and visual systems.

  2. The troposphere-to-stratosphere transition in kinetic energy spectra and nonlinear spectral fluxes as seen in ECMWF analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A. B. H.; Erler, A. R.; Shepherd, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    We present spectra, nonlinear interaction terms, and fluxes computed for horizontal wind fields from high-resolution meteorological analyses made available by ECMWF for the International Polar Year. Total kinetic energy spectra clearly show two spectral regimes: a steep spectrum at large scales and a shallow spectrum in the mesoscale. The spectral shallowing appears at ~200 hPa, and is due to decreasing rotational power with height, which results in the shallower divergent spectrum dominating in the mesoscale. The spectra we find are steeper than those observed in aircraft data and GCM simulations. Though the analyses resolve total spherical harmonic wavenumbers up to n = 721, effects of dissipation on the fluxes and spectra are visible starting at about n = 200. We find a weak forward energy cascade and a downscale enstrophy cascade in the mesoscale. Eddy-eddy nonlinear kinetic energy transfers reach maximum amplitudes at the tropopause, and decrease with height thereafter; zonal mean-eddy transfers dominate in the stratosphere. In addition, zonal anisotropy reaches a minimum at the tropopause. Combined with strong eddy-eddy interactions, this suggests flow in the tropopause region is very active and bears the greatest resemblance to isotropic turbulence. We find constant enstrophy flux over a broad range of wavenumbers around the tropopause and in the upper stratosphere. A relatively constant spectral enstrophy flux at the tropopause suggests a turbulent inertial range, and that the enstrophy flux is resolved. A main result of our work is its implications for explaining the shallow mesoscale spectrum observed in aircraft wind measurements, GCM studies, and now meteorological analyses. The strong divergent component in the shallow mesoscale spectrum indicates unbalanced flow, and nonlinear transfers decreasing quickly with height are characteristic of waves, not turbulence. Together with the downscale flux of energ y through the shallow spectral range, these

  3. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  4. Classification of Hyperspectral Images by SVM Using a Composite Kernel by Employing Spectral, Spatial and Hierarchical Structure Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel classification framework for hyperspectral images (HSIs by jointly employing spectral, spatial, and hierarchical structure information. In this framework, the three types of information are integrated into the SVM classifier in a way of multiple kernels. Specifically, the spectral kernel is constructed through each pixel’s vector value in the original HSI, and the spatial kernel is modeled by using the extended morphological profile method due to its simplicity and effectiveness. To accurately characterize hierarchical structure features, the techniques of Fish-Markov selector (FMS, marker-based hierarchical segmentation (MHSEG and algebraic multigrid (AMG are combined. First, the FMS algorithm is used on the original HSI for feature selection to produce its spectral subset. Then, the multigrid structure of this subset is constructed using the AMG method. Subsequently, the MHSEG algorithm is exploited to obtain a hierarchy consist of a series of segmentation maps. Finally, the hierarchical structure information is represented by using these segmentation maps. The main contributions of this work is to present an effective composite kernel for HSI classification by utilizing spatial structure information in multiple scales. Experiments were conducted on two hyperspectral remote sensing images to validate that the proposed framework can achieve better classification results than several popular kernel-based classification methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Specifically, the proposed classification framework can achieve 13.46–15.61% in average higher than the standard SVM classifier under different training sets in the terms of overall accuracy.

  5. Metal artefact reduction in gemstone spectral imaging dual-energy CT with and without metal artefact reduction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Han; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Sungjun; Suh, Jin-Suck; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2012-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) dual-energy CT (DECT) with/without metal artefact reduction software (MARs). The DECTs were performed using fast kV-switching GSI between 80 and 140 kV. The CT data were retro-reconstructed with/without MARs, by different displayed fields-of-view (DFOV), and with synthesised monochromatic energy in the range 40-140 keV. A phantom study of size and CT numbers was performed in a titanium plate and a stainless steel plate. A clinical study was performed in 26 patients with metallic hardware. All images were retrospectively reviewed in terms of the visualisation of periprosthetic regions and the severity of beam-hardening artefacts by using a five-point scale. The GSI-MARs reconstruction can markedly reduce the metal-related artefacts, and the image quality was affected by the prosthesis composition and DFOV. The spectral CT numbers of the prosthesis and periprosthetic regions showed different patterns on stainless steel and titanium plates. Dual-energy CT with GSI-MARs can reduce metal-related artefacts and improve the delineation of the prosthesis and periprosthetic region. We should be cautious when using GSI-MARs because the image quality was affected by the prosthesis composition, energy (in keV) and DFOV. The metallic composition and size should be considered in metallic imaging with GSI-MARs reconstruction. circle Metal-related artefacts can be troublesome on musculoskeletal computed tomography (CT). circle Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with dual-energy CT (DECT) offers a novel solution circle GSI and metallic artefact reduction software (GSI-MAR) can markedly reduce these artefacts. circle However image quality is influenced by the prosthesis composition and other parameters. circle We should be aware about potential overcorrection when using GSI-MARs. (orig.)

  6. Semiconductor detectors in current energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betin, J.; Zhabin, E.; Krampit, I.; Smirnov, V.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the properties of semiconductor detectors and of the possibilities stemming therefrom of using the detectors in X-ray spectral analysis in industries, in logging, in ecology and environmental control, in medicine, etc. (M.S.)

  7. ℓ0 -based sparse hyperspectral unmixing using spectral information and a multi-objectives formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Shi, Zhenwei; Pan, Bin

    2018-07-01

    Sparse unmixing aims at recovering pure materials from hyperpspectral images and estimating their abundance fractions. Sparse unmixing is actually ℓ0 problem which is NP-h ard, and a relaxation is often used. In this paper, we attempt to deal with ℓ0 problem directly via a multi-objective based method, which is a non-convex manner. The characteristics of hyperspectral images are integrated into the proposed method, which leads to a new spectra and multi-objective based sparse unmixing method (SMoSU). In order to solve the ℓ0 norm optimization problem, the spectral library is encoded in a binary vector, and a bit-wise flipping strategy is used to generate new individuals in the evolution process. However, a multi-objective method usually produces a number of non-dominated solutions, while sparse unmixing requires a single solution. How to make the final decision for sparse unmixing is challenging. To handle this problem, we integrate the spectral characteristic of hyperspectral images into SMoSU. By considering the spectral correlation in hyperspectral data, we improve the Tchebycheff decomposition function in SMoSU via a new regularization item. This regularization item is able to enforce the individual divergence in the evolution process of SMoSU. In this way, the diversity and convergence of population is further balanced, which is beneficial to the concentration of individuals. In the experiments part, three synthetic datasets and one real-world data are used to analyse the effectiveness of SMoSU, and several state-of-art sparse unmixing algorithms are compared.

  8. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG AND FIELD AGE OBJECTS WITH MASSES SPANNING THE STELLAR TO PLANETARY REGIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Van Gordon, Mollie M. [Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (L{sub bol}) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as T{sub eff}, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR–MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler T{sub eff} of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same M{sub H} magnitude.

  9. Evaluating training and information to teachers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bail, H.

    1994-01-01

    Teachers in Physics Sciences in French secondary level schools have received, during their formation, little information on radioactivity and nuclear energy; nevertheless, they have a serious knowledge of energy topics and are able to receive any nuclear-related information. INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear technology) provides teachers with annual sessions (two weeks) at Saclay research centre for complementary information on nuclear science with practical works. Information materials are also supplied

  10. Nuclear energy and natural environment. Information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The material of the Jadwisin 93' seminar is the collection 20 of 19 articles discussing aspects of the subject of nuclear energy and natural environment. The lectures were presented at six sessions: 1) Nuclear energy applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, food preservation and protection of the environment; 2) Nuclear power in the world; 3) Public attitudes towards different energy options, the example of Sweden; 4) Nuclear power in neighbouring countries; 5) Radiation and human health; 6) Radioactive waste management and potential serious radiological hazards. The general conclusion of the seminar can be as follows. In some cases the nuclear power is a source of environment pollution but very often nuclear techniques are now used and certainly more often in the future will be used for environment and human health protection

  11. Informing the Financing of Universal Energy Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazilian, Morgan; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Gualberti, Giorgio

    distribution sectors in developing countries. We build on the methodology used to quantify the flows of investment in the climate change area. This methodology relies on national gross fixed capital formation, overseas development assistance, and foreign direct investment. These high-level and aggregated......, for the poorest countries, one can conclude that the current flows are considerably short (at least five times) of what will be required to provide a basic level of access to clean, modern energy services to the “energy poor”....

  12. Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

  13. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  14. Dust spectral energy distributions of nearby galaxies: an insight from the Herschel Reference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Heinis, S.; Galametz, M.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Galliano, F.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S. C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    Although it accounts only for a small fraction of the baryonic mass, dust has a profound impact on the physical processes at play in galaxies. Thus, to understand the evolution of galaxies, it is essential not only to characterize dust properties per se, but also in relation to global galaxy properties. To do so, we derive the dust properties of galaxies in a volume limited, K-band selected sample, the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS). We gather infrared photometric data from 8 μm to 500 μm from Spitzer, WISE, IRAS, and Herschel for all of the HRS galaxies. Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 663, 866) models are fit to the data from which the stellar contribution has been carefully removed. We find that our photometric coverage is sufficient to constrain all of the parameters of the Draine & Li models and that a strong constraint on the 20-60 μm range is mandatory to estimate the relative contribution of the photo-dissociation regions to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). The SED models tend to systematically underestimate the observed 500 μm flux densities, especially for low-mass systems. We provide the output parameters for all of the galaxies, i.e., the minimum intensity of the interstellar radiation field, the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the relative contribution of PDR and evolved stellar population to the dust heating, the dust mass, and the infrared luminosity. For a subsample of gas-rich galaxies, we analyze the relations between these parameters and the main integrated properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, star formation rate, infraredluminosity, metallicity, Hα and H-band surface brightness, and the far-ultraviolet attenuation. A good correlation between the fraction of PAH and the metallicity is found, implying a weakening of the PAH emission in galaxies with low metallicities and, thus, low stellar masses. The intensity of the diffuse interstellar radiation field and the H-band and Hα surface brightnesses are

  15. Spectral multi-energy CT texture analysis with machine learning for tissue classification: an investigation using classification of benign parotid tumours as a testing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ajmi, Eiman; Forghani, Behzad; Reinhold, Caroline; Bayat, Maryam; Forghani, Reza

    2018-06-01

    There is a rich amount of quantitative information in spectral datasets generated from dual-energy CT (DECT). In this study, we compare the performance of texture analysis performed on multi-energy datasets to that of virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) at 65 keV only, using classification of the two most common benign parotid neoplasms as a testing paradigm. Forty-two patients with pathologically proven Warthin tumour (n = 25) or pleomorphic adenoma (n = 17) were evaluated. Texture analysis was performed on VMIs ranging from 40 to 140 keV in 5-keV increments (multi-energy analysis) or 65-keV VMIs only, which is typically considered equivalent to single-energy CT. Random forest (RF) models were constructed for outcome prediction using separate randomly selected training and testing sets or the entire patient set. Using multi-energy texture analysis, tumour classification in the independent testing set had accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 92%, 86%, 100%, 100%, and 83%, compared to 75%, 57%, 100%, 100%, and 63%, respectively, for single-energy analysis. Multi-energy texture analysis demonstrates superior performance compared to single-energy texture analysis of VMIs at 65 keV for classification of benign parotid tumours. • We present and validate a paradigm for texture analysis of DECT scans. • Multi-energy dataset texture analysis is superior to single-energy dataset texture analysis. • DECT texture analysis has high accura\\cy for diagnosis of benign parotid tumours. • DECT texture analysis with machine learning can enhance non-invasive diagnostic tumour evaluation.

  16. Localized Spectral Analysis of Fluctuating Power Generation from Solar Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nijs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in solar irradiance are a serious obstacle for the future large-scale application of photovoltaics. Occurring regularly with the passage of clouds, they can cause unexpected power variations and introduce voltage dips to the power distribution system. This paper proposes the treatment of such fluctuating time series as realizations of a stochastic, locally stationary, wavelet process. Its local spectral density can be estimated from empirical data by means of wavelet periodograms. The wavelet approach allows the analysis of the amplitude of fluctuations per characteristic scale, hence, persistence of the fluctuation. Furthermore, conclusions can be drawn on the frequency of occurrence of fluctuations of different scale. This localized spectral analysis was applied to empirical data of two successive years. The approach is especially useful for network planning and load management of power distribution systems containing a high density of photovoltaic generation units.

  17. Energy Adaption for Multimedia Information Kiosks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urunuela, Richard; Muller, Gilles; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Video kiosks increasingly contain powerful PC-like embedded processors, allowing them to display video at a high level of quality. Such video display, however, entails significant energy consumption.This paper presents an approach to reducing energy consumption by adapting the CPU clock frequency....... In contrast to previous approaches, we exploit the specific behavior of a video kiosk. Because a kiosk plays the same set of movies over and over, we choose a CPU frequency for a given frame based on the computational requirements of the frame that were observed on earlier iterations. We have implemented our...... approach in the legacy video player MPlayer. On a PC like those that can be found in kiosks, we observe increases in battery lifetime of up to 2 times as compared to running at the maximum CPU frequency on a set of high resolution divx movies....

  18. Energy Efficiency Maximization for WSNs with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Guo, Songtao; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Luyue

    2017-08-18

    Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively.

  19. Energy Efficiency Maximization for WSNs with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Luyue

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively. PMID:28820496

  20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2001 Information Resources Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) eighth annual Information Resources Catalog can help keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The catalog includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  1. Electronic horizon: road information used by energy management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Road information from a navigation database system is incorporated into existing EM strategies and translated into a preferred reference trajectory for the battery energy. The EM system can schedule energy among different road segments, optimising the energy efficiency of the vehicle. It turns out

  2. Process and device of elementary and chemical analysis of a sample through a spectral analysis of the secondary electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gressus, Claude; Massignon, Daniel; Sopizet, Rene.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of chemical and elementary analysis of samples through a spectral analysis of secondary electrons (Auger electrons) emitted from said sample under a primary monokinetic electron beam concentrated on its surface. Said method is characterized in that the intensity of the primary monokinetic electron beam emitted from an electron gun is modulated at a frequency ω; and in that the secondary electrons of energy E emitted from the sample are then collected. A reference voltage corresponding to the modulation in intensity of the primary electron beam is applied at the input of a phase sensitive detector together with a voltage proportional to the intensity of the flux of said collected secondary electrons to obtain at the output of said detector a voltage proportional to the number of the secondary electrons of energy E. The secondary emission energy spectrum of the sample is then plotted [fr

  3. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION ON THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China); Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi, E-mail: guojh@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: bjaffel@iap.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-02-20

    By varying the profiles of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we tested the influences of stellar EUV SEDs on the physical and chemical properties of an escaping atmosphere. We apply our model to study four exoplanets: HD 189733b, HD 209458b, GJ 436b, and Kepler-11b. We find that the total mass loss rates of an exoplanet, which are determined mainly by the integrated fluxes, are moderately affected by the profiles of the EUV SED, but the composition and species distributions in the atmosphere can be dramatically modified by the different profiles of the EUV SED. For exoplanets with a high hydrodynamic escape parameter (λ), the amount of atomic hydrogen produced by photoionization at different altitudes can vary by one to two orders of magnitude with the variation of stellar EUV SEDs. The effect of photoionization of H is prominent when the EUV SED is dominated by the low-energy spectral region (400–900 Å), which pushes the transition of H/H{sup +} to low altitudes. In contrast, the transition of H/H{sup +} moves to higher altitudes when most photons are concentrated in the high-energy spectral region (50–400 Å). For exoplanets with a low λ, the lower temperatures of the atmosphere make many chemical reactions so important that photoionization alone can no longer determine the composition of the escaping atmosphere. For HD 189733b, it is possible to explain the time variability of Lyα between 2010 and 2011 by a change in the EUV SED of the host K-type star, yet invoking only thermal H i in the atmosphere.

  5. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and its Contributions to Space Weather Research, the Flare Energy Budget, and Instrument Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) is an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution and on a 1-minute time cadence. The goal of FISM is to provide accurate solar spectral irradiances over the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-200 nm) range as input for ionospheric and thermospheric models. The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the FISM model, and also how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will contribute to improving FISM. Some current studies will then be presented that use FISM estimations of the solar VUV irradiance to quantify the contributions of the increased irradiance from flares to Earth's increased thermospheric and ionospheric densites. Initial results will also be presented from a study looking at the electron density increases in the Martian atmosphere during a solar flare. Results will also be shown quantifying the VUV contributions to the total flare energy budget for both the impulsive and gradual phases of solar flares. Lastly, an example of how FISM can be used to simplify the design of future solar VUV irradiance instruments will be discussed, using the future NOAA GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Sensors (EXIS) space weather instrument.

  6. A gamma-ray burst with a high-energy spectral component inconsistent with the synchrotron shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M M; Dingus, B L; Kaneko, Y; Preece, R D; Dermer, C D; Briggs, M S

    2003-08-14

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most powerful events in nature. These events release most of their energy as photons with energies in the range from 30 keV to a few MeV, with a smaller fraction of the energy radiated in radio, optical, and soft X-ray afterglows. The data are in general agreement with a relativistic shock model, where the prompt and afterglow emissions correspond to synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated electrons. Here we report an observation of a high-energy (multi-MeV) spectral component in the burst of 17 October 1994 that is distinct from the previously observed lower-energy gamma-ray component. The flux of the high-energy component decays more slowly and its fluence is greater than the lower-energy component; it is described by a power law of differential photon number index approximately -1 up to about 200 MeV. This observation is difficult to explain with the standard synchrotron shock model, suggesting the presence of new phenomena such as a different non-thermal electron process, or the interaction of relativistic protons with photons at the source.

  7. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France

  8. A study on spectral energy for the end of the twentieth century the basis of the NCEP reanalysis-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, A. F.; Veiga, J. A.; Yoshida, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    The energy cycle proposed by Lorenz (1955) is composed of the behavior of the average energy from the atmosphere and characteristics of atmospheric energy deviations from this average, respectively called basic state and perturbed state. However, it is possible to discretize the energy contained in the atmosphere disturbed state, decomposing the fields of the various disturbances or harmonics wave type, so as to measure and analyze the energy of these disorders according to their number or wavelength, this methodology described second Saltzman (1957). Therefore, in view of the spectral analysis as a methodological basis, this work aims to study the energy contained by the atmosphere in disturbed state. Considering the terms of power generation potential available for nth waves due to diabatic heating, represented by (G(n)), potential energy of nth wave (P(n)) and kinetic energy of nth wave (K(n)) and the conversion of energy between the energy nth kinetic and potential energy of waves nth waves given by (C(n)). The variables used in the calculation of the terms above are, temperature (T) orthogonal components of the wind (u, v, w) and geopotential height (G) from a data set from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) considering daily shared values on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 2.5° × 2.5°, distributed in 12 pressure levels (1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100 hPa ) for the 1970 to 1999 period. The results show that for kinetic energy of disturbance to nth wave, the amount of energy is somewhat dammed during for the first 10 wave numbers in this range are the planetary waves and waves. Observing this way, we can conclude that these waves are responsible for much of the kinetic energy in disturbed state. A characteristic and a difference in the distribution of energy between kinetic energy and potential energy disturbed total available to disturbance, is the derivative of the energy wavenumber presented by

  9. Energy information data base: report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used. (RWR)

  10. Nuclear energy VEW information for schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    VEW AG in Dortmund offers factual information, on economical and technical aspects as well as new developments, in the field of power supply, to schools, teacher training and postgraduate training colleges, school administrative bodies, local education authorities, working parties school/industry, etc. The following themes are of primary importance: sources of power, transport and distribution, applications of electric power, the environment and its protection, climate and problems with CO 2 . Specialist meetings and educational courses, seminars, visits to facilities, media for use in classrooms, didactics, etc. are organized and provided

  11. Energy information data base: report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used

  12. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Gary, Christine E; Fierstein, Jamie L; Equi, Ashley; Kussmaul, Carolyn; Dallal, Gerard E; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-07-22

    National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, little information is available on the energy content of foods offered by nonchain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restaurant locations in the United States. To measure the energy content of foods from independent and small-chain restaurants that do not provide stated information on energy content. We used bomb calorimetry to determine the dietary energy content of the 42 most frequently purchased meals from the 9 most common restaurant categories. Independent and small-chain restaurants were randomly selected, and 157 individual meals were analyzed. Area within 15 miles of downtown Boston. A random sample of independent and small-chain restaurants. Dietary energy. All meal categories provided excessive dietary energy. The mean energy content of individual meals was 1327 (95% CI, 1248-1406) kcal, equivalent to 66% of typical daily energy requirements. We found a significant effect of food category on meal energy (P ≤ .05), and 7.6% of meals provided more than 100% of typical daily energy requirements. Within-meal variability was large (average SD, 271 kcal), and we found no significant effect of restaurant establishment or size. In addition, meal energy content averaged 49% greater than those of popular meals from the largest national chain restaurants (P restaurants have been criticized for offering meals with excess dietary energy. This study finds that independent and small-chain restaurants, which provide no nutrition information, also provide excessive dietary energy in amounts apparently greater than popular meals from chain restaurants or information in national food databases. A national requirement for accurate calorie labeling in all restaurants may discourage menus offering unhealthy portions and would allow consumers to make informed choices about ordering meals that promote weight

  13. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. Materials and methods: The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Results: Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40–77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas – tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 ke

  14. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40-77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas - tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 keV was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0

  15. The spectral energy distribution of the scattered light from dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Kalevi; Schnur, G. F. O.

