WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy source offshore

  1. Optimum transmission system expansion offshore considering renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torbaghan, Shahab S.; Gibescu, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of transmission expansion planning (TEP) methods and their practical application. First, it discusses the strategic importance of the transmission system. Next, it describes the reasons why TEP remains a challenge for systems with a large share of renewable energy.

  2. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  3. Integration of Wave and Offshore Wind Energy in a European Offshore Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Sørensen, H. C.; Korpås, M.

    2010-01-01

    of offshore renewable energy sources. According to this, the paper covers i) public and private initiatives for offshore transmission networks, ii) the synergies between the wave and the offshore wind energy sector within an offshore grid, iii) power transmission options for offshore generation and iv...

  4. Offshore wind energy prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, Gaetano

    1999-01-01

    In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author)

  5. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  6. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  7. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co......-sourcing shapes the perception and alleviation of common offshoring risks is limited. We present a case study of how a certified CMMI-level 5 Danish software supplier approaches these risks in offshore co-sourcing. The paper explains how common offshoring risks are perceived and alleviated when adopting the co...

  8. Regulating Offshore Energy Sources in the North Sea : Reinventing the Wheel or a Need for More Coordination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hannah Katharina; Roggenkamp, Martha M.

    In this article we examine the legal frameworks for developing oil, gas and wind energy in the North Sea. We discuss whether there are parallels to be seen and lessons to be learned from these different sectors and suggest that experience in the offshore petroleum sector could be used to improve the

  9. Offshore wind energy : balancing risk and reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerland, C.

    2010-01-01

    Offshore wind energy developments are expected to increase as the demand for renewable energy sources grows. This poster presentation described a method of balancing risk and reward in offshore wind energy projects. The method was based on risk assessment strategies used by the oil and gas industry. The dedicated framework considered schedules; budgets; performance; and operating and maintenance costs. A value chain assessment method was used to optimize the balance between risk and reward by evaluating uncertainties and risk related to each project element and its relationship to other elements within an integrated dynamic model designed to determine the net present value of a project. The decision-making criteria included the RISKEX risk expenditure strategy designed to consider the balance between risk exposure, capital expenditures, and operational expenditures in relation to the statistical cost of unplanned repairs, and lost production capacity. A case study of a large offshore wind farm was used to demonstrate the method. tabs., figs.

  10. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  11. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.

    2013-01-15

    This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid affects the economics of an offshore wind park. It is shown that the spot market income is lower if an offshore wind farm is placed in an interconnector and subject to nodal pricing instead of having a national affiliation. Moreover, congestion in the interconnector can prevent the wind farm from correcting its wind forecast errors in a specific onshore balancing group. An analytical approach with a transmission system operator and a wind farm as stakeholders illustrates resulting incentives for strategic behaviour. Depending on the regulatory regime, they may be inclined to announce more or less generation than expected at the closure of the day-ahead spot market. This can lead to a suboptimal utilisation of the infrastructure and associated socio-economic losses. These and possibly undesired reallocative effects between the parties can be avoided if the regulatory regime is adjusted to reflect special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment framework has also been addressed with a policy study about possible combinations of support schemes and international cooperation mechanisms between countries to achieve their

  12. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  13. Offshore Wind Energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Hvelplund, Frede

    for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between......Offshore wind energy has developed in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... availability of locations, driven by accelerating requirements of environmental concern, park size and public acceptance, is one important driver. Mounting risk of mega-projects and the infinite demand for renewable energy is another likely cause. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks...

  14. Climate and Offshore Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-30

    SECuRITY CL.ASSIPIcaTIoN OF, TIns PA@elm VaeVa CLMATE ANID OFFSHORE ENERGY RESOUACES A distinguished group of government officials, scientists, engineers...about the mech- anisms of climatic systems, and gaining a better understanding of the impact of climatic change on human resources.* He continued by...atmospheric constit- uents, but he particularly emphasized " changes " in C02. He suggested that the atmospheric conditions may be better now than they were half

  15. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  16. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co-sour......-taking by high attention to of the closely interrelated structure and technology components in terms of CMMI and the actors’ cohesion and integration in terms of Scrum....

  17. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  18. Indian offshore wind energy policy - lessons from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S.; Dhingra, T. [Univ. of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Indian Economy is growing at 8% for the past few years and is expected to continue this momentum into the foreseeable future. To sustain this growth, power sector needs to build additional generation capacity at an unprecedented pace. However, continued dependence on fossil fuels (especially Coal and Oil) to power the growth of electricity generation capacity, is hardly sustainable in the long run. The reasons are well known - Environmental concerns, depleting fossil fuel resources, excessive dependency on Oil imports - that it hardly merits repetition. Renewable Energy source forms a miniscule portion (25 GW, {approx} 12%) of India's overall Energy consumption today (202 GW). The share of wind energy (17 GW) is 67% of the total renewable energy basket. But the contribution from offshore wind farms is non-existent, as all the wind energy generated in India is only through onshore Wind farms. India needs a policy framework to encourage the development of offshore wind farms. Several European countries, most notably the UK, Germany and Denmark, have effective offshore wind energy policies that have helped them to accelerate the growth of their offshore wind energy sector. This paper does an exhaustive study to identify the building blocks of a successful offshore wind energy policy initiative adopted by selected European countries, which can be leveraged by India to articulate its own offshore wind energy policy. This paper also suggests a model to predict the log-odds of growth of offshore wind energy sector in India. (Author)

  19. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  20. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-07-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  1. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-01-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  2. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  3. Socio-economic Impacts—Offshore Activities/Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Drews, Martin; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2016-01-01

    sector and renewable electricity generation—mainly from offshore wind—is increasing. Energy and offshore activities in the North Sea are critically vulnerable to climate change along the full supply chain. The major vulnerabilities for offshore installations like rigs, offshore wind energy and pipelines......, it is highly uncertain how much the future potential of other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, terrestrial biomass, or emerging technologies like wave, tidal or marine biomass could be positively or negatively affected. Due to the different national energy supply mixes the vulnerability to climate......-related impacts will vary among North Sea countries. To ensure safe and reliable future operations comprehensive and systematic risk assessments are therefore needed which account for, for example, the high integration of power systems in the region....

  4. Natural Gas Hydrates in the Offshore Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin-Study of a Feasible Energy Source II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    In the offshore part of Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin depth of methane hydrate stability reaches more than 1.5 km. However, there are areas in the western part of the basin where there are no conditions of methane hydrate stability. Construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost in the offshore area, shows that these zones can reach 1200 m and 900 m, respectively. Depth to the base of ice-bearing relict permafrost under the sea (depth of the -1 o C isotherm-ice-bearing permafrost base) and regional variations of geothermal gradient are the main controlling factors. Hydrostatic pressures in the upper 1500 m are the rule. History of methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost and it reached maximum depth in early Holocene. More recently, the permafrost and hydrate zone is diminishing because of sea transgression. Reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences is done from the analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone. In the offshore Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 21 wells. Nine of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate-stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections and maps of geological sequences reveals that hydrates are occurring in the Iperk-Kugmallit sequence. Hydrate-gas contact zones, however, are possible in numerous situations. As there are no significant geological seals in the deeper part of the offshore basin (all hydrates are within Iperk), it is suggested that overlying permafrost and hydrate stability zone acted as the only trap for upward migrating gas during the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene)

  5. Go offshore -Combining food and energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Stuiver, Marian; Guanche, Raul

    European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The development includes energy facilities, e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, and also development and implementation of marine aquaculture This change of infrastructure makes ...

  6. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  7. Marine renewable energies. When researchers consider the ocean as an energy source. Offshore wind power. The thermal energy of seas, a solar resource to be no longer neglected. Lipid biofuels production by micro-algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruer, J.; Gauthier, M.; Zaharia, R.; Cadoret, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the present day context of search for renewable energy sources, it is surprising that the oceans energy, potentially enormous, is poorly taken into consideration with respect to the other renewable energy sources, while France has been a pioneer in this domain with the construction of the Rance tidal power plant in the 1960's, and still in operation today. However, the scientific community, and in particular the IFREMER institute in France, is developing R and D programs on marine energy technologies. On the other hand, the development of wind power is growing up rapidly with a worldwide installed capacity exceeding today 94000 MW and supplying 3% of the electricity consumed in Europe. The development of offshore wind farms represents today 1122 MW and should grow up very fast in the coming years. The ocean is also a huge reservoir of thermal energy which can be exploited to generate electricity and desalinated water. Finally, the cultivation of micro-algae for the enhanced production of lipids may be a more ecological alternative to the terrestrial production of biofuels, strongly criticized today for its long term environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  8. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    and economic costs. However, the influence of tropical cyclone risks on these regions and detailed assessments at regional or local scale are worth of further discussions. Nevertheless, the models and results provide a foundation for a more comprehensive regional planning framework that would address......This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... space. Geospatial supply curves and spatial distribution of levelised production cost (LPC) are developed, which provide information on the available potential of offshore wind energy at or below a given cost, and its corresponding geographical locations. The GIS-based models also reflect the impacts...

  9. Energy Analysis of Offshore Systems | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    markets enables the compilation of a database of installed and proposed project costs. These are used to offshore wind projects Discounted cash-flow analysis (with the University of Delaware) to identify the level costs based on wind turbine size, annual energy production, and operation costs. The model

  10. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  11. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  12. Quantifying the Benefits of Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenburg, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    For many locations the offshore wind resource and the wave energy resource are collocated, which suggests a natural synergy if both technologies are combined into one offshore marine renewable energy plant. Initial meteorological assessments of the western coast of the United States suggest only a weak correlation in power levels of wind and wave energy at any given hour associated with the large ocean basin wave dynamics and storm systems of the North Pacific. This finding indicates that combining the two power sources could reduce the variability in electric power output from a combined wind and wave offshore plant. A combined plant is modeled with offshore wind turbines and Pelamis wave energy converters with wind and wave data from meteorological buoys operated by the US National Buoy Data Center off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. This study will present results of quantifying the benefits of combining wind and wave energy for the electrical power system to facilitate increased renewable energy penetration to support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and air and water pollution associated with conventional fossil fuel power plants.

  13. Offshore system for integration of the wind energy; Sistema offshore para integracao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Jan de [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Tambke, Jens [Universidade de Oldemburg (Germany). ForWind; Voelker, J. [Dena - Agencia Alema de Energia (Germany); Michalowska-Knap, Katarzyna [Instituto de Energia Renovavel (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The Offshore Grid project aims to analyze the conditions required for the development of an offshore transmission network to integrate renewable energy (wind) to the national electrical systems, securely and efficiently. Regulatory aspects, technical, economic and political are considered, that will help the various players in the industry to have a common view on the offshore power grids in Europe.

  14. Offshore wind energy, who will risk investment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    As Europe plans to install 40 GW of offshore wind energy production by 2020 and only 5 GW are already installed, investment is a crucial issue for a still immature industry and in a context where risk management is critical, notably during construction (harsh working conditions, costs of construction, of maintenance and costs related to delays). Other aspects are also related to financial risks like, for example, the cost of offshore wind farm connection to the grid (this has been an underestimated issue in Germany). Then operation and exploitation have to face climate events although, according to relatively recent exploitation data, availability is quite good. The durability of political support is not so sure in a context of political and regulatory instability and of economic crisis. In France, after the first bidding, the wind energy industrial sector is emerging and many small and medium companies enter this activity in the trail of Areva and Alstom, with thousands of job creations and export perspectives. Some offshore wind turbines are briefly presented (by Alstom, Areva, RE Power, Siemens and Vestas)

  15. Environmental considerations of offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryckman, A. [Natural Resource Solutions Inc., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The environmental considerations of offshore wind energy projects in the Great Lakes region were discussed from the viewpoint of an environmental consulting firm. Existing projects and proposals were discussed in relation to site-specific conditions and the environmental studies required at the proposed sites. North American facilities that are now undergoing baseline studies in the Great Lakes include the Cape Wind and Nai Kun wind farms. Impact to fisheries in the lakes is expected to occur largely during the construction phases of the developments. However, additional noise, sedimentation, and lakebed losses have the potential to impact local fish populations. Some turbine foundations create a a reef effect that increases local fish populations. Baseline fisheries data as well as substrate and habitat assessments of the lakebed are required. Impacts on birds include collision and displacement impacts. Migratory birds and staging or wintering waterfowl may be displaced from feeding areas. Radar- and plane-based surveys should be used to identify large rafts of birds in offshore habitats, while boat surveys can be used to confirm species and identify diurnal migrants. The migratory paths of bats over the Great Lakes are not well-understood. It is expected that offshore wind developments will have little impact on terrestrial vegetation. Impacts will be localized at shoreline connection points and construction areas. Shoreline habitats, wetlands, dunes and beach habitats may also be impacted. Post-construction surveys should include avian and bat mortality, waterfowl usage, and fish habitat and substrates. Further studies were recommended, as there are limited guidelines for determining the effects of offshore wind energy developments. tabs., figs.

  16. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  17. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Offshore Sand Sources 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore sand sources exist at four known locations and potentially other yet to be explored regions within the nearshore coastal shelf. Significant reserves of fine...

  18. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Offshore Sand Sources 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Offshore sand sources exist at four known locations and potentially other yet to be explored regions within the nearshore coastal shelf. Significant reserves of fine...

  19. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  20. Technological learning in offshore wind energy: Different roles of the government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, T.; Junginger, M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is a promising source of renewable electricity, even though its current costs prevent large-scale implementation. Technological learning has improved the technology and its economic performance already, and could result in significant further improvements. This study

  1. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  2. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  3. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system

  4. Offshore wind energy. An overview on the activities in Germany; Offshore-Windenergie. Ein Ueberblick ueber die Aktivitaeten in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, Anja [media consulta Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The brochure under consideration provides an overview of the activities of offshore wind energy in Germany. The first offshore wind farms are built and generate more electricity than expected. The offshore wind farms serve as a field of learning for new technologies. The power of offshore wind farms opened new prospects for the economy. The northern Federal States of Germany as well as the traditional locations for mechanical engineering and steel production benefit from offshore wind energy.

  5. Far offshore wind conditions in scope of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Far offshore atmospheric conditions are favourable for wind energy purposes since mean wind speeds are relatively high (i.e., high power production) while turbulence levels are relatively low (i.e., less fatigue loads) compared to onshore conditions. Offshore wind energy, however, is still expensive

  6. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  7. INORE: The International Network on Offshore Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Michele; De Andrén, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The International Network on Offshore Renewable Energy (INORE) is a non-profit organization run by volunteers. INORE was born to support early stage researchers in the offshore renewable energy field. Today, INORE has more than 1200 members from more than 70 different countries. The aim of this organization is to facilitate networking and information exchange between young researchers and professionals. This is achieved by arranging symposia, workshops, networking events and issuing scholarships. Three main knowledge areas are currently within INORE’s dedication: sea wave energy, tidal current energy and offshore wind energy.

  8. Iran atlas of offshore renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspour, M.; Rahimi, R. [Sharif University of Technology, School of Mechanical engineering, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study is to provide an Atlas of IRAN Offshore Renewable Energy Resources (hereafter called 'the Atlas') to map out wave and tidal resources at a national scale, extending over the area of the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman. Such an Atlas can provide necessary tools to identify the areas with greatest resource potential and within reach of present technology development. To estimate available tidal energy resources at the site, a two-dimensional tidally driven hydrodynamic numerical model of Persian Gulf was developed using the hydrodynamic model in the MIKE 21 Flow Model (MIKE 21HD), with validation using tidal elevation measurements and tidal stream diamonds from Admiralty charts. The results of the model were used to produce a time series of the tidal stream velocity over the simulation period. Moreover, to assess the potential of the wave energy in this site, a model was developed based on six-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (ISWM-Iranian Sea Wave Model) covering the period 1992-2003. To ensure the information provided to the Atlas is managed and maintained most effectively, all the derived marine resource parameters have been captured in a structured database, within a Geographical Information System (GIS), so enabling effective data management, presentation and interrogation. (author)

  9. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  10. Hanstholm phase 2B. Offshore wave energy test 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The wave power converter consists of a float 2.5 meter in diameter, connected by a rope to a seabed-mounted piston pump, installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore Hanstholm, Denmark. The converter is designed to absorb an average maximum power of 1 kW. Measured data in real sea conditions are compared to results based on computer simulations and previous tank testing. Losses caused by rope elasticity and hysteresis, friction in the pump and back flow through the valves are assessed. The economic perspectives of a large wave power plant are presented, based on a revised prototype incorporating the results and experience gained during the test period. The wave energy conversion test `Hanstholm phase 2B` has showed, that it it technically possible to exploit the offshore wave energy resource. This source of energy could become attractive for commercial enterprise. The wave power converter demonstrated a reliable performance over a period of nine months. It produced energy under all wave conditions and survived storm waves of 9,6 m. A 300 MW wave power plant in the Danish part of the North sea is estimated to produce electricity at a cost between 2,1 - 2,4 DKK/kWh. The electrical transmission to shore contribute to approximately 20% of the cost. New data predict a potential of 23 kW per meter wave front. The energy plan Energy 21 proposed by the Danish Department of Energy, includes a scenario incorporating wave energy in the energy system year 2030. A strategy for the development of wave energy, has been proposed as part of the project OWEC-1 supported by the European Joule R and D programme. A proposal for future Danish initiatives to develop second generation point absorber systems is outlined. (ARW) 29 refs.

  11. IFREMER-ADEME colloquium 'Offshore renewable energies: offshore wind energy - sea currents and waves. Collection of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This document contains programme and abstracts of contributions presented during a colloquium. These contributions first addresses the context, and regulatory and economic aspects of offshore wind and sea energy: specificities related to the Public Maritime Domain for the implantation of offshore wind turbines, economy of sea energies within a perspective of de-carbonation of the world energy sector, case of offshore wind turbines and assessment of economic impacts of the implantation of sea renewable energy production units, financing stakes for offshore wind energy projects. A second set of contribution addresses the state-of -the-art and feedbacks for offshore wind energy installations. The third set addresses the assessment of resource potential, measurements, models and production prediction for offshore wind energy: case of French coasts, use of radar for remote sensing, wind climatology modelling, data acquisition for wind farm and data processing. The fourth set of contributions addresses the state-of-the-art, feedback, and R and D for sea current energy, while the fifth one addressed the same aspects for sea wave energy. Technology, installations, maintenance and storage in the field of wind energy are then addressed, and the last set deals with environmental and social-economical impacts of sea renewable energies

  12. Job retention in the British offshore sector through greening of the North Sea energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Miguel; Leary, David; Zhang, Qi; Utama, Agya; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2011-01-01

    For the case of the UK there are currently three ways of obtaining energy from sea areas, namely from wind, tides and waves. A methodology was developed to determine the future size of the offshore renewable industry based on the concept of employment factor, or the number of people required to maintain each unit of electricity production. An assessment was made of the decline in the number of people employed in oil related jobs in the North Sea and the gap that this could create in the UK's economy unless this pool of offshore expertise could find an alternative employment in the renewable sector. The paper will also investigate the effect of gradually transforming the UK's oil and gas sector into offshore renewables. If this was to happen by 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146 TWh of electricity, equivalent to around 57-66% of the current energy consumption in the country. - Research highlights: → There are three possible sources of energy from sea areas in the UK: wind, tide and waves. → As the number of jobs in the offshore oil industry reduces they should be compensated with jobs in the renewable offshore sector. → By 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146TWh of electricity. → This would represent around 57-66% of the current energy consumption in the UK.