    1989-01-01

    A dark cloud is exposed to the ambient radiation field of integrated starlight in the Galaxy. Scattering of starlight by the dust particles gives rise to a diffuse surface brightness of the dark nebula. The intensity and the spectrum of this diffuse radiation can be used to investigate, e.g., the scattering parameters of the dust, the optical thickness of the cloud, and as a probe of the ambient radiation field at the location of the cloud. An understanding of the scattering process is also a prerequisite for the isolation of broad spectral features due to fluorescence or to any other non-scattering origin of the diffuse light. Model calculations are presented for multiple scattering in a spherical cloud. These calculations show that the different spectral shapes of the observed diffuse light can be reproduced with standard dust parameters. The possibility to use the observed spectrum as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the thickness of the cloud and the dust particle is discussed.

  16. Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-01-01

    In view of population growth, industrialization and urbanization which provoked increasing energy demand there has been an increasing interest in developing new technologies that use various renewable energy sources and have less environmental impact, such as solar, wind, tidal and biomass. Solar energy is one of the energy resources with a wide geographical distribution. Nowadays, its contribution to the world's energy supply is very small, but it is considered an important long term option which will satisfy, together with conventional energy sources, the future energy needs of the world. The main objective of this work is to report the actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context. This is to improve the dissemination of information on the application of climate knowledge and data, especially by national meteorological services, with the purpose to improve the planning, design and operation of solar energy systems, as well as facilitate their more widespread use

  17. Information-to-free-energy conversion: Utilizing thermal fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's demon is a hypothetical creature that can convert information to free energy. A debate that has lasted for more than 100 years has revealed that the demon's operation does not contradict the laws of thermodynamics; hence, the demon can be realized physically. We briefly review the first experimental demonstration of Maxwell's demon of Szilard's engine type that converts information to free energy. We pump heat from an isothermal environment by using the information about the thermal fluctuations of a Brownian particle and increase the particle's free energy.

  18. Information system on energy; Sistemas de informacoes energeticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudiobcarvalho@yahoo.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work sets guidelines for the development of a National System of Information on Energy, a System of Executive Information and a System of Geographic Information, all for the Ministry of Mines and Energy, considering the current level of technology in the development of computer systems and the advantages accruing from the implementation of such systems for the energy industry agents and for the Ministry management. The applications of such systems and the main concepts and characteristics involved in their implementation are presented. (author)

  19. Spectral information interpretation of X-ray analysis based on expert system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakunov, Yu.M.; Lezin, A.N.; Pukha, N.P.; Silachev, I.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    An expert subprogram for automated identification for element composition of the samples of different nature according to the result of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis is elaborated, The flowchart of the subprogram is presented, brief description of expert system structure and its algorithm is given. (author)

  20. Fault feature extraction of planet gear in wind turbine gearbox based on spectral kurtosis and time wavelet energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yun; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Zheng; Chu, Fulei

    2017-09-01

    Planetary transmission plays a vital role in wind turbine drivetrains, and its fault diagnosis has been an important and challenging issue. Owing to the complicated and coupled vibration source, time-variant vibration transfer path, and heavy background noise masking effect, the vibration signal of planet gear in wind turbine gearboxes exhibits several unique characteristics: Complex frequency components, low signal-to-noise ratio, and weak fault feature. In this sense, the periodic impulsive components induced by a localized defect are hard to extract, and the fault detection of planet gear in wind turbines remains to be a challenging research work. Aiming to extract the fault feature of planet gear effectively, we propose a novel feature extraction method based on spectral kurtosis and time wavelet energy spectrum (SK-TWES) in the paper. Firstly, the spectral kurtosis (SK) and kurtogram of raw vibration signals are computed and exploited to select the optimal filtering parameter for the subsequent band-pass filtering. Then, the band-pass filtering is applied to extrude periodic transient impulses using the optimal frequency band in which the corresponding SK value is maximal. Finally, the time wavelet energy spectrum analysis is performed on the filtered signal, selecting Morlet wavelet as the mother wavelet which possesses a high similarity to the impulsive components. The experimental signals collected from the wind turbine gearbox test rig demonstrate that the proposed method is effective at the feature extraction and fault diagnosis for the planet gear with a localized defect.

  1. A full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach based on the material decomposition model applied in dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, C.; Rodet, T.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.; Legoupil, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) makes it possible to get two fractions of basis materials without segmentation. One is the soft-tissue equivalent water fraction and the other is the hard-matter equivalent bone fraction. Practical DECT measurements are usually obtained with polychromatic x-ray beams. Existing reconstruction approaches based on linear forward models without counting the beam polychromaticity fail to estimate the correct decomposition fractions and result in beam-hardening artifacts (BHA). The existing BHA correction approaches either need to refer to calibration measurements or suffer from the noise amplification caused by the negative-log preprocessing and the ill-conditioned water and bone separation problem. To overcome these problems, statistical DECT reconstruction approaches based on nonlinear forward models counting the beam polychromaticity show great potential for giving accurate fraction images.Methods: This work proposes a full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach which allows the reconstruction of high quality fraction images from ordinary polychromatic measurements. This approach is based on a Gaussian noise model with unknown variance assigned directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Referring to Bayesian inferences, the decomposition fractions and observation variance are estimated by using the joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method. Subject to an adaptive prior model assigned to the variance, the joint estimation problem is then simplified into a single estimation problem. It transforms the joint MAP estimation problem into a minimization problem with a nonquadratic cost function. To solve it, the use of a monotone conjugate gradient algorithm with suboptimal descent steps is proposed.Results: The performance of the proposed approach is analyzed with both simulated and experimental data. The results show that the proposed Bayesian approach is robust to noise and materials. It is also

  2. Suncor Energy Inc. annual information form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information form presents five year highlights of the company's performance, a narrative description of the company's business, including operations, leasehold interests and royalties, estimated synthetic crude reserves, exploration and production, marketing pipeline and other operations. It also contains certain predictions with respect to Suncor's plans for the future, based on current perceptions of the situation in the oil and gas industry, and assumptions in light of Suncor's own experience and interpretation of historical trends. Some of the risk, uncertainties and other factors that could influence actual results include: (1) changes in the general economic and business conditions; (2) fluctuations in supply and demand for Suncor's products, (3) fluctuations in commodity prices, (4) fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, (5) Suncor's ability to respond to changing markets, (6) the ability of Suncor to receive timely regulatory approvals, in particular in connection with Project Millennium, (7) the integrity and reliability of Suncor's capital assets, (8) the cumulative impact of other resource development projects, (9) Suncor's ability to comply with current and future environmental laws, and (10) increased competition from other oil and gas companies. tabs

  3. Multi-energy spectral CT: adding value in emergency body imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Gopal V

    2018-04-01

    Most vendors offer scanners capable of dual- or multi-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging. Advantages of multi-energy CT scanning include superior tissue characterization, detection of subtle iodine uptake differences, and opportunities to reduce contrast dose. However, utilization of this technology in the emergency department (ED) remains low. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the value of multi-energy CT scanning in emergency body imaging.

  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  5. Dual-energy approach to contrast-enhanced mammography using the balanced filter method: spectral optimization and preliminary phantom measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2007-11-01

    Dual-energy contrast agent-enhanced mammography is a technique of demonstrating breast cancers obscured by a cluttered background resulting from the contrast between soft tissues in the breast. The technique has usually been implemented by exploiting two exposures to different x-ray tube voltages. In this article, another dual-energy approach using the balanced filter method without switching the tube voltages is described. For the spectral optimization of dual-energy mammography using the balanced filters, we applied a theoretical framework reported by Lemacks et al. [Med. Phys. 29, 1739-1751 (2002)] to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an iodinated contrast agent subtraction image. This permits the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage and balanced filter material, and the optimization of the latter's thickness with respect to some critical quantity-in this case, mean glandular dose. For an imaging system with a 0.1 mm thick CsI:T1 scintillator, we predict that the optimal tube voltage would be 45 kVp for a tungsten anode using zirconium, iodine, and neodymium balanced filters. A mean glandular dose of 1.0 mGy is required to obtain an SNR of 5 in order to detect 1.0 mg/cm2 iodine in the resulting clutter-free image of a 5 cm thick breast composed of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. In addition to spectral optimization, we carried out phantom measurements to demonstrate the present dual-energy approach for obtaining a clutter-free image, which preferentially shows iodine, of a breast phantom comprising three major components-acrylic spheres, olive oil, and an iodinated contrast agent. The detection of iodine details on the cluttered background originating from the contrast between acrylic spheres and olive oil is analogous to the task of distinguishing contrast agents in a mixture of glandular and adipose tissues.

  6. Dual-energy approach to contrast-enhanced mammography using the balanced filter method: Spectral optimization and preliminary phantom measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Dual-energy contrast agent-enhanced mammography is a technique of demonstrating breast cancers obscured by a cluttered background resulting from the contrast between soft tissues in the breast. The technique has usually been implemented by exploiting two exposures to different x-ray tube voltages. In this article, another dual-energy approach using the balanced filter method without switching the tube voltages is described. For the spectral optimization of dual-energy mammography using the balanced filters, we applied a theoretical framework reported by Lemacks et al. [Med. Phys. 29, 1739-1751 (2002)] to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an iodinated contrast agent subtraction image. This permits the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage and balanced filter material, and the optimization of the latter's thickness with respect to some critical quantity--in this case, mean glandular dose. For an imaging system with a 0.1 mm thick CsI:Tl scintillator, we predict that the optimal tube voltage would be 45 kVp for a tungsten anode using zirconium, iodine, and neodymium balanced filters. A mean glandular dose of 1.0 mGy is required to obtain an SNR of 5 in order to detect 1.0 mg/cm 2 iodine in the resulting clutter-free image of a 5 cm thick breast composed of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. In addition to spectral optimization, we carried out phantom measurements to demonstrate the present dual-energy approach for obtaining a clutter-free image, which preferentially shows iodine, of a breast phantom comprising three major components - acrylic spheres, olive oil, and an iodinated contrast agent. The detection of iodine details on the cluttered background originating from the contrast between acrylic spheres and olive oil is analogous to the task of distinguishing contrast agents in a mixture of glandular and adipose tissues

  7. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Investigating the Potential of Using the Spatial and Spectral Information of Multispectral LiDAR for Object Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The abilities of multispectral LiDAR (MSL as a new high-potential active instrument for remote sensing have not been fully revealed. This study demonstrates the potential of using the spectral and spatial features derived from a novel MSL to discriminate surface objects. Data acquired with the MSL include distance information and the intensities of four wavelengths at 556, 670, 700, and 780 nm channels. A support vector machine was used to classify diverse objects in the experimental scene into seven types: wall, ceramic pots, Cactaceae, carton, plastic foam block, and healthy and dead leaves of E. aureum. Different features were used during classification to compare the performance of different detection systems. The spectral backscattered reflectance of one wavelength and distance represented the features from an equivalent single-wavelength LiDAR system; reflectance of the four wavelengths represented the features from an equivalent multispectral image with four bands. Results showed that the overall accuracy of using MSL data was as high as 88.7%, this value was 9.8%–39.2% higher than those obtained using a single-wavelength LiDAR, and 4.2% higher than for multispectral image.

  9. [The design and implementation of the web typical surface object spectral information system in arid areas based on .NET and SuperMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Hong-jiang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified .NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the derivative spectral data and its drawings. In addition, the system initially possessed a simple spectral data mining and analysis capabilities, and this advantage provided an efficient, reliable and convenient data management and application platform for the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis's follow-up study in soil salinization. Finally, It's easy to maintain, convinient for secondary development and practically operating in good condition.

  10. MARS Spectral Imaging: From High-Energy Physics to a Biomedical Business

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract MARS spectral scanners provide colour X-Ray images. Current MARS pre-clinical scanners enable researchers and clinicians to measure biochemical and physiological processes in specimens, and animal models of disease. The scanners have developed from a 10 year scientific collaboration between New Zealand and CERN. In parallel a company, MARS Bioimaging Ltd, was founded to commercialise the technology by productising the scanner and selling it to biomedical users around the world. The New Zealand team is now more than 30 people including staff and students from the fields of physics, engineering, computing, maths, radiology, cardiology, biochemistry, oncology, and orthopaedics. Current work with pre-clinical scanners has concluded that the technology will be  useful in heart disease, stroke, arthritis, joint replacements, and cancer. In late 2014, the government announced funding for NZ to build a MARS scanner capable of imaging humans. Bio Professor Anthony Butler is a radiologist wit...

  11. Spectral, energy, and time parameters of two-photon fluorescence of 2,5-diphenyloxazole polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agal'tsov, A.M.; Gorelik, V.S.; Rakhmatullaev, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Two-photon fluorescence (TPF) spectra of 2,5-diphenyloxazole polycrystals (known in the literature as PPO) were obtained and studied as a function of the pump power and time delay. The fluorescence spectrum shape observed upon two-photon excitation is shown to be distinctly different from that observed upon electron-beam excitation. It is shown that high pump powers result in stimulated fluorescence. PPO exhibits a high TPF quantum yield, the integrated conversion efficiency of exciting radiation to TPF being 40%. The TPF decay time is measured to be 20 ns. The spectral data obtained for PPO polycrystals can be used in the development of new TPF light sources tunable in the UV region. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Direct glycan structure determination of intact N-linked glycopeptides by low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry and predicted spectral library searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Pei-Jing; Hu, Yingwei; Lam, Henry

    2016-08-31

    Intact glycopeptide MS analysis to reveal site-specific protein glycosylation is an important frontier of proteomics. However, computational tools for analyzing MS/MS spectra of intact glycopeptides are still limited and not well-integrated into existing workflows. In this work, a new computational tool which combines the spectral library building/searching tool, SpectraST (Lam et al. Nat. Methods2008, 5, 873-875), and the glycopeptide fragmentation prediction tool, MassAnalyzer (Zhang et al. Anal. Chem.2010, 82, 10194-10202) for intact glycopeptide analysis has been developed. Specifically, this tool enables the determination of the glycan structure directly from low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of intact glycopeptides. Given a list of possible glycopeptide sequences as input, a sample-specific spectral library of MassAnalyzer-predicted spectra is built using SpectraST. Glycan identification from CID spectra is achieved by spectral library searching against this library, in which both m/z and intensity information of the possible fragmentation ions are taken into consideration for improved accuracy. We validated our method using a standard glycoprotein, human transferrin, and evaluated its potential to be used in site-specific glycosylation profiling of glycoprotein datasets from LC-MS/MS. In addition, we further applied our method to reveal, for the first time, the site-specific N-glycosylation profile of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase expressed in HEK293 cells. For maximum usability, SpectraST is developed as part of the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), a freely available and open-source software suite for MS data analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of energy information needs and existing information sources for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisch, A.; Kunzier, J.; Limaye, D.; Orlando, J.

    1976-01-01

    Through use of a comprehensive interviewing schedule designed to elicit information needs from state policymakers, this study has shown a statewide need for a workable energy information network. As a counterpoint to this needs survey, it was also demonstrated that many of the components of such an information base already are available at the state and Federal levels. In order to assure that Pennsylvania's decision makers have access to this required information in a current and useful format at a minimal cost, this study has suggested a three-pronged action program: (1) In order to construct a workable energy information network for use by the Commonwealth, a liaison should be established with the Governor's Energy Council and the various national and regional energy information sources as cited in this report. (2) An information directory on State, Federal and private sources should be maintained and distributed on a continuing basis. An assessment of each source should be included with information on ease of access and relevance of the source to Pennsylvania. (3) After an information need is unable to be met through use of (1) the state energy information network and/or (2) the state energy information directory, effort should be initiated to satisfy that specific requirement.

  14. Social Demand of New Generation Information Network: Introduction to High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Kubota, Fumito

    In this section, first, current situation of traffic growth and penetration of broadband services are described. Then social demand, technical issues, and research trend for future information network in the United States, Europe, and Japan are described. Finally, a detailed construction of this book is introduced.

  15. Energy technologies and the environment: environmental information handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    This manual draws together information on the environmental consequences of energy technologies that will be in use in the United States during the next 20 years. We hope it will prove useful to planners, policymakers, legislators, researchers, and environmentalists. The information on environmental issues, control technologies, and energy production and conservation processes should also be a convenient starting point for deeper exploration. Published references are given for the statements, data, and conclusions so that the interested reader can obtain more detailed information where necessary. Environmental aspects of energy technologies are presented in a form suitable for government and public use and are intended to assist decisionmakers, researchers, and the public with basic information and references that can be relied upon through changing policies and changing world energy prices

  16. Spectral functions from hadronic τ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Hadronic decays of the τ lepton provide a clean environment to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by romances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonpertubative contributions. the τ vector spectral functions for the 2π and 4π final states are used together with e p+ e p- data in order to compute vacuum polarization integrals occurring in the calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and the running of the electromagnetic coupling

  17. Energy data warehouse or energy data information system?; Energy-Datawarehouse oder Energiedaten-Informationssystem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, W. [Medatec, Ingenieurbuero fuer Mess- und Datentechnik, Staufenberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The contribution discusses the problem of junk data and the development of integrated, optimizied energy data information systems. [German] Die Nachfrage der deregulierten Energiemaerkte nach Tools zur Verwaltung grosser Mengen von Lastgaengen, Kundenstammdaten sowie Bewertungs-, Tarifierungs- und und Durchleutungsparametern fuehrt zu einer Fuelle von Angeboten von Produkten aus dem Datawarehouse-Umfeld. Hierbei wird dem Anwender eindringlich suggeriert, dass die oberste Zielsetzung das 'Speichern' aller Arten von Messdaten im Bereich Energieerzeugung und -verteilung auf einer einzigen Datenbank sein sollte und dass entsprechende Datenformate dies auch ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  18. Interrelationships between information and energy using knowledge management tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Martínez, A. María

    2014-01-01

    Edward Fredkin was an enthusiastic advocate of information-based theoretical physics, who, in the early 1980s, proposed a new theory of physics based on the idea that the universe is ultimately composed of software. According to Fredkin, reality should be considered as being composed not of particles, matter and forces or energy but of bits of data or information modified according to computational rules. Fredkin went on to demonstrate that, while energy is necessary for storing and retrieving information, it can be arbitrarily reduced in order to carry out any particular instance of information processing, and this operation does not have a lower bound. This implies that it is information rather than matter or energy that should be considered at the ultimate fundamental constituent of reality. This possibility had already been suggested by other scientists. Norbert Wiener heralded a fundamental shift from energy to information and suggested that the universe was founded essentially on the transformation of information, not energy. However, Konrad Zuse was the first, back in 1967, to defend the idea that a digital computer is computing the universe. Richard P. Feynman showed this possibility in a similar light in his reflections on how information related to matter and energy. Other pioneering research on the theory of digital physics was published by Kantor in 1977 and more recently by Stephen Wolfram in 2002, who thereby joined the host of voices upholding that it is patterns of information, not matter and energy, that constitute the cornerstones of reality. In this paper, we introduce the use of knowledge management tools for the purpose of analysing this topic

  19. Information report about the energy; Rapport d'information sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the the International Conference on the climatic changes at La Haye, the projects of the nuclear industry reorganizing and the network energies market deregulation, the french government organized some discussions on the energy. Four subjects have been chosen to answer to the following four questions: What about the energy supply and demand in the future? How take up the environmental challenges of the energy? What is the future of the electro- nuclear industry? Towards which new economic organization of network energies will emerge the deregulation of the electric power and gas market? This document presents the conclusions of these four thematic meetings. (A.L.B.)

  20. Information report about the energy; Rapport d'information sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the the International Conference on the climatic changes at La Haye, the projects of the nuclear industry reorganizing and the network energies market deregulation, the french government organized some discussions on the energy. Four subjects have been chosen to answer to the following four questions: What about the energy supply and demand in the future? How take up the environmental challenges of the energy? What is the future of the electro- nuclear industry? Towards which new economic organization of network energies will emerge the deregulation of the electric power and gas market? This document presents the conclusions of these four thematic meetings. (A.L.B.)

  1. Information Geometry, Inference Methods and Chaotic Energy Levels Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a novel information-geometric characterization of chaotic (integrable) energy level statistics of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising spin chain in a tilted (transverse) external magnetic field. Finally, we conjecture our results might find some potential physical applications in quantum energy level statistics.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalog 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-01-01

    NREL's ninth annual Information Resources Catalog can keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. It includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  3. The information in Nuclear Energy: The Experience in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.M.; Campos, E.P.

    1998-01-01

    After the accident in Goiania the Nuclear Energy National Commission implant in this city a information system for the human population. The objective consisted on giving a technical knowledge about the nuclear energy utilization. This work represents the utilized strategy and the results reached in this program during the period 1991-1996

  4. Determination of solar energy fluctuations in the lower atmosphere using spectral analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1984-10-01

    An expression for the direct solar energy incident upon an arbitrary portion of the Earth's surface over an arbitrary duration of time (>2 days) has been formulated as a product of a continuous solar energy signal function and a correspondingly continuous time-dependent sampling function. The energy density spectrum of this product is then evaluated, and its predictions are compared with observations. Predicted periodicities agree well with both short-term and long-term observations. The implication of this work to meteorological and climatic studies is briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Efficiency of free-energy calculations of spin lattices by spectral quantum algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master, Cyrus P.; Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Ensemble quantum algorithms are well suited to calculate estimates of the energy spectra for spin-lattice systems. Based on the phase estimation algorithm, these algorithms efficiently estimate discrete Fourier coefficients of the density of states. Their efficiency in calculating the free energy per spin of general spin lattices to bounded error is examined. We find that the number of Fourier components required to bound the error in the free energy due to the broadening of the density of states scales polynomially with the number of spins in the lattice. However, the precision with which the Fourier components must be calculated is found to be an exponential function of the system size

  6. Application of a Laplace transform pair model for high-energy x-ray spectral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, B R; Almond, P R; Wagner, L K

    1985-01-01

    A Laplace transform pair model, previously shown to accurately reconstruct x-ray spectra at diagnostic energies, has been applied to megavoltage energy beams. The inverse Laplace transforms of 2-, 6-, and 25-MV attenuation curves were evaluated to determine the energy spectra of these beams. The 2-MV data indicate that the model can reliably reconstruct spectra in the low megavoltage range. Experimental limitations in acquiring the 6-MV transmission data demonstrate the sensitivity of the model to systematic experimental error. The 25-MV data result in a physically realistic approximation of the present spectrum.

  7. Impact of energy-saving information in Sweden. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byman, D; Furubo, J E

    1980-02-01

    Energy conservation is a central part of Sweden's national energy policy. It represents an important means of attaining the goals that have been set for this policy: (1) safeguarding sources of supply; (2) curbing energy-transformation effects and reinforcing safety measures; and (3) freedom of action and flexibility. Government measures, public-information activities, and the help of many organizations in accomplishing the goals are emphasized here.

  8. Information report nuclear energy in Europe; Rapport d'information energie nucleaire en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesquiou, A de

    2002-07-01

    This report takes stock on the nuclear energy situation in Europe. The European Union with more than 40% of the nuclear power capacity in the world, is already confronted with the nuclear energy place and stakes in the future energy policy. The report si presented in two main parts. The first part, ''the assets and the weaknesses of the nuclear energy'', deals with the economical aspects which historically based the choice of the nuclear energy and the induced impacts on the environment. The competitiveness of the nuclear energy but also the wastes management problem are discussed. The second part, ''the diplomatic and juridical framework of the nuclear energy development'', details and presents the limits of the EURATOM treaty. (A.L.B.)

  9. Information report nuclear energy in Europe; Rapport d'information energie nucleaire en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesquiou, A. de

    2002-07-01

    This report takes stock on the nuclear energy situation in Europe. The European Union with more than 40% of the nuclear power capacity in the world, is already confronted with the nuclear energy place and stakes in the future energy policy. The report si presented in two main parts. The first part, ''the assets and the weaknesses of the nuclear energy'', deals with the economical aspects which historically based the choice of the nuclear energy and the induced impacts on the environment. The competitiveness of the nuclear energy but also the wastes management problem are discussed. The second part, ''the diplomatic and juridical framework of the nuclear energy development'', details and presents the limits of the EURATOM treaty. (A.L.B.)

  10. Understanding the aerosol information content in multi-spectral reflectance measurements using a synergetic retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martynenko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An information content analysis for multi-wavelength SYNergetic AErosol Retrieval algorithm SYNAER was performed to quantify the number of independent pieces of information that can be retrieved. In particular, the capability of SYNAER to discern various aerosol types is assessed. This information content depends on the aerosol optical depth, the surface albedo spectrum and the observation geometry. The theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum and its accuracy is known under cloud-free conditions, reflectance measurements used in SYNAER is able to provide for 2–4° of freedom that can be attributed to retrieval parameters: aerosol optical depth, aerosol type and surface albedo.

    The focus of this work is placed on an information content analysis with emphasis to the aerosol type classification. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for 40 predefined aerosol mixtures of different basic components, given by sea salt, mineral dust, biomass burning and diesel aerosols, water soluble and water insoluble aerosols. The range of aerosol parameters considered through the 40 mixtures covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. After the information content analysis performed in Holzer-Popp et al. (2008 there was a necessity to compare derived degrees of freedom with retrieved aerosol optical depth for different aerosol types, which is the main focus of this paper.

    The principle component analysis was used to determine the correspondence between degrees of freedom for signal in the retrieval and derived aerosol types. The main results of the analysis indicate correspondence between the major groups of the aerosol types, which are: water soluble aerosol, soot, mineral dust and sea salt and degrees of freedom in the algorithm and show the ability of the SYNAER to

  11. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  12. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  13. The energy and spectral characteristics of a room-temperature pulsed laser on a ZnS:Fe2+ polycrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, K. N.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Ikonnikov, V. B.; Kazantsev, S. Yu; Kononov, I. G.; Kotereva, T. V.; Savin, D. V.; Timofeeva, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    The energy and spectral characteristics of a laser on a ZnS:Fe2+ polycrystal operating at room temperature have been studied. The laser was pumped by a non-chain electro-discharge HF laser with a full-width at half-maximum pulse duration of ~140 ns. The diameter of the pumping radiation spot on the crystal surface was 3.8& mm. The two-sided diffuse doping of a polycrystalline CVD-ZnS sample with the surfaces preliminarily coated by high-purity iron films was performed in the process of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in an argon atmosphere at a pressure of 100 MPa and temperature of 1290 °C. Increasing the duration of the HIP treatment from 54 h to 72 h made it possible to obtain twice the doping depth, and correspondingly, twice the length of active medium. As a result, the slope laser efficiency with respect to the absorbed energy was raised by a factor of 1.75 as compared to the value obtained in our earlier work with a polycrystalline sample. The generation energy was 25 mJ at a slope efficiency of ηslope = 35%. It was established that the generation spectra of the laser with a non-selective resonator have a linear structure with intervals between the neighboring lines of δλ 6 ÷ 8 nm, which is spurious for solid-state lasers. The spectral structure observed is not related to the elements inside the resonator, which might form Fabry-Perot interferometers.

  14. How much information disclosure of building energy performance is necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, David

    2014-01-01

    Many different governments have begun to require disclosure of building energy performance, in order to allow owners and prospective buyers to incorporate this information into their investment decisions. These policies, known as disclosure or information policies, require owners to benchmark their buildings and sometimes conduct engineering audits. However, given substantial variation in the cost to disclose different types of information, it is natural to ask: how much and what kind of information about building energy performance should be disclosed, and for what purposes? To answer this question, this paper assembles and cleans a comprehensive panel dataset of New York City multifamily buildings, and analyzes its predictive power using a Bayesian multilevel regression model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals that building-level variation is the most important factor in explaining building energy use, and that there are few, if any, relationships of building systems to observed energy use. This indicates that disclosure laws requiring benchmarking data may be relatively more useful than engineering audits in explaining the observed energy performance of existing buildings. These results should inform the further development of information disclosure laws. - Highlights: • A comprehensive panel dataset of energy performance and building characteristics was assembled and cleaned. • The effectiveness of the disclosed information to predict building energy performance was tested using a regression model. • Building-level variation has a greater effect than any building characteristic or systems. • Benchmarking data alone predicts energy performance equally as well as both benchmarking and engineering audit data together, and better than audit data alone

  15. Means and tools for communicating information on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This report deals with the means and tools for communicating information on nuclear energy. Informing parliamentarians should be done in a brief and clear way. Follow-up is also essential. The last part of this document finally explains how to gauge whether communication has been effective or not. (TEC)

  16. Evaluation of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huanhuan [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (China); Yan, Fuhua; Pan, Zilai; Lin, Xiaozhu; Luo, Xianfu; Shi, Cen [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Xiaoyan [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Baisong [Department of Biomedical Statistics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Huan, E-mail: huanzhangy@126.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer and the status of the regional lymph nodes in rectal cancer is considered to be one of the most powerful prognostic factor in the absence of distant metastatic disease. Detecting LNs metastasis is still a challenging problem due to the presence of microscopic metastasis or inflammatory swelling of LNs. • We investigated the value of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Our study demonstrated that the quantitative normalized iodine concentration (nIC) could be useful for differentiating metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. The combination of nIC in portal venous phase and conventional size criterion could improve the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of rectal cancer. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the value of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) imaging in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-five patients with rectal cancer underwent the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP) contrast-enhanced DEsCT imaging. The virtual monochromatic images and iodine-based material decomposition images derived from DEsCT imaging were interpreted for lymph nodes (LNs) measurement. The short axis diameter and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs were measured. The two-sample t test was used to compare the short axis diameters and nIC values of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: One hundred and fifty two LNs including 92 non-metastatic LNs and 60 metastatic LNs were matched using the radiological-pathological correlation. The mean short axis diameter of metastatic LNs was significantly larger than that of the non-metastatic LNs (7.28 ± 2.28 mm vs. 4.90 ± 1.64 mm, P < 0.001). The mean n

  17. Grading and quantification of hip osteoarthritis severity by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of radiographic hip joint space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniatis, I; Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Panagiotopoulos, E

    2009-01-01

    An image analysis system is proposed for the assessment of hip osteoarthritis (OA) severity. Sixty four hips (18 normal, 46 osteoarthritic), corresponding to 32 patients of unilateral or bilateral hip OA were studied. Employing custom developed software, 64 Region Of Interest (ROI) images of Hip Joint Spaces (HJSs) were delineated on patients' digitized radiographs. The Fourier spectrum of each HJS-ROI was computed and expressed in polar coordinates. Spectral signatures, quantifying the radial and angular distribution of HJS spectral energy were formed. Signature descriptors were generated and utilized in the design of a two-level hierarchical decision tree, used for the grading of the severity of the disease. Accordingly, at Level 1, implemented by a multiple classifier system, the discrimination between normal and osteoarthritic hips was performed. At Level 2, the hips that had been successfully characterized as osteoarthritic at Level 1, were further characterized as of 'Mild / Moderate' or 'Severe' OA, by the Bayes classifier. A signature descriptors based regression model was designed, so as to quantify OA-severity. The system graded OA reliably, given that the accomplished classification accuracies for Level 1 and Level 2 were 98.4% and 100%, respectively. OA-severity values, expressed by HJS-narrowing, correlated highly (r = 0.9, p < 0.001) with values predicted by the model. The system may contribute to OA-patient management.

  18. A novel construction of complex-valued Gaussian processes with arbitrary spectral densities and its application to excitation energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Cao, Jianshu; Silbey, Robert J

    2013-06-14

    The recent experimental discoveries about excitation energy transfer (EET) in light harvesting antenna (LHA) attract a lot of interest. As an open non-equilibrium quantum system, the EET demands more rigorous theoretical framework to understand the interaction between system and environment and therein the evolution of reduced density matrix. A phonon is often used to model the fluctuating environment and convolutes the reduced quantum system temporarily. In this paper, we propose a novel way to construct complex-valued Gaussian processes to describe thermal quantum phonon bath exactly by converting the convolution of influence functional into the time correlation of complex Gaussian random field. Based on the construction, we propose a rigorous and efficient computational method, the covariance decomposition and conditional propagation scheme, to simulate the temporarily entangled reduced system. The new method allows us to study the non-Markovian effect without perturbation under the influence of different spectral densities of the linear system-phonon coupling coefficients. Its application in the study of EET in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson model Hamiltonian under four different spectral densities is discussed. Since the scaling of our algorithm is linear due to its Monte Carlo nature, the future application of the method for large LHA systems is attractive. In addition, this method can be used to study the effect of correlated initial condition on the reduced dynamics in the future.

  19. A Workflow for Automated Satellite Image Processing: from Raw VHSR Data to Object-Based Spectral Information for Smallholder Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Stratoulias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earth Observation has become a progressively important source of information for land use and land cover services over the past decades. At the same time, an increasing number of reconnaissance satellites have been set in orbit with ever increasing spatial, temporal, spectral, and radiometric resolutions. The available bulk of data, fostered by open access policies adopted by several agencies, is setting a new landscape in remote sensing in which timeliness and efficiency are important aspects of data processing. This study presents a fully automated workflow able to process a large collection of very high spatial resolution satellite images to produce actionable information in the application framework of smallholder farming. The workflow applies sequential image processing, extracts meaningful statistical information from agricultural parcels, and stores them in a crop spectrotemporal signature library. An important objective is to follow crop development through the season by analyzing multi-temporal and multi-sensor images. The workflow is based on free and open-source software, namely R, Python, Linux shell scripts, the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library, custom FORTRAN, C++, and the GNU Make utilities. We tested and applied this workflow on a multi-sensor image archive of over 270 VHSR WorldView-2, -3, QuickBird, GeoEye, and RapidEye images acquired over five different study areas where smallholder agriculture prevails.

  20. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  1. Information dissemination in nuclear energy: ideology, speech and language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marcos Goncalves

    1992-01-01

    The social impact of Goiania nuclear accident is analysed from a semiotic investigation upon papers issued on popular magazines, newspapers and scientific periodicals. Also the communication of Science Information is discussed through three basic models: diffusionist, bibliometric and cultural perspectives. Divulgation and diffusion process of scientific information are reviewed on the bases of theory of representation and theory of sign. The relationship between energy and society is discussed though a compared analysis upon the information sources available to public and scientific community. (author)

  2. Dark information of black hole radiation raised by dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Han; Chen, Jin-Fu; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2018-06-01

    The "lost" information of black hole through the Hawking radiation was discovered being stored in the correlation among the non-thermally radiated particles (Parikh and Wilczek, 2000 [31], Zhang et al., 2009 [16]). This correlation information, which has not yet been proved locally observable in principle, is named by dark information. In this paper, we systematically study the influences of dark energy on black hole radiation, especially on the dark information. Calculating the radiation spectrum in the existence of dark energy by the approach of canonical typicality, which is reconfirmed by the quantum tunneling method, we find that the dark energy will effectively lower the Hawking temperature, and thus makes the black hole has longer life time. It is also discovered that the non-thermal effect of the black hole radiation is enhanced by dark energy so that the dark information of the radiation is increased. Our observation shows that, besides the mechanical effect (e.g., gravitational lensing effect), the dark energy rises the stored dark information, which could be probed by a non-local coincidence measurement similar to the coincidence counting of the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss experiment in quantum optics.

  3. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  4. Clinical application of dual energy spectral CT method in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: DESCT could provide more information by using monochromatic images, iodine-based material decomposition images and the quantitative analysis of IC than traditional CT for the diagnosis of HE.

  5. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust optimization framework for energy hub management. It is well known that the operation of energy systems can be negatively affected by uncertain parameters, such as stochastic load demand or generation. In this regard, it is of high significance to propose efficient...... tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...

  6. Energy consumption and information transmission in model neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrealdea, Francisco J.; Sarasola, Cecilia; D'Anjou, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of whether biological computation optimizes energy use in the way neurons communicate. By assigning an electrical energy function to a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron we are able to find its average energy consumption when it reacts to incoming signals sent by another neuron coupled to it by an electrical synapse. We find that there are values of the coupling strength at which the ratio of mutual information to energy consumption is maximum and, therefore, communicating at these coupling values would be energetically the most efficient option.

  7. Energy consumption and information transmission in model neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrealdea, Francisco J. [Department of Computer Science, University of the Basque Country, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: francisco.torrealdea@ehu.es; Sarasola, Cecilia [Department of Physics of Materials, University of the Basque Country, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); D' Anjou, Alicia [Department of Computer Science, University of the Basque Country, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    This work deals with the problem of whether biological computation optimizes energy use in the way neurons communicate. By assigning an electrical energy function to a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron we are able to find its average energy consumption when it reacts to incoming signals sent by another neuron coupled to it by an electrical synapse. We find that there are values of the coupling strength at which the ratio of mutual information to energy consumption is maximum and, therefore, communicating at these coupling values would be energetically the most efficient option.

  8. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  9. A standard comparison of spectral properties and energy response for a number of ultraviolet dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassem, I.; Bero, M.

    2013-09-01

    The radio-chromic chemical radiation dosimeters are materials that change their optical properties (Spectrique optical absorbance and optical density) due to radiation absorption. These detectors are used for dose measurements of ionizing radiation (γ and X-rays). It was established that these detectors could be used for ultraviolet radiation dose measurements. So, the aim of this work is to study and compare the metrological properties of two radiation chemical detectors, FXG gel and EBT2 Gafchromic film. The FXG gel is prepared directly at laboratory but EBT2 gafchromic film is a self developed radiation sensible film which is available as commercial product. This work focuses on realizing a comparison study between FXG and EBT2 detector metrological properties. It consists of studying optical and spectral properties of the detectors responsivity, radiation and temporal stability, linearity and total detected dose level. The results showed that the studied detectors present a very good responsivity to UVA radiation, high stability in optical absorbance under UVA radiation and good linearity over wide radiation level which contains the solar UVA radiation level reaching the earth surface. But, the EBT2 film presents two time higher total detection dose level than FXG gel, moreover, due to the simplicity of use, it was possible to test the use of EBT2 film for direct solar UVA radiation measurement. The two studied chemical detector (FXG gel and EBT2 film) provide a direct second order mathematical relation between the applied radiation dose and the optical absorbance changes with a very good approximation and suitable uncertainty (Measurement results relative dispersion is about 5%). It is possible to study the EBT2 film optical density variation as a function of UVA dose using directly a portable densitometer (author).

  10. Using MODIS spectral information to classify sea ice scenes for CERES radiance-to-flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.; Liang, L.; Eitzen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites measure the shortwave (SW) radiance reflected from the Earth. In order to provide an estimate of the top-of-atmosphere reflected SW flux we need to know the anisotropy of the radiance reflected from the scene. Sea Ice scenes are particularly complex due to the wide range of surface conditions that comprise sea ice. For example, the anisotropy of snow-covered sea ice is quite different to that of sea ice with melt-ponds. To attempt to provide a consistent scene classification we have developed the Sea Ice Brightness Index (SIBI). The SIBI is defined as one minus the normalized difference between reflectances from the 0.469 micron and 0.858 micron bands from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. For brighter snow-covered sea ice scenes the SIBI value is close to 1.0. As the surface changes to bare ice, melt ponds, etc. the SIBI decreases. For open water the SIBI value is around 0.2-0.3. The SIBI exhibits no dependence on viewing zenith or solar zenith angle, allowing for consistent scene identification. To use the SIBI we classify clear-sky CERES field-of-views over sea ice into 3 groups; SIBI≥0.935, 0.935>SIBI≥0.85 and SIBISIBI based ADMs. Using the second metric, we see a reduction in the latitude/longitude binned mean RMS error between the ADM predicted radiance and the measured radiance from 8% to 7% in May and from 17% to 12% in July. These improvements suggest that using the SIBI to account for changes in the sea ice surface will lead to improved CERES flux retrievals.

  11. Smart grids, information flows and emerging domestic energy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Joeri; Spaargaren, Gert; Vliet, Bas J.M. van; Horst, Hilje M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Smart energy grids and smart meters are commonly expected to promote more sustainable ways of living. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysing the different ways in which smart grid developments shape – and are shaped by – the everyday lives of residents. Drawing upon theories of social practices and the concept of informational governance, the framework discerns three categories of ‘information flows’: flows between household-members, flows between households and energy service providers, and flows between local and distant households. Based on interviews with Dutch stakeholders and observations at workshops we examine, for all three information flows, the changes in domestic energy practices and the social relations they help to create. The analysis reveals that new information flows may not produce more sustainable practices in linear and predictable ways. Instead, changes are contextual and emergent. Second, new possibilities for information sharing between households open up a terrain for new practices. Third, information flows affect social relationships in ways as illustrated by the debates on consumer privacy in the Netherlands. An exclusive focus on privacy, however, deviates attention from opportunities for information disclosure by energy providers, and from the significance of transparency issues in redefining relationships both within and between households. - Highlights: • Smart grids generate three key new information flows that affect social relations. • Practice theory can reveal the ways in which households handle/govern information. • Householders show ambivalence about the workings of the different information flows. • Policies should account for the ‘bright’ as well as the ‘dark’ sides of information

  12. Virtual Non-Contrast CT Using Dual-Energy Spectral CT: Feasibility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inyoung; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC.