  13. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  14. Artificial upwelling using offshore wind energy for mariculture applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Viúdez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind is proposed as an energy source to upwell nutrient-rich deep water to the ocean photic layers. A spar-buoy wind turbine with a rigid tube about 300 m long is proposed as a pipe to drive deep water up to the surface. The minimum energy required to uplift the water is the potential energy difference between surface waters inside and outside the pipe, which depends on the background density profile. The corresponding surface jump or hydraulic head, h, calculated for several analytical and experimental density profiles, is of the order of 10 cm. If the complete turbine power (of the order of several MW is used for raising the water (assuming a 100% pump efficiency, in a frictionless flow, very large water volumes, of the order of thousands of m3 s-1, will be transported to the photic layers. In a more realistic case, taking into account pipe friction in wide pipes, of the order of 10 m radius, and a power delivered to the fluid of 1 MW, the volume transport is still very large, about 500 m3 s-1. However, such a large amount of dense water could sink fast to aphotic layers due to vertical static instability (the fountain effect, ruining the enhancement of primary production. Hence, some ways to increase the turbulent entrainment and avoid the fountain effect are proposed. From the energetic viewpoint, artificial upwelling using offshore wind energy is a promising way to fertilize large open sea regions. This mariculture application is, however, severely subjected to atmosphere and ocean climatology, as well as to ecological dynamics. The general problem is multidisciplinary, and some important physical, engineering and ecological questions need to be seriously addressed to improve our confidence in the approach presented here.

  15. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1972-01-01

    A study carried out around 1970 on the world energy future is described. One method is based on world energy evaluations extrapolated to 1985 and 2000. The other one is prospective and tries to account for changes in life style and technology and relations with the developing countries [fr

  16. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  17. Accelerating the deployment of offshore renewable energy technologies. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Mott

    2011-02-15

    Offshore wind energy and ocean energy (i.e. wave and tidal) are at different stages of technology development and deployment, and, as such, they require different approaches for successful deployment. However, regardless of their deployment stage, these technologies may face common hurdles in their way to market competitiveness. IEA-RETD has completed a study with the overall objective to assist policy makers and project developers in a better understanding of these barriers and the specifics of offshore renewable energy and to give them practical guidelines. These include an offshore energy deployment framework, substantiated by evidence-based analyses, and recommendations for future policies design, including best practices for allocation of seafloor rights.

  18. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  19. Availability evaluation of offshore wind energy networks within the Dutch power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinema, B.W.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    In the future, a large-scale expansion of offshore wind energy is expected in the Netherlands. For this large-scale expansion, a well-designed offshore network is needed. Different network configurations will lead to other availability of the offshore network and therefore also the offshore wind

  20. Remote sensing observation used in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Christiansen, Merete Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing observations used in offshore wind energy are described in three parts: ground-based techniques and applications, airborne techniques and applications, and satellite-based techniques and applications. Ground-based remote sensing of winds is relevant, in particular, for new large wind...

  1. Offshore Wind Energy Ready to Power a Sustainable Europe. Final Report. Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The objective of the project Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe [CA-OWEE] is to define the current state of the art of offshore wind energy in Europe through gathering and evaluation of information from across Europe and to disseminate the resulting knowledge to all interested, in order to help stimulate the development of the industry. The project is being funded by the European Commission and will be completed at the end of 2001. The knowledge gathered will be freely available through an internet site, a workshop and a printed report. This project divides offshore wind energy into five clusters of subjects and reviews the recent history and summarise the current state of affairs, relating to: Cluster 1 offshore technology, of the wind turbines and the support structures, Cluster 2 grid integration, energy supply and financing, Cluster 3 resources and economics, Cluster 4 activities and prospects, Cluster 5 social acceptance, environmental impact and politics. The conclusions from these surveys are then used to define recommendations for the future RTD strategy for Europe. The project's 17 partners come from 13 countries, thus covering the majority of the European Community's coastline. The partners cover a wide range of expertise and include developers, utilities, consultants, research institutes and universities

  2. Transmission of wave energy through an offshore wind turbine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Johnson, Martin; Sørensen, Ole Rene

    2013-01-01

    condition at infinity. From airborne and Satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) a model has been derived for the change of the water surface friction C) inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm. The effects have been implemented in a spectral wind wave model,MIKE21 SW, and a parametric study......The transmission of wave energy passing an offshore wind farm is studied. Three effects that can change the wave field are analysed, which is the A) energy dissipation due to drag resistance, B) wave reflection/diffraction from structures, and C) the effect of a modified wind field inside...... and on the lee side of the wind farm. The drag dissipation, A), is quantified by a quadratic resistance law. The effect of B) is parameterised based on 1st order potential theory. A method to find the amount of reflected and transmitted wave energy is developed based on the panel method WAMIT™ and a radiation...

  3. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  4. Conference on offshore wind energy in France and Germany: challenges of a promising segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrupek, Thierry; Falk, Thorsten; Hofmann, Stefanie; Gouverneur, Philippe; Le Visage, Christophe; Saint Martin, Gro de; Meyerjuergens, Tim; Dachicourt, Pierre-Georges; Hube, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the development of offshore wind energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 100 participants exchanged views on offshore wind energy development, and on the conflicts of usage between fishermen and offshore wind farms. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Offshore wind energy development in France (Thierry Chrupek); 2 - Present day situation of offshore wind energy development and use in Germany (Thorsten Falk); 3 - Risks and profitability of offshore wind energy (Philippe Gouverneur); 4 - Sea and shore integrated management: what impacts for offshore wind energy? (Christophe Le Visage); 5 - Towards and offshore grid? (Gro de Saint Martin); 6 - Grid connection of offshore wind farms in Germany (Tim Meyerjuergens); 7 - Conflicts of usage between professional fishing and offshore wind farms (Pierre-Georges Dachicourt); 8 - Ecological evaluative research for the use of offshore wind energy - Advantages, projects and studies. Environmental follow-up of wind energy projects (Stefanie Hofmann); 9 - Alpha Ventus offshore test park: context, progress of the installation and next steps (Wilfried Hube)

  5. Discussion paper : offshore wind facilities renewable energy approval requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    This paper discussed a proposed shoreline exclusion zone for offshore wind projects in Ontario. Considerations relevant to offshore wind projects and the protection of human health, cultural heritage, and the environment were also discussed. The paper was prepared in order to provide greater clarity to renewable energy developers and to Ontario residents about the offshore wind policy that is currently being considered by the Ontario Government. Feedback received from the discussion paper will be used to propose policy and associated regulatory amendments. A 5 km shoreline exclusion zone for all offshore wind facilities was proposed. Some projects may be required to be located beyond the proposed exclusion zone. Proposed developments within the exclusion zone must meet all applicable requirements, including those related to cultural and natural heritage. The zone will establish a distance between drinking water intakes, and ensure that sediment dredging and other construction-related activities do not impact drinking water quality, and ensure that potential noise levels are within acceptable levels. The zone will establish a distance between near-shore activities and wind facilities, and also help to maintain the ecological health of inland waters. Guidelines and technical requirements for wind facility operators were also included.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  7. Advanced Offshore Wind Energy - Atlantic Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-11-04

    This project developed relationships among the lead institution, U of Delaware, wind industry participants from 11 companies, and two other universities in the region. The participating regional universities were University of Maryland and Old Dominion University. Research was carried out in six major areas: Analysis and documentation of extreme oceanic wind events & their impact on design parameters, calibration of corrosivity estimates measured on a coastal turbine, measurment and modeling of tower structures, measurement and modeling of the tribology of major drive components, and gearbox conditioning monitoring using acoustic sensors. The project also had several educational goals, including establishing a course in wind energy and training graduate students. Going beyond these goals, three new courses were developed, a graduate certificate program in wind power was developed and approved, and an exchange program in wind energy was established with Danish Technical University. Related to the installation of a Gamesa G90 turbine on campus and a Gamesa-UD research program established in part due to this award, several additional research projects have been carried out based on mutual industry-university interests, and funded by turbine revenues. This award and the Gamesa partnership have jointly led to seven graduate students receiving full safety and climb training, to become “research climbers” as part of their wind power training, and contributing to on-turbine research. As a result of the educational program, already six graduate students have taken jobs in the US wind industry.

  8. Technological learning in offshore wind energy: Different roles of the government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, Thijs; Junginger, Martin; Smits, Ruud

    2007-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is a promising source of renewable electricity, even though its current costs prevent large-scale implementation. Technological learning has improved the technology and its economic performance already, and could result in significant further improvements. This study investigates how technological learning takes place in offshore wind energy and how technological learning is related to different policy regimes. Offshore wind energy developments in Denmark and the United Kingdom have been analysed with a technology-specific innovation systems approach. The results reveal that the dominant forms of learning are learning by doing and learning by using. At the same time, learning by interacting is crucial to achieve the necessary binding elements in the technology-specific innovation system. Generally, most learning processes were performed by self-organizing entities. However, sometimes cultural and technical barriers occurred, excluding component suppliers and knowledge institutes from the innovation system. Danish policies successfully anticipated these barriers and removed them; therefore, the Danish policies can be characterized as pro-active. British policies shaped stable conditions for learning only; therefore, they can be characterized as active. In the future, barriers could hinder learning by interacting between the oil and gas industry, the offshore wind industry and academia. Based on this study, we suggest national and international policy makers to design long-term policies to anticipate these barriers, in order to contribute to technological learning

  9. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission of Korean Offshore Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Taeho; Ellingsen, Harald; Hognes, Erik Skontorp; Hwang, Bokyu

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission assessments of Korean offshore fisheries. The consumption of energy by fisheries is a significant concern because of its attendant environmental effect, as well as the cost of the fuel consumed in fishing industry. With the global attention of reducing GHG emission and increasing energy efficiency of fuel, the seafood industry needs to further understand its energy use and reduce its GHG emission. In the present study, the amount of energy consumed and the GHG emission of Korean offshore fisheries in a period from 2009 to 2013 were examined. Offshore fisheries accounted for 24% of Korean production in 2013 and 60% of fuel consumption related GHG emission. Whereas the total GHG emission intensity of this sector improved slightly between 2009 and 2012; as such emission decreased by approximately 1.9%, which increased again in 2013. The average amount of total GHG emission in this five years period was 1.78 × 106 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent/year (t CO2 eq. y-1). Active fishing gear was found to consume 20% more fuel than passive gear. However, the production from passive gear was 28%, lower than 72% from active gear. The reason for this is that less abundant stationary resources are harvested using passive gear. Furthermore, the consumption of fuel was significantly influenced by the fishing method. Implementation and development of new fishing technologies and methods are important for improving energy efficiency and reducing the climate impact on fisheries. To realize these purposes, the fishery management system needs to be established by centralizing on energy efficiency and climate effect.

  10. Nearshore and offshore environmental effects monitoring at the Sable Offshore Energy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, G. V.

    2000-01-01

    A monitoring program to determine whether any temporary or permanent environmental perturbations may be attributable to the Sable offshore gas pipeline project as it approaches landfall at Goldboro through an outer bay is discussed, This nearshore region is an active fishing region for the residents of Goldboro, hence the concern about possible contamination. The monitoring project began with a baseline study, followed by monitoring the construction and the recovery period following construction, to ensure that any persistent changes to the nearshore aquatic environment were documented. The monitoring study included representatives of the fishing community to ensure that concerns are addressed early and on a continuing basis. At various phases of the project water properties,sediment modelling, the effects of construction on sea bottom conditions, benthic biota and cultivated mussels, water quality, phytoplankton, and resuspension of toxic cysts, terns and other seabirds were studied. Monitoring programs were also established for sea urchins and mussels, two important commercial species. Commercial-sized sea urchins showed a decrease of 60 per cent between 1998 and 1999 (i.e. the construction period). Recovery of sea urchin population in the immediate trench region will be the special focus of the post-construction monitoring phase. Mussel spat settlement and mussel tissue condition, lobster trapping, water properties, and bird behaviour showed no measurable changes during construction monitoring. In addition to these studies there is an ongoing offshore monitoring program in effect by Sable Offshore Energy Inc., put in place as a condition of approval of its Development Plan by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. This program monitors attributes such as water quality, suspended particulate matter in the benthic boundary layer, sediment quality, the benthic habitat and megafaunal community, shellfish body burden and taint, marine mammals and seabirds

  11. Conference on offshore wind energy development in France and Germany - Legal framework, research results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Joerg; Schlegelmilch, Kai; Schulze, Karsten; Abromeit, Carolin; Jensen, Lars Bie; Svendsen, Anne; Schwebel, Olivier; Huebner, Gundula; Heidmann, Roger; Piet, Olivier; Roudil, Jean-Philippe; Fuchs, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind energy development in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 170 participants exchanged views on the actual policies, on the offshore potentialities of both countries and on the recent logistics, services, training and software innovations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Opening talk by Joerg Schulz, Bremerhaven's Major; 2 - The Future of the Offshore Wind energy in Germany - Key elements of the German energy Concept (Kai Schlegelmilch); 3 - Offshore wind farms: A commercial perspective - Offshore projects profitability (Karsten Schulze); 4 - Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ - experiences with the German Approval Procedure: criteria for a successful approval procedure (Carolin Abromeit); 5 - Offshore Wind Parks and fishery in Denmark - Involvement and compensation of commercial fishery in Denmark (Lars Bie Jensen); 6 - Tourism, property value, residents interest and offshore parks - Usage conflicts or regional development? (Anne Svendsen); 7 - Logistics for offshore wind projects - classic ports usable? An overview (Roger Heidmann); 8 - Offshore wind energy and French harbours (Olivier Piet); 9 - French offshore wind power market and component suppliers (Jean-Philippe Roudil); 10 - Trident software - the Offshore Wind Manager. Review and Forecast after one year of construction (Tina Fuchs)

  12. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  13. Offshore wind energy - Proceedings of the 2009 Le Havre International Meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Bernard; Rufenacht, Antoine; Marchand, Philippe; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Blanchard, Loic; Leredde, Bruno; Gouverneur, Philippe; Buch, Mette; Westra, Chris; Deswartes, Fabien; Kaelble, Laure; Lutsen, Didier; Kolb, Jean-Mathieu; Moine, Sebastien; Kipke, Ruediger; Coelingh, Jan; Fagot, Guillaume; Noury, Bruno; Herpers, Frederick; Bersani, Catherine; Lanoe, Frederic; Grosdemange, Didier; Uhl, Frederic; Lapierre, Anne; Dumarquez, Philippe; Ruer, Jacques; Huberson, Serge; Barakat, Georges; Cooke, Richard; Reisse, Eric; Bihel, Pierre-Nicolas; Mohr, Rainer; Goesswein, Jens; Brossard, Jerome; Duval, Stephane; Bonnefond, Thierry; Jacquemin, Jerome; His, Stephane; Fazio, Bertrand; Theobald, Fabrice; Boeuf, Marc; Ruer, Jacques; Mercher, Gerard; Poitou, Pascal; Lemarquis, David; Bal, Jean-Louis; Abonnel, Cyrille; Mouslim, Hakim; Rousset, Jean-Marc; Brochard, Emmanuel; Lengyel, Jacques; Antolini, Andre; Gerard, Bernard

    2009-11-01

    This document gathers keynote addresses, contributions and Power Point presentations of a colloquium on the development of offshore wind energy. This colloquium comprises several sessions: the strategy of offshore wind energy development, the planning of wind energy development, the keys of wind energy development, the associated environmental, technological and industrial challenges, the industrial and port deployment for the development of marine energies

  14. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  15. Estimation of cost development of offshore wind energy in the Netherlands and required governmental contribution to realize 6,000 MW in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, H.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2004-04-01

    The development of the cost of the production of electricity from offshore wind sources is explored. These cost developments are used to estimate the cost of the Dutch Government to fulfil its self-set target of 6,000 MW offshore wind energy capacity in 2020 [nl

  16. The potential of wave and offshore wind energy in around the coastline of Malaysia that face the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, E.P.; Zainal, Z.A.; Aswatha Narayana, P.A.; Seetharamu, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    The world wide estimated wave resource is more than 2 TW. Offshore wind speeds are generally higher than wind speeds over land, hence higher available energy resource. The estimated offshore wind potential in European waters alone is in excess of 2500 TWh/annum. Offshore area also provides larger area for deploying wind energy devices. In recent year efforts to promote these two types of renewable and green energy sources have been intensify. Using the data obtained from the Malaysia Meteorological Service (MMS) analysis was conducted for the potential of wave energy and wind energy along the coastline of Malaysia facing the South China Sea. Maps of wave power potential were produced. The mean vector wind speed and direction were tabulated

  17. EWeA Offshore 2013 - Side event: 'Offshore wind energy - Potentialities and industrial opportunities in France and in Germany. French-German cross perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genachte, Anne-Benedicte; Kavafyan, Philippe; Wagner, Andreas; Bour, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    At the EWEA Offshore 2013 exhibition, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side-conference on Offshore wind energy and its Potentialities and industrial opportunities in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 50 participants exchanged views on the conditions for the development of a durable offshore wind energy industry both in France and in Germany. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Supporting industrial development of offshore wind in Europe (Anne-Benedicte Genachte); 2 - Offshore wind energy: the Bremerhaven experience. An asset for the deployment of a complete industrial field in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 3 - Status, Prospects and Challenges for Offshore Wind energy in Germany - incl. Legal Framework and Presentation of cost reduction study results (Andreas Wagner); 4 - Offshore grid connection in Germany - Challenges and recommendations (Gregoire Bour)

  18. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  19. EU 2004 Declaration. EU policy workshop development of offshore wind energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruijne, R.