  13. The effect of host star spectral energy distribution and ice-albedo feedback on the climate of extrasolar planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Aomawa L; Meadows, Victoria S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T; Joshi, Manoj M; Robinson, Tyler D

    2013-08-01

    Planetary climate can be affected by the interaction of the host star spectral energy distribution with the wavelength-dependent reflectivity of ice and snow. In this study, we explored this effect with a one-dimensional (1-D), line-by-line, radiative transfer model to calculate broadband planetary albedos as input to a seasonally varying, 1-D energy balance climate model. A three-dimensional (3-D) general circulation model was also used to explore the atmosphere's response to changes in incoming stellar radiation, or instellation, and surface albedo. Using this hierarchy of models, we simulated planets covered by ocean, land, and water-ice of varying grain size, with incident radiation from stars of different spectral types. Terrestrial planets orbiting stars with higher near-UV radiation exhibited a stronger ice-albedo feedback. We found that ice extent was much greater on a planet orbiting an F-dwarf star than on a planet orbiting a G-dwarf star at an equivalent flux distance, and that ice-covered conditions occurred on an F-dwarf planet with only a 2% reduction in instellation relative to the present instellation on Earth, assuming fixed CO(2) (present atmospheric level on Earth). A similar planet orbiting the Sun at an equivalent flux distance required an 8% reduction in instellation, while a planet orbiting an M-dwarf star required an additional 19% reduction in instellation to become ice-covered, equivalent to 73% of the modern solar constant. The reduction in instellation must be larger for planets orbiting cooler stars due in large part to the stronger absorption of longer-wavelength radiation by icy surfaces on these planets in addition to stronger absorption by water vapor and CO(2) in their atmospheres, which provides increased downwelling longwave radiation. Lowering the IR and visible-band surface ice and snow albedos for an M-dwarf planet increased the planet's climate stability against changes in instellation and slowed the descent into global ice

  14. Plasma jet in M87: energy balance and the spectral index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The author's theory of ultrarelativistic-electron acceleration through Cerenkov resonance with magnetoacoustic waves that are generated by an ion beam reflected from a shock front is applied to calculate the parameters and radiation spectrum of the plasma jet emerging from the nucleus of the galaxy M87. The abrupt steepening of the optical spectrum toward short wavelengths may indicate that the higher-energy electrons, accelerated predominantly along the magnetic fieldlines, are experiencing too little scattering with respect to pitch angle. In the soft x-ray range the spectrum flattens again because MHD turbulence in the plasma jet reinstates the pitch-angle scattering. At the highest energies, synchrotron losses once more steepen the spectrum

  15. High efficiency thermal to electric energy conversion using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1500 K. Depending on the nature of parasitic losses, overall thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies greater than 20 percent are feasible.

  16. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with 252 Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing 252 Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6-8 extended-range sphere versus the 6'' standard sphere). (authors)

  17. Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of Li Atoms in White Dwarf Strength Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. B.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical approach based on B-splines has been developed to calculate atomic structures and discrete spectra of Li atoms in a strong magnetic field typical of magnetic white dwarf stars. Energy levels are presented for 20 electronic states with the symmetries 20+, 20‑, 2(‑1)+, 2(‑1)‑, and 2(‑2)+. The magnetic field strengths involved range from 0 to 2350 MG. The wavelengths and oscillator strengths for the electric dipole transitions relevant to these magnetized atomic states are reported. The current results are compared to the limited theoretical data in the literature. A good agreement has been found for the lower energy levels, but a significant discrepancy is clearly visible for the higher energy levels. The existing discrepancies of the wavelengths and oscillator strengths are also discussed. Our investigation shows that the spectrum data of magnetized Li atoms previously published are obviously far from meeting requirements of analyzing discrete atomic spectra of magnetic white dwarfs with lithium atmospheres.

  18. X-ray dual energy spectral parameter optimization for bone Calcium/Phosphorus mass ratio estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, P I; Martini, N D; Koukou, V N; Nikiforidis, G C; Fountos, G P; Michail, C M; Valais, I G; Kandarakis, I S

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) bone mass ratio has been identified as an important, yet underutilized, risk factor in osteoporosis diagnosis. The purpose of this simulation study is to investigate the use of effective or mean mass attenuation coefficient in Ca/P mass ratio estimation with the use of a dual-energy method. The investigation was based on the minimization of the accuracy of Ca/P ratio, with respect to the Coefficient of Variation of the ratio. Different set-ups were examined, based on the K-edge filtering technique and single X-ray exposure. The modified X-ray output was attenuated by various Ca/P mass ratios resulting in nine calibration points, while keeping constant the total bone thickness. The simulated data were obtained considering a photon counting energy discriminating detector. The standard deviation of the residuals was used to compare and evaluate the accuracy between the different dual energy set-ups. The optimum mass attenuation coefficient for the Ca/P mass ratio estimation was the effective coefficient in all the examined set-ups. The variation of the residuals between the different set-ups was not significant. (paper)

  19. Determination of urinary stone composition using dual-energy spectral CT: Initial in vitro analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.-H.; Zhao, R.; Liu, B.; Yu, Y.-Q.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the chemical composition of urinary stones using computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging (SI) Materials and methods: Two hundred and ten urinary stones were scanned in vitro using the SI mode and conventional polychromatic imaging (CPI; 120 kVp) mode. The radiodensity at 50 keV and 120 kVp, the mean calcium density (CD), and the water density (WD) were measured using the 50 keV images, 120 kVp images, calcium-based images, and water-based images, respectively. These parameters and the calcium–water ratio (CWR) were compared between different types of stones. CWR was defined as: CWR = ‌calcium density/water density‌. Results: According to the results determined by infrared spectroscopy, 116 pure urinary stones were divided into five groups: uric acid (UA, n = 16), struvite (STR, n = 23), cystine (CYS, n = 10), calcium phosphate (CaP, n = 29), and calcium oxalate (COX, n = 38). CD, CWR, and the radiodensity of stones at 50 keV CT imaging of each group were as follows: UA (−3.55 ± 10.85 mg/ml, 0.03 ± 0.05, 510.08 ± 157.29 HU); STR (224.99 ± 64.28 mg/ml, 0.19 ± 0.07, 1058.58 ± 260.13 HU); CYS (139.67 ± 34.66 mg/ml, 0.13 ± 0.03, 725.75 ± 142.35 HU); CaP (619.39 ± 26.13 mg/ml, 0.69 ± 0.11, 2617.46 ± 186.22 HU); COX (518.61 ± 95.5 mg/ml, 0.58 ± 0.1, 2247.47 ± 379.51 HU). The differences in the CD, CRW, and radiodensity of stones at 50 keV CT imaging among the groups were statistically significant by binary comparison (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the radiodensity of stones at 120 keV CT imaging between UA and CYS (p = 0.267), CaP and COX (p = 0.065), and in the WD between STR and CYS (p = 0.108). Conclusion: SI provides a novel method to better characterize pure urinary stones using the mean CD, CWR, and the radiodensity of stones at 50 keV CT imaging

  20. Analysis and design of nuclear energy information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Sriyana; Arief Tris Yuliyanto; Wiku Lulus Widodo

    2015-01-01

    Management of research reports and activities of the Center for Nuclear Energy System Assessment (PKSEN), either in the form of documents and the results of other activities, are important part of the series of activities PKSEN mission achievement. Management of good documents will facilitate the provision of improved inputs or use the maximum results. But over the past few years, there are still some problem in the management of research reports and activities performed by PKSEN. The purpose of this study is to analyze and design flow layout of the Nuclear Energy Information System to facilitate the implementation of the Nuclear Energy Information System. In addition to be used as a research management system and PKSEN activities, it can also be used as information media for the community. Nuclear Energy Information System package is expected to be ''one gate systems for PKSEN information. The research methodology used are: (i) analysis of organizational systems, (ii) the analysis and design of information systems; (iii) the analysis and design of software systems; (iv) the analysis and design of database systems. The results of this study are: had identified and resources throughout the organization PKSEN activation, had analyzed the application of SIEN using SWOT analysis, had identified several types of devices required, had been compiled hierarchy of SIEN, had determined that the database system used is a centralized database system and had elections MySQL as DBMS. The result is a basic design of the Nuclear Energy Information System) which will used as a research and activities management system of PKSEN and also can be used as a medium of information for the community. (author)

  1. Analysis of dust and marine aerosol optical depth spectral-curvature information in the UV to SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) wavelength regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.; Eck, T. F.; Sakerin, S.; Kabanov, D.

    2005-12-01

    Traditional sunphotometry in the UV, visible and very NIR (Near Infrared) spectral regions is weighted, in terms of spectral information content, towards sub-micron (fine mode) particles. Sunphotometry in the NIR and SWIR increases the diversity and information content of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements for supermicron (coarse mode) particles. Two data sets representing dust aerosols from the UAE (United Arab Emirates) region and marine aerosols from the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic Ocean were analyzed in terms of their spectral curvature diversity and information content. The former data set was acquired using NIR-enhanced CIMEL sunphotometers (340, 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 1020, 1640 nm) as part of the August to October, 2004 UAE2 field campaign while the latter data set was acquired using an automated Russian UV to SWIR SP-5 sunphotometer (339, 423, 438, 484, 552, 633, 677, 777, 869, 1241, 1560, 2148, 4000 nm) as part of a October/December 2004 cruise campaign in the northern, tropical and south Atlantic Ocean. A Microtops hand-held sunphotometer was also employed to acquire VIS to NIR AOD spectra during the latter field campaign. Results will be presented in terms of robust micro-physical and spectral curvature parameters which characterize super-micron aerosols and, in a more general sense, in terms of what universal/fundamental optical inferences can be drawn from the two disperse data sets.

  2. Fisher information, kinetic energy and uncertainty relation inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong

    2002-01-01

    By interpolating between Fisher information and mechanical kinetic energy, we introduce a general notion of kinetic energy with respect to a parameter of Schroedinger wavefunctions from a statistical inference perspective. Kinetic energy is the sum of Fisher information and an integral of a parametrized analogue of quantum mechanical current density related to phase. A family of integral inequalities concerning kinetic energy and moments are established, among which the Cramer-Rao inequality and the Weyl-Heisenberg inequality, are special cases. In particular, the integral inequalities involving the negative order moments are relevant to the study of electron systems. Moreover, by specifying the parameter to a scale, we obtain a family of inequalities of uncertainty relation type which incorporate the position and momentum observables symmetrically in a single quantity. (author)

  3. Energy for agriculture. A computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B.A.; Myers, C.A. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    Energy may come from the sun or the earth or be the product of plant materials or agricultural wastes. Whatever its source, energy is indispensable to our way of life, beginning with the production, processing, and distribution of abundant, high quality food and fiber supplies. This specialized bibliography on the subject of energy for agriculture contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Originally issued by Michigan State University (MSU), it is being reprinted and distributed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The literature citations will be incorporated into AGRICOLA (Agricultural On-Line Access), the comprehensive bibliographic data base maintained by Technical Information Systems (TIS), a component of USDA's Science and Education Administration (SEA). The citations and the listing of research projects will be combined with other relevant references to provide a continuously updated source of information on energy programs in the agricultural field. No abstracts are included.

  4. Energy management information systems : achieving improved energy efficiency : a handbook for managers, engineers and operational staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooke, J.H.; Landry, B.J.; Hart, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2004-07-01

    There are many opportunities for industrial and commercial facilities to improve energy efficiency by minimizing waste through process optimization. Large energy users can effectively reduce energy costs, improve profits and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by using computing and control equipment. This book covers all aspects of an Energy Management Information System (EMIS) including metering, data collection, data analysis, reporting and cost benefit analyses. EMIS provides relevant information to businesses that enables them to improve energy performance. EMIS deliverables include early detection of poor performance, support for decision making and effective energy reporting. EMIS also features data storage, calculation of effective targets for energy use and comparative energy consumption. Computer systems can be used to improve business performance in terms of finance, personnel, sales, resource planning, maintenance, process control, design and training. In the 1980s, the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) developed 2 versions of an energy accounting manual to help industrial, commercial and institutional sectors implement energy-accounting systems. The manual was revised in 1989 and is a useful energy management tool for business and other organizations. The EMIS examples described in this booklet reflect that energy is a variable operating cost, not a fixed overhead charge. 8 tabs., 38 figs.

  5. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practiceof Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-02-01

    In this report, the third in a series, we provide an evaluation of several products that exemplify the current state of practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the federal sector. The first report [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second report [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. Part 4 of this series will discuss applications software from a user's perspective. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of reports provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  6. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  7. Nuclear energy and the public - only an information problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudloff, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the problem 'nuclear energy and the public' leads to the following findings: 1) one has to find out what exactly worries the citizen, because otherwise the information one supplies is not relevant; 2) information, and nothing else, is not enough if the opposition is based on emotion. This where trust is needed and not printed paper; 3) the basis of trust is the relationship between humans. The proponents of nuclear energy act too much as institutions, they are 'not human'. (RW) [de

  8. Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

    2012-01-01

    Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

  9. Séparation des ondes P et S à l'aide de la matrice spectrale avec informations à priori The Separation of P and S Waves Using the Spectral Matrix with a Priori Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Classiquement, la technique de filtrage utilisant la matrice spectrale proposée par Mermoz ne permet une séparation automatique des ondes au sens des indicatrices sismiques que dans certains cas particuliers, à savoir lorsque les ondes à séparer sont naturellement alignées sur les vecteurs propres de la matrice spectrale. Dans les autres cas, nous montrons que l'introduction d'information a priori sur la vitesse apparente de quelques ondes et une limitation de la durée temporelle de ces dernières permettent d'estimer leurs vecteurs d'ondes. L'utilisation de ces vecteurs et une technique de projection au sens des moindres carrés conduit à une extraction optimale de ces ondes, sans dégrader les autres ondes. La technique de filtrage proposée a été appliquée sur des données sismiques de type PSV (profil sismique vertical déporté. Le PSV a été enregistré dans un puits entre les cotes 1050 m et 1755 m; la source est déportée de 654 m par rapport à la tête de puits. L'outil utilisé est un géophone de puits à trois composantes. Le puits traverse une structure géologique complexe. Le traitement réalisé a mis en évidence des réflexions sismiques d'ondes de compression et de cisaillement, associées à des marqueurs fortement pentés (10 à 25°. Après estimation des champs de vitesse et des pendages à l'aide d'abaques, la migration en profondeur des horizons temps pointés a permis d'obtenir un modèle structural faillé. Detailed structural analysis can be achieved by using 3-component vertical seismic profiling method which gives structural information at several hundred meters from the wellhead. The use of an offset VSP on the Auzance structure has led to obtain a structural model composed by faulted dipping reflectors. This is due to the robust nature of the wave separation method which is based on the spectral matrix and uses an a priori information. This method preserves the true amplitude and the local apparent

  10. Low energy spectral index and Ep evolution of quasi-thermal photosphere emission of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations by the Fermi satellite suggest that a photosphere emission component is contributing to the observed spectrum of many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One important question is whether the photosphere component can interpret the typical 'Band' function of GRBs with a typical low energy photon spectral index α ∼ –1. We perform a detailed study of the photosphere emission spectrum by progressively introducing several physical ingredients previously not fully incorporated, including the probability distribution of the location of a dynamically evolving photosphere, superposition of emission from an equal arrival time 'volume' in a continuous wind, the evolution of optical depth of a wind with finite but evolving outer boundary, as well as the effect of different top-hat wind luminosity (L w ) profiles. By assuming a comoving blackbody spectrum emerging from the photosphere, we find that for an outflow with a constant or increasing L w , the low-energy spectrum below the peak energy (E p ), can be modified to F ν ∼ ν 1.5 (α ∼ +0.5). A softer (–1 < α < +0.5) or flat (α = –1) spectrum can be obtained during the L w decreasing phase or high-latitude-emission-dominated phase. We also study the evolution of E p as a function of wind and photosphere luminosity in this photosphere model. An E p – L tracking pattern can be reproduced if a certain positive dependence between the dimensionless entropy η and L w is introduced. However, the hard-to-soft evolution pattern cannot be reproduced unless a contrived condition is invoked. In order to interpret the Band spectrum, a more complicated photosphere model or a different energy dissipation and radiation mechanism is needed.

  11. Observational study on the fine structure and dynamics of a solar jet. II. Energy release process revealed by spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Takahito; Tei, Akiko; Asai, Ayumi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    We report on a solar jet phenomenon associated with the C5.4 class flare on 2014 November 11. The data of the jet was provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. These plentiful data enabled us to present this series of papers to discuss all the processes of the observed phenomena, including energy storage, event trigger, and energy release. In this paper, we focus on the energy release process of the observed jet, and mainly describe our spectral analysis on the Hα data of DST to investigate the internal structure of the Hα jet and its temporal evolution. This analysis reveals that in the physical quantity distributions of the Hα jet, such as line-of-sight velocity and optical thickness, there is a significant gradient in the direction crossing the jet. We interpret this internal structure as the consequence of the migration of the energy release site, based on the idea of ubiquitous reconnection. Moreover, by measuring the horizontal flow of the fine structures in the jet, we succeeded in deriving the three-dimensional velocity field and the line-of-sight acceleration field of the Hα jet. The analysis result indicates that part of the ejecta in the Hα jet experienced additional acceleration after it had been ejected from the lower atmosphere. This secondary acceleration was found to occur in the vicinity of the intersection between the trajectories of the Hα jet and the X-ray jet observed by Hinode/XRT. We propose that a fundamental cause of this phenomenon is magnetic reconnection involving the plasmoid in the observed jet.

  12. UV TO FAR-IR CATALOG OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN NEARBY CLUSTERS: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a sample of cluster galaxies devoted to study the environmental influence on the star formation activity. This sample of galaxies inhabits in clusters showing a rich variety in their characteristics and have been observed by the SDSS-DR6 down to M{sub B} {approx} -18, and by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer AIS throughout sky regions corresponding to several megaparsecs. We assign the broadband and emission-line fluxes from ultraviolet to far-infrared to each galaxy performing an accurate spectral energy distribution for spectral fitting analysis. The clusters follow the general X-ray luminosity versus velocity dispersion trend of L{sub X} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup 4.4}{sub c}. The analysis of the distributions of galaxy density counting up to the 5th nearest neighbor {Sigma}{sub 5} shows: (1) the virial regions and the cluster outskirts share a common range in the high density part of the distribution. This can be attributed to the presence of massive galaxy structures in the surroundings of virial regions. (2) The virial regions of massive clusters ({sigma}{sub c} > 550 km s{sup -1}) present a {Sigma}{sub 5} distribution statistically distinguishable ({approx}96%) from the corresponding distribution of low-mass clusters ({sigma}{sub c} < 550 km s{sup -1}). Both massive and low-mass clusters follow a similar density-radius trend, but the low-mass clusters avoid the high density extreme. We illustrate, with ABELL 1185, the environmental trends of galaxy populations. Maps of sky projected galaxy density show how low-luminosity star-forming galaxies appear distributed along more spread structures than their giant counterparts, whereas low-luminosity passive galaxies avoid the low-density environment. Giant passive and star-forming galaxies share rather similar sky regions with passive galaxies exhibiting more concentrated distributions.

  13. DUST SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ERA OF HERSCHEL AND PLANCK: A HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN-FITTING TECHNIQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Shetty, Rahul; Stutz, Amelia M.; Launhardt, Ralf; Kauffmann, Jens

    2012-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dust emission to observed fluxes. Under the standard assumption of optically thin single temperature (T) sources, the dust SED as represented by a power-law-modified blackbody is subject to a strong degeneracy between T and the spectral index β. The traditional non-hierarchical approaches, typically based on χ 2 minimization, are severely limited by this degeneracy, as it produces an artificial anti-correlation between T and β even with modest levels of observational noise. The hierarchical Bayesian method rigorously and self-consistently treats measurement uncertainties, including calibration and noise, resulting in more precise SED fits. As a result, the Bayesian fits do not produce any spurious anti-correlations between the SED parameters due to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate that the Bayesian method is substantially more accurate than the χ 2 fit in recovering the SED parameters, as well as the correlations between them. As an illustration, we apply our method to Herschel and submillimeter ground-based observations of the star-forming Bok globule CB244. This source is a small, nearby molecular cloud containing a single low-mass protostar and a starless core. We find that T and β are weakly positively correlated—in contradiction with the χ 2 fits, which indicate a T-β anti-correlation from the same data set. Additionally, in comparison to the χ 2 fits the Bayesian SED parameter estimates exhibit a reduced range in values.

  14. Initiative EnergieEffizienz : An information campaign on energy efficiency for private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricola, Annegret-Cl.; Ahrens, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Unnecessary energy consumption can be avoided easily by making intelligent decisions when buying and using household equipment and hence cut the electricity bill and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This is the key message imparted by the information campaign on energy efficiency for private households. The campaign addresses three main topics: the reduction or avoidance of stand by energy consumption of consumer electronics and IT-equipment, energy efficient high quality lighting and energy efficiency in the white goods sector. Consumers are addressed via a broad range of communication measures highlighting the efficiency issue. These instruments include advertisement in nationwide print media, regular press releases, public relations activities etc. Special information material are made for young people as well as for the Turkish minority in Germany. The main strategy of the campaign is to co-operate with retailers: consumers are to gain information on energy efficiency at the point of sale where domestic appliances and lighting equipment are sold. The campaign offers information for the point of sale including brochures for customers as well as for sales assistants. By December 2004 approximately 7,200 points of sale all over in Germany were equipped with the campaign's information. The German national energy agency (dena) runs the information campaign in co-operation with the German associations of power suppliers, the German foundation for environmental protection and the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour. The campaign started in 2002. Its aims are to arise consumers' awareness, to inform consumers on energy efficient appliances and give motivation when buying and using them. Through these aims the campaign should contribute to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the private sector In order to measure the campaign's impact a quantitative analysis is carried out. First results show a change in public's awareness and attitude towards energy efficiency

  15. Energy dispersive CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for spectral clinical CT and NDT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, W.C., E-mail: william.barber@dxray.com [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States); Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Wessel, J.C. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States); Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Nygard, E. [Interon AS, Asker (Norway); Iwanczyk, J.S. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non-destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT. These applications produce high input count rates from an x-ray generator delivered to the detector. Therefore, in order to achieve energy-resolved single photon counting in these applications, a high output count rate (OCR) for an energy-dispersive detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) compound semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel provided the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions, and at a sufficiently high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We have developed high-flux energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray imaging array sensors using pixellated CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductors optimized for clinical CT and security NDT. We have also fabricated high

  16. Efficient, LON-based energy information management system; Effektives Energie-Informations-Management-System auf LON-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, A.; Kalla, H. [Weidmueller GmbH, Paderborn (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    In these days of globalisation and increasing competition, intelligent concepts have become indispensable. The decentralized energy information management system offered by Weidmueller stores consumption data in a database that makes consumption transparent both to the utility and its customers. [Deutsch] Die Maerkte werden globaler, der Wettbewerb immer haerter. Wer hier als Energielieferant `im Rennen` bleiben will, muss intelligente, zukunftsweisende Konzepte zusammen mit seinen Kunden erarbeiten. Das dezentrale Energie-Informations-Management-System von Weidmueller erfasst dazu die Verbrauchsdaten, die wiederum die Datenbasis mit entsprechender Verbrauchstransparenz sowohl fuer den Energieversorger als auch fuer den Kunden bilden. (orig.)

  17. Proceedings: panel on information dissemination for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, P. [ed.

    1980-04-01

    This meeting was called as part of a multi-year planning effort. Groups involved in the production and/or dissemination of information on wind energy were invited to describe their current activities and their perceptions of the needs of the 80's in this area. Participants exchanged copies of materials they distribute regularly and discussed frequently asked questions.

  18. NASA Earth Observations Informing Energy Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Stackhouse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Sector is experiencing increasing impacts from severe weather and shifting climatic trends, as well as facing a changing political climate, adding uncertainty for stakeholders as they make short- and long-term planning investments. Climate changes such as prolonged extreme heat and drought (leading to wildfire spread, for example), sea level rise, and extreme storms are changing the ways that utilities operate. Energy infrastructure located in coastal or flood-prone areas faces inundation risks, such as damage to energy facilities. The use of renewable energy resources is increasing, requiring more information about their intermittency and spatial patterns. In light of these challenges, public and private stakeholders have collaborated to identify potential data sources, tools, and programmatic ideas. For example, utilities across the country are using cutting-edge technology and data to plan for and adapt to these changes. In the Federal Government, NASA has invested in preliminary work to identify needs and opportunities for satellite data in energy sector application, and the Department of Energy has similarly brought together stakeholders to understand the landscape of climate vulnerability and resilience for utilities and others. However, have these efforts improved community-scale resilience and adaptation efforts? Further, some communities are more vulnerable to climate change and infrastructure impacts than others. This session has two goals. First, panelists seek to share existing and ongoing efforts related to energy management. Second, the session seeks to engage with attendees via group knowledge exchange to connect national energy management efforts to local practice for increased community resilience.

  19. The value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Shao, Xiaodong [Department of Radiology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Chen, Haisong, E-mail: chsEJR@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Different types of tissues have different types of spectral curves. • We find that spectral curve is useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. • Arc shaped curve is a specific sign for tumors containing abundant fat. - Abstract: Objective: To explore the value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Methods: Energy spectral CT scan was performed on 100 patients with soft tissue mass caused by musculoskeletal tumors found by MRI. Solid areas with homogenous density were chosen as region of interests (ROI), avoiding necrosis, hemorrhage and calcification region. Select the optimal keV on single energy images, and then the keV–CT curve was automatically generated. All 100 cases of tumors proved by histological examination were divided into four groups, 38 cases were in benign group, 10 cases in borderline group, 49 cases in malignant group, and 3 cases of lipoma (that were analyzed separately since its curve was arc shaped, significantly different from other curves). The formula used to calculate the slope of spectral curve was as follows: slope = (Hu40 keV − Hu80 keV)/40. As the slope was steep within the range of 40–80 keV based on preliminary observations, 40 keV and 80 keV were used as the reference points to calculate the slope value of the energy spectral curve. Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was applied for statistical analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: The spectral curve of benign group was gradually falling type with a mean slope of 0.75 ± 0.30, that of malignant group was sharply falling type with a mean slope of 1.64 ± 1.00, and that of borderline group was a falling type between the above two groups with a mean slope of 1.34 ± 0.45. The differences of slopes between benign and malignant group, benign and borderline group were of

  20. The use of energy information in plastic scintillator materia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, J.; Anderson, K.; Bates, D.; Kouzes, R.; Lo Presti, C.; Runkle, R.; Siciliano, E.; Weier, D.

    2008-01-01

    Plastic scintillator material is often used for gamma-ray detection in many applications due to its relatively good sensitivity and cost-effectiveness compared to other detection materials. However, due to the dominant Compton scattering interaction mechanism, full energy peaks are not observed in plastic scintillator spectra and isotopic identification is impossible. Typically plastic scintillator detectors are solely gross count detectors. In some safeguards and security applications, such as radiation portal monitors for vehicle screening, naturally-occurring radioactive material (NORM) often triggers radiation alarms and results in innocent or nuisance alarms. The limited energy information from plastic scintillator material can be used to discriminate the NORM from targeted materials and reduce the nuisance alarm rate. An overview of the utilization of the energy information from plastic scintillator material will be presented, with emphasis on the detection capabilities and potential limitations for safeguards and security applications. (author)

  1. Energy management information systems - planning manual and tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    An Energy Management Information System (EMIS) provides relevant information that makes energy, performance visible to various levels of an organization, enabling individuals and departments to plan, make decisions and take effective action to manage energy. This manual has two objectives: 1. To enable companies to conduct EMIS audits and prepare EMIS implementation plans; 2. To provide companies with the tools to prepare a financial business case for EMIS implementation. This manual consists of four parts: 1. EMIS Audit is theoretical and provides the methodology to be used by outside or in-house engineers and consultants to do a thorough EMIS Audit. 2. Implementation Plan is to help industry do the work themselves. 3. Appendices is to help the user develop an EMIS Audit, gather data and score their company, prepare a conceptual and detailed design, as well as a business and financial plan for implementation.

  2. Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Fiona; Hillebrand, Arjan; Swithenby, Stephen J; Rippon, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyze magnetoencephalography data, we localized the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14-30 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) frequency bands were analyzed in pre-selected time windows of 350-550 and 500-700 ms In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350-550 ms), but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14-20 Hz) for the phonological task and high beta (20-30 Hz) for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10), both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30-50 Hz), but in different time windows, 500-700 ms for the phonological task and 350-550 ms for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40), both tasks elicited changes in the 20-30 Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350-550 ms for the phonological task and 500-700 ms for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains.

  3. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS AND UPDATED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIVE SUNLIKE STARS WITH DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Bryden, Geoff; Harvey, Paul; Green, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R  > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R  > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24 μ m infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a min  ∼ 3 μ m, although a min is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10 −5  ⩽  L / L ⊙  ⩽ 2 × 10 −4 , consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.

  4. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS AND UPDATED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIVE SUNLIKE STARS WITH DEBRIS DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bryden, Geoff [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harvey, Paul; Green, Joel D., E-mail: sdr@udel.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway Drive C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R  > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R  > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24 μ m infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a {sub min} ∼ 3 μ m, although a {sub min} is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10{sup −5} ⩽  L / L {sub ⊙} ⩽ 2 × 10{sup −4}, consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.

  5. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  6. WE-FG-207B-03: Multi-Energy CT Reconstruction with Spatial Spectral Nonlocal Means Regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, B [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Shen, C; Ouyang, L; Yang, M; Jiang, S; Jia, X [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multi-energy computed tomography (MECT) is an emerging application in medical imaging due to its ability of material differentiation and potential for molecular imaging. In MECT, image correlations at different spatial and channels exist. It is desirable to incorporate these correlations in reconstruction to improve image quality. For this purpose, this study proposes a MECT reconstruction technique that employes spatial spectral non-local means (ssNLM) regularization. Methods: We consider a kVp-switching scanning method in which source energy is rapidly switched during data acquisition. For each energy channel, this yields projection data acquired at a number of angles, whereas projection angles among channels are different. We formulate the reconstruction task as an optimziation problem. A least square term enfores data fidelity. A ssNLM term is used as regularization to encourage similarities among image patches at different spatial locations and channels. When comparing image patches at different channels, intensity difference were corrected by a transformation estimated via histogram equalization during the reconstruction process. Results: We tested our method in a simulation study with a NCAT phantom and an experimental study with a Gammex phantom. For comparison purpose, we also performed reconstructions using conjugate-gradient least square (CGLS) method and conventional NLM method that only considers spatial correlation in an image. ssNLM is able to better suppress streak artifacts. The streaks are along different projection directions in images at different channels. ssNLM discourages this dissimilarity and hence removes them. True image structures are preserved in this process. Measurements in regions of interests yield 1.1 to 3.2 and 1.5 to 1.8 times higher contrast to noise ratio than the NLM approach. Improvements over CGLS is even more profound due to lack of regularization in the CGLS method and hence amplified noise. Conclusion: The

  7. How do High Energy Physics scholars search their information?

    CERN Document Server

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Grey literature has always been the main conduit of scholarly communication for High-Energy Physics (HEP)researchers. An efficient way of searching and accessing this information is a central part of their research workflow. In 2007, a survey was conducted to understand which information resources HEP scholars use to find the information they need. The results of this survey are presented. Over 2000 answers, representing about one-tenth of the active HEP community, were collected and show that community-driven resources largely dominate the landscape, with commercial services serving only a small proportion of the users. In addition, HEP scholars appear to use different tools for different information needs, which are clearly prioritized. Finally, the results of the survey shed light on the future information needs of HEP scientists over the next five years.

  8. The value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Shao, Xiaodong; Chen, Haisong

    2015-06-01

    To explore the value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Energy spectral CT scan was performed on 100 patients with soft tissue mass caused by musculoskeletal tumors found by MRI. Solid areas with homogenous density were chosen as region of interests (ROI), avoiding necrosis, hemorrhage and calcification region. Select the optimal keV on single energy images, and then the keV-CT curve was automatically generated. All 100 cases of tumors proved by histological examination were divided into four groups, 38 cases were in benign group, 10 cases in borderline group, 49 cases in malignant group, and 3 cases of lipoma (that were analyzed separately since its curve was arc shaped, significantly different from other curves). The formula used to calculate the slope of spectral curve was as follows: slope=(Hu40 keV-Hu80 keV)/40. As the slope was steep within the range of 40-80 keV based on preliminary observations, 40 keV and 80 keV were used as the reference points to calculate the slope value of the energy spectral curve. Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was applied for statistical analysis, and Pbenign and malignant group, benign and borderline group were of statistical significance (Pbenign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Arc shaped curve is a specific sign for tumors containing abundant fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intelligent use of buildings' energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Juusela, M., Email: mia.ala-juusela@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    The IntUBE project will increase the possibility of reaching the European Commission's energy efficiency goals by facilitating more efficient use of the existing building stock. IntUBE stands for Intelligent Use of Buildings' Energy Information. The results of the IntUBE-project are expected not only to enhance the comfort levels of building users, but also to reduce overall energy costs through better energy efficiency. The IntUBE project was a European cooperation between twelve partners from nine European countries and received funding from the European Commission. The project was implemented between May 2009 and April 2011. The IntUBE consortium spans key research partners from northern to southern Europe including SMEs committed to exploiting the results of the project. The project was coordinated by VTT. (orig.)

  10. Department of Energy security program needs effective information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Although security is an important, nearly billion-dollar-a-year function in the Department of Energy (DOE), key information systems that hold important data about security weaknesses and incidents have limited analytical capabilities and contain unreliable information. The resultant difficulty in identifying patterns and trends reduces managers' ability to ensure the effectiveness of the security program. Resources are also wasted because DOE has deployed incompatible systems that are unable to electronically share or transfer data, often forcing employees to manually re-enter data that are already stored in computers elsewhere. Finally, continuing data problems with other important security information systems, such as those used to track security clearances and classified documents, indicate that information system deficiencies are extensive. A major reason for these problems is that DOE has not done a comprehensive, strategic assessment of its information and information technology needs of the security program. DOE's efforts are fragmented because it has not assigned to any organization the leadership responsibility to determine security information needs and to plan and manage security information resources Department-wide. This paper reports that a number of changes are needed to correct these problems and take advantage of information technology to help strengthen the security program

  11. Improved Scheduling Mechanisms for Synchronous Information and Energy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Danyang; Yang, Songxiang; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jingya; Ding, Qun

    2017-06-09

    Wireless energy collecting technology can effectively reduce the network time overhead and prolong the wireless sensor network (WSN) lifetime. However, the traditional energy collecting technology cannot achieve the balance between ergodic channel capacity and average collected energy. In order to solve the problem of the network transmission efficiency and the limited energy of wireless devices, three improved scheduling mechanisms are proposed: improved signal noise ratio (SNR) scheduling mechanism (IS2M), improved N-SNR scheduling mechanism (INS2M) and an improved Equal Throughput scheduling mechanism (IETSM) for different channel conditions to improve the whole network performance. Meanwhile, the average collected energy of single users and the ergodic channel capacity of three scheduling mechanisms can be obtained through the order statistical theory in Rayleig, Ricean, Nakagami- m and Weibull fading channels. It is concluded that the proposed scheduling mechanisms can achieve better balance between energy collection and data transmission, so as to provide a new solution to realize synchronous information and energy transmission for WSNs.

  12. 2. Annual report of the Electronuclear Energy Information Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    During its second year of operation, the Electronuclear Energy Information Commission concentrated its efforts on current issues and the conditions and limits of information in the nuclear field. The Commission consulted official organizations (EDF, CEA, Ministry of Industry) as well as trade-union members, politicians and independent individuals of all opinions on electronuclear programs, the problem of 'cracks' discovered in some French reactors and on the public utility enquiry conducted for Plogoff. The Commission also studied the activities of the Ministry of Education in the training of young people in the type of reasoning necessary when faced with complex technical problems. The Commission emphasizes that information policies cannot be valid unless they are preceeded by, or at least accompanied by an appropriate and sufficient amount of education. The debates that took place on the various different topics arising are presented in the eleven following annexes: 1/ decree of November 10th, 1977 concerning the setting up of the Electronuclear Information Commission; 2/ composition of the Commission; 3/ the Harrisburg plant accident (United States); 4/ the 'cracks' observed in some French reactors; 5/ storage and processing of nuclear wastes; 6/ informing the population living in the vicinity of a nuclear plant; 7/ comparative electricity generation costs; 8/ hearing of syndical, political, and ecological organizations; 9/ information on nuclear energy in schools; 10/ quantitative comparisons of the pollution associated with various means; 11/ the realization of impact studies to Plogoff [fr

  13. List of names of persons well informed on new energies; Shin energy yushikisha meibo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to establish an environment in which local public organizations and local business entities intending introduction of new energies can obtain easily the information about the technologies thereof and introduction examples, a 'list of names of persons well informed on new energies' was prepared. At the same time, a system was set up, with which these well-informed people can be introduced on NEDO home pages. The list of the names has collected data of the well-informed people granted with patents related to the fields defined in the new energy law as their specialty fields. The criterion for extracting the persons calls for persons who have experience of writing theses on new energies, and who have give lectures on the subject. Other new energy related experts acting in local areas, who were not able of having been extracted by using the above method, were extracted through hearings by key persons in each area. Questionnaire surveys were performed on the extracted specialists, whereas 495 effective answers permitting disclosure were obtained, and detailed items of information were collected on these specialists individually. The specialty fields include 23 new energy fields. The names of persons were arranged in the order of bureaus listed in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The names in the bureaus were arranged in the Japanese alphabetical order. (NEDO)

  14. Households on the energy market. Information and actions; Hushaall paa elmarknaden. Information och agerande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Aasa

    2008-12-15

    Twelve years ago the consumers in Sweden were given opportunities to choose among electricity suppliers. Sweden was among the first countries to introduce an electricity reform aimed at reconfiguring the electricity market. Today consumers have the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of suppliers and type of contracts. However, still the large majority of consumers have neither chosen a new supplier nor a contract. Previous research has blamed lack of information for the so called passivity. Some of the studies are dated and little attention has been paid to the consumers' motives for not making a choice. The aim of this study is to analyse motives, strategies and need of information among consumers. One type of information is analysed namely the information the energy suppliers provide their costumers. The study shows that the consumers think the information is significant. The information of three energy suppliers are analysed and compared to the consumer's need. In order to understand consumers the consumer as an active subject is stressed. Consequently the consumers not yet having made a choice are seen as active and focus is on their motives and need of information for not making a choice as well as doing so. Different empirical materials have been collected. A survey has been used to gain an over-all-picture of motives, strategies and need of information. In-depth interviews have been carried out to be able to understand the consumers and get more nuanced descriptions related to their life conditions. A text analysis of three energy suppliers' information has been performed. The study shows that consumers not having made any choices present a number of motives. Four groups of motives have been identified; laziness, loyalty (to their supplier), chosen passivity and those who experience some kind of obstacles for taking action. Every group has their special way of reasoning and need of information. They all regard the information from their

  15. NEW OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET COUNTERPARTS AND THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF NEARBY, THERMALLY EMITTING, ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Kamble, A.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Ho, W. C. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope optical and ultraviolet photometry for five nearby, thermally emitting neutron stars. With these measurements, all seven such objects have confirmed optical and ultraviolet counterparts. Combining our data with archival space-based photometry, we present spectral energy distributions for all sources and measure the 'optical excess': the factor by which the measured photometry exceeds that extrapolated from X-ray spectra. We find that the majority have optical and ultraviolet fluxes that are inconsistent with that expected from thermal (Rayleigh-Jeans) emission, exhibiting more flux at longer wavelengths. We also find that most objects have optical excesses between 5 and 12, but that one object (RX J2143.0+0654) exceeds the X-ray extrapolation by a factor of more than 50 at 5000 A, and that this is robust to uncertainties in the X-ray spectra and absorption. We consider explanations for this ranging from atmospheric effects, magnetospheric emission, and resonant scattering, but find that none is satisfactory.

  16. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f ν (24 μm)/f ν (R) ∼> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 ± 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L IR > 10 12-14 ) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of ∼1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  17. Modeling Well Sampled Composite Spectral Energy Distributions of Distant Galaxies via an MCMC-driven Inference Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imad; Kriek, Mariska; Johnson, Benjamin; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-01-01

    Using a novel, MCMC-driven inference framework, we have modeled the stellar and dust emission of 32 composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs), which span from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to far infrared (FIR). The composite SEDs were originally constructed in a previous work from the photometric catalogs of the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, in which SEDs of individual galaxies at 0.5 MIPS 24 μm was added for each SED type, and in this work, PACS 100 μm, PACS160 μm, SPIRE 25 μm, and SPIRE 350 μm photometry have been added to extend the range of the composite SEDs into the FIR. We fit the composite SEDs with the Prospector code, which utilizes an MCMC sampling to explore the parameter space for models created by the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis (FSPS) code, in order to investigate how specific star formation rate (sSFR), dust temperature, and other galaxy properties vary with SED type.This work is also being used to better constrain the SPS models within FSPS.