    2004-09-01

    Participants of the Dutch EU Presidency's 'EU Policy Workshop on the development of offshore wind energy' published this Declaration that called for action at the EU Transport, Energy and Telecom Council on November 29, 2004. The Declaration lists a series of action points on three main issues relating to the development of offshore wind energy in Europe: market development; environment; and grid integration of large scale offshore wind

  20. Life cycle assessment of onshore and offshore wind energy-from theory to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An LCA of 2 onshore and 2 offshore wind power plants was performed. • Onshore wind power performs better than offshore per kWh delivered to the grid. • Materials are responsible for more than 79% and 70% of climate change impacts onshore and offshore respectively. • The bigger, direct drive turbines perform better than the smaller geared ones. • Climate change is a good KPI for wind power plant hotspot identification. - Abstract: This study aims to assess the environmental impacts related to the provision of 1 kWh to the grid from wind power in Europe and to suggest how life cycle assessment can inform technology development and system planning. Four representative power plants onshore (with 2.3 and 3.2 MW turbines) and offshore (4.0 and 6.0 MW turbines) with 2015 state-of-the-art technology data provided by Siemens Wind Power were assessed. The energy payback time was found to be less than 1 year for all technologies. The emissions of greenhouse gases amounted to less than 7 g CO_2-eq/kWh for onshore and 11 g CO_2-eq/kWh for offshore. Climate change impacts were found to be a good indicator for overall hotspot identification however attention should also be drawn to human toxicity and impacts from respiratory inorganics. The overall higher impact of offshore plants, compared to onshore ones, is mainly due to larger high-impact material requirements for capital infrastructure. In both markets the bigger turbines with more advanced direct drive generator technology is shown to perform better than the smaller geared ones. Capital infrastructure is the most impactful life cycle stage across impacts. It accounts for more than 79% and 70% of climate change impacts onshore and offshore respectively. The end-of-life treatment could lead to significant savings due to recycling, ca. 20–30% for climate change. In the manufacturing stage the impacts due to operations at the case company do not exceed 1% of the total life cycle impacts. This finding

  1. Comparison of SAR Wind Speed Retrieval Algorithms for Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozai, K.; Ohsawa, T.; Takeyama, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Envisat/ASAR-derived offshore wind speeds and energy densities based on 4 different SAR wind speed retrieval algorithms (CMOD4, CMOD-IFR2, CMOD5, CMOD5.N) are compared with observed wind speeds and energy densities for evaluating offshore wind energy resources. CMOD4 ignores effects of atmospheri...

  2. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  3. Nontraditional renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

  4. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  5. Remotely sensed data fusion for offshore wind energy resource mapping; Fusion de donnees satellitaires pour la cartographie du potentiel eolien offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ticha, M.B

    2007-11-15

    Wind energy is a component of an energy policy contributing to a sustainable development. Last years, offshore wind parks have been installed offshore. These parks benefit from higher wind speeds and lower turbulence than onshore. To sit a wind park, it is necessary to have a mapping of wind resource. These maps are needed at high spatial resolution to show wind energy resource variations at the scale of a wind park. Wind resource mapping is achieved through the description of the spatial variations of statistical parameters characterizing wind climatology. For a precise estimation of these statistical parameters, high temporal resolution wind speed and direction measurements are needed. However, presently, there is no data source allying high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. We propose a data fusion method taking advantage of the high spatial resolution of some remote sensing instruments (synthetic aperture radars) and the high temporal resolution of other remote sensing instruments (scatterometers). The data fusion method is applied to a case study and the results quality is assessed. The results show the pertinence of data fusion for the mapping of wind energy resource offshore. (author)

  6. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  7. Droop Control Design of Multi-VSC Systems for Offshore Networks to Integrate Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research envisages the droop control design of multi voltage source converter systems for offshore networks to integrate wind power plant with the grids. An offshore AC network is formulated by connecting several nearby wind power plants together with AC cables. The net energy in the network is transferred to onshore using voltage source high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmissionsystems. In the proposed configuration, an offshore network is energized by more than one VSC-HVDC system, hereby providing redundancy to continue operation in case of failure in one of the HVDC transmission lines. The power distribution between VSC-HVDC systems is done using a droop control scheme. Frequency droop is implemented to share active power, and voltage droop is implemented to share reactive power. Furthermore, a method of calculating droop gains according to the contribution factor of each converter is presented. The system has been analyzed to evaluate the voltage profile of the network affected by the droop control. Nonlinear dynamic simulation has been performed for the verification of the control principle.

  8. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian; Løhndorf, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficient control of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump system which consists of three identical centrifugal pumps in parallel, and the lifted seawater is used to cool down the crude oil flowing out of a threephase...... separator on one of the Danish north-sea platform. A hierarchical pump-speed control strategy is developed for the considered system by minimizing the pump power consumption subject to keeping a satisfactory system performance. The proposed control strategy consists of online estimation of some system...... operating parameters, optimization of pump configurations, and a real-time feedback control. Comparing with the current control strategy at the considered system, where the pump system is on/off controlled, and the seawater flows are controlled by a number of control valves, the proposed control strategy...

  9. Renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, K.

    1996-01-01

    The author takes a look at causes of the present interest in the renewable, natural sources of energy. These are: the fuel deposits becoming exhausted, hazard to environment (especially carbon dioxide) and accessibility of these sources for under-developed countries. An interrelation is shown between these sources and the energy circulations connected with atmosphere and ocean systems. The chief ones from among them that are being used now are discussed, i.e. solar radiation, wind, water waves energy, tides, geothermal heat, and the like. Problems of conversion of the forms of these kinds of energy are also given a mention. (author)

  10. Offshore wind energy in Mediterranean and other european seas: Technology and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the last six years (1990-1996) the world wide capacity of grid connected offshore wind plants, at the prototypical stage, has reached 12 MW at energy costs some what higher than fifty per cent of similar on shore plants. Additional offshore installations are close to the construction and proposed for some hundreds MW in north european seas. The technology of the offshore wind turbines is evolving parallely to that of the onshore ones

  11. Offshore wind energy in Mediterranean and other european seas: Technology and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudiosi, G

    1998-12-31

    In the last six years (1990-1996) the world wide capacity of grid connected offshore wind plants, at the prototypical stage, has reached 12 MW at energy costs some what higher than fifty per cent of similar on shore plants. Additional offshore installations are close to the construction and proposed for some hundreds MW in north european seas. The technology of the offshore wind turbines is evolving parallely to that of the onshore ones.

  12. Market analysis offshore wind energy; Marktanalyse Windenergie auf See

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The North Sea has compared to the Baltic Sea due the available space offering a significantly larger Potential. Compared to the North Sea are the exploitable Potential of the Baltic Sea coast, however, significantly more closer to the coast, which not only for the network connection but also for the construction and operation of plants efficiency benefits may have. It is still unclear whether the available areas of the territorial sea Baltic Sea in relevant scale can be extended. The corresponding Spatial planning process was in 2014 by Mecklenburg- Vorpommern initiated. The analysis of the Federal Offshore Plan fixed Clusters of the offshore grid development plan in structured areas for the North and Baltic Seas (1-5), shows that at least in the expansion phase by 2025, possibly also 2030 the coastally zones 1 and 2 in North and Baltic provide a sufficient surface potential and at the same time with respect to an efficient and structured Network expansion should be developed. The expansion path up to 2020 allows the industry to realize the proposed decreasing trend of cost of over 30 percent. The recognizable today Cost reductions have so far have to take into account in the context of the development the tender design. This also applies to the question of optimal Park and plant designs for the energy industry View. In addition to each project internal difficulties at the network as at wind farm site there are significant interface problems between the wind farm and grid connection. This is, inter alia, due to the different implementation periods after commissioning. An acceleration or flexibilization of the grid connections (in particular DC) would substantially benefit to bring and could lead to a significant improvement of the competitive situation. The competition from sides of the wind turbine manufacturer is currently formed little heterogeneous. On the part of investors, there is in the meantime a relatively high number of potential future Investors which

  13. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  14. 30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section 285.116 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... the state of the offshore renewable energy industry, including the identification of potential...

  15. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J; Watson, G M [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  16. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  17. Combining offshore wind energy and large-scale mussel farming: background & technical, ecological and economic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Rockmann, C.; Scholl, M.M.; Bartelings, H.; Burg, van den S.W.K.; Jak, R.G.; Jansen, H.M.; Klijnstra, J.; Leopold, M.F.; Poelman, M.; Smith, S.R.; Stavenuiter, J.; Veenstra, F.A.; Veltman, C.; Westra, C.

    2014-01-01

    This Blauwdruk project report presents background and technical, ecological and economic considerations of the potential combination of offshore wind energy production and large-scale mussel farming in offshore areas in the North Sea. The main objective of the Blauwdruk project was to study the

  18. A CAD model for energy efficient offshore structures for desalination and energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rahul Dev,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a ‘Computer Aided Design (CAD’ model for energy efficient design of offshore structures. In the CAD model preliminary dimensions and geometric details of an offshore structure (i.e. semi-submersible are optimized to achieve a favorable range of motion to reduce the energy consumed by the ‘Dynamic Position System (DPS’. The presented model allows the designer to select the configuration satisfying the user requirements and integration of Computer Aided Design (CAD and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The integration of CAD with CFD computes a hydrodynamically and energy efficient hull form. Our results show that the implementation of the present model results into an design that can serve the user specified requirements with less cost and energy consumption.

  19. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  20. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Offshore Energy Mapping for Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean: MARINA PLATFORM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G.; Galanis, G.; Spyrou, C.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Athanasiadis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Deep offshore ocean energy mapping requires detailed modeling of the wind, wave, tidal and ocean circulation estimations. It requires also detailed mapping of the associated extremes. An important issue in such work is the co-generation of energy (generation of wind, wave, tides, currents) in order to design platforms on an efficient way. For example wind and wave fields exhibit significant phase differences and therefore the produced energy from both sources together requires special analysis. The other two sources namely tides and currents have different temporal scales from the previous two. Another important issue is related to the estimation of the environmental frequencies in order to avoid structural problems. These are issues studied at the framework of the FP7 project MARINA PLATFORM. The main objective of the project is to develop deep water structures that can exploit the energy from wind, wave, tidal and ocean current energy sources. In particular, a primary goal will be the establishment of a set of equitable and transparent criteria for the evaluation of multi-purpose platforms for marine renewable energy. Using these criteria, a novel system set of design and optimisation tools will be produced addressing new platform design, component engineering, risk assessment, spatial planning, platform-related grid connection concepts, all focussed on system integration and reducing costs. The University of Athens group is in charge for estimation and mapping of wind, wave, tidal and ocean current resources, estimate available energy potential, map extreme event characteristics and provide any additional environmental parameter required.

  2. Potential of Tidal Plants and Offshore Energy Storage in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2008-01-01

    After a discussion of the future needs of electric power in India, the author discusses the perspectives offered by different possible sources of electric energy in this country: coal, hydro, nuclear, wind, solar. These two last ones seem very promising. In order to solve the intermittency problem raised by wind and solar energy, the author discusses and assesses the needs, potentials and costs of energy storage. Then, he evokes the opportunities and possible sites for the development of tidal energy, proposes a schedule of investments for energy

  3. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  4. Economical and social fallouts of offshore wind energy in regions. The German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the regional development of offshore wind energy in Germany: national energy plan, goals and actual development of offshore wind energy, regional investment, Government's commitment and budget allocated, the German wind power industry and its present and future impact on employment, projects in the North and Baltic seas, wind farms and capacity, electricity feed-in tariffs

  5. Towards a mature offshore wind energy technology - guidelines from the opti-OWECS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Bierbooms, W. A. A. M.; van Bussel, G. J. W.; Cockerill, T. T.; Harrison, R.; Ferguson, M. C.; Göransson, B.; Harland, L. A.; Vugts, J. H.; Wiecherink, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article reviews the main results of the recent European research project Opti-OWECS (Structural and Economic Optimisation of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters'), which has significantly improved the understanding of the requirements for a large-scale utilization of offshore wind energy. An integrated design approach was demonstrated for a 300 MW offshore wind farm at a demanding North Sea site. Several viable solutions were obtained and one was elaborated to include the design of all major components. Simultaneous structural and economic optimization took place during the different design stages. An offshore wind energy converter founded on a soft-soft monopile was tailored with respect to the distinct characteristics of dynamic wind and wave loading. The operation and maintenance behaviour of the wind farm was analysed by Monte Carlo simulations. With an optimized maintenance strategy and suitable hardware a high availability was achieved. Based upon the experience from the structural design, cost models for offshore wind farms were developed and linked to a European database of the offshore wind energy potential. This enabled the first consistent estimate of cost of offshore wind energy for entire European regions.

  6. Methodology to Calculate the Costs of a Floating Offshore Renewable Energy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro-Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a general methodology to calculate the life-cycle cost of floating offshore renewable energy devices, applying it to wave energy and wind energy devices. It is accounts for the contributions of the six main phases of their life-cycle: concept definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling, the costs of which have been defined. Moreover, the energy produced is also taken into account to calculate the Levelized Cost of Energy of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. The methodology proposed has been applied to two renewable energy devices: a floating offshore wave energy device and a floating offshore wind energy device. Two locations have been considered: Aguçadoura and São Pedro de Moel, both in Portugal. Results indicate that the most important cost in terms of the life-cycle of a floating offshore renewable energy farm is the exploitation cost, followed by the manufacturing and the installation cost. In addition, the best area in terms of costs is the same independently of the type of floating offshore renewable energy considered: Aguçadoura. However, the results in terms of Levelized Cost of Energy are different: Aguçadoura is better when considering wave energy technology and the São Pedro de Moel region is the best option when considering floating wind energy technology. The method proposed aims to give a direct approach to calculate the main life-cycle cost of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. It helps to assess its feasibility and evaluating the relevant characteristics that influence it the most.

  7. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  8. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, Y K; Zahari, M A; Wong, S F; Dol, S S

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand. (paper)

  9. Planners to the rescue: spatial planning facilitating the development of offshore wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-04-01

    The development of offshore wind energy has started to take place surprisingly quickly, especially in North European waters. This has taken the wind energy industry out of the territory of planning systems that usually govern the siting of wind farms on land, and into the world of departmental, sectoral regulation of marine activities. Although this has favoured the expansion of offshore wind energy in some respects, evidence suggests that the practice and principles of spatial planning can make an important contribution to the proper consideration of proposals for offshore wind arrays. This is especially so when a strategic planning process is put in place for marine areas, in which offshore wind is treated as part of the overall configuration of marine interests, so that adjustments can be made in the interests of wind energy. The current process of marine planning in the Netherlands is described as an illustration of this. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed...... to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined...... within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics...

  11. Electrical network limitations on large-scale deployment of offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, P.B.

    2001-07-01

    In this report we have summarised the electrical network limitations to the connection of offshore wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom. The offshore wind resource in the United Kingdom could enable energy production in excess of 230 TWh to be realised. The wind resource of the UK coast should enable 4 GW of wind generation (13.4 GWh assuming 30% load factor) to be developed, providing appropriate technical and commercial arrangements can be made. (author)

  12. A green energy for a blue growth: offshore wind energy. Proposals by France Energie Eolienne for the development of a competitive and job-creating offshore wind energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This report outlines the significant and efficient contribution of wind energy to the energy mix, highlights the high potential of offshore wind energy for France, and stresses the need of an ambitious programme as a sine qua non condition for the development of this sector. It also makes ten proposals for this development. It describes how to specify ambitious objectives for offshore wind turbines (grounded or floating) in compliance with the French potential and the European market. It analyses means to reach an ambitious objective of 15 GW of grounded offshore wind energy and 6 GW of floating offshore wind energy by 2030. It discusses how benefits can be drawn from such a development for the community and future generations

  13. Modelling, analysis and optimisation of energy systems on offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    of oil and gas facilities, (ii) the means to reduce their performance losses, and (iii) the systematic design of future plants. This work builds upon a combination of modelling tools, performance evaluation methods and multi-objective optimisation routines to reproduce the behaviour of five offshore......Nowadays, the offshore production of oil and gas requires on-site processing, which includes operations such as separation, compression and purification. The offshore system undergoes variations of the petroleum production rates over the field life – it is therefore operated far from its nominal...... with the combustion, pressure-change and cooling operations, but these processes are ranked differently depending on the plant layout and on the field production stage. The most promising improvements consist of introducing a multi-level production manifold, avoiding anti-surge gas recirculation, installing a waste...

  14. Coastal and offshore wind energy generation: is it environmentally benign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. C.; Elliott, M.; Cutts, N. D.; Mander, L.; Mendao, V.; Perez-Dominguez, R.; Phelps, A. [Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Wilson, J. C. [Amec, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire, WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Mendao, V. [Projecto Delfim, Centro Portugues de Estudo dos Mamiferos Marinhos, Rua Alto do Duque, 45, 1400-009 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential environmental effects which may be caused by the installation of the offshore wind turbines and their associated infrastructure, including substations and subsea cables. These include the potential impacts on the biological, physical and human environments. This review discusses in detail the potential impacts arising from offshore wind farm construction, and how these may be quantified and addressed through the use of conceptual models. It concludes that while not environmentally benign, the environmental impacts are minor and can be mitigated through good siting practices. In addition, it suggests that there are opportunities for environmental benefits through habitat creation and conservation protection areas. (authors)

  15. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics as a next frontier for offshore wind constituencies. This important area of the supply chain is ripe to academically and professionally cultivate and harvest in terms of offshore wind energy cost reductions. Our paper suggests that a focused organizational approach for logistics both horizontally and vertically within the company organizations could be the way forward, coupled with a long-term legislative environment to enable the necessary investments in logistics assets and transport equipment.

  16. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  17. Assessment approaches to logistics for offshore wind energy installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Iris F.A.; Ursavas, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind farm installation planning is highly complex, due to the high dependency on weather and the oversized components that impose specific constraints in areas such as transportation and lifting. Currently, there is very little transparency vis-à-vis the logistics challenges in the

  18. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report summarizes a study of possible offshore wind energy locations, technologies, and levelized cost of energy in the state of California between 2015 and 2030. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the federal agency responsible for regulating renewable energy development on the Outer Continental Shelf. It is based on reference wind energy areas where representative technology and performance characteristics were evaluated. These reference areas were identified as sites that were suitable to represent offshore wind cost and technology based on physical site conditions, wind resource quality, known existing site use, and proximity to necessary infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to assist energy policy decision-making by state utilities, independent system operators, state government officials and policymakers, BOEM, and its key stakeholders. The report is not intended to serve as a prescreening exercise for possible future offshore wind development.

  19. Current trends in offshore technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Although this is a technical symposium concerning advances in the technology of producing oil and gas offshore, a keynote address would not be complete without mentioning non-technical factors which are extremely important for the business of producing oil and gas offshore. These are political factors and economic factors. Offshore operations are an easy target for political forces that are opposed to marine operations involving the production and transfer of hydrocarbons. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a reaction to the Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska and this act has added significantly to the risk and cost of operating offshore. Another example of this is that it is becoming more and more difficult to dispose of produced water offshore. Producing oil and gas offshore is a business that competes with other energy sources such as coal and oil and gas from wells on land. The offshore oil can only compete with these other resources by providing the same product at a competitive price. Since offshore operations are inherently more costly than land operations, the offshore oil field or gas field must be significantly larger than a land field in order to be produced. Also the offshore oil field or gas field is more susceptible to environmental risks from weather. On a more positive note, there are technical developments which are taking place and have continuously taken place to make offshore oil and gas both more economic and safer to produce. These developments are briefly discussed

  20. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... deployment of offshore renewable energy plants, particularly wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies.... Technology Design and Validation Design and validate energy devices for the marine environment that would predictably withstand physical loads on energy devices in the marine environment while operating at optimum...

  1. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  2. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  3. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  4. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... of services including includes legal advice, financing, insurance etc. The two value chains have a number of activities in common. Both include (1) a tender and concession phase where the energy company obtains the right to explore and produce energy from the authorities. (2) An exploration phase where...