  18. DirtyGrid I: 3D Dust Radiative Transfer Modeling of Spectral Energy Distributions of Dusty Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, Karl A.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the properties of stellar populations and interstellar dust has important implications for galaxy evolution. In normal star-forming galaxies, stars and the interstellar medium dominate the radiation from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR). In particular, interstellar dust absorbs and scatters UV and optical light, re-emitting the absorbed energy in the IR. This is a strongly nonlinear process that makes independent studies of the UV-optical and IR susceptible to large uncertainties and degeneracies. Over the years, UV to IR spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting utilizing varying approximations has revealed important results on the stellar and dust properties of galaxies. Yet the approximations limit the fidelity of the derived properties. There is sufficient computer power now available that it is now possible to remove these approximations and map out of landscape of galaxy SEDs using full dust radiative transfer. This improves upon previous work by directly connecting the UV, optical, and IR through dust grain physics. We present the DIRTYGrid, a grid of radiative transfer models of SEDs of dusty stellar populations in galactic environments designed to span the full range of physical parameters of galaxies. Using the stellar and gas radiation input from the stellar population synthesis model PEGASE, our radiative transfer model DIRTY self-consistently computes the UV to far-IR/sub-mm SEDs for each set of parameters in our grid. DIRTY computes the dust absorption, scattering, and emission from the local radiation field and a dust grain model, thereby physically connecting the UV-optical to the IR. We describe the computational method and explain the choices of parameters in DIRTYGrid. The computation took millions of CPU hours on supercomputers, and the SEDs produced are an invaluable tool for fitting multi-wavelength data sets. We provide the complete set of SEDs in an online table.

  19. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture for an unbundled liberalized electricity market system where a virtual power plant (VPP) is able to control a number of distributed energy resources (DERs) directly through a two-way communication link. The aggregator who operates the VPP utilizes the accumulated...... a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...

  20. Asset management. Combining knowledge and information for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wingerden, T.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years information flows have diversified and information management has become increasingly important because of a change in organisation structure. Nowadays, state-of-the-art technology makes it possible to combine data and knowledge. This should result in cost minimization and revenue maximization. Gastec (Dutch centre for Gas technology) and KEMA (Research and Development, Engineering and Consultant for the Electric Power Industry) carried out a definition study into the opportunities of integrated network management in the energy sector. First calculations show that such a system may lead to cost reductions of up to 25%

  1. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  2. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  3. Formulation of the energetic spectral distribution of in pile neutron flux (energies greater than a few hundred electron volts) (1963); Formulation des repartitions spectrales energetiques de flux neutroniques en pile (energies superieures a quelques centaines d'electrons-volts) (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the present report an expression is deduced for the spectral distribution of flux of over a few hundred electron volts; it is valid for most cases of thermal neutron reactors. This expression is: {psi}(E) = K [{psi}{sub o}(E) + h {psi}{sub e}(E)] {psi}{sub o}(E) is the so-called 'homogeneous' constituent of the flux; it corresponds approximately to the case of an infinite homogeneous medium; it is of the type: Y(V - E) e{sup (b{radical}}{sup E)}/E + Y(E-V) F E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E} The parameters V and F are such that {psi}{sub o}(E) and its derivative are continuous at the junction energy V. {psi}{sub e}(E) is the 'heterogeneous' constituent of the flux; it is of the type: E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E}. The various parameters of {psi}(E) are on the one hand characteristic of the nature of the reactor moderator, and on the other hand determined by a resonant flux measurement and one, or possibly two, measurements using a fast neutron threshold detector. We have been led furthermore to define an expression for the threshold reaction section which is more exact than the conventional transition function. (author) [French] Il est etabli, dans le present rapport, une formulation {psi}(E) des repartitions spectrales de flux au-dessus de quelques centaines d'electron-s volts, valable dans la majeure partie des cas de piles dites a neutrons thermiques. Cette formulation s'exprime: {psi}(E) = K [{psi}{sub o}(E) + h {psi}{sub e}(E)] {psi}{sub o}(E) est la composante dite 'homogene' du flux; elle correspond a peu pres au cas d'un milieu infini homogene; elle est du type: Y(V - E) e{sup (b{radical}}{sup E)}/E + Y(E-V) F E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E} les parametres V et F sont tels que {psi}{sub o}(E) et sa derivee soient continues a l'energie de jonction V. {psi}{sub e} est la composante dite 'heterogene' du flux ; elle est du type: E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E}. Les differents parametres de {psi}(E) sont, d'une part

  4. Preliminary study on the differentiation between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous using only pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Wei, Lequn; Ren, Chenglong; Zhou, Jieli; Shen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of using the quantitative parameters from only the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging for distinguishing between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous (HNC). Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 28 patients with parapelvic cyst and 24 patients with HNC who underwent standard pre-contrast and multiphase contrast-enhanced dual-energy spectral CT imaging were retrospectively identified. The parapelvic cyst and HNC were identified using the contrast-enhanced scans, and their CT number in the 70-keV monochromatic images, effective atomic number (Zeff), iodine concentration (IC) and water concentration in the pre-contrast images were measured. The slope of the spectral curve (λ) was calculated. The difference in the measurements between parapelvic cyst and HNC was statistically analyzed using SPSS® v. 19.0 (IBM Corp., New York, NY; formerly SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) statistical software. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: The CT numbers in the 70-keV images, Zeff and IC values were statistically different between parapelvic cyst and HNC (all p  0.05). Conclusion: The quantitative parameters obtained in the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging may be used to differentiate between parapelvic cyst and HNC. Advances in knowledge: The pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans may be used to screen parapelvic cysts for patients who are asymptomatic, thereby avoiding contrast-enhanced CT or CT urography examination for these patients to reduce ionizing radiation dose and contrast dose. PMID:28281789

  5. CAISSE (Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy) technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelon, P E; Beinhauer, F W

    1979-01-01

    The Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy (CAISSE) was developed to provide the general public with information on solar energy and its potential uses and costs for domestic consumption. CAISSE is an interactive computing system which illustrates solar heating concepts through the use of 35 mm slides, text displays on a screen and a printed report. The user communicates with the computer by responding to questions about his home and heating requirements through a touch sensitive screen. The CAISSE system contains a solar heating simulation model which calculates the heating load capable of being supplied by a solar heating system and uses this information to illustrate installation costs, fuel savings and a 20 year life-cycle analysis of cost and benefits. The system contains several sets of radiation and weather data for Canada and USA. The selection of one of four collector models is based upon the requirements input during the computer session. Optimistic and pessimistic fuel cost forecasts are made for oil, natural gas, electricity, or propane; and the forecasted fuel cost is made the basis of the life cycle cost evaluation for the solar heating application chosen. This manual is organized so that each section describes one major aspect of the use of solar energy systems to provide energy for domestic consumption. The sources of data and technical information and the method of incorporating them into the CAISSE display system are described in the same order as the computer processing. Each section concludes with a list of future developments that could be included to make CAISSE outputs more regionally specific and more useful to designers. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  6. ACCOUNTANCY REFLECTION OF ENVIRONMENT INFORMATION REGARDING THE ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources, especially energetical ones, have continuously influenced the evolution of human society, including the economical developement, and so the problem of their deficiency and their limited character is a problem of major interest for the human kind in their quest to find the balance betwen the need of economical expansion and the environment protection. The purpose of this paper work is to show the importancy of energy eficiency by asuming two main action directions: to encrease the quantity of renewable energy and to emprove the energetical efficiency. After the researches we made, we brought in attention the main mechanisms used in the insurance of sustainability security and competitiveness of the energy sector. These practices the objectives of the sustainable development principle, exemplified from accountancy point of view through a new instrument in the economical theory: environmental accountancy which ensures the background regarding the recognition, evaluation and presentation of environment information.

  7. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M. [Environment Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Division

    2007-07-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs.

  8. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs

  9. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  10. Informing the Romanian decision makers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Sandru, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the 'pro-nuclear' sector of the Romanian civil society activity to better inform the Romanian Decision Makers on nuclear power issues. The 'Romanian Nuclear Energy Association' - AREN and the Romanian Radioprotection Society - SRRp, having the support of the 'Romanian General Association of Engineers' - AGIR, started on December 1996 a strong campaign to form a correct opinion among the new elected bodies and the new Government of the country, related to the future development of the Romanian Nuclear Program as a national priority and to expedite the restart of the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 2 completion. The paper describes the strategy of this lobby campaign, the objectives assumed and the results. The authors have taken advantage of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency information exchange about the Decision Makers informing process about nuclear energy and have the intention to share their experience with other sister societies dealing with similar conditions. This could be also a good experience for other areas of activity. (authors)

  11. Plan for developing a comprehensive energy manpower information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Lawrence G.

    1979-09-01

    The report is designed to make a beginning in broadening the scope of the comprehensive manpower information system for energy research, development, and demonstration, so that it could cover all manpower related to energy. It develops a plan for this extension, including determining which taxonomies require change, specifying the subsequent stages involved in expanding CEMIS to all energy manpower, and providing the basis for cost estimates for this work. The report is organized as follows: The analytical rationale is described in Chapter II. Chapter III reviews the status of manpower data in a number of energy sectors, notes limitations and gaps in the data, and discusses improvements and additions that should be made. The scope and structure of CEMIS are laid out in Chapter IV, with particular reference to the development of analytical processes, and of analytical linking functions between bodies of data, and a description of their application in anticipating the employment impact of energy changes. The appropriate steps recommended for the further development of CEMIS are described in Chapter V.

  12. PIME '89 (Public Information Materials Exchange): International workshop on public information problems of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women

  13. PIME '89 (Public Information Materials Exchange): International workshop on public information problems of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women.

  14. Information-theoretic characterization of dynamic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Troy Lawson

    sources are compounded by the dynamics of the grid itself. Loads are constantly changing, as well as the sources; this can sometimes lead to a quick change in system states. There is a need for a metric to be able to take into consideration all of the factors detailed above; it needs to be able to take into consideration the amount of information that is available in the system and the rate that the information is losing its value. In a dynamic system, the information is only valid for a length of time, and the controller must be able to take into account the decay of currently held information. This thesis will present the information theory metrics in a way that is useful for application to dynamic energy systems. A test case involving synchronization of several generators is presented for analysis and application of the theory. The objective is to synchronize all the generators and connect them to a common bus. As the phase shift of each generator is a random process, the effects of latency and information decay can be directly observed. The results of the experiments clearly show that the expected outcomes are observed and that entropy and information theory is a valid metric for timing requirement extraction.

  15. INFORMATION-ENERGY METHODOLOGY OF THE AIRCRAFT WITH ELECTRIC PROPULSION ENERGY COMPLEX DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vladimirovich Zhmurov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of aircraft development shows that from the point of view of sustainability and energy effi- ciency the most acceptable approach is the transition to all-electric aircraft (AEC. Electrification is aimed primarily on the aircraft most energy-intensive elements efficiency enhancing. Primarily these are power plant and air conditioning system. The actual problem discussed in this article is the development of methodology for the design of aircraft power complex with electric propulsion. The electric power plant literally extends the concept of aircraft power complex. The article con- siders two-level energy-informational design technology of the aircraft power complex. On the energetic level, the energy flows are optimized, and on the information level, the control laws that ensure restrictions compliance and loss minimiza- tion for a given level of entire system reliability are synthesized. From the point of view of sustainability and energy effi- ciency, the most acceptable is the transition to AEC. The proposed information-energy technique provides an opportunity to develop electric and hybrid aircraft with optimal weight and size and energy characteristics due to: electricity consump- tion timeline optimization through the redistribution of electric end users switch on moments, which provides a more uni- form power mode, allowing the same set of electric users to reduce generator rated power, and as a result reduce the flight weight; manage a distributed system of electricity generation that provides the ability to use diverse energy sources; faul tsafety management based on rapid changes in the power network topology; energy recovery control; the sources, convert- ers and users (input circuit and power network real-time diagnostic operations.

  16. C IV EMISSION AND THE ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH X-RAY SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Proga, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), two of the parameters that best characterize the range of emission-line properties in quasar broad emission-line regions are the equivalent width and the blueshift of the C IV λ1549 line relative to the quasar rest frame. We explore the connection between these emission-line properties and the UV through X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars. Our sample consists of a heterogeneous compilation of 406 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (at z > 1.54) and Palomar-Green survey (at z < 0.4) that have well-measured C IV emission-line and X-ray properties (including 164 objects with measured Γ). We find that RQ quasars with both strong C IV emission and small C IV blueshifts can be classified as 'hard-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) strong in the X-ray as compared to the UV. On the other hand, RQ quasars with both weak C IV emission and large C IV blueshifts are instead 'soft-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) weak in the X-ray as compared to the UV. This work helps to further bridge optical/soft X-ray 'eigenvector 1' relationships to the UV and hard X-ray. Based on these findings, we argue that future work should consider systematic errors in bolometric corrections (and thus accretion rates) that are derived from a single mean SED. Detailed analysis of the C IV emission line may allow for SED-dependent corrections to these quantities.

  17. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng; Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan Haojing; Dekel, Avishai; Guo Yicheng; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, Benjamin; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kong Xu

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 μm limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M * > 10 11 M ☉ at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]–[24] versus K – [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U – V versus V – J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M 20 ) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M * > 10 11 M ☉ have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  18. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS

  19. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  20. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  1. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2015-11-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH4-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH4-light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers.

  2. Solar energy in buildings solved by building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudikova, B.; Faltejsek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Building lead us to use renewable energy sources for all types of buildings. The use of solar energy is the alternatives that can be applied in a good ratio of space, price, and resultant benefits. Building Information Modelling is a modern and effective way of dealing with buildings with regard to all aspects of the life cycle. The basis is careful planning and simulation in the pre-investment phase, where it is possible to determine the effective result and influence the lifetime of the building and the cost of its operation. By simulating, analysing and insert a building model into its future environment where climate conditions and surrounding buildings play a role, it is possible to predict the usability of the solar energy and establish an ideal model. Solar systems also very affect the internal layout of buildings. Pre-investment phase analysis, with a view to future aspects, will ensure that the resulting building will be both low-energy and environmentally friendly.

  3. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH 4 -emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH 4 -light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH 4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers. (letter)

  4. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  5. Information inefficiency and willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient technology: A stated preference approach for China Energy Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Bukenya, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which consumers' willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient room air conditioners may be altered by correcting the information inefficiency on the China Energy Label. The data are collected from a discrete choice experiment with two alternatives (variable-speed and constant-speed room air conditioners) characterized by attributes of brand, purchase price and energy grade. Three versions of the questionnaires with choice sets differing only in energy consumption indicators were distributed randomly to 1602 potential consumers in Nanjing, China and a sample of 1569 was obtained after dropping missing data. The analysis with multinomial and mixed logit models reveal that the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for a variable-speed room AC over a constant-speed room AC increases significantly when energy consumption information becomes comparable and additional energy-related information is provided. Furthermore, the impact of information on WTP varies under different energy-saving scenarios. It is suggested that China Energy Label should correct information inefficiency by adopting same energy indicators for room ACs with different technologies and providing energy consumption information based on different climate zones. - Highlights: • Choice experiments were carried out to examine the effect of information on WTP. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if information is comparable. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if more information is provided. • The impact of information on WTP is significant when energy saving is considerable. • Some demographics influence people's WTP.

  6. Origin of cancer: an information, energy and matter disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Günter Hanselmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cells are open, highly ordered systems far away from equilibrium. For that reason, the first function of any cell is to prevent the permanent threat of disintegration described by thermo-dynamic laws and to preserve highly ordered cell characteristics like structures, cell cycle and metabolism. In that context, three basic categories play a central role - energy, matter and information. Every single of these three categories is equally important to the cell and depends on the others reciprocally. For that reason, we suggest that either energy loss (e.g. by disturbed mitochondria or disturbance of information (e.g. mutations, aneuploidy or changes in matter composition or exposition (e.g. micro-environmental changes, toxic agents can irreversibly disturb molecular mechanisms leading to increased local entropy of cellular functions and structures. In terms of physics, changes to these normally highly ordered reaction probabilities lead to a biologically irreversibly, imbalanced but thermodynamically more stable state. This primary change independent of the initiator now provokes and drives a complex interplay between energy availability, matter exposition and increasing information disturbance depending on reactions that try to overcome or stabilize this intra-cellular, irreversible disorder described by entropy. Because the return to the original ordered state is not possible due to the thermodynamic reasons cells die, or persist in an meta-stable state and enter into a self-driven adaptive and evolutionary process that generates progressive, disordered cells resulting in a broad spectrum of progeny with different characteristics, and maybe one day one of these cells will show an autonomous and aggressive behavior – a cancer cell.

  7. Evaluation of low-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography images by comparing them to full-field digital mammography using EUREF image quality criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lalji, U. C.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Houben, I.; Nelemans, P. J.; van Engen, R. E.; van Wylick, E.; Beets-Tan, R. G. H.; Wildberger, J. E.; Paulis, L. E.; Lobbes, M. B. I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examination results in a low-energy (LE) and contrast-enhanced image. The LE appears similar to a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Our aim was to evaluate LE CESM image quality by comparing it to FFDM using criteria defined by the European Reference Organization for Quality Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services (EUREF). Methods A total of 147 cases with both FFDM and LE images were independently scored by two experienced r...

  8. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Yu; Jun Gao; Zhi-Min Liu; Qi-Feng Zhang; Yong Liu; Ling Jiang; Yun Peng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors...

  9. Reinforcement Learning for Constrained Energy Trading Games With Incomplete Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.

  10. Ultrahigh energy gamma rays: carriers of cosmological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F.A.; Atoyan, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data being the basis of contemporary cosmological models are not numerous: Hubble law of redshift for galaxies, element abundances, and observation of cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR). The significance of MBR discovery predicted in the Big-Band model is particularly stressed. Radio astronomical measurements give an information on MBR only near the Earth. Experimental confirmation of evolution of MBR, i.e., its probing in remote epochs, might obviously present a direct verification of the hypothesis of hot expanding Universe. The carriers of similar cosmological information should be particles which, firstly, effectively interact with MBR, and secondly, make it possible to identify unambiguously the epoch of interaction. A possibility to verify a number of cosmological hypotheses by searching the cutoffs in spectra of ultrahigh energy gamma-rays (UHEGR) from extragalactic sources is discussed

  11. Single-energy pediatric chest computed tomography with spectral filtration at 100 kVp: effects on radiation parameters and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodelle, Boris; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Kaup, Moritz; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Most of the applied radiation dose at CT is in the lower photon energy range, which is of limited diagnostic importance. To investigate image quality and effects on radiation parameters of 100-kVp spectral filtration single-energy chest CT using a tin-filter at third-generation dual-source CT in comparison to standard 100-kVp chest CT. Thirty-three children referred for a non-contrast chest CT performed on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner were examined at 100 kVp with a dedicated tin filter with a tube current-time product resulting in standard protocol dose. We compared resulting images with images from children examined using standard single-source chest CT at 100 kVp. We assessed objective and subjective image quality and compared radiation dose parameters. Radiation dose was comparable for children 5 years old and younger, and it was moderately decreased for older children when using spectral filtration (P=0.006). Effective tube current increased significantly (P=0.0001) with spectral filtration, up to a factor of 10. Signal-to-noise ratio and image noise were similar for both examination techniques (P≥0.06). Subjective image quality showed no significant differences (P≥0.2). Using 100-kVp spectral filtration chest CT in children by means of a tube-based tin-filter on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner increases effective tube current up to a factor of 10 to provide similar image quality at equivalent dose compared to standard single-source CT without spectral filtration. (orig.)

  12. Single-energy pediatric chest computed tomography with spectral filtration at 100 kVp: effects on radiation parameters and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodelle, Boris; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Kaup, Moritz; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik [Goethe University of Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Most of the applied radiation dose at CT is in the lower photon energy range, which is of limited diagnostic importance. To investigate image quality and effects on radiation parameters of 100-kVp spectral filtration single-energy chest CT using a tin-filter at third-generation dual-source CT in comparison to standard 100-kVp chest CT. Thirty-three children referred for a non-contrast chest CT performed on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner were examined at 100 kVp with a dedicated tin filter with a tube current-time product resulting in standard protocol dose. We compared resulting images with images from children examined using standard single-source chest CT at 100 kVp. We assessed objective and subjective image quality and compared radiation dose parameters. Radiation dose was comparable for children 5 years old and younger, and it was moderately decreased for older children when using spectral filtration (P=0.006). Effective tube current increased significantly (P=0.0001) with spectral filtration, up to a factor of 10. Signal-to-noise ratio and image noise were similar for both examination techniques (P≥0.06). Subjective image quality showed no significant differences (P≥0.2). Using 100-kVp spectral filtration chest CT in children by means of a tube-based tin-filter on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner increases effective tube current up to a factor of 10 to provide similar image quality at equivalent dose compared to standard single-source CT without spectral filtration. (orig.)