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Permitting: A Survey of U.S. Project Developers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a goal to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity from wind power by 2030. Achieving this “20% Wind Scenario” in 2030 requires acceleration of the current rate of wind project development. Offshore wind resources contribute substantially to the nation’s wind resource, yet to date no offshore wind turbines have been installed in the U.S. Progress developing offshore wind projects has been slowed by technological challenges, uncertainties about impacts to the marine environment, siting and permitting challenges, and viewshed concerns. To address challenges associated with siting and permitting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed offshore wind project developers about siting and project development processes, their experience with the environmental permitting process, and the role of coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) in development of the offshore wind industry. Based on the responses to survey questions, we identify several priority recommendations to support offshore wind development. Recommendations also include considerations for developing supporting industries in the U.S. and how to use Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) to appropriately consider ocean energy among existing ocean uses. In this report, we summarize findings, discuss the implications, and suggest actions to improve the permitting and siting process.

  6. Multi-Objective Scheduling Optimization Based on a Modified Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II in Voltage Source Converter−Multi-Terminal High Voltage DC Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Farms with Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of power systems has become a challenging task for system operators in an open access environment. This paper presents an optimization approach for solving the multi-objective scheduling problem using a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in a hybrid network of meshed alternating current (AC/wind farm grids. This approach considers voltage and power control modes based on multi-terminal voltage source converter high-voltage direct current (MTDC and battery energy storage systems (BESS. To enhance the hybrid network station performance, we implement an optimal process based on the battery energy storage system operational strategy for multi-objective scheduling over a 24 h demand profile. Furthermore, the proposed approach is formulated as a master problem and a set of sub-problems associated with the hybrid network station to improve the overall computational efficiency using Benders’ decomposition. Based on the results of the simulations conducted on modified institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-118 bus test systems, we demonstrate and confirm the applicability, effectiveness and validity of the proposed approach.

  7. Offshore wind energy storage concept for cost-of-rated-power savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chao; Saunders, Gordon; Loth, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Investigated CAES + HPT system concept for offshore wind energy; •Validated cost model for offshore wind farm including CAPEX and OPEX items; •Quantified cost-of-rated-power savings associated with CAES + HPT concept; •Estimated savings of 21.6% with CAES + HPT for a sample $2.92 billion project. -- Abstract: The size and number of off-shore wind turbines over the next decade is expected to rapidly increase due to the high wind energy potential and the ability of such farms to provide utility-scale energy. In this future, inexpensive and efficient on-site wind energy storage can be critical to address short-time (hourly) mismatches between wind supply and energy demand. This study investigates a compressed air energy storage (CAES) and hydraulic power transmission (HPT) system concept. To assess cost impact, the NREL Cost and Scaling Model was modified to improve accuracy and robustness for offshore wind farms with large turbines. Special attention was paid to the support structure, installation, electrical interface and connections, land leasing, and operations and maintenance cost items as well as specific increased/reduced costs reductions associated with CAES + HPT systems. This cost model was validated and applied to a sample $2.92 billion project Virginia Offshore case It was found that adaption of CAES + HPT can lead to a substantial savings of 21.6% of this 20-year lifetime cost by dramatically reducing capital and operating cost of the generator and power transmission components. However, there are several additional variables that can impact the off-shore energy policy and planning for this new CAES + HPT concept. Furthermore, these cost-savings are only first-order estimates based on linear mass-cost relationships, and thus detailed engineering and economic analysis are recommended.

  8. 77 FR 30551 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... transmission grid on the Rhode Island mainland to Block Island. Deepwater Wind proposes to connect an onshore... Island LLC (Deepwater Wind) Transmission System (BITS) proposal submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy... electrical power from Deepwater Wind's proposed 30 megawatt (MW) offshore wind energy project located in...

  9. NWTC Helps Guide U.S. Offshore R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping guide our nation's research-and-development effort in offshore renewable energy, which includes: Design, modeling, and analysis tools; Device and component testing; Resource characterization; Economic modeling and analysis; Grid integration.

  10. Joint Evaluation of the Wave and Offshore Wind Energy Resources in the Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to assess the global wind and wave resources in the vicinity of some developing countries by evaluating 16-year of data (2001–2016, coming from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. Until now, not much work has been done to evaluate and use the renewable energy sources from these marine environments. This is because most of the attention was focused on more promising areas, such as the European coasts, which are more advanced in terms of technical and economical aspects. A general perspective of the current energy market from the selected target areas is first presented, indicating at the same time the progresses that have been reported in the field of the renewable energy. Besides the spatial and seasonal variations of the marine resources considered, the results also indicate the energy potential of these coastal environments as well as the performances of some offshore wind turbines, which may operate in these regions.

  11. A decision support system for assessing offshore wind energy potential in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillings, Christoph; Wanderer, Thomas; Cameron, Lachlan; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Jacquemin, Jerome; Veum, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy (OWE) in the North Sea has the potential to meet large share of Europe’s future electricity demand. To deploy offshore wind parks in a rational way, the overall OWE potential has to be realistically determined. This has to be done on an international, cross-border level and by taking into account the existing man-made and nature-related uses of the North Sea. As spatial conflicts will arise between existing uses and the new OWE uses, a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed. Based on data of existing sea uses and calculation rules for spatial prioritisation analysis, the DSS helps in identifying areas that are (1) generally suitable for offshore wind power, (2) strictly excluded or (3) negotiable with respect to other existing sea uses. The combination of this conflict analysis together with cost assumptions for offshore wind farms and their expected electricity yield leads to identification of favourable areas for OWE deployment in the North Sea. This approach helps to reduce the conflict between offshore wind deployment and existing sea uses in the North Sea for future planning. The results can assist decision makers in developing transnational roadmaps for OWE. - Highlights: ► Decision Support System (DSS) to identify offshore wind energy (OWE) potential in the North Sea. ► Spatial analysis of existing sea use functions and offshore wind energy potential. ► Input parameters of DSS depend on the level of OWE spatial priority assumed by the user. ► DSS performs the required calculations and provides results in form of maps and statistics. ► DSS available after registration at (www.windspeed.eu).

  12. Offshore renewable energies, offshore wind power marine currents and waves; Energies renouvelables en mer eolien en mer courants marins et vagues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillard, M [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Peirano, E [Agence de Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie (ADEME), 06 - Valbonne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This colloquium aims to take stock on the development of ocean energies, mainly exploitation of offshore wind energy, but also exploitation of marine currents and waves for energy conversion by discussing their perspectives, their constraints, and their environmental and socio-economic impacts. It proposes also a review the recent methodological and technological advances. The different subjects introduced are: state of the art and prospects; resource assessments, forecasting and short-term prediction, site conditions; technical assessments, installation,decommissioning, certification; environmental impacts, social aspects and acceptability; policies, market perspectives and constraints; project developments and feedback. (A.L.B.)

  13. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  14. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  15. 76 FR 79206 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Mid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...-circuit, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line that would collect power generated by wind...-voltage alternating current into HVDC using voltage sourced converters. Each offshore converter platform... transmission grid at up to seven locations where AWC terrestrial converter stations would convert the HVDC...

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Z. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elliott, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development of three delineated leasing area options for the Massachusetts (MA) WEA and the technical evaluation of these leasing areas. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the MA WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL worked with BOEM to identify an appropriate number of leasing areas and proposed three delineation alternatives within the MA WEA based on the boundaries announced in May 2012. A primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  17. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  18. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  19. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  20. Government response to the consultation on proposals relating to the decommissioning of offshore energy installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-09

    This document presents the UK government's response to consultation concerning decommissioning offshore oil and gas installations and pipelines and offshore renewable energy installations and associated power lines. The key issues discussed cover provision of funds for decommissioning, safeguarding the funds in event of insolvency, and widening the categories of people on whom decommissioning obligations can be placed in addition to earlier issue of notices and provision of decommissioning security, and extending the power of the Secretary of State to require information.

  1. A decision support system for assessing offshore wind energy potential in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, T.; Schillings, C. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Stuttgart (Germany); Cameron, L.; Veum, K. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tjalling van der Wal, J. [IMARES, Wageningen UR, Den Helder (Netherlands); Jacquemin, J. [GL Garrad Hassan, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Offshore wind energy (OWE) in the North Sea has the potential to meet large share of Europe's future electricity demand. To deploy offshore wind parks in a rational way, the overall OWE potential has to be realistically determined. This has to be done on an international, cross-border level and by taking into account the existing man-made and nature-related uses of the North Sea. As spatial conflicts will arise between existing uses and the new OWE uses, a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed. Based on data of existing sea uses and calculation rules for spatial prioritisation analysis, the DSS helps in identifying areas that are (1) generally suitable for offshore wind power, (2) strictly excluded or (3) negotiable with respect to other existing sea uses. The combination of this conflict analysis together with cost assumptions for offshore wind farms and their expected electricity yield leads to identification of favourable areas for OWE deployment in the North Sea. This approach helps to reduce the conflict between offshore wind deployment and existing sea uses in the North Sea for future planning. The results can assist decision makers in developing transnational roadmaps for OWE.

  2. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  3. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  4. A Technical and Economic Optimization Approach to Exploring Offshore Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tagestad, Jerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, Casey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oster, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warwick, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) as part of ongoing efforts to minimize key risks and reduce the cost and time associated with permitting and deploying ocean renewable energy. The focus of the study was to discuss a possible approach to exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that attempts to optimize future development based on technical, economic, and policy criteria. The goal of the study was not to identify potentially suitable or feasible locations for development, but to discuss how such an approach may be developed for a given offshore area. Hawaii was selected for this case study due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) discussing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) formulate a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning.

  5. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Artificial Reef Effect in relation to Offshore Renewable Energy Conversion: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Langhamer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid worldwide growth of offshore renewable energy production will provide marine organisms with new hard substrate for colonization, thus acting as artificial reefs. The artificial reef effect is important when constructing, for example, scour protections since it can generate an enhanced habitat. Specifically, artificial structures can create increased heterogeneity in the area important for species diversity and density. Offshore energy installations also have the positive side effect as they are a sanctuary area for trawled organisms. Higher survival of fish and bigger fish is an expected outcome that can contribute to a spillover to outer areas. One negative side effect is that invasive species can find new habitats in artificial reefs and thus influence the native habitats and their associated environment negatively. Different scour protections in offshore wind farms can create new habitats compensating for habitat loss by offshore energy installations. These created habitats differ from the lost habitat in species composition substantially. A positive reef effect is dependent on the nature and the location of the reef and the characteristics of the native populations. An increase in surface area of scour protections by using specially designed material can also support the reef effect and its productivity.

  7. World Energy Needs and Offshore Potential of hydro energy and pump storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2008-09-01

    sites in rather desert areas operating between an onshore high reservoir and the sea as low reservoir. - Possibly 50 to 70 TWh from offshore sites operating between a high offshore basin and the sea ('Emerald Lakes'). The relevant total pumping capacity will be in the range of 5.000 GW (40.000 TWh / 8.640 hours). 70% of World future needs of electric power may be renewable at a very acceptable cost. Tidal power was more expensive than oil or gas power in 2000. It will be cost effective in the future in many places. The theoretical Worldwide tidal potential is very high, in the range of 20.000 TWh/year but it is only possible to use a reduced part of it. The future overall Hydropower Investments (2010-2080) will be one per thousand of the future world income. It will be less than 10% of the world investments for energy. In conclusion, renewable (hydro, wind, solar) may supply 60 to 80 % of the world Electricity needs with an acceptable cost and impact. 40 % will be supplied or stored by Hydropower. The hydropower investments may raise from 30 Billion $/year in 2010 up to 200 Billion $/year after 2040. Over half of future hydropower investments will be offshore. These investments will be used a century or more

  8. Artificial islands for cluster-siting of offshore energy facilities: an assessment of the legal and regulatory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.D.; Baram, M.

    1976-06-01

    One of the ways in which offshore coastal regions can be used in energy development is examined, namely through the construction of offshore islands for the siting of energy-related facilities. The purpose of the study is to review and assess the significant sectors of this accumulation of legal and regulatory authority, in order that those proposing and supervising such offshore development can formulate suggestions for coordination and rational allocation of responsibility. The potential demands on offshore resources are considerably greater than many would expect. In addition to offshore drilling and other mineral exploitation, there is increasing interest in safety of navigation, harvest and aquaculture of living marine resources, recreation, and preservation of uniquely valuable marine landscapes and ecosystems. Within this dynamic context, the offshore implications of the energy needs of the United States must be fully evaluated. New energy installations might be appropriately sited offshore on artificial islands. This legal and regulatory assessment contains little case law, new Congressional enactments, or proposed regulations and is, in general, a first-order analysis of the legal context for a new concept--the multiple-facility artificial island--which has not yet been tested, but which merits serious study as an alternative for uses of the offshore regions to meet energy requirements. An extensive bibliography containing 254 citations is included.

  9. Economic feasibility of artificial islands for cluster-siting of offshore energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baram, M.S.; Spencer, J.; Munson, J.S.

    1977-04-01

    The study presents a general first-order cost feasibility analysis of the artificial island concept and its usefulness for the offshore siting of multiple energy facilities. The results of the study include a recommended method of cost-feasibility assessment; the collection and organization of the most useful information presently available; and a series of conclusions on feasibility for generic comparison purposes. These conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) artificial islands to the outer bound of the continental shelf are technologically feasible; (2) offshore nuclear power plants appear to be competitive with onshore plants from a cost standpoint; (3) offshore deepwater ports appear to be more economical than proposed onshore deepwater ports, existing facilities or facilities presently under construction; (4) offshore oil refineries, except under special circumstantces, will probably be more costly than onshore counterparts; (5) the cluster-siting of facilities on an artificial island has definite cost-effectiveness potential; (6) a joint public-private financial venture with a strong federal agency lead role appears essential for the multi-facility island concept to be realized; and (7) artificial island siting of energy complexes appears to be a concept worth pursuing in terms of further site and facility-specific research, and possibly in terms of a demonstration project

  10. Offshore wind energy. Innovators talking; Wind op zee. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on offshore wind energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar wind op zee.

  11. Offshore wind energy. Innovators talking; Wind op zee. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on offshore wind energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar wind op zee.

  12. Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Plants on the Soil Mechanical Behaviour of Sandy Seafloors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Nina; Lambers-Huesmann, Maria; Zeiler, Manfred; Zoellner, Christian; Kopf, Achim

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, wind energy has become an important renewable energy source. Especially, the installation of offshore windfarms offers additional space and higher average wind speeds than the well-established windfarms onshore. Certainly, the construction of offshore wind turbines has an impact on the environment. In the framework of the Research at Alpha VEntus (RAVE) project in the German offshore wind energy farm Alpha Ventus (north of the island Borkum in water depths of about 30 m) a research plan to investigate the environmental impact had been put into place. An ongoing study focuses on the changes in soil mechanics of the seafloor close to the foundations and the development of scour. Here, we present results of the first geotechnical investigations after construction of the plants (ca. 1 - 6 months) compared to geotechnical measurements prior to construction. To study the soil mechanical behaviour of the sand, sediment samples from about thirty different positions were measured in the laboratory to deliver, e.g., grain size (0.063 - 0.3 mm), friction angles (~ 32°), unit weight (~ 19.9 kN/m³) and void ratios (~ 0.81). For acoustic visualisation, side-scan-sonar (towed and stationary) and multibeam-echosounders (hull mounted) were used. Data show a flat, homogenous seafloor prior to windmill erection, and scouring effects at and in the vicinity of the foundations afterwards. Geotechnical in-situ measurements were carried out using a standard dynamic Cone Penetration Testing lance covering the whole windfarm area excluding areas in a radius free-fall penetrometer Nimrod was deployed at the same spots, and furthermore, in the areas close to the tripod foundations (down to a distance of ~ 5 m from the central pile). Before construction, CPT as well as Nimrod deployments confirm a flat, homogenous sandy area with tip resistance values ranging from 1200 - 1600 kPa (CPT with a mass of ~ 100 kg and an impact velocity of ~ 1 m/s) and quasi-static bearing

  13. The U.S. Department of Energy's Reference Facility for Offshore Renewable Energy (RFORE): A New Platform for Research and Development (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy represents a significant but essentially untapped electricity resource for the U.S. Offshore wind energy is attractive for a number of reasons, including the feasibility of using much larger and more efficient wind turbines than is possible on land. In many offshore regions near large population centers, the diurnal maximum in wind energy production is also closely matched to the diurnal maximum in electricity demand, easing the balancing of generation and load. Currently, however, the cost of offshore wind energy is not competitive with other energy sources, including terrestrial wind. Two significant contributing reasons for this are the cost of offshore wind resource assessment and fundamental gaps in knowledge of the behavior of winds and turbulence in the layer of the atmosphere spanned by the sweep of the turbine rotor. Resource assessment, a necessary step in securing financing for a wind project, is conventionally carried out on land using meteorological towers erected for a year or more. Comparable towers offshore are an order of magnitude more expensive to install. New technologies that promise to reduce these costs, such as Doppler lidars mounted on buoys, are being developed, but these need to be validated in the environment in which they will be used. There is currently no facility in the U.S. that can carry out such validations offshore. Research needs include evaluation and improvement of hub-height wind forecasts from regional forecast models in the marine boundary layer, understanding of turbulence characteristics that affect turbine loads and wind plant efficiency, and development of accurate representations of sea surface roughness and atmospheric thermodynamic stability on hub height winds. In response to these needs for validation and research, the U.S. Department of Energy is developing the Reference Facility for Offshore Renewable Energy (RFORE). The RFORE will feature a meteorological tower with wind, temperature

  14. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  15. Communities and change : number 8 of a series of papers on energy and the offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    The issue of how communities change when faced with the sudden influx of new industries and major capital investments are discussed, focusing on the benefits and drawbacks of Nova Scotia's offshore oil and gas developments, especially those experienced in the the five counties of southwest Nova Scotia with close connections to Georges Bank. The prospect of offshore oil and gas is clearly controversial in the area. One of the concerns is that transient construction workers will create problems for local communities. Other concerns are that the beauty of the coastline will be spoiled, the way of life changed forever, communities will be split into haves and have-nots, and fears that the petroleum industry will drive hard bargains and cheat people. On the positive side, opportunities for job creation go a long way to dampen concerns. The need to consider lessons that can be learned from other communities with offshore oil and gas experience, including the experiences of the Scottish North Sea developments, Newfoundland's Hibernia development, the Gulf Coast of the United States, and Nova Scotia's Sable Offshore Energy Project are stressed as a way to cushion the impact of disruption. 9 refs

  16. Energy Dynamics of an Infinitely Large Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    , particularly in the near-term, can be expected in the higher resource, moderate water depths of the North Sea rather than the Mediterranean. There should therefore be significant interest in understanding the energy dynamics of the infinitely large wind farm – how wakes behave and whether the extraction...... of energy by wind turbines over a large area has a significant and lasting impact on the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we focus on developing understanding of the infinite wind farm through a combination of theoretical considerations, data analysis and modeling. Initial evaluation of power losses due...... is of about the same magnitude as for the infinitely large wind farm. We will examine whether this can be proved theoretically or is indicated by data currently available. We will also evaluate whether energy extraction at the likely scale of development in European Seas can be expected to modulate...

  17. Non conventional energy sources and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno M, F.

    1995-01-01

    Geographically speaking, Mexico is in an enviable position. Sun, water, biomass and geothermal fields main non conventional energy sources with commercial applications, are presents and in some cases plentiful in national territory. Moreover the coastal tidal power which is in research stage in several countries. Non conventional energy sources are an alternative which allow us to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons or any other type of primary energetic, are not by oneself choices for the energy conservation, but energy replacements. At the beginning of this year, CONAE created the Direction of Non conventional Energy Sources, which main objective is to promote and impulse programs inclined towards the application of systems based in renewable energy sources. The research centers represent a technological and consultative support for the CONAE. They have an infrastructure developed along several years of continuous work. The non conventional energy sources will be a reality at the same time that their cost be equal or lower than the cost for the traditional generating systems. CONAE (National Commission for Energy Conservation). (Author)

  18. European concerted action on offshore wind energy deployment: inventory and analysis of power transmission barriers in eight member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyte, Achim; Gardner, Paul; Snodin, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The European Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) was carried out by eight sea-bordering European Union member states, with the objective to remove not explicitly technical barriers to offshore wind energy. Within the COD, an inventory of relevant aspects affecting the grid integration of offshore wind energy on a large scale in the eight countries has been made. Collected data items for this inventory are national plans and prospects for offshore wind energy, information about the transmission system, possibilities for grid connection, aspects of the grid codes, balancing, connection and energy pricing. The comprehensive COD reports were published and presented in October 2005 during the Copenhagen Offshore wind conference. This paper provides a short description of the situation for each country. Thereafter, country-specific information is grouped based on geography and membership in a synchronous zone. Additionally, a view is developed on the desirable facilities for the trans-European exchange of power from large wind farms. Finally, we elaborate overall conclusions in order to arrive at generalized observations, recommendations for policy makers and issues that will emerge in the near future. As a general conclusion, many things need to be done on a technical level in order to integrate large amounts of offshore wind power into our power systems. However, none of these measures is technically unknown. Therefore, the feasibility of integrating large amounts of offshore wind power is mainly a question of finance and hence based on political decisions. (Author)

  19. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  20. Mean energy polarized neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.A.; Zaika, N.I.; Kolotyj, V.V.; Prokopenko, V.S.; Semenov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Physical bases and realization scheme of a pulsed source of polarized neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV are described. The source comprises polarized deuteron source, transport line, low-energy ion and axial injector to the accelerator, U-240 isochronous cyclotron, targets for polarized neutron production, accelerated deuteron transport line and flight bases. The pulsed source of fast neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV can provide for highly polarized neutron beams with the intensity by 2-3 orders higher than in the most perfect source of this range which allows one to perform various experiments with high efficiency and energy resolution. 9 refs.; 1 fig

  1. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  2. Industry evolution, submarket dynamics and strategic behavior among firms in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Drejer, Ina; Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of competition and industry evolution by analysing how submarket dynamics and agency influence the development of the emerging industrial field of Danish offshore wind energy. We argue that industry evolution is sensitive to the balance between integrat...... integration, overlap and disintegration across submarkets. This balance depends on how strategic intent and behaviour influence submarket dynamics, leading to the conclusion that effects of agency and managerial intent should play a more prominent role in studies of industry evolution....

  3. Wave Energy Converters : An experimental approach to onshore testing, deployments and offshore monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvgård, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    The wave energy converter (WEC) concept developed at Uppsala University consists of a point absorbing buoy, directly connected to a permanent magnet linear generator. Since 2006, over a dozen full scale WECs have been deployed at the Lysekil Research Site, on the west coast of Sweden. Beyond the development of the WEC concept itself, the full scale approach enables, and requires, experimental and multidisciplinary research within several peripheral areas, such as instrumentation, offshore ope...

  4. Corrosion and corrosion protection of support structures for offshore wind energy devices (OWEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momber, A. [Muehlhan AG, Schlinckstrasse 3, D-21107 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The paper provides a review about the corrosion and corrosion protection of offshore wind energy devices (OWEA). Firstly, special features resulting from location and operation of OWEA are being discussed. Secondly, types of corrosion and corrosion phenomena are summarized in a systematic way. Finally, practical solutions to the corrosion protection of OWEA, including steel allowances, cathodic protection and coatings and linings, are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Assessment of Wind Datasets for Estimating Offshore Wind Energy along the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Walter, R. K.; Ruttenberg, B.; White, C.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy along the central California coastline has gained significant interest in recent years. We present a comprehensive analysis of near-surface wind datasets available in this region to facilitate future estimates of wind power generation potential. The analyses are based on local NDBC buoys, satellite-based measurements (QuickSCAT and CCMP V2.0), reanalysis products (NARR and MERRA), and a regional climate model (WRF). There are substantial differences in the diurnal signal during different months among the various products (i.e., satellite-based, reanalysis, and modeled) relative to the local buoys. Moreover, the datasets tended to underestimate wind speed under light wind conditions and overestimate under strong wind conditions. In addition to point-to-point comparisons against local buoys, the spatial variations of bias and error in both the reanalysis products and WRF model data in this region were compared against satellite-based measurements. NARR's bias and root-mean-square-error were generally small in the study domain and decreased with distance from coastlines. Although its smaller spatial resolution is likely to be insufficient to reveal local effects, the small bias and error in near-surface winds, as well as the availability of wind data at the proposed turbine hub heights, suggests that NARR is an ideal candidate for use in offshore wind energy production estimates along the central California coast. The framework utilized here could be applied in other site-specific regions where offshore renewable energy is being considered.

  6. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pile-mounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all human-use of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see https://doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  7. Exploring China’s offshore wind energy potential in a comprehensive perspectives of technical, environmental and economic constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    with projections of current wind turbine technology development to calculate the maximum amount of offshore wind energy that could be generated. Secondly, to calculate practical potential, the migratory path of an endangered bird and existing shipping lanes and submarine cables are excluded from the calculated......Adequate recognition of offshore wind energy potential may have far-reaching influence on the development of future energy strategies. This study aims to investigate available offshore wind energy resource in China’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs) with the aid of a Geographical Information System...... (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on raw offshore wind potential being reflected in a continuous space. Firstly, based on ocean wind speed data gained from satellite QuikSCAT, raw potential are identified. Those findings are then used along...

  8. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  9. Development, financing, construction and exploitation of onshore and offshore wind farms. Let us combine our energies for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, Philippe; Simon, Gregoire; Bales, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    After an indication of a brief history of the WPD company through some marking events, and an overview of its expertise and approach, this publication addresses its wind energy projects and gives brief descriptions of wind farms located in France, and then provides some data regarding onshore and offshore wind farm energy production by installations operated by this company in France and in other European countries. As far as offshore wind farm is concerned, planned projects are also briefly presented

  10. Steady-state analysis of a conceptual offshore wind turbine driven electricity and thermocline energy extraction plant

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Daniel; Sant, Tonio

    2014-01-01

    A system for using offshore wind energy to generate electricity and simultaneously extract thermal energy is proposed. This concept is based on an offshore wind turbine driven hydraulic pump supplying deep seawater under high pressure to a land based plant consisting of a hydroelectric power generation unit and heat exchanger. A steady-state system model is developed using empirical formulae. The mathematical model comprises the fundamental system sub-models that are categoris...

  11. Use of renewable energies at sea: Fascination Offshore. Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wind energy use experienced an enormous upswing in recent years. In the meantime a wind energy capacity of more than 26,000 MW has been installed worldwide and this positive development appears to continue at the same pace. According to a study of the renowned consulting company BTM Consult an additional capacity of 54,000 MW will be installed in the next five years. Apart from the development in the onshore area and the gained experience, the large-scale technical utilisation of wind power at sea in Europe becomes more and more the focus of attention. The planned wind power plants are supposed to have a capacity between three and five MW and the number of plants in the final extension phase is supposed to amount to 200 plants, which corresponds to an installed capacity of up to 1,000 MW per park. Plans are partly made for plants located between 30 and 40 kilometres from the coast and in water depths of up to 35 meters. Research results about the wind conditions and the location requirements at these distances from the coast are only available to a certain extent. In order to obtain reliable data several research projects have been initiated. In this study you will not only find contributions to the subjects mentioned above but also reports from experts, who explain their knowledge and experience gained from practice. (orig.) [German] Die Windenergienutzung hat in den letzten Jahren einen ernormen Aufschwung erlebt. Mittlerweile sind weltweit mehr als 26.000 MW an Windenergieleistung installiert und diese positive Entwicklung geht offensichtlich ungebremst weiter. Gemaess einer Studie des renommierten Beratungsunternehmens BTM Consult werden in den naechsten fuenf Jahren weitere 54.000 MW errichtet. Neben der Entwicklung im Onshore-Bereich und der dort gesammelten Erfahrung rueckt nun die grosstechnische Nutzung der Windkraft auf dem Meer in Europa immer mehr in den Blickpunkt. Die zum Einsatz kommenden WEA sollen eine Leistung von drei bis fuenf MW haben und die

  12. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a pleading in favor of hydroelectric power which in Romania originated more than 100 y ago. The hydroelectric potential of this country amounts to about 40 TWh / year. The hydroelectric yield is currently 15.5 TWh / year, 11.5 TWh / year of which being supplied by the Danube Power Plants. The hydroelectric power has a number of advantages: it is renewable, can be stocked and distributed according to the daily, weekly or seasonal energy demand, the energetic output is 82-89 %, if the project is carefully worked out the hydroelectric system has a small environmental impact, the service life can reach over 80 years, while the maintaining and operation costs are low. Some drawbacks are listed: the problems related to the population relocation, the environmental effects, especially the forest clearing, salt enrichment of affected soils. Arguments are presented from the economic point of view, backed up by ecological and technological advantages in favor of developing the micro hydroelectric power facilities

  13. Seabird aggregative patterns: a new tool for offshore wind energy risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Certain, Grégoire; Cama, Albert; Vieites, David R; Ferrer, Xavier

    2013-01-15

    The emerging development of offshore wind energy has raised public concern over its impact on seabird communities. There is a need for an adequate methodology to determine its potential impacts on seabirds. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are mostly relying on a succession of plain density maps without integrated interpretation of seabird spatio-temporal variability. Using Taylor's power law coupled with mixed effect models, the spatio-temporal variability of species' distributions can be synthesized in a measure of the aggregation levels of individuals over time and space. Applying the method to a seabird aerial survey in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea, we were able to make an explicit distinction between transitional and feeding areas to define and map the potential impacts of an offshore wind farm project. We use the Ebro Delta study case to discuss the advantages of potential impacts maps over density maps, as well as to illustrate how these potential impact maps can be applied to inform on concern levels, optimal EIA design and monitoring in the assessment of local offshore wind energy projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metocean Data Needs Assessment for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Bruce H. [AWS Truepower LLC., Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Truepower LLC., Albany, NY (United States); Baker, Matthew [AWS Truepower LLC., Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A potential barrier to developing offshore wind energy in the United States is the general lack of accurate information in most offshore areas about the wind resource characteristics and external metocean design conditions at the heights and depths relevant to wind turbines and their associated structures and components. Knowledge of these conditions enables specification of the appropriate design basis for wind turbine structures and components so they can withstand the loads expected over a project’s lifetime. Human safety, vessel navigation, and project construction and maintenance activities are equally tied to the metocean environment. Currently, metocean data is sparse in potential development areas and even when available, does not include the detail or quality required to make informed decisions.

  15. Auction-theoretic analyses of the first offshore wind energy auction in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J.; Ehrhart, K.-M.; Hanke, A.-K.

    2017-11-01

    The first offshore wind energy auction in Germany led to a striking result. The average award price was 0.44 ct/kWh and even more interesting, 3 out of 4 awarded projects had a strike price of 0.0 ct/kWh. That implies that those projects will only receive the actual wholesale market price for electricity as revenue. Although there has been a strong decline in costs of offshore wind projects, such a result is still surprising. We analyzed this result auction-theoretically and showed how the auction design and the market environment can explain part of the outcome. However, another aspect of the explanation is the high risk that the awarded bidders take regarding the future development of both the project costs and the wholesale market price.

  16. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    The results of analysis of the construction and integration costs of large-scale offshore wind energy (OWE) farms in 2010 are presented. The integration of these farms (1 and 5 GW) in the Dutch electricity distribution system have been regarded against the background of a liberalised electricity market. A first step is taken for the determination of costs involved in solving integration problems. Three different types of foundations are examined: the mono-pile, the jacket and a new type of foundation: the concrete caisson pile: all single-turbine-single-support structures. For real offshore applications (>10 km offshore, at sea-depths >20 m), the concrete caisson pile is regarded as the most suitable. The price/power ratios of wind turbines are analysed. It is assumed that in 2010 turbines in the power range of 3-5 MW are available. The main calculations have been conducted for a 3 MW turbine. The main choice in electrical infrastructure is for AC or DC. Calculations show that at distances of 30 km offshore and more, the use of HVDC will result in higher initial costs but lower operating costs. The share of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in the kWh cost price is approximately 3.3%. To be able to compare the two farms, a base case is derived with a construction time of 10 years for both. The energy yield is calculated for a wind regime offshore of 9.0 m/s annual mean wind speed. Per 3 MW turbine this results in an annual energy production of approximately 12 GWh. The total farm efficiency amounts to 82%, resulting in a total farm capacity factor of 38%. With a required internal rate of return of 15%, the kWh cost price amounts to 0.24 DFl and 0.21 DFl for the 1 GW and 5 GW farms respectively in the base case. The required internal rate of return has a large effect on the kWh cost price, followed by costs of subsystems. O ampersand M costs have little effect on the cost price. Parameter studies show that a small cost reduction of 5% is possible when

  17. Earth Observations in Support of Offshore Wind Energy Management in the Euro-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges in the 21st century and the energy sector is a major contributor to GHG emissions. Therefore greater attention has been given to the evaluation of offshore wind energy potentials along coastal areas, as it is expected offshore wind energy to be more efficient and cost-effective in the near future. Europe is developing offshore sites for over two decades and has been growing at gigawatt levels in annual capacity. Portugal is among these countries, with the development of a 25MW WindFloat Atlantic wind farm project. The international scientific community has developed robust ability on the research of the climate system components and their interactions. Climate scientists have gained expertise in the observation and analysis of the climate system as well as on the improvement of model and predictive capabilities. Developments on climate science allow advancing our understanding and prediction of the variability and change of Earth's climate on all space and time scales, while improving skilful climate assessments and tools for dealing with future challenges of a warming planet. However the availability of greater datasets amplifies the complexity on manipulation, representation and consequent analysis and interpretation of such datasets. Today the challenge is to translate scientific understanding of the climate system into climate information for society and decision makers. Here we discuss the development of an integration tool for multidisciplinary research, which allows access, management, tailored pre-processing and visualization of datasets, crucial to foster research as a service to society. One application is the assessment and monitoring of renewable energy variability, such as wind or solar energy, at several time and space scales. We demonstrate the ability of the e-science platform for planning, monitoring and management of renewable energy, particularly offshore wind energy in the Euro

  18. Alternative energy sources: ECC report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, Lord; Stoddart, Lord; Lauderdale, Earl of

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities Committee Report on Alternative Energy Resources was debated. Six alternative energy sources were first described - wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, wave and tidal power. Combined heat and power was also mentioned. General questions concerning alternative energy sources were then considered. In particular, their potential contribution to the energy demand was assessed. The evidence presented to the committee suggested that they would only make a small contribution in the near future and could not be considered as a substitute for coal and nuclear power. However, by the year 2030 it would be possible for 18% of the national electricity demand to be met by alternative energy sources. The economic and environmental issues were assessed briefly and the report's conclusions were summarized. An independent review of wave power was called for in view of conflicting evidence presented to the committee. The debate which followed lasted three hours and is reported verbatim. Other issues raised included energy conservation, public attitudes to energy, the environment, government and private funding of research and development of nuclear power, including fusion. (U.K.)

  19. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajotova, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  20. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action NECHIBVUTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This radio frequency (RF energy harvesting is an emerging technology and research area that promises to produce energy to run low-power wireless devices. The great interest that has recently been paid to RF harvesting is predominantly driven by the great progress in both wireless communication systems and broadcasting technologies that have availed a lot of freely propagating ambient RF energy. The principle aim of an RF energy harvesting system is to convert the received ambient RF energy into usable DC power. This paper presents a state of the art concise review of RF energy harvesting sources for low power applications, and also discusses open research questions and future research directions on ambient RF energy harvesting.

  1. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear power, useful energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a reprint of an article published in a newspaper named 'Liberation Champagne' from October 7, 2003. It makes a brief analysis of the future world energy needs, of the need to fight against the global warming and to find a substitution to fossil fuels on the way to depletion. The mankind has to face a contradictory problem: increasing the energy production and saving the fossil fuels. The only solution is to accelerate the development of nuclear energy and of renewable energy sources. This is also the only way to fulfill the Kyoto protocol commitments. Short paper. (J.S.)

  3. Antimatter as an Energy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons and positrons are constantly generated in space, and periodically manufactured by humans here on Earth. Harvesting of these particles in space and forming stable antimatter atoms and molecules would create a significant energy source for power and propulsion. Though dedicated fabrication of these particles on Earth consumes much more energy than could be liberated upon annihilation, manufactured antimatter represents a high-density energy storage mechanism well suited for spacecraft power and propulsion. In this paper the creation, storage, and utilization of antimatter is introduced. Specific examples of electrical energy generation and deep-space propulsion based on antimatter are also reviewed.

  4. Geothermal energy, a new energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murr, K

    1960-05-01

    A survey is made of the historical development of geothermal energy, and the geological situations appropriate for its exploitation are described. When prospecting for steam sources, several vertical drillings of about 200 m depth and 60-120 mm diameter are usually sufficient to give adequate knowledge of subsurface conditions. In Iceland, geothermal energy is used primarily for domestic space-heating and climate control in greenhouses, but due to the ready availability of hydroelectricity, geothermal energy is not widely applied for the generation of electricity. In Katanga (Congo), a tin mine is supplied by 220-275 kW power plant which is driven by a nearby hot-water source. Other major developments at the time (1960) included Larderello in Italy and Wairakei in New Zealand. Preliminary results from exploratory boreholes in El Salvador are discussed.

  5. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  6. Energy policy and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    According to Shell, by 2050, renewable energy sources may supply over 50% of the energy, worldwide. This concentration on renewable energy sources is primarily due to the intensified environmental demands. The UN climate panel has estimated that to avoid irreversible climate change it is necessary to reduce the global emissions of CO2 by 50 to 60% during the next 100 years. Biomass energy includes a number of biological raw materials from forestry and agriculture. The forests provide wood, wood chips, bark, branches and treetops, and from agriculture, straw. Although biomass energy is not entirely pollution-free, it is renewable and CO2-neutral as long as growth and consumption are in balance. In Norway, the total annual growth of available biomass corresponds to about 80 TWh. The technical potential is estimated to 30 TWh per year, allowing for operationally reasonable ways of producing the biomass. However, there is competition for the biomass since it is used by the wood processing industry. The use of biomass and waste for energy generation varies considerably among the Nordic countries. In Denmark, agriculture dominates and large quantities of straw are burned in cogeneration plants. Sweden and Finland have well-developed forest industries, and the wood processing industry in these countries uses much more biomass fuel (bark, fibre mud, black liquor) than the Norwegian wood processing industry. In Norway, more energy can be obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectric plants such as by installing a flexible liner in existing tunnels. This improves energy flexibility and increases energy production without negative environmental consequences. The potential for wind power is larger in Norway than in Denmark and Germany. The cost of wind power has fallen considerably as a consequence of the technological development of the sector

  7. Reliability and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines and Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines are in some countries contributing significantly the production of electricity and wave energy devices have the potential to be developed in a similarway. For both offshore wind turbines and wave energy devices reliability is a key issue since costs to operation and maintenance may...... be significant contributors to the Levelized Cost Of Energy and OM costs are highly dependent on the reliability of the components implying that it is important to focus on increasing the reliability as much as is economically reasonable. This paper describes basic aspects for reliability analysis of wind...... turbines and wave energy devices with special focus on structural components. The reliability assessment needs include the effects of the control system and possible faults due to failure of electrical/mechanical components and e.g. loss of grid connection. The target reliability level for wind turbine...