  13. Neutron spectrum perturbations due to scattering materials and their effect on the average neutron energy, the spectral index, and the hardness parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.L.; Meason, J.L.; Wolf, M.; Harvey, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the perturbing effect of a number of scattering materials by the 'free-field' neutron leakage spectrum from a Godiva Type Critical Assembly (White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor). The results of these measurements are interpreted in relation to some of the general parameters characterizing a neutron environment, namely, the average neutron energy >10 KeV, the spectral index and the hardness parameter. Three neutron spectrum measurements have been performed, each under different experimental configurations of scattering materials. Results from these measurements show the following with relation to the spectral index: (1) The neutron environment on the core surface and at 12-inches from the core surface (free-field) yield a spectral index of 6.8, (2) The neutron environment behind a 4.75-inch Plexiglas plate yield 4.6 for the spectral index and (3) The neutron environment behind a 2-inch aluminum plate yield 6.7 for the spectral index. It is concluded that the core surface and the 12-inch from core surface neutron environment are identical with the 'free-field' neutron environment at 20-inches when considering only those neutrons with energy >10 KeV. On the other hand, it appears that the 4.75 inches of Plexiglas severely perturbs the 'free-field' neutron environment, i.e., a much harder neutron spectrum >10 KeV. In the situation where 2-inches of aluminum is used as the perturbing medium, essentially no change in the neutron spectrum >10 KeV is noted

  14. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  15. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  16. Experimental determination of spectral ratios and of neutrons energy spectrum in the fuel of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Beatriz Guimaraes

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the spectral ratios and the neutron energy spectrum inside the fuel of IPEN/MB-01 Nuclear Reactor. These parameters are of great importance to accurately determine spectral physical parameters of nuclear reactors like reaction rates, fuel lifetime and also security parameters such as reactivity. For the experiment, activation detectors in the form of thin metal foils were introduced in a collapsible fuel rod. Then the rod was placed in the central position of the core which has a standard rectangular configuration of 26 x 28 fuel rods. There were used activation detectors from different elements such Au-197, U-238, Sc-45, Ni-58, Mg-24, Ti-47 and In-115 to cover a large range of the neutron energy spectrum. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were submitted to gamma spectrometry using a counting system with high purity Germanium, to obtain the reaction rates (saturation activity) per target nucleus. The spectral ratios were compared with calculated values obtained by the Monte Carlo method using the MCNP-4C code. The neutron energy spectrum was obtained inside the fuel rod using the SANDBP code with an input spectrum obtained by the MCNP-4C code, based on the saturation activity per target nucleus values of the activation detectors irradiated. (author)

  17. Energy National Mediator report on energy provider invoicing, consumer information and complaint treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As an answer to a mission assigned by the French Ministry of Energy, this document proposes a rather detailed report of the present status of invoicing modalities used by electricity and natural gas providers. It comments several facts and observations: almost all energy invoices contain a share of estimation which is naturally different of the actual consumption; the consumer has, in some cases, an alternative to an estimation-based invoicing; the complexity of energy invoicing is a source of misunderstanding for consumers; the number of complaints is increasing and their treatment is not satisfying. A set of recommendations is formulated to correct these problems, whether by improving the quality of estimations, or by better information of customers, or by improving the treatment of complaints or the relationship with the customer. The report is completed by several appendices containing testimonies and auditions of representatives of customer organisations and of energy providers

  18. Report on the analytical survey of the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Arrangement, investigation and analysis of an energy information exchange system were conducted, with the aim of coping with the development in the whole Asia/Pacific area, the stabilization of energy supply/demand, and the environmental problem and of realizing effective cooperation of every country in the area. Concerning the trend of the domestic primary energy supply/demand, there are some patterns. Countries which show high growth rates are developing countries such as Thailand and China, and NIES such as Korea and Taiwan. Countries where growth rates are slowing down and lowering are developed countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan and the U.S. Countries where energy supply/demand is not stabilized are Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Chile which are suffering from variations in import/export. The ultimate energy consumption is the domestic primary energy supply from which the conversion loss in the conversion sector was deducted, and indicates almost the same trend as the primary energy supply. It is divided into a stabilized type of developed countries and a rapidly increasing type and a stagnant type. However, there are some exceptions. Total data in the quarter of the year cannot be the yearly data by itself, but requires a year-end tax arrangement. 40 tabs.

  19. Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L.; Raoux, T.; Faupin, J.

    2009-01-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schroedinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux [''Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces,'' Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L 1 with their difference in L p (1≤p k,1 spaces having their difference in W k,p , where 1≤p≤+∞, k(set-membership sign)(0,1,2). It is proved that two potentials in W k,1 ([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to W k,p ([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase

  20. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  1. Information on nuclear energy in France during and after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgraupes, P.

    1991-01-01

    In France, the CHERNOBYL accident created a confidence crisis about nuclear energy. This crisis affected the entire population and its results can still be seen today in the many debates about the direction of the electronuclear program. The restoration of confidence had to involve the installation of a complete and permanent communications network between the nuclear institution and the population. All types of actions which have a unique objective: to make the general public aware of nuclear energy, how it works, the men that operate it, the real impact it has on the environment, its real risks and the procedure to be followed in case of an accident. This is a long term effort which requires permanent mobilization of nuclear professionals, a training effort on the part of educational organizations, media and the medical professions, and a strong involvement of local communities and associations. For this purpose, new structures and new information tools were implemented in France, with the emphasis on information transparency and pluralism

  2. Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Weig, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Non-linear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems are difficult to tackle. Renormalization techniques permit us to construct good estimators for the posterior signal mean within information field theory (IFT), but the approximations and assumptions made are not very obvious. Here we introduce the simple concept of minimal Gibbs free energy to IFT, and show that previous renormalization results emerge naturally. They can be understood as being the Gaussian approximation to the full posterior probability, which has maximal cross information with it. We derive optimized estimators for three applications, to illustrate the usage of the framework: (i) reconstruction of a log-normal signal from Poissonian data with background counts and point spread function, as it is needed for gamma ray astronomy and for cosmography using photometric galaxy redshifts, (ii) inference of a Gaussian signal with unknown spectrum, and (iii) inference of a Poissonian log-normal signal with unknown spectrum, the combination of (i) and (ii). Finally we explain how Gaussian knowledge states constructed by the minimal Gibbs free energy principle at different temperatures can be combined into a more accurate surrogate of the non-Gaussian posterior.

  3. Informing the teachers on nuclear energy issues. A nationwide information service in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1994-01-01

    The IK (Nuclear Information Group), founded in 1975, was given the task to broaden the knowledge of and to strengthen the public acceptance on nuclear energy, with the basic principles of nationwide activity and limitation to selected target groups. Documentary books, periodical publications and audio-visual media for teachers and pupils are developed to argue clearly and frankly and to win the interest for the topics. 1 fig

  4. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Guo Yicheng [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Kong Xu, E-mail: taowang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2012-06-20

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 {mu}m limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]-[24] versus K - [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U - V versus V - J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M{sub 20}) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  5. TORUS AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SEYFERT GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM FITTING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Mason, Rachel; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.; Roche, Patrick F.; Levenson, Nancy A.; Elitzur, Moshe; Packham, Christopher; Young, Stuart; Diaz-Santos, Tanio

    2011-01-01

    We used the CLUMPY torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions and ground-based high angular resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of 13 nearby Seyfert galaxies. This allowed us to put tight constraints on torus model parameters such as the viewing angle i, the radial thickness of the torus Y, the angular size of the cloud distribution σ torus , and the average number of clouds along radial equatorial rays N 0 . We found that the viewing angle i is not the only parameter controlling the classification of a galaxy into type 1 or type 2. In principle, type 2s could be viewed at any viewing angle i as long as there is one cloud along the line of sight. A more relevant quantity for clumpy media is the probability for an active galactic nucleus (AGN) photon to escape unabsorbed. In our sample, type 1s have relatively high escape probabilities, P esc ∼ 12%-44%, while type 2s, as expected, tend to have very low escape probabilities. Our fits also confirmed that the tori of Seyfert galaxies are compact with torus model radii in the range 1-6 pc. The scaling of the models to the data also provided the AGN bolometric luminosities L bol (AGN), which were found to be in good agreement with estimates from the literature. When we combined our sample of Seyfert galaxies with a sample of PG quasars from the literature to span a range of L bol (AGN) ∼ 10 43 -10 47 erg s -1 , we found plausible evidence of the receding torus. That is, there is a tendency for the torus geometrical covering factor to be lower (f 2 ∼ 0.1-0.3) at high AGN luminosities than at low AGN luminosities (f 2 ∼ 0.9-1 at ∼10 43 -10 44 erg s -1 ). This is because at low AGN luminosities the tori appear to have wider angular sizes (larger σ torus ) and more clouds along radial equatorial rays. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility that this is due to contamination by extended dust structures not associated with the dusty torus at low AGN luminosities

  6. Public information attitudes towards nuclear energy and the IAEA role in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Hans-Friedrich

    1998-01-01

    It includes information on the relation that exists between the Division of Public Information of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and different journalists, in answering questions on nuclear energy and nuclear applications. Also, questions whenever there was a rumor or a report of a receives a growing number of E-mail letters from all over the world, on the same subjects. Increasingly, international organizations are contacted by journalists and the public, for information on incidents and accidents, in the nuclear or the radiation field. This article states that the interest on nuclear energy, isotopes and radiation is focusing in the public media on following points: the fear for an accident; the fear for radiation escaping; the belief that nuclear power plants are too expensive; the belief that electricity could be saved; the belief that nuclear wastes cannot be properly disposed; the fear for unsafe transport; the fears that the neighbors operate their plants carelessly; and fears that radiation treatment makes food or agricultural products radioactive or poisonous. (S. Grainger)

  7. Design and simulations of a spectral efficient optical code division multiple access scheme using alternated energy differentiation and single-user soft-decision demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Garba, Aminata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) network transmission scheme using alternated amplitude sequences and energy differentiation at the transmitters to allow concurrent and secure transmission of several signals. The proposed system uses error control encoding and soft-decision demodulation to reduce the multi-user interference at the receivers. The design of the proposed alternated amplitude sequences, the OCDMA energy modulators and the soft decision, single-user demodulators are also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme allows achieving spectral efficiencies higher than several reported results for optical CDMA and much higher than the Gaussian CDMA capacity limit.

  8. A computerized energy systems code and information library at Soreq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, I; Shapira, M; Caner, D; Sapier, D [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    In the framework of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and the Division of Nuclear Engineering of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, both Soreq-NRC and Ben-Gurion University have agreed to establish, in 1991, a code center. This code center contains a library of computer codes and relevant data, with particular emphasis on nuclear power plant research and development support. The code center maintains existing computer codes and adapts them to the ever changing computing environment, keeps track of new code developments in the field of nuclear engineering, and acquires the most recent revisions of computer codes of interest. An attempt is made to collect relevant codes developed in Israel and to assure that proper documentation and application instructions are available. En addition to computer programs, the code center collects sample problems and international benchmarks to verify the codes and their applications to various areas of interest to nuclear power plant engineering and safety evaluation. Recently, the reactor simulation group at Soreq acquired, using funds provided by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, a PC work station operating under a Linux operating system to give users of the library an easy on-line way to access resources available at the library. These resources include the computer codes and their documentation, reports published by the reactor simulation group, and other information databases available at Soreq. Registered users set a communication line, through a modem, between their computer and the new workstation at Soreq and use it to download codes and/or information or to solve their problems, using codes from the library, on the computer at Soreq (authors).

  9. A computerized energy systems code and information library at Soreq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Caner, D.; Sapier, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and the Division of Nuclear Engineering of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, both Soreq-NRC and Ben-Gurion University have agreed to establish, in 1991, a code center. This code center contains a library of computer codes and relevant data, with particular emphasis on nuclear power plant research and development support. The code center maintains existing computer codes and adapts them to the ever changing computing environment, keeps track of new code developments in the field of nuclear engineering, and acquires the most recent revisions of computer codes of interest. An attempt is made to collect relevant codes developed in Israel and to assure that proper documentation and application instructions are available. En addition to computer programs, the code center collects sample problems and international benchmarks to verify the codes and their applications to various areas of interest to nuclear power plant engineering and safety evaluation. Recently, the reactor simulation group at Soreq acquired, using funds provided by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, a PC work station operating under a Linux operating system to give users of the library an easy on-line way to access resources available at the library. These resources include the computer codes and their documentation, reports published by the reactor simulation group, and other information databases available at Soreq. Registered users set a communication line, through a modem, between their computer and the new workstation at Soreq and use it to download codes and/or information or to solve their problems, using codes from the library, on the computer at Soreq (authors)

  10. The effect of information on household water and energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Liesel

    Water and Energy Utilities are faced with growing demand at a time when supply expansion is increasingly costly, inconsistent and taxing on the environment. Given that supply expansion is limited, to meet future needs utilities need demand-side management policies to result in more reliable and consistent consumer responsiveness. Currently, most households do not have access to the level or type of information needed to respond to price signals in a reliable and effective way. Advanced information technology solutions exist and are being increasingly adopted, but we need to know more about how the informational setting affects decision-making, consumption levels and price responsiveness. This research analyzes the effect of information on household water and energy consumption, which is a decision-making environment characterized by uncertainty and imperfect information. This study also analyzes additional complexities stemming from infrequent billing, non-linear pricing structures, and combined utility bills, each of which may dampen price signals. I first develop a theoretical model of decision-making under uncertainty. I use this model to illustrate the effect of more frequent information, which eliminates uncertainty about past decisions, on remaining decisions within the billing period. The model emphasizes the role of risk preferences and the realization of the uncertain quantity. On average, risk averse consumers will increase consumption when uncertainty is reduced; risk seeking consumers will do the opposite. Introduction of a non-linear rate structure induces behavior that makes individuals appear as if they are risk averse or risk seeking, despite their actual risk preferences. This model highlights the importance of modeling multiple decisions within a billing period and accounting for a spectrum of risk preferences. In Chapter 3, I create a computerized laboratory experiment designed to generate data used to test some of the hypotheses formulated in

  11. Portal. Making a portal site. INIS Web Services and energy information sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) provides links to useful nuclear related information sources in Internet by the name of 'INIS Web Services' and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) also provides links to useful energy related information sources in Internet by the name of Energy Information Source'. This paper outlines these two services. (author)

  12. Material decomposition through weighted imaged subtraction in dual-energy spectral mammography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ji Soo; Kang, Soon Cheol; Lee, Seung Wan [Konyang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Mammography is commonly used for screening early breast cancer. However, mammographic images, which depend on the physical properties of breast components, are limited to provide information about whether a lesion is malignant or benign. Although a dual-energy subtraction technique decomposes a certain material from a mixture, it increases radiation dose and degrades the accuracy of material decomposition. In this study, we simulated a breast phantom using attenuation characteristics, and we proposed a technique to enable the accurate material decomposition by applying weighting factors for the dual-energy mammography based on a photon-counting detector using a Monte Carlo simulation tool. We also evaluated the contrast and noise of simulated breast images for validating the proposed technique. As a result, the contrast for a malignant tumor in the dual-energy weighted subtraction technique was 0.98 and 1.06 times similar than those in the general mammography and dual-energy subtraction techniques, respectively. However the contrast between malignant and benign tumors dramatically increased 13.54 times due to the low contrast of a benign tumor. Therefore, the proposed technique can increase the material decomposition accuracy for malignant tumor and improve the diagnostic accuracy of mammography.

  13. Compatibility of DOE energy data bases with EEMIS data requirements. [Energy Emergency Management Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& #x27; Acierno, J; Hermelee, A

    1979-12-01

    Object of this report is to present the data from EIA data bases which are compatible with the requirements of the data structure for the Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS). An overview of data availability is briefly described and presented in the EEMIS petroleum and natural gas flow diagrams as well as in a more detailed review with each data element in the EEMIS data requirements. This information is presented with the intent that it be used as an overall system guide during the data transfer task as well as in future operation of EEMIS and in the interpretation of EEMIS data.

  14. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Energy information. Status, cost, and need for energy, consumption and fuel switching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Hale, Richard A.; Weaver, Joanne E.; D'Amico, Nicholas C.

    1989-04-01

    In 1986, EIA's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey collected calendar year 1985 fuel switching and energy consumption information from a sample of manufacturers. Although the construction, agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry segments of the industrial sector were not surveyed, in 1985 the manufacturing segment accounted for about 75 to 80 percent of the total energy consumed in the industrial sector. The results of the energy consumption segment of the survey were published in November 1988, and the results of the fuel switching segment were published in December 1988. In 1989, EIA will conduct the second triennial survey, collecting energy consumption and fuel switching data for 1988. EIA estimated that the cost of the survey to the U.S. government, consisting of EIA and Census Bureau costs to design and conduct the survey, was about $1.8 million (in 1988 dollars) and that the cost to the manufacturers participating in the survey was more than $4 million (in 1988 dollars). According to EIA's justification to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the survey, most of the potential users of the survey data were federal offices. Officials of seven of the eight federal offices we contacted indicated various uses for the energy consumption data, such as updating the national input-output tables and energy accounts, analyzing the competitiveness of U.S. industries, and doing energy emergency contingency planning. Officials of five of the eight federal offices indicated uses for the fuel switching data and most frequently cited its use for contingency planning for emergencies or supply disruptions. EIA's justification to OMB also identified 17 states as potential users, but officials of the 3 state offices that we contacted told us that the EIA data would not be useful because it cannot be summarized for individual states

  16. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density distribution and leaf anatomical structures.

  17. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial, and Textural Information Extracted from IKONOS Imagery and Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The textural and spatial information extracted from very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery provides complementary information for applications in which the spectral information is not sufficient for identification of spectrally similar landscape features. In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi, computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. Specifically, eight GLCM texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, dissimilarity, contrast, entropy, angular second moment, and correlation were first calculated from IKONOS NIR band (Band 4 to determine an optimal window size (13 × 13 and an optimal direction (45°. Then, the optimal window size and direction were applied to the three other IKONOS MS bands (blue, green, and red for calculating the eight GLCM textures. Next, an optimal distance value (5 and an optimal neighborhood rule (Queen’s case were determined for calculating the four Gi features from the four IKONOS MS bands. Finally, different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1 an overall accuracy (OA of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2 an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3 an OA of 93.3% created with the all 32 GLCM features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with a window size of 13 × 13 and direction of 45°; (4 an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen’s neighborhood rule; and (5 an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four, spatial (four, and textural (eight features. The most important feature ranked by RF

  18. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A.; Archambault, S.; Feng, Q.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10 −4 Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  19. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Archambault, S.; Feng, Q. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10{sup −4} Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  20. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  1. 78 FR 59661 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the State Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... the final version of the information collection request. The Department of Energy (DOE) invites public... information collection requests a revision and three-year extension of its State Energy Program, OMB Control...

  2. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND INFRARED LUMINOSITIES OF z ≈ 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES FROM Herschel AND Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Armus, Lee; Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Bussmann, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ☉ ). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L ☉ IR (8-1000 μm) 13.6 L ☉ . 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L IR > 10 13 L ☉ . The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with 'power-law' SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar 'bump' in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC 6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR (8-1000 μm)/νL ν (8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 'infrared main sequence' of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up

  3. Impact of information and communications technologies on residental customer energy services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Kempton, W.; Eide, A.; Iyer, M. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This study analyzes the potential impact of information and communications technologies on utility delivery of residential customer energy services. Many utilities are conducting trials which test energy-related and non-energy services using advanced communications systems.

  4. Spectral and Energy Efficient Low-Overhead Uplink and Downlink Channel Estimation for 5G Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uplink and Downlink channel estimation in massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO systems is an intricate issue because of the increasing channel matrix dimensions. The channel feedback overhead using traditional codebook schemes is very large, which consumes more bandwidth and decreases the overall system efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to decrease the channel estimation overhead by taking the advantage of sparse attributes and also to optimize the Energy Efficiency (EE of the system. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel approach by using Compressed-Sensing (CS, Block Iterative-Support-Detection (Block-ISD, Angle-of-Departure (AoD and Structured Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit (S-CoSaMP algorithms to reduce the channel estimation overhead and compare them with the traditional algorithms. The CS uses temporal-correlation of time-varying channels to produce Differential-Channel Impulse Response (DCIR among two CIRs that are adjacent in time-slots. DCIR has greater sparsity than the conventional CIRs as it can be easily compressed. The Block-ISD uses spatial-correlation of the channels to obtain the block-sparsity which results in lower pilot-overhead. AoD quantizes the channels whose path-AoDs variation is slower than path-gains and such information is utilized for reducing the overhead. S-CoSaMP deploys structured-sparsity to obtain reliable Channel-State-Information (CSI. MATLAB simulation results show that the proposed CS based algorithms reduce the feedback and pilot-overhead by a significant percentage and also improve the system capacity as compared with the traditional algorithms. Moreover, the EE level increases with increasing Base Station (BS density, UE density and lowering hardware impairments level.