  8. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  9. Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone. Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, Michelle E.; Duff, John A.; Koeppel, Johann; Reisert, Jessica; Higgins, Megan E.

    2009-01-01

    The development of renewable energy as a major component of efforts to combat climate change serves as the impetus for the location of energy production facilities in coastal ocean space. Yet, while many coastal nations see offshore renewable energy development as an important way forward, the speed and manner in which these efforts take shape vary dramatically. This paper assesses the role of coastal nations' domestic legal and policy frameworks in the siting of offshore renewable energy facilities in areas under federal jurisdiction. It focuses on two nations - Germany and the United States. Both have articulated their interest in renewable offshore energy, but while Germany has approved many offshore sites, recent US proposals have for the most part stalled. Based on a review of legal and policy documents, laws and regulations, academic literature, and interviews, this research identifies and compares factors that figure most prominently for the development of offshore renewable energy policies. Comparisons are organized under four categories: the regulatory framework, the public's role in siting, targeted economic mechanisms, and indirect mechanisms. The paper concludes with observations about prominent supports and impediments and suggestions for further research. (author)

  10. Onshore-offshore wind energy resource evaluation based on synergetic use of multiple satellite data and meteorological stations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianglin; Duan, Yuewei; Liu, Yongxue; Jin, Song; Sun, Chao

    2018-05-01

    The demand for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy is increasing as traditional sources of energy such as oil, coal, and natural gas, can no longer satisfy growing global energy demands. Among renewable energies, wind energy is the most prominent due to its low, manageable impacts on the local environment. Based on meteorological data from 2006 to 2014 and multi-source satellite data (i.e., Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat) from 1999 to 2015, an assessment of the onshore and offshore wind energy potential in Jiangsu Province was performed by calculating the average wind speed, average wind direction, wind power density, and annual energy production (AEP). Results show that Jiangsu has abundant wind energy resources, which increase from inland to coastal areas. In onshore areas, wind power density is predominantly less than 200 W/m2, while in offshore areas, wind power density is concentrates in the range of 328-500 W/m2. Onshore areas comprise more than 13,573.24 km2, mainly located in eastern coastal regions with good wind farm potential. The total wind power capacity in onshore areas could be as much as 2.06 x 105 GWh. Meanwhile, offshore wind power generation in Jiangsu Province is calculated to reach 2 x 106 GWh, which is approximately four times the electricity demand of the entire Jiangsu Province. This study validates the effective application of Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat data to coastal wind energy monitoring in Jiangsu. Moreover, the methodology used in this study can be effectively applied to other similar coastal zones.

  11. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Off-Shore Wind Energy Project’s Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Amir Hamzeh Mirkheshti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of wind power can solve the issue of growing power consumption with insufficient distribution facilities. Based on an extensive research on more than 20 studies, this study explores the risks associated with off-shore wind energy in Persian Gulf in Iran. This paper tries to identify the risks in related off-shore wind energy project, in order to specify which variables have the most impact on project by qualitative analysis through application of the impact and the possibility of every risk. A survey was conducted in order to determine the relative importance of variables and risks. Certain key components in completion of the project should be taken into account such as technology, research team, expert teams (personnel that have a good knowledge of this industry, and choosing the right spot where the wind farms will be located. The objective of this paper is to present the variables encountered in wind power project and to highlight the risks that must be controlled by the project developers, project team, supply chain actors, manufacturers, and all the stockholders involved in successful completion of a project.

  13. Potential of Offshore Wind Energy and Extreme Wind Speed Forecasting on the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance and urgency for Taiwan to develop offshore wind power. However, relevant data on offshore wind energy resources are limited. This study imported wind speeds measured by a tidal station and a buoy into the software WAsP to estimate the high-altitude wind speeds in the two areas. A light detection and ranging (Lidar system was set up near the tidal station and buoy. High-altitude wind speeds measured by the Lidar system were compared with the WAsP-estimated values, and it was discovered that the two data sets were consistent. Then, long-term wind speed data observed by buoys and tidal stations at various locations were imported into WAsP to forecast wind speeds at heights of 55–200 m on the west coast of Taiwan. The software WAsP Engineering was used to analyze the extreme wind speeds in the same areas. The results show that wind speeds at 100 m are approximately 9.32–11.24 m/s, which means that the coastal areas of west Taiwan are rich in wind energy resources. When a long-term 10-min average wind speed is used, the extreme wind speed on the west coast is estimated to be between 36.4 and 55.3 m/s.

  14. Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" approach for environmental monitoring of offshore renewable energy projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Erwan; Rey, Cibran Camba; Ferreira, Oscar; van Koningsveld, Mark

    2014-08-01

    This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Off-shore Wind Energy Resource in China using QuikSCAT Satellite data and SAR Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiuzhi, Zhang; Yanbo, Shen; Jingwei, Xu

    2010-01-01

    From August 2008 to August 2009, the project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ was carried out by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), which was funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP). As one ...

  16. Energy Sources | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources Energy Sources Many opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of energy supply systems at the central plant and then evaluate potential renewable energy sources and systems. Central Plant Begin by evaluating energy efficiency at the central plant through: Fuel Sources Heat Pumps and Combined

  17. Experimental results of rectification and filtration from an offshore wave energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, C.; Staalberg, M.; Thorburn, K.; Leijon, M. [Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity Research, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Lejerskog, E. [Seabased Industry AB, Dag Hammarskjoelds vaeg 52b, 75183 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    The present paper presents results from a wave energy conversion that is based on a direct drive linear generator. The linear generator is placed on the seabed and connected to a buoy via a rope. Thereby, the natural wave motion is transferred to the translator by the buoy motion. When using direct drive generators, voltage and current output will have varying frequency and varying amplitude and the power must be converted before a grid connection. The electrical system is therefore an important part to study in the complete conversion system from wave energy to grid connected power. This paper will bring up the first steps in the conversion: rectification and filtration of the power. Both simulation studies and offshore experiments have been made. The results indicate that this kind of system works in a satisfactory way and a smooth DC power can be achieved with one linear generator. (author)

  18. Using Remote Sensing Data for Integrating different Renewable Energy Sources at Coastal Site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Italian coastal sites have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use mixed renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. Harbors are safe places to install wind turbines where wind conditions are almost offshore. Space-borne remote sensing can provide information to determine solar...

  19. Nuclear energy versus other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear and other sources of energy as they relate to the production of electricity. It first examines the current role of electricity in the world and its means of production and how future economic growth, associated with growing populations striving for better living conditions, will lead to increased demands for new electricity generation. The second part of the paper deals with the health and environmental impacts of the major options for generating electricity likely to be used to meet this need, and how a comparative assessment of these impacts is important to understand the full implications of electricity generation planning decisions. 6 refs, 12 figs

  20. Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Project in Offshore Southeast Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinick, Charles; Riccobono, Antonino, MS; Messing, Charles G., Ph.D.; Walker, Brian K., Ph.D.; Reed, John K., Ph.D.

    2012-02-28

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC was awarded a grant by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Golden Field Office for a project titled 'Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Project in Offshore Southeast Florida,' corresponding to DOE Grant Award Number DE-EE0002655 resulting from DOE funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-0000069 for Topic Area 2, and it is referred to herein as 'the project.' The purpose of the project was to enhance the certainty of the survey requirements and regulatory review processes for the purpose of reducing the time, efforts, and costs associated with initial siting efforts of marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion facilities that may be proposed in the Atlantic Ocean offshore Southeast Florida. To secure early input from agencies, protocols were developed for collecting baseline geophysical information and benthic habitat data that can be used by project developers and regulators to make decisions early in the process of determining project location (i.e., the siting process) that avoid or minimize adverse impacts to sensitive marine benthic habitat. It is presumed that such an approach will help facilitate the licensing process for hydrokinetic and other ocean renewable energy projects within the study area and will assist in clarifying the baseline environmental data requirements described in the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (formerly Minerals Management Service) final regulations on offshore renewable energy (30 Code of Federal Regulations 285, published April 29, 2009). Because projects generally seek to avoid or minimize impacts to sensitive marine habitats, it was not the intent of this project to investigate areas that did not appear suitable for the siting of ocean renewable energy projects. Rather, a two-tiered approach was designed with the first step consisting of gaining overall insight

  1. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  2. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  3. Physical activity, sleep pattern and energy expenditure in double-handed offshore sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, C; Ardigò, L P; Alberti, M; Daniele, F; Capelli, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify total energy expenditure, activity energy expenditure and time spent at three levels of physical activity (low, moderate, high intensity) in four two-person crews during a 500-mile double-handed sailing regatta. Physical activity intensity and energy expenditure were assessed during a 500-nautical-mile double-handed offshore competition in eight male sailors (46.3±3.4 years; 180±13 cm; 85.4±12.5 kg). During the whole regatta, they wore an activity monitor that estimated energy expenditure and minutes spent at each level of intensity (sedentary, 6.0 METs). The sailors spent longer periods (Penergy expenditure was 14.26±1.89 MJ/day and the activity energy expenditure was 5.06±1.42 MJ/day. Activity energy expenditure was significantly correlated with total sleep time, boat speed, and distance covered each day (Penergy expenditure was more likely a consequence of the short and rare periods of sleep during the competition rather than of the bouts of moderate and vigorous physical activities.

  4. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  5. Physical Modelling of Silt in Relation to Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke

    precisely so that the competitiveness of offshore wind turbines can be improved. Carrying out in situ tests offshore is very expensive. Therefore, all experiment regarding this project is conducted onshore. A field in Dronninglund was found useful for this purpose since the subsoil at the field mainly......Offshore wind energy is a sustainable form of energy that can help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and increase the share of renewable energy. In order to ensure that offshore wind energy can continue to be a competitive source of energy compared to other types of renewable energy...... consists of silty soil and the water table is situated just below the surface so the field is comparable to offshore conditions. In connection with the project, CPT and SCPT (Seismic Cone Penetration Test) were conducted in the field, just like large soil samples were collected with the purpose of carrying...

  6. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  7. MODEL REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TO PROVIDE ENERGY AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES FROM AN OFFSHORE WIND POWER PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    This document provides a model RFP for new generation. The 'base' RFP is for a single-source offshore wind RFP. Required modifications are noted should a state or utility seek multi-source bids (e.g., all renewables or all sources). The model is premised on proposals meeting threshold requirements (e.g., a MW range of generating capacity and a range in terms of years), RFP issuer preferences (e.g., likelihood of commercial operation by a date certain, price certainty, and reduction in congestion), and evaluation criteria, along with a series of plans (e.g., site, environmental effects, construction, community outreach, interconnection, etc.). The Model RFP places the most weight on project risk (45%), followed by project economics (35%), and environmental and social considerations (20%). However, if a multi-source RFP is put forward, the sponsor would need to either add per-MWh technology-specific, life-cycle climate (CO2), environmental and health impact costs to bid prices under the 'Project Economics' category or it should increase the weight given to the 'Environmental and Social Considerations' category.

  8. Fatigue and Serviceability Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    , a probabilistic model is derived on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. The sensitivity study is based on the calculation of a nonlinear coefficient of correlation in conjunction with predetermined designs of experiments. This is conducted......This paper develops the models for the structural performance of the loading and probabilistic characterization for the fatigue and the serviceability limit states for the support structure of offshore wind energy converters. These models and a sensitivity study are part of a risk based assessment...... as the starting point for the development of the structural performance and loading models. With these models introduced in detail, several modeling aspects for both limit states are analyzed. This includes analyses of the influence on the hot spot stresses by applying a contact formulation for the pile guide...

  9. Economics of producing hydrogen as transportation fuel using offshore wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Agarwal, Nalin; Swaroop, Rakesh; Shah, Nikhar

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, hydrogen has been recognized as a suitable substitute for present vehicular fuels. This paper covers the economic analysis of one of the most promising hydrogen production methods-using wind energy for producing hydrogen through electrolysis of seawater-with a concentration on the Indian transport sector. The analysis provides insights about several questions such as the advantages of offshore plants over coastal installations, economics of large wind-machine clusters, and comparison of cost of producing hydrogen with competing gasoline. Robustness of results has been checked by developing several scenarios such as fast/slow learning rates for wind systems for determining future trends. Results of this analysis show that use of hydrogen for transportation is not likely to be attractive before 2012, and that too with considerable learning in wind, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage technology

  10. The triple helix frame for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for innovation and development of offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2016-01-01

    innovation for the reduction of the LCOE in the wind farm industry. This knowledge space also provides important insight and understanding for the governmental and university helices for active contribution to offshore wind energy. The governmental policy impact stresses the need for a more strategic long...

  11. Potential of natural energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J D; Glanville, R; Gliddon, B J; Harrison, P L; Hotchkiss, R C; Hughes, E M; Swift-Hook, D T; Wright, J K

    1976-01-01

    Apart from fossil fuels and nuclear energy, five main alternative sources of power for electricity generation are: the sun, the wind, the waves, the tides, and the heat inside the earth. Each has been examined for its relevance to the energy situation in Britain and in particular to the CEGB's requirements as an electrical utility. None emerges from the analysis as directly competitive with nuclear power, provided that nuclear fulfills present expectations. As an insurance against unforeseen delays in the nuclear program, however, one or two of the options may well be worth closer consideration, particularly wave power, for which Britain is favorably placed. The best immediate prospect for using solar energy falls outside the province of the CEGB, in the area of domestic water heating. Wind power, despite the windiness of the British Isles, suffers in practice from a low load factor, which would greatly inflate the capital cost. Geothermal power in Britain, geologically one of the most stable parts of the world, appears to be available only at depths too great to be presently attractive for electricity generation. Finally, tidal power, although technically available in limited amounts, again suffers from high capital costs. (auth)

  12. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  13. Soil-Structure Interaction for Non-Slender, Large-Diameter Offshore Monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal

    Offshore wind power is a domestic, sustainable and largely untapped energy resource. Today, the modern offshore wind turbine offers competitive production prices compared to other sources of renewable energy. Therefore, it is a key technology in breaking the dependence on fossil fuels...... and in achieving the energy and climate goals of the future. For offshore wind turbines, the costs of foundation typically constitute 20-30% of the total costs. Hence, improved methods for the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines can increase the competitiveness of offshore wind energy significantly....... The monopile foundation concept has been employed as the foundation for the majority of the currently installed offshore wind turbines. Therefore, this PhD thesis concerns the soil-pile interaction for non-slender, large-diameter offshore piles. A combination of numerical and physical modelling has been...

  14. Conference 'onshore and offshore wind energy cost reduction: challenges and opportunities for the industry in France and in Germany'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Hinsch, Thomas; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Giese, Norbert; Guyet, Quentin; Lenhardt, Edouard; Beinke, Thies; Bodenstab, Marc; Wolff, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Claus; Lessmeister, Andreas L.

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on cost reduction in onshore and offshore wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 140 participants exchanged views on the cost allocation in onshore wind energy projects, on their financing, and on the transport and logistics profitability challenges. Concrete examples of operating and maintenance cost reductions in offshore wind energy projects were presented as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's onshore and offshore wind support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Keynote: Framework conditions for cost reductions in the German wind energy sector (Thomas Hinsch); 3 - Cost of onshore wind energy projects in Germany - Status and experience feedback (Anna-Kathrin Wallasch); 4 - Crown estate's Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Pathways Study: how to transpose the conclusions to the German case (Norbert Giese); 5 - Combined Forces for Reliable Supply Chain - French-German Convergence of expertise: strategic partnerships for offshore projects implementation (Quentin Guyet, Edouard Lenhardt); 6 - Reducing costs of onshore and offshore wind energy. Mon2Sea research project - Real-time monitoring of transport and cargo handling of components for the offshore installation of wind turbines (Thies Beinke, Marc Bodenstab); 7 - expertise, Innovation and reduction of cost of energy: Vestas experience (Nicolas Wolff); 8 - Far-Offshore-Wind projects. Results of the First German Offshore Windpark alpha ventus (Claus Burkhardt); 9 - Maintenance for Offshore-Wind parks: examples and good practices for the future (Andreas L. Lessmeister)

  15. Offshore wind energy development in France and Germany: what role for territories? Final dissertation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douteau, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    'Pays du Bessin au Virois' is a French association of cities. The association is concerned by projects of offshore wind farms. It wants to think about the consequences of the offshore wind farms on the territory, and the integration in the local activities. For that reason the association wanted to learn from the German experience of offshore development. To compare the French and the German situation, this report raises the question of the relationship between an offshore wind farm and a territory. Thanks to the characteristics of an offshore wind farm and of a territory, I built a method to analyze the relationship between a park and a territory. I studied two cases: the French territory Pays du Bessin au Virois related to the three projects of offshore wind parks in the Baie de Seine, and the German territory Ostfriesland, close to the first offshore wind park in Germany, Alpha Ventus. The two cases showed that important topics could be studied for every territory. There are differences between French and German situation. However the comparison sets on interesting actions for the Pays du Bessin au Virois. Another comparison can be realized with Denmark or United Kingdom, which offshore strategy is closer to the French situation. (author) [fr

  16. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  17. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  18. An Integrated Approach To Offshore Wind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes 3D Wind Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R. J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Pryor, S. C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-09-18

    This grant supported fundamental research into the characterization of flow parameters of relevance to the wind energy industry focused on offshore and the coastal zone. A major focus of the project was application of the latest generation of remote sensing instrumentation and also integration of measurements and numerical modeling to optimize characterization of time-evolving atmospheric flow parameters in 3-D. Our research developed a new data-constrained Wind Atlas for the Great Lakes, and developed new insights into flow parameters in heterogeneous environments. Four experiments were conducted during the project: At a large operating onshore wind farm in May 2012; At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Wind Technology Center (NREL NWTC) during February 2013; At the shoreline of Lake Erie in May 2013; and At the Wind Energy Institute of Canada on Prince Edward Island in May 2015. The experiment we conducted in the coastal zone of Lake Erie indicated very complex flow fields and the frequent presence of upward momentum fluxes and resulting distortion of the wind speed profile at turbine relevant heights due to swells in the Great Lakes. Additionally, our data (and modeling) indicate the frequent presence of low level jets at 600 m height over the Lake and occasions when the wind speed profile across the rotor plane may be impacted by this phenomenon. Experimental data and modeling of the fourth experiment on Prince Edward Island showed that at 10-14 m escarpment adjacent to long-overseas fetch the zone of wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and slightly downwind of) the escarpment is ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. Additionally, our measurements were used to improve methods to compute the uncertainty in lidar-derived flow properties and to optimize lidar-scanning strategies. For example, on the basis of the experimental data we collected plus those from one of our research partners we advanced a new methodology to

  19. Offshore Transmission Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of offshore electricity transmission technologies. In particular this document is concerned with the use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems and more specifically with the development of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This report outlines the current state of the main technology groups required for offshore HVDC transmission as well as giving examples of offshore projects (both current and future). Finally some indications of likely unit costs for HV assets are given.

  20. Conventional and unconventional energy sources for mankind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1981-01-01

    Plenty of industrial nations of the world is founded on the fact that only 1% of their energy requirement is met by muscle power, both of human and animal origin, while 99% comes mostly from fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels are not an eternal source and hence to conserve it, other sources must also be used. Availability of energy sources such as coal, biogas, solar energy, wind, tidal energy is examined and their draw-backs are pointed out. Another energy source i.e. nuclear energy can however substantially contribute to the energy scene. Fission reactors can contribute nearly 25% of the world energy requirements within two decades. Breeder reactors, if successfully developed, can meet the energy requirements of the world for few thousands of years. Fusion reactors, if successful for commercial exploitation, will form almost an inexhaustible source of energy. An added advantage is that they produce much less radioactive waste than that produced by fission reactors. (author)

  1. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  2. Assessment of offshore New Jersey sources of Beach replenishment sand by diversified application of geologic and geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.; Uptegrove, J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Esker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. For New Jersey, sources for beach sand supply are increasingly found offshore. To meet present and future needs, geologic and geophysical techniques can be used to improve the identification, volume estimation, and determination of suitability, thereby making the mining and managing of this resource more effective. Current research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data (in addition to analog data) to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges above 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering. Problems common to analog data, such as wave-motion effects of surface sources, water-bottom reverberation, and bubble-pulse-width can be addressed by processing. More than 160 line miles of digital high-resolution continuous profiling seismic data have been collected at sand ridges off Avalon, Beach Haven, and Barnegat Inlet. Digital multichannel data collection has recently been employed to map sand resources within the Port of New York/New Jersey expanded dredge-spoil site located 3 mi offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Multichannel data processing can reduce multiples, improve signal-to-noise calculations, enable source deconvolution, and generate sediment acoustic velocities and acoustic impedance analysis. Synthetic seismograms based on empirical relationships among grain size distribution, density, and velocity from vibracores are used to calculate proxy values for density and velocity

  3. Geophysical Mapping of the South Carolina Offshore for Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, D.; Knapp, C. C.; Battista, B.; Stone, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has identified potential Wind Energy Areas (WEA's) on the continental shelf of South Carolina characterized by good wind resource potential and minimal environmental and societal use conflicts based on existing regional data sets. A multi-sensor geophysical survey has been initiated to provide a more thorough determination of the shallow geologic framework and bottom habitat and cultural resources potential to further refine future wind farm siting. The most recent phase of deposition (Pleistocene; type, seafloor roughness and geomorphology, potential sites of cultural resources and features such as active and inactive faults, filled channels, and potential slope instabilities which would have a considerable potential impact on sitting installations for wind energy. The study is focused on the inner shelf from 18 to 26 km offshore of North Myrtle Beach, SC. The collaborative effort is generating multibeam, and side scan sonar, CHIRP sub-bottom and magnetometer data. Across the region a thin veneer of sediments overlies indurated Tertiary deposits. The Tertiary geologic section is locally scoured and influenced small channels and probable karstification and enduring fluid exchange across the sea floor which has been previously identified in the region. The sea floor exhibits large-scale (100s of meters) low relief shore-perpendicular bedforms similar to those found within the shoreface and innermost shelf though the SC Coastal Erosion Study. Post-processed bathymetry shows a radial distribution of coast-perpendicular features that transition between two coastal processes: 1) there is the sediment distribution caused by the longshore currents and wave energy, and 2) there are areas related to the coastal inlets that disrupt the primary sedimentation patterns and impose patterns of terrestrial sedimentation such as those from rivers, deltas and estuaries.

  4. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  5. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  6. Modelling of a synchronous offshore pumping mode airborne wind energy farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.; Ahmad, H.; Pican, E.; Toal, D.

    2014-01-01

    A wind farm for the deployment of pumping mode AWE (airborne wind energy) systems is presented in this paper. The topology presented is suitable for the deployment of such systems in a marine or similarly inaccessible environment. A brief technical description of AWE is provided, outlining the background, motivation and approaches taken by this emerging technology. A method of providing a continuous power supply from a cluster of AWE systems whose individual operation produces a periodic power supply is outlined. This method employs direct drive, directly interconnected permanent magnet synchronous generators on a local bus. A full-scale power converter is located at the point of grid connection, providing compliant power output for the remote cluster. In the case of a marine environment deployment, the power electronics are located onshore where maintenance and repair can be readily performed without the delays and costs associated with offshore maintenance and repair. The direct interconnection of synchronous generators introduces the requirement for a control system to control the connection of offline machines to the energised bus. A mathematical model of the system is outlined and the implementation of this model in Simulink is detailed. Simulation results under varied operating conditions are presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Airborne wind energy (AWE) is an emerging novel approach to wind energy. • ‘Pumping mode’ AWE devices in individual operation produce a periodic power output. • We do not reverse the generator during pumping mode operation. • We directly interconnect multiple AWE devices to provide continuous power output. • Simulation of proposed AWE farm operations presented, with encouraging results

  7. International offshore petroleum contracts: Towards the compatibility of energy need and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiguo.

    1993-01-01

    The legal and commercial relationships between petroleum producing countries and foreign oil companies have been defined by traditional oil concession agreements before the 1950s, and since then by modern petroleum contracts. The development policies behind the evolution of various arrangements for offshore petroleum exploration are scrutinized. By studying examples of contracts in four developing countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, and China), the issues of mutuality of interests and environmental sustainability that are reflected in both the structure and substance of modern petroleum contracts are examined. Major findings are that modern petroleum contracts are generally able to achieve and maintain a necessary balance of rights, interests and benefits between the contracting parties, but have failed to produce any balance between the extraction of resources and environmental sustainability. The existing contractual systems have failed in principle to provide adequate environmental regulation and have not addressed the issue of sustainable development at all. Arrangements focusing on economic interests are inappropriate for future energy developments, but through the proper use of contract terms that contain elements favouring sustainable development, economic and environmental interests can nevertheless be accomodated and served at the same time. Future petroleum agreements should recognize explicitly the inherent independence and coexistence between commerciality and sustainable development. 288 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs

  8. Life cycle assessment of onshore and offshore wind energy - from theory to application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    material requirements for capital infrastructure. In both markets the bigger turbines with more advanced direct drive generator technology is shown to perform better than the smaller geared ones. Capital infrastructure is the most impactful life cycle stage across impacts. It accounts for more than 79......This study aims to assess the environmental impacts related to the provision of 1 kWh to the grid from wind power in Europe and to suggest how life cycle assessment can inform technology development and system planning. Four representative power plants onshore (with 2.3 and 3.2 MW turbines......) and offshore (4.0 and 6.0 MW turbines) with 2015 state-of-the-art technology data provided by Siemens Wind Power were assessed. The energy payback time was found to be less than 1 year for all technologies. The emissions of greenhouse gases amounted to less than 7 g CO2-eq/kWh for onshore and 11 g CO2-eq...

  9. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  10. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) - Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Emissions of Netpens - Offshore vs. Inshore

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the majority of marine fish in the United States are reared in near shore netpens. The National Marine Fisheries Service is encouraging offshore netpen...

  11. Matching energy sources to demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, A.

    1979-01-01

    Diagrams show the current pattern of energy usage in Scotland; primary energy inputs; the various classes of user; the disposition of input energy in terms of useful and waste energy; an energy flow diagram showing the proportions of primary fuels taken by the various user groups and the proportions of useful energy derived by each. Within the S.S.E.B. area, installed capacity and maximum demand are shown for the present and projected future to the year 2000. A possible energy flow diagram for Scotland in 1996 is shown. The more efficient use of energy is discussed, with particular reference to the use of electricity. The primary energy inputs considered are oil, coal, nuclear, hydro and gas. (U.K.)

  12. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  13. Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm

    KAUST Repository

    Klain, Sarah C.; Satterfield, Terre; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Chan, Kai M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Proposals to develop renewable energy technologies may threaten local values, which can generate opposition. Efforts to explain this opposition have focused on perceived negative aesthetic and environmental impact. Less attention has been paid to a fuller suite of the perceived risks and benefits associated with new energy technologies. This paper thus investigates impacts of an offshore wind farm pertaining to individual perceptions and judgments, and why risks to some ecosystem services might be cause for greater public concern than others. We find that this difference can be attributed to the affective and intuitive ways in which people perceive risk. Our mixed-methods design used interviews (n=27) that involved risk-benefit weighting tasks and an animated visualization to help people imagine an offshore wind farm in a familiar place. We found that affectively-loaded impacts (harm to charismatic wildlife and visual intrusion) were assigned greater weight than more easily quantifiable impacts (displacement of fishing, impact to tourism, cost of compliance with regulations). Interviewees identified increased regional energy self-sufficiency as the most valued potential benefit of an offshore wind farm. These results have implications for ecosystem service assessments generally and, more specifically, for our understanding of ‘affective’ dimensions of development proposals.

  14. Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm

    KAUST Repository

    Klain, Sarah C.

    2017-07-19

    Proposals to develop renewable energy technologies may threaten local values, which can generate opposition. Efforts to explain this opposition have focused on perceived negative aesthetic and environmental impact. Less attention has been paid to a fuller suite of the perceived risks and benefits associated with new energy technologies. This paper thus investigates impacts of an offshore wind farm pertaining to individual perceptions and judgments, and why risks to some ecosystem services might be cause for greater public concern than others. We find that this difference can be attributed to the affective and intuitive ways in which people perceive risk. Our mixed-methods design used interviews (n=27) that involved risk-benefit weighting tasks and an animated visualization to help people imagine an offshore wind farm in a familiar place. We found that affectively-loaded impacts (harm to charismatic wildlife and visual intrusion) were assigned greater weight than more easily quantifiable impacts (displacement of fishing, impact to tourism, cost of compliance with regulations). Interviewees identified increased regional energy self-sufficiency as the most valued potential benefit of an offshore wind farm. These results have implications for ecosystem service assessments generally and, more specifically, for our understanding of ‘affective’ dimensions of development proposals.

  15. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  16. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  17. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Jensen, Christian Munk

    2017-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings...... contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost...... of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark...

  18. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  19. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  20. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  1. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  2. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  3. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

  4. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  5. Designing Offshore Super Grid for the Combined Operation of Offshore Wind Farms and Hydro Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimaldi, Armando; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Peiyuan

    2009-01-01

    The European commission decided in 2008 to reduce the dependency of imported primary energy sources and to promote the use of renewable energy. In particular, many offshore wind farms are planned in the North Sea between 2020 and 2030. Furthermore, the recent blackouts in Europe have shown that i...

  6. December 8, 2000. Regional wind energy development. The offshore development potential: European perspectives; 8 decembre 2000. Developpement eolien regional. Le potentiel de developpement offshore: perspectives europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcen Zunzarren, J.A. [Navarre Gvt., Dir. of national development and urbanism (Spain); O' Gallachoir, B. [Cork Univ., Dept. of civil engineering and Environment, Cork (Ireland); Vergnet, M. [Societe Vergnet SA, 45 - Ingret (France); Laumonier, Ch. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Donnat, J.M. [Agence Mediterraneenne de l' Environnement, Contribution du Conseil Regional au Developpement de l' Eolien en Languedoc-Roussillon, 34 - Montpellier (France); Stenvald Madsen, P. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Thomas-Bourgneuf, G. [Direction du Service Maritime et de Navigation du Languedoc-Roussillon (France); Bonnefoi, S. [Cabinet Bonnefoi (France); Thoury, Ph. [Commission Environnement du Comite Regional des Peches Languedoc-Roussillon (France); Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-03-01

    This second day of colloquium was organized around two topics: the regional development of wind power and the feasibility of offshore wind farms in Europe. The regional aspect was illustrated with the presentation of the Spanish, Irish and French experience (programs, means, results, role of local authorities, public opinion). A round table was organized about the local environmental impacts of wind power development. The offshore aspect was illustrated with the presentation of projects in Denmark and France. The legal and fiscal aspects of offshore projects were considered too. (J.S.)

  7. WindScanner.eu - a new Remote Sensing Research Infrastructure for On- and Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Siggaard Knudsen, Søren; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    will be disseminated throughout Europe to pilot European wind energy research centers. The new research infrastructure will become an open source infrastructure that also invites collaboration with wind energy related atmospheric scientists and wind energy industry overseas. Recent achievements with 3D Wind......A new remote sensing based research infrastructure for atmospheric boundary-layer wind and turbulence measurements named WindScanner have during the past three years been in its early phase of development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. During the forthcoming three years the technology......Scanners and spin-off innovation activity are described. The Danish WindScanner.dk research facility is build from new and fast-scanning remote sensing equipment spurred from achievements within fiber optics and telecommunication technologies. At the same time the wind energy society has demanded excessive 3D wind...

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  9. Continuous spatial modelling to analyse planning and economic consequences of offshore wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind resources appear abundant, but technological, economic and planning issues significantly reduce the theoretical potential. While massive investments are anticipated and planners and developers are scouting for viable locations and consider risk and impact, few studies simultaneously address potentials and costs together with the consequences of proposed planning in an analytical and continuous manner and for larger areas at once. Consequences may be investments short of efficiency and equity, and failed planning routines. A spatial resource economic model for the Danish offshore waters is presented, used to analyse area constraints, technological risks, priorities for development and opportunity costs of maintaining competing area uses. The SCREAM-offshore wind model (Spatially Continuous Resource Economic Analysis Model) uses raster-based geographical information systems (GIS) and considers numerous geographical factors, technology and cost data as well as planning information. Novel elements are weighted visibility analysis and geographically recorded shipping movements as variable constraints. A number of scenarios have been described, which include restrictions of using offshore areas, as well as alternative uses such as conservation and tourism. The results comprise maps, tables and cost-supply curves for further resource economic assessment and policy analysis. A discussion of parameter variations exposes uncertainties of technology development, environmental protection as well as competing area uses and illustrates how such models might assist in ameliorating public planning, while procuring decision bases for the political process. The method can be adapted to different research questions, and is largely applicable in other parts of the world. - Research Highlights: → A model for the spatially continuous evaluation of offshore wind resources. → Assessment of spatial constraints, costs and resources for each location. → Planning tool for

  10. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  11. Comparison of Simulations and Offshore Measurement Data of a Combined Floating Wind and Wave Energy Demonstration Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special...... external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software WAMIT. The main focus of the comparison is on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads, and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions. Finally, challenges...

  12. Offshore wind power. Recommendation for a national policy; Energie eolienne en mer. Recommandation pour une politique nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-15

    In the framework of the international agreements, the France fixed ambitious objectives of electric power production from renewable energies, and among other the wind power. THe offshore chain of this energy seems to be promising, but the first projects show difficulties, because of reluctance from other sea users, uncertainties on the projects profitability or because of the complexity of the regulatory framework. Thus an inter-departmental group has been constituted in order to discuss these problems. This report is a synthesis of their works. It analyzes the today context and proposes possible orientations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Numerical hydrodynamic analysis of an offshore stationary–floating oscillating water column–wave energy converter using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhanafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore oscillating water columns (OWC represent one of the most promising forms of wave energy converters. The hydrodynamic performance of such converters heavily depends on their interactions with ocean waves; therefore, understanding these interactions is essential. In this paper, a fully nonlinear 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model based on RANS equations and VOF surface capturing scheme is implemented to carry out wave energy balance analyses for an offshore OWC. The numerical model is well validated against published physical measurements including; chamber differential air pressure, chamber water level oscillation and vertical velocity, overall wave energy extraction efficiency, reflected and transmitted waves, velocity and vorticity fields (PIV measurements. Following the successful validation work, an extensive campaign of numerical tests is performed to quantify the relevance of three design parameters, namely incoming wavelength, wave height and turbine damping to the device hydrodynamic performance and wave energy conversion process. All of the three investigated parameters show important effects on the wave–pneumatic energy conversion chain. In addition, the flow field around the chamber's front wall indicates areas of energy losses by stronger vortices generation than the rear wall.

  14. Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van de Pietermen, R. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Obdam, T. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

  15. Effects of offshore wind energy developments on navigation and commercial shipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petts, J W

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining the impact of the development of offshore wind farms on commercial shipping and navigation in the area of the UK continental shelf. The study methodology is described, and a review of previous studies is carried out. Technological and current developments, wind farm layout and physical limitations, interaction with marine users, and a quantitative assessment are examined, and the protection of offshore wind farms is considered. Appendices give details of admiralty charts and publications, maps, and chart markings for wind turbines. (UK)

  16. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  17. Active Thrusting Offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the Tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Singh, S.; King, G.; Briais, A.; Daeron, M.; Carton, H.; Sursock, A.; Jacques, E.; Jomaa, R.; Klinger, Y.

    2007-12-01

    On July 9, AD 551, a large earthquake, followed by a tsunami destroyed most of the coastal cities of Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon). This was arguably one of the most devastating historical submarine earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophysical data from the Shalimar survey unveils the source of this Mw=7.5 event: rupture of the offshore, hitherto unknown, 100?150 km-long, active, east-dipping Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT). Deep-towed sonar swaths along the base of prominent bathymetric escarpments reveal fresh, west facing seismic scarps that cut the sediment-smoothed seafloor. The MLT trace comes closest (~ 8 km) to the coast between Beirut and Enfeh, where as 13 radiocarbon-calibrated ages indicate, a shoreline-fringing Vermetid bench suddenly emerged by ~ 80 cm in the 6th century AD. At Tabarja, the regular vertical separation (~ 1 m) of higher fossil benches, suggests uplift by 3 more comparable-size earthquakes since the Holocene sea-level reached a maximum ca. 7-6 ka, implying a 1500?1750 yr recurrence time. Unabated thrusting on the MLT likely orchestrated the growth of Mt. Lebanon since the late Miocene. The newly discovered MLT has been the missing piece in the Dead Sea Transform and eastern Mediterranean tectonic scheme. Identifying the source of the AD 551 event thus ends a complete reassessment of the sources of the major historical earthquakes on the various faults of the Lebanese Restraining Bend of the Levant Fault System (or Dead Sea Transform).

  18. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Young, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  20. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  1. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  2. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  3. Energy Yield Prediction of Offshore Wind Farm Clusters at the EERA-DTOC European Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, E.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2014-01-01

    third-party models. Wake models have been benchmarked on the Horns Rev and, currently, on the Lilgrund wind farm test cases. Dedicated experiments from ‘BARD Offshore 1’ wind farm will using scanning lidars will produce new data for the validation of wake models. Furthermore, the project includes power...