  5. Alternative Energy: A Guide to Free Information for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janet A.

    This guide was compiled to help teachers and students locate free educational materials (both lessons and nontechnical background references) on renewable energy resources and energy conservation. The 214 entries are arranged by these topic areas: (1) energy efficiency and renewables; (2) biomass; (3) hydropower; (4) solar thermal energy; (5)…

  6. Energy and Information Transfer Via Coherent Exciton Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning

    Electronic excitons are bound electron-hole states that are generated when light interacts with matter. Such excitations typically entangle with phonons and rapidly decohere; the resulting electronic state dynamics become diffusive as a result. However, if the exciton-phonon coupling can be reduced, it may be possible to construct excitonic wave packets that offer a means of efficiently transmitting information and energy. This thesis is a combined theory/computation investigation to design condensed matter systems which support the requisite coherent transport. Under the idealizing assumption that exciton-phonon entanglement could be completely suppressed, the majority of this thesis focuses on the creation and manipulation of exciton wave packets in quasi-one-dimensional systems. While each site could be a silicon quantum dot, the actual implementation focused on organic molecular assemblies for the sake of computational simplicity, ease of experimental implementation, potential for coherent transport, and promise because of reduced structural uncertainty. A laser design was derived to create exciton wave packets with tunable shape and speed. Quantum interference was then exploited to manipulate these packets to block, pass, and even dissociate excitons based on their energies. These developments allow exciton packets to be considered within the arena of quantum information science. The concept of controllable excitonic wave packets was subsequently extended to consider molecular designs that allow photons with orbital angular momentum to be absorbed to create excitons with a quasi-angular momentum of their own. It was shown that a well-defined measure of topological charge is conserved in such light-matter interactions. Significantly, it was also discovered that such molecules allow photon angular momenta to be combined and later emitted. This amounts to a new way of up/down converting photonic angular momentum without relying on nonlinear optical materials. The

  7. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Feng; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Ling; Peng, Yun

    2017-04-05

    Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors. Forty-five patients with solid tumors who had initial CT (Group B) and follow-up CT (Group A) after chemotherapy were enrolled. The initial diagnostic CT scan (Group B) was performed using the standard two-phase enhanced CT with 320 mgI/ml concentration contrast, and the follow-up scan (Group A) was performed using a single-phase enhanced CT at 45 s after the beginning of the 270 mgI/ml contrast injection using spectral mode. Forty percent ASiR was used for the images in Group B and monochromatic images with energy levels ≥60 keV in Group A. In addition, filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction was used for monochromatic images hounsfield unit (HU). The abdominal organs of Groups A and B had similar degrees of absolute and relative enhancement (t = 0.36 and -1.716 for liver, -0.153 and -1.546 for pancreas, and 2.427 and 0.866 for renal cortex, all P> 0.05). Signal-to-noise ratio of the abdominal organs was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (t = -8.11 for liver, -7.83 for pancreas, and -5.38 for renal cortex, all P 3, indicating clinically acceptable image quality. Single-phase, dual-energy spectral CT used for children with solid abdominal tumors can reduce contrast dose and radiation dose and can also maintain clinically acceptable image quality.

  8. On the signatures of companion formation in the spectral energy distributions of Sz54 and Sz59—the young stars with protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhozhay, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    We study spectral energy distributions of two young systems Sz54 and Sz59, that belong to Chameleon II star forming region. The results of the modeling indicate that protoplanetary disks of these systems contain gaps in the dust component. These gaps could be a result of a planetary or brown dwarf companion formation, because the companion would accumulate a disk material, moving along its orbit. In a present work we have determined physical characteristics of the disks. We also discuss possible companion characteristics, based on the geometrical parameters of the gaps.

  9. Annual report 2005[International Atomic Energy Agency]; Informe anual 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 13, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2005. The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency?s iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2005/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environment; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to Safety and Security discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate

  10. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  11. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  12. The Energy Information Administration's assessment of reformulated gasoline: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report (Part II) concludes a two part study of The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) assessment of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG). The data contained herein updates EIA's previous findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The major findings of Part II have not changed considerably from Part I: Supplies of RFG are adequate to meet demand, but a tight supply-demand balance exists, leaving the RFG system with little ability to absorb unexpected supply or delivery system disruption. In December 1994, the estimated demand for RFG was 2.6 million barrels per day, with the production capability just meeting this demand. The study concludes that current prices for RFG are consistent with the costs underlying the product, and the difference in RFG and conventional gasoline indicates confidence in supply. The study also follows the impact of recent events such as: postponement of the Renewable Oxygenate Standard, the decision to require importers to use the U.S. average baseline for limiting emissions, the disruption of the Colonial Pipeline in Texas, and Pennsylvania's request to opt-out of the RFG program

  13. AFBnet - Wood and field energy information from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of EU's ALTENER program is to promote the use of renewable energy sources. The European bioenergy network AFBnet produces and delivers information on bioenergy research and utilization of them in different countries. Import and export of biofuels, as well as the prices of biofuels in twenty European countries have been studied during past two years. The potential of combined heat and power generation with biofuels has also been estimated. The network has evaluated these projects and the factors, which have affected the successfulness and unsuccessfulness of the projects in different countries. In Finland the promotion of the utilization of wood fuels in municipal projects was evaluated in a 'Heat Entrepreneur competition' carried out first time in 2000. AFBnet analyzed the operation of 21 plants using mixed fuels as energy sources. One of the objectives was to collect information on experiences of production and processing phase of fuels at district heating and power plants in Finland, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, Germany and Denmark. The plants consumed different kinds of biofuels (industrial wood residues, straw and other agricultural wastes) and the mixture of them. Plants using different combustion technologies (grate, fluidized bed and pulverized fuel combustion, and biomass gasifiers). The consumption rate of wood and agricultural biofuels in plants was about 30% of the total fuel consumption. The main mixed fuel was coal, the share of which was 28% of the total. A detailed report has been published on all the plants. The reports analyze the fuel production and processing chains of the plants up to the boiler. Data was gathered also from the investments and maintenance costs of the plants. In EU countries there is no comprehensive survey on the prices of biofuels. Only Sweden publishes the prices of biofuels regularly. AFBnet collected in 1999 data on fuel prices, import and export of the fuels, and present utilization and potential of

  14. Towards PACE Atmospheric Correction, Aerosol and Cloud Products: Making Use of Expanded Spectral, Angular and Polarimetric Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L. A.; Boss, E.; Ahmad, Z.; Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Coddington, O.; Davis, A. B.; Dierssen, H. M.; Diner, D. J.; Franz, B. A.; Frouin, R.; Gao, B. C.; Garay, M. J.; Heidinger, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Levy, R. C.; Omar, A. H.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S. E.; Seidel, F. C.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Werdell, J.; Xu, F.; Zhai, P.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Science Team for the Plankton, Aerosol, Clouds, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission is concluding three years of study exploring the science potential of expanded spectral, angular and polarization capability for space-based retrievals of water leaving radiance, aerosols and clouds. The work anticipates future development of retrievals to be applied to the PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and/or possibly a PACE Multi-Angle Polarimeter (MAP). In this presentation we will report on the Science Team's accomplishments associated with the atmosphere (significant efforts are also directed by the ST towards the ocean). Included in the presentation will be sensitivity studies that explore new OCI capabilities for aerosol and cloud layer height, aerosol absorption characterization, cloud property retrievals, and how we intend to move from heritage atmospheric correction algorithms to make use of and adjust to OCI's hyperspectral and UV wavelengths. We will then address how capabilities will improve with the PACE MAP, how these capabilities from both OCI and MAP correspond to specific societal benefits from the PACE mission, and what is still needed to close the gaps in our understanding before the PACE mission can realize its full potential.

  15. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  16. Real-time information systems: Streamlining the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgason, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The convergence of computing and telecommunications is impacting the energy business. New services bred in this merger will now allow companies to efficiently re-engineer the way they buy and sell energy, fostering greater efficiencies in all segments of the gas processing and related energy businesses

  17. Energy research information system projects report, volume 5, number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Schillinger, L.

    1980-07-01

    The system (ERIS) provides an inventory of the energy related programs and research activities from 1974 to the present in the states of Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. Areas of research covered include coal, reclamation, water resources, environmental impacts, socioeconomic impacts, energy conversion, mining methodology, petroleum, natural gas, oilshale, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy conservation and land use. Each project description lists title, investigator(s), research institution, sponsor, funding, time frame, location, a descriptive abstract of the research and title reports and/or publications generated by the research. All projects are indexed by location, personal names, organizations and subject keywords.

  18. Computerised energy audit: a tool for better management information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavane, V.L.; Kulkarni, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for electricity is ever increasing. The cost of electrical generation is rising. The cost of new generating station is prohibitive to the electricity boards. Financial excellence is only possible by implementing energy audit. Because of energy audit programs the consumers' attitude is bound to change. The theft and pilferage will be detected and the quantum is bound to reduce. Financial energy management system (FEMS) will look into all operations with reference to the energy sell, energy input, finance, equipment failure, interruptions and also the individual performances of each engineer in charge of that area. 2 tabs

  19. Energy emergency information needs. Adequacy of data dissemination: state, industry, and government views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    This briefing report discusses the extent to which the energy Information Agency (EIA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are meeting the energy emergency statistical data and information needs of states and industry. Objectives were to obtain information on (1) what data and information are needed by states and industry to allow them to properly meet an oil shortage, whether EIA and DOE are meeting those needs, and what effective steps might be taken to better serve those needs.

  20. Probing the very-high-energy gamma-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J.L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M.V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R; D'Ammando, F; Lähteenmäki, A; Tornikoski, M; Hovatta, T; Readhead, A C S; Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J.L

    2015-01-01

    PG 1553+113 is a very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter classified as a BL Lac object. Its redshift is constrained by intergalactic absorption lines in the range 0.40.2). The observed curvature is compatible with the extragalactic background light (EBL) imprint predicted by the current generation of EBL models assuming a redshift z~0.4. New constraints on the redshift were derived from the VHE spectrum. These constraints are compatible with previous limits and suggest that the source is most likely located around the optical lower limit, z=0.4. Finally, we find that the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model gives a satisfactory description of the observed multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution during the flare.

  1. Mutual information registration of multi-spectral and multi-resolution images of DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Grzegorz; Shafer, Jeff; Baugh, William M.; Bader, Brett; Karspeck, Milan; Pacifici, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    WorldView-3 (WV-3) is a DigitalGlobe commercial, high resolution, push-broom imaging satellite with three instruments: visible and near-infrared VNIR consisting of panchromatic (0.3m nadir GSD) plus multi-spectral (1.2m), short-wave infrared SWIR (3.7m), and multi-spectral CAVIS (30m). Nine VNIR bands, which are on one instrument, are nearly perfectly registered to each other, whereas eight SWIR bands, belonging to the second instrument, are misaligned with respect to VNIR and to each other. Geometric calibration and ortho-rectification results in a VNIR/SWIR alignment which is accurate to approximately 0.75 SWIR pixel at 3.7m GSD, whereas inter-SWIR, band to band registration is 0.3 SWIR pixel. Numerous high resolution, spectral applications, such as object classification and material identification, require more accurate registration, which can be achieved by utilizing image processing algorithms, for example Mutual Information (MI). Although MI-based co-registration algorithms are highly accurate, implementation details for automated processing can be challenging. One particular challenge is how to compute bin widths of intensity histograms, which are fundamental building blocks of MI. We solve this problem by making the bin widths proportional to instrument shot noise. Next, we show how to take advantage of multiple VNIR bands, and improve registration sensitivity to image alignment. To meet this goal, we employ Canonical Correlation Analysis, which maximizes VNIR/SWIR correlation through an optimal linear combination of VNIR bands. Finally we explore how to register images corresponding to different spatial resolutions. We show that MI computed at a low-resolution grid is more sensitive to alignment parameters than MI computed at a high-resolution grid. The proposed modifications allow us to improve VNIR/SWIR registration to better than ¼ of a SWIR pixel, as long as terrain elevation is properly accounted for, and clouds and water are masked out.

  2. Information on energy in Africa and the need for training; L'information sur l'energie en Afrique et le besoin de formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.J. [South African National Energy Association, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2003-06-01

    Statistical energy data coming from Africa is of poor quality and often incomplete. Adequate training is important to enhance the competency of those responsible for compiling energy data. The author began by explaining the importance of collecting information in order to ensure optimum utilization of resources and to support economic growth. There is a link between energy use and economic development. It is generally agreed that only national governments have the responsibility and authority for the compilation of national energy data. Lack of training and lack of resources to conduct required studies are the two main problems associated with energy information systems. Adequate training (formal and informal) is required for personnel operating in both the lower spheres and the higher echelons. The author focused mainly on the need to provide proper training to energy statisticians. 3 refs.

  3. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-01-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%

  4. Protection of safety-relevant information in distributed energy information systems; Schutz sicherheitsrelevanter Informationen in verteilten Energieinformationssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenken, Petra

    2010-07-01

    Within the last years there has been an ongoing change in the energy domain. The German renewable energies law EnWG requires a liberalization that leads to a strict separation of domains such as transportation, supply and conversion of energy. Furthermore, climate and environmental protection as well as cost transparency and energy saving in combination with efficiency of resources leads to new challenges for the energy industry. The so called smart grid vision and the concluding design of an ICT-based information structure for the energy domain will help to reach these goals by integrating renewable energy resources, saving fuels and getting a higher energy efficiency. In order to reach these goals, information about current energy generation, energy storage and energy demand is required. Through an efficient network and fast information exchange by means of an energy information network an efficient energy use can be gained. The federated networking of an energy information network like this can tend to a weakness for cyber security within the energy domain. The growing number of people involved and data exchanges will create more potential points of attacks than before. Therefore, a suitable protection of an energy information network is necessary. Through paragraph 9 EnWG the protection goal confidentiality is particularly important. But the implementation of confidentiality must not lead to a violation of availability requirements, which are very important at some point of the energy domain. Additionally to the identification of such crucial side effects, the implementation of confidentiality for distributed, decentral systems is a challenge for the domain. The ENERTRUST security model includes a knowledge base construction, which allows the identification of such side effects or conflicts in the energy domain by applying reasoning techniques. Moreover, it allows the realization of confidentiality from distributed locations through a use and combination of

  5. ChromAIX2: A large area, high count-rate energy-resolving photon counting ASIC for a Spectral CT Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Livne, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Spectral CT based on energy-resolving photon counting detectors is expected to deliver additional diagnostic value at a lower dose than current state-of-the-art CT [1]. The capability of simultaneously providing a number of spectrally distinct measurements not only allows distinguishing between photo-electric and Compton interactions but also discriminating contrast agents that exhibit a K-edge discontinuity in the absorption spectrum, referred to as K-edge Imaging [2]. Such detectors are based on direct converting sensors (e.g. CdTe or CdZnTe) and high-rate photon counting electronics. To support the development of Spectral CT and show the feasibility of obtaining rates exceeding 10 Mcps/pixel (Poissonian observed count-rate), the ChromAIX ASIC has been previously reported showing 13.5 Mcps/pixel (150 Mcps/mm2 incident) [3]. The ChromAIX has been improved to offer the possibility of a large area coverage detector, and increased overall performance. The new ASIC is called ChromAIX2, and delivers count-rates exceeding 15 Mcps/pixel with an rms-noise performance of approximately 260 e-. It has an isotropic pixel pitch of 500 μm in an array of 22×32 pixels and is tile-able on three of its sides. The pixel topology consists of a two stage amplifier (CSA and Shaper) and a number of test features allowing to thoroughly characterize the ASIC without a sensor. A total of 5 independent thresholds are also available within each pixel, allowing to acquire 5 spectrally distinct measurements simultaneously. The ASIC also incorporates a baseline restorer to eliminate excess currents induced by the sensor (e.g. dark current and low frequency drifts) which would otherwise cause an energy estimation error. In this paper we report on the inherent electrical performance of the ChromAXI2 as well as measurements obtained with CZT (CdZnTe)/CdTe sensors and X-rays and radioactive sources.

  6. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, Luc; Marechal, Francois; Dubuis, Matthias; Calame-Darbellay, Nicole; Favrat, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland).

  7. Germany: INIS — 45 years of Reliable Nuclear Energy Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, Silke; Eck, Sabrina; Mutschelknauss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has been an official INIS member since 1970. The first 78 citations from German publications can be found in Issue 2 of Volume 1 of the INIS Atomindex. At that time, the Zentralstelle für Atomenergie-Dokumentation (ZAED) was the INIS center in Western Germany. To ensure that the documentation on nuclear energy was directly serving the interests of researchers working in this field, the ZAED had been recently moved from Frankfurt to the neighborhood of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany’s most important nuclear research institution. After 1977, the ZAED, together with other documentation centers, was merged into what is today FIZ Karlsruhe. At the same time, publications from Eastern Germany were analyzed by the Staatliches Amt für Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz in Berlin from 1974 to 1989. After the German reunification, FIZ Karlsruhe became responsible for this. The share of German contributions made to the INIS database amounts to 7% of the total number of contributions. Germany has regularly ranked among the top 5 contributing Member States in the annual statistics. Regarding cooperation in INIS, Germany — represented by FIZ Karlsruhe and its predecessors — has always been actively involved, not only in contributing publications, but also in strategic planning, organization, and technical and subject matters throughout the past five decades. Germany was part of the INIS Study Team during the planning stage of INIS. Germany also hosted two ILO meetings in Karlsruhe: one in 1979 and one on the occasion of the 30th anniversary in 2000. Staff from various INIS centers worldwide often visit FIZ Karlsruhe in order to gain insight into our INIS production or to participate in internships and training sessions on workflow management, application of rules, and FIBRE usage. FIZ Karlsruhe’s many years of participation in the Voluntary Input Program, and the editing of input provided as a service to sometimes as many as 7

  8. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review ofAdvanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and InformationSystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-08-01

    In this article, the fourth in a series, we provide a review of advanced applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the Federal sector. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second article [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. The third article [3] evaluated several products that exemplify the current state of practice in EMCIS. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of articles provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  9. Perceptual Confusions Among Consonants, Revisited: Cross-Spectral Integration of Phonetic-Feature Information and Consonant Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Greenberg, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The perceptual basis of consonant recognition was experimentally investigated through a study of how information associated with phonetic features (Voicing, Manner, and Place of Articulation) combines across the acoustic-frequency spectrum. The speech signals, 11 Danish consonants embedded...... in Consonant + Vowel + Liquid syllables, were partitioned into 3/4-octave bands (“slits”) centered at 750 Hz, 1500 Hz, and 3000 Hz, and presented individually and in two- or three-slit combinations. The amount of information transmitted (IT) was calculated from consonant- confusion matrices for each feature...... the bands are essentially independent in terms of decoding this feature. Because consonant recognition and Place decoding are highly correlated (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.99), these results imply that the auditory processes underlying consonant recognition are not strictly linear. This may account...

  10. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  11. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  12. Energy efficiency and SINR maximization beamformers for cognitive radio utilizing sensing information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service

  13. Renewable Energy Report. Information dossier for the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, A.; Van Humbeeck, P.; Lamote, A.

    2011-04-01

    The SERV is a convinced advocate of an ambitious renewable energy policy. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, such policy requires working on a substantial increase of environment-friendly energy generation, optimal deployment of economic growth opportunities and new job opportunities and an equitable distribution of costs and benefits. With this report, the SERV aims to provide valuable building blocks for the planned discussion on renewable energy policy that is to be implemented in Flanders. This report aims to feed the debate and stimulate and arouse reflection and action. [nl

  14. Energy consumption of small refrigerators - Information leaflet; Merkblatt Kleinkuehlschrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this leaflet published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the energy consumption of small refrigerators with a capacity of less than 100 litres is reported on. Such small refrigerators are often used in hotel rooms or in campers. It is noted that, in comparison, a typical, 150 litre class A++ domestic refrigerator uses only a fraction of the amount of energy used by such small refrigerators. The results of measurements made according to EN 153 and ISO 15502 norms are discussed. Recommendations are made on the purchase and operation of these small refrigerators.

  15. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  16. INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AT KOSOVO ENERGY CORPORATION (KEK)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaj, Vehbi; Kukaj, Halil; Januzaj, Ylber

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- With thecontinuous growth of global environment, the pressure in organizations has alsoincreased in order to make their operational and strategic processes aseffective as it can be. Information System (IS) is a set of components that canenhance this effectiveness and help in gathering information that can affect indecision-making. Therefore, lots of companies have decided to implementInformation Systems in order to increase the performance of their company. Methodology-However, one m...

  17. Integrating the views and perceptions of UK energy professionals in future energy scenarios to inform policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Gareth; Spataru, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Institute (EI) developed its first Energy Barometer survey in 2015 which aims to understand professionals’ views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. Following the survey, 79% of UK energy professionals believe their sector is not effectively communicating with the public. This suggests there is an urgent need to better understand how to use surveys in a more methodological way. Developed in conjunction with the EI, this paper presents the Energy Barometer survey methodology and results to achieve a better understanding of UK energy professionals’ current perceptions and future priorities. The paper makes two contributions to enhance the UK's energy debate. First, it provides the first results in a longitudinal assessment of energy professionals’ views of energy policy issues and discusses the implications for future policymaking. Second, it identifies opportunities for Energy Barometer findings to feed into scenarios development. A comparison with other studies was undertaken. It has been shown that the views of professionals working across the sector are aligned with decentralised approaches to decarbonisation. In particular, professionals expect action from policymakers to coordinate, engage with and encourage investment in energy efficiency. - Highlights: • 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. • Aiming to better understand views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. • A comparison of the methodology and results with other studies was undertaken. • Considers contributions of results to energy system scenario development. • Identifies particular need for increased energy efficiency investment.

  18. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pares Ferrer, Marianela; Oviedo Rivero, Irayda; Gonzalez Garcia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development a