  4. Energy yield prediction of offshore wind farm clusters at the EERA-DTOC European project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, E.; Sanz, J.; Lorenzo, S.

    2013-01-01

    third-party models. Wake models have been benchmarked on the Horns Rev and, currently, on the Lilgrund wind farm test cases. Dedicated experiments from ‘BARD Offshore 1’ wind farm will using scanning lidars will produce new data for the validation of wake models. Furthermore, the project includes power...

  5. Promotion of renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcu, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Romania's climate and geographical conditions offer the following types of renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass and geothermal energy. These are here considered within the country's energy balance on medium and long term. Romania has a significant renewable energy potential. Unfortunately at present this potential is not used but to a small extent, except for hydraulic energy and biomass (especially as firewood), the latter being used in the great majority of cases in low performance installations. Government Decision No. 443/2003 on the promotion of electric energy generation from RES and Government Decision No. 1535/2003 regarding the Strategy of RES, establish the legal framework necessary for the promotion of RES in Romania. Consequently, an Action Plan defining actions, measures, responsibilities and financial sources has been settled. (author)

  6. A Spatial-Economic Cost-Reduction Pathway Analysis for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Development from 2015–2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes a comprehensive effort undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to understand the cost of offshore wind energy for markets in the United States. The study models the cost impacts of a range of offshore wind locational cost variables for more than 7,000 potential coastal sites in U.S. offshore wind resource areas. It also assesses the impact of more than 50 technology innovations on potential future costs for both fixed-bottom and floating wind systems. Comparing these costs to an initial site-specific assessment of local avoided generating costs, the analysis provides a framework for estimating the economic potential for offshore wind. The analysis is intended to inform a broad set of stakeholders and enable an assessment of offshore wind as part of energy development and energy portfolio planning. It provides information that federal and state agencies and planning commissions could use to inform initial strategic decisions about offshore wind developments in the United States.

  7. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  8. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  9. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  10. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  11. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    run the Sustainable Systems Analysis Algorithm (SSAA) and the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) decision models. The following alternative energy sources for electricity (kilo- and megawatt output) will be assessed in this paper: solar, biomass and biofuels, hydro, geothermal, onshore wind, offshore wind, tidal, and natural gas. The SSAA methodology, in conjunction with the MCDA model techniques, will be used to obtain sustainable, alternative energy source system options; the system will attempt to balance its three linked aspects (environmental, economic, and technical). The results, based on the Sustainability Directive three-dimensional vector calculations from each alternative energy source option, are presented in this paper. Moving towards sustainability is a dynamically changing process, and the SSAA methodology is a synergist for system modifications that strives for continuous improvement toward the Ideal Sustainability Directive.

  12. Alternative energy sources in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The hereby presented report was elaborated for the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic by the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in Prague from July to October 1999. The report is constituted so as to provide a complete introductory overview of the situation in the Czech Republic relating to alternative energy sources. For the purposes of this report, the term alternative energy sources is conceived as renewable energy sources and combined generation of heat and electricity. Renewable energy sources comprise sun, water, wind, geothermal energy and energy generated from biomass or waste. The report features a glimpse at the history of alternative energy sources' utilisation in the Czech Republic, a description of the current state and an extrapolation of existing trends into expectable medium- and long-run developments. The report also includes an insight into the relevant legal framework and a general scan of market opportunities. The objective of the report is to prepare a solid starting platform for Dutch companies which specialise in renewable energy sources and/or cogeneration and which may be interested in extending their scope of activities to the Czech Republic

  13. Quantifying the Opportunity Space for Future Electricity Generation: An Application to Offshore Wind Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides a high-level indicator of the future electricity demand for additional electric power generation that is not met by existing generation sources between 2015 and 2050. The indicator is applied to coastal regions, including the Great Lakes, to assess the regional opportunity space for offshore wind. An assessment of opportunity space can be a first step in determining the prospects and the system value of a technology. The metric provides the maximal amount of additional generation that is likely required to satisfy load in future years.

  14. Ice monitoring program in support of Sakhalin Energy's offshore oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington, R. [CANATEC Associates International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Keinonen, A. [AKAC Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Tambovsky, V.; Ryabov, S. [Environmental Company of Sakhalin, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation); Pishchalnik, V. [Russian Academy of Science, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation)]|[Far East Geological Inst., Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation). Sakhalin Dept.; Sheikin, I. [Arctic and Antarctic Research Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Brovin, A. [ABIC Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    The Sakhalin Energy Investment Company (SEIC) has been producing oil at the Molikpaq platform off the east coast of Sakhalin Island since 1999. The Molikpaq oil production occurs during the open water summer season. When ice begins to form in late November, an Ice Management Team begins to monitor conditions at the site to ensure a safe operation. This paper described the ice monitoring program designed to provide extensive ice and environmental data to support risk management and allow the planning of safe oil production operations using a Single Anchor Leg Mooring( SALM) system, Floating Storage and Offloading System (FSO), and export tankers in ice. The following 2 key aspects of the in-ice operations were covered: ice management to protect the offshore loading operation on a minute by minute basis in moving ice, and also ice forecasting, to determine when any unmanageable ice might approach the tanker loading site and cause the shut down of operations in the fall and during the startup of operations in the spring. The forecasting of ice drift, ice formation and growth in the fall and ice decay in the spring were discussed. It was noted that in the last few years, the date on which ice first appears is getting later. Operations cease for the winter before the ice is forecast to become a problem for the operations. The Ice Management Team returns to the site in May when the ice melts and and is no longer harmful to the operations. The Ice Management Team consists of 9 individuals with several years of operational ice experience. Their tasks include data collection from satellite images; helicopter ice reconnaissance; ice breaker ice maps; radar ice maps and ice drift; and, ice drift analysis using terra MODIS satellite images. A daily or twice daily weather forecast is provided by a commercial weather forecasting company. These forecasts provide the winds, gusts, cloud cover, air temperature, wind wave and swell for every 6 hours for the first 3 days, then every

  15. Assessment of Renewable Sources for the Energy Consumption in Malta in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Franzitta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy production in the Maltese islands, focusing on the employment of renewable energies in order to increase their energy independence. The main renewable source here proposed is wave energy: thanks to a strategic position, Malta will be able to produce electrical energy using an innovative type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC based on the prototype of a linear generator realized by University of Palermo. The use of this new technology will be able to cut down the electrical energy production from traditional power plants and, consequently, the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Wave energy source and off-shore photovoltaic (PV technology are here proposed. Particularly, the installation of 12 wave farms, for a total installed capacity of 86 MW, will generate about 9.5% of Malta’s energy requirement in 2025, while the installation of 9.6 MW of off-shore PV will generate about 0.73%.

  16. 3. International Workshop on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, T [ed.

    2002-07-01

    The emphasis is on both theoretical discussions and on practical applications. After almost a decade with mainly demonstration projects in the area of offshore wind power, this year will see the first large commercial offshore wind projects with more than 50 MW installed capacity and more and more larger projects are scheduled for the coming years. Also more and more energy policy makers, electric utilities as well as the media recognize the enormous potential of offshore wind power as a large-scale sustainable energy source. The development in this area results in new ideas, questions and research proposals. Such a new topic is, hydrogen production using offshore wind farms.

  17. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  18. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  19. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  20. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  1. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  2. Wave and offshore wind potential for the island of Tenerife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veigas, M.; Iglesias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The island aims to reduce its carbon footprint by developing renewable energy. • The substantial wave and offshore wind resources around the island are examined. • One area is appropriate for installing a hybrid wave–offshore wind farm. - Abstract: The island of Tenerife, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Atlantic Ocean, aims to be energy self-sufficient in order to reduce its carbon footprint. To accomplish this goal it should develop the renewable sources, in particular wave and offshore wind energy. The objectives of this work are twofold; (i) to characterize the wave and offshore wind power distribution around the island and (ii) to determine which offshore area is best suited for their exploitation, taking into account the resource and other conditioning factors such as the bathymetry, distance to the coastline and ports, and offshore zoning. To carry out this research, hindcast wave and wind data obtained with numerical models are used alongside observations from meteorological stations. One area, in the vicinity of Puerto de la Cruz, is identified as having great potential for installing a hybrid floating wave–wind farm. Both resources are characterized for the area selected: the wave resource in terms of wave directions, significant wave heights and energy periods; the offshore wind resource in terms of directions and speeds in addition to the seasonality for the both resources. It is found that most of the wave resource is provided by N and NNW waves with significant wave heights between 1.5 m and 3.0 m and energy periods between 10 s and 14 s. It follows that the Wave Energy Converters deployed in the area should have maximum efficiency in those ranges. As for the offshore wind resource, most of the energy corresponds to NNE and NE winds with speeds between 9 and 14 m s −1 , which should be taken into account when selecting the offshore wind turbines

  3. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  4. Biomass as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, M.; Naveau, H.; Declerck, C.; Vanacker, L.; Mahy, D.; Schepens, G.

    The object of this paper is to evaluate the possible production and utilization of biomass as an energy source in Belgium. Four conversion methods are considered - methanation, fermentation, incineration and gasification - from a technological and economic viewpoint.

  5. The statistical prediction of offshore winds from land-based data for wind-energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, J.L.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Burrows, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Land-based meteorological measurements at two locations on the Danish coast are used to predict offshore wind speeds. Offshore wind-speed data are used only for developing the statistical prediction algorithms and for verification. As a first step, the two datasets were separated into nine...... percentile-based bins, with a minimum of 30 data records in each bin. Next, the records were randomly selected with approximately 70% of the data in each bin being used as a training set for development of the prediction algorithms, and the remaining 30% being reserved as a test set for evaluation purposes....... The binning procedure ensured that both training and test sets fairly represented the overall data distribution. To base the conclusions on firmer ground, five permutations of these training and test sets were created. Thus, all calculations were based on five cases, each one representing a different random...

  6. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renewable energy, solar energy, photosynthesis, electrolysis, photocatalysis, photovoltaic cell. Abstract. Using Sun's energy effectively to drive important, industriallyrelevant chemical reactions is currently an area of researchthat is attracting a large attention. This route circumventsour reliance on non-renewable sources of ...

  7. Offshore dredger sound: source levels, sound maps and risk assessment (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Port of Rotterdam is expanding to meet the growing demand to accommodate large cargo vessels. One of the licensing conditions was the monitoring of the underwater sound produced during its construction, with an emphasis on the establishment of acoustic source levels of the Trailing Suction

  8. The global environmental implication of new hydrocarbon developments : number 7 of a series of papers on energy and the offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    The environmental cost of producing and using oil and gas, and the direct impacts of offshore hydrocarbon exploration and production are described. Forecasts for global energy demand and production, and some of the global problems associated with energy development including climate change, sulphur dioxide emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxides (N 2 O) are also reviewed. In 1995, 90 per cent of Canada's CO 2 emissions came from the energy sector, as did 35 per cent of total CH 4 . Efforts which have been made internationally to combat global climate change, such as the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro which endorsed the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol where Canada committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted. The paper also addresses Nova Scotia's role in reducing greenhouse gases. Thus we learn of the province's current annual emissions of 18.8 million tonnes (slightly below 1990 levels), the traditional reliance on coal and imported coal to generate electricity, and the drastic reduction in the province's overall emission of greenhouse gases expected when natural gas becomes available from the offshore. 14 refs

  9. Offshore wind energy: the Nantes administrative court gives its first decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deharbe, David; Deldique, Lou

    2017-01-01

    In May 2017, the Nantes administrative court gave a restrictive appraisal to the acting interest of associations and cities contesting the installation and exploitation approval of a wind farm off Saint Nazaire coast and rejected the different arguments put forward by the opponents of the project. This decision suggests a probably favorable jurisprudence for the forthcoming offshore wind farm projects. This paper presents the explanatory statement and comments the conclusions of the judgement

  10. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  11. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result...... of a long and fruitful cooperation between public and private institutions within energy system research and analysis. The purpose of the article is to explain the modelling approach, to highlight strengths and challenges of the chosen approach, to create awareness about the possible applications...... of Balmorel as well as to inspire to new model developments and encourage new users to join the community. Some of the key strengths of the model are the flexible handling of the time and space dimensions and the combination of operation and investment optimisation. Its open source character enables diverse...

  12. On the Application of Fluid Power Transmission in Offshore Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is currently characterized by the high costs associated with installation and operation. Gearboxes in particular have been singled out as a key source of the high maintenance costs of offshore wind farms. For a given wind speed, the torque of the rotor increases cubically with

  13. Influence of Nonlinear Irregular Waves on the Fatigue Loads of an Offshore Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, M.B.; Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Molenaar, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to make offshore wind power a cost effective solution that can compete with the traditional fossil energy sources, cost reductions on the expensive offshore support structures are required. One way to achieve this, is to reduce the uncertainty in wave load calculations by using a more

  14. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Fiscal Year 2011 Report Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-11-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and avian and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. During FY 2011, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists adapted and applied the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), first developed to examine the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy devices on aquatic environments, to offshore wind development. PNNL scientists conducted a risk screening analysis on two initial OSW cases: a wind project in Lake Erie and a wind project off the Atlantic coast of the United States near Atlantic City, New Jersey. The screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two OSW cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device, such as alterations in bottom habitats. Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted during FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an assessment of the vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with OSW installations; a probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. As more data become available that document effects of offshore wind farms on specific receptors in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters, probability analyses will be performed.

  15. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  16. Sources of environmental disturbance associated with offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Kingston, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the most productive fishing areas in the world, producing 3.5% of the world's catch of fish, and as a consequence is one of the most widely studied areas of sea. The potential sources of disturbance to the environment from oil and gas production are seismic surveys, physical disturbance to the sediment during platform placement, drilling, and through burying and trenching of pipelines, and pollution from pipeline and platform discharges and oil spills. Studies on the biological effects of such disturbances are repeated. These include investigations into the impact on the species diversity of marine fauna and oil taint and petrogenic hydrocarbons in fish. It has become clear that oil based mud cuttings discharge accounts for the major source of hydrocarbon contaminations from oil production and has a major deleterious effect on benthors in the immediate vicinity of the discharge. (Author)

  17. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  18. A comparative table of various energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Comparative table of various energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions.

  20. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines....... The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software, WAMIT. The model also includes models for the dynamic mooring lines as well...... as the turbines non-linear yaw and teeter motion behavior. The main focus on the comparison will be on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions such as increasing wind speed, wave height and wind...

  1. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  2. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico

    2015-01-01

    recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first...... organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family...

  3. Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    ages structurally over its service life. Well-covered in the field of earthquake engineering, the dynamic response of civil engineering structures is highly dependent on the impedance of the soil–foundation system. For offshore wind turbine applications, however, the hysteretical and geometrical......, there is a general consensus that offshore wind-generated electricity is still too expensive to be competitive with conventional energy sources. As a consequence, the overall weight of the turbine and foundation is kept to a minimum resulting in a flexible and dynamically active structural system—even at low...

  4. A semi-parabolic wake model for large offshore wind farms based on the open source CFD solver OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezón D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wake effect represents one of the main sources of energy loss and uncertainty when designing offshore wind farms. Traditionally analytical models have been used to optimize and estimate power deficits. However these models have shown to underestimate wake effect and consequently overestimate output power [1, 2]. This means that analytical models can be very helpful at optimizing preliminary layouts but not as accurate as needed for an ultimate fine design. Different techniques can be found in the literature to study wind turbine wakes that include simplified kinematic models and more advanced field models, that solve flow equations with different turbulence closure schemes. See the review papers of Crespo et al. [3], Vermeer et al. [4], and Sanderse et al. [5]. Purely elliptic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD models based on the actuator disk technique have been developed during the last years [6–8]. They consider wind turbine rotor as a disk where a distribution of axial forces act over the incoming air. It is a fair approach but it can still be computationally expensive for big wind farms in an operative mode. With this technique still active, an alternative approach inspired on the parabolic wake models [9, 10] is proposed. Wind turbine rotors continue to be represented as actuator disks but now the domain is split into subdomains containing one or more wind turbines. The output of each subdomain is mapped onto the input boundary of the next one until the end of the domain is reached, getting a considerable decrease on computational time, by a factor of order 10. As the model is based on the open source CFD solver OpenFOAM, it can be parallelized to speed-up convergence. The near wake is calculated so no initial wind speed deficit profiles have to be supposed as in totally parabolic models and alternative turbulence models, such as the anisotropic Reynolds Stress Model (RSM can be used. Traditional problems of elliptic models related to

  5. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  6. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  7. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable

  8. Soil-Structure Interaction For Nonslender, Large-Diameter Offshore Monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal

    Strong political and industrial forces, especially in Northern Europe, support the development of new technologies as well as improvements of existing technologies within the field of renewable energy. Offshore wind power is a domestic, sustainable and largely untapped energy resource. Today......, the modern offshore wind turbine offers competitive production prices compared to other sources of renewable energy. Therefore, it is a key technology in breaking the dependence on fossil fuels and in achieving the energy and climate goals of the future. For offshore wind turbines, the costs of foundation...... typically constitutes 20-30 % of the total costs. Hence, improved methods for the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines can increase the competitiveness of offshore wind energy significantly. The monopile foundation concept has been employed as the foundation for the majority of the currently...

  9. Collecting and Analyzing At-Sea and Coastal Avian Data to Assess Potential Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereksta, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The prospect of renewable energy development off the coasts of the United States has led to a scramble for data needs on potentially affected resources, particularly those related to avian species. The potential effects from renewable energy development to avian species are complex and varied including collision, displacement, barrier effects, and attraction. As the lead Federal agency for renewable energy development on the Federal outer continental shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has initiated, in coordination with other agencies and partners, the collection and synthesizing of existing data, identification of data gaps, development and funding of studies to fill those gaps, and creation of products for assessing risk to birds from structures at sea. Through the Environmental Studies Program, BOEM collects a wide range of environmental information to provide an improved understanding of offshore ecosystems, a baseline for assessing cumulative effects, and the scientific basis for development of regulatory measures to mitigate adverse impacts. With broad-scale assessments of suitable areas for wind, wave, and tidal energy production offshore, the challenge has been to collect and compile information quickly and at as large a scale as possible. Assessing what we know, what we can predict, and how can we assess risk has led BOEM to develop and collaborate on a variety of studies including baseline data assessments, at-sea surveys, predictive modeling of seabird distribution and abundance, vulnerability and risk assessments, and technology testing for efficient ways to inventory birds on the OCS. These are being applied in both the Atlantic and Pacific, including the Main Hawaiian Islands, to provide for assessments of potential effects and data needs early in the planning process at regional and local scales with the goal of designing and implementing projects that will minimize effects to avian species to the greatest extent practicable.

  10. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  11. Energy Spread Sources in TESLA and TTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Tessier, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The beam energy spread in the TESLA linac must be small enough to limit the emittance dilution due to the dispersive effects. This report summarizes the major sources of energy spread both for the TESLA linac and the TTF linac, where these estimations will be carefully checked with beam experiments. The first part recalls the intra-bunch energy spread while the second part looks into the bunch-to-bunch energy spread induced by rf field fluctuations within the bunch train and from pulse-to-pulse. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  12. A model-based analysis for the improvement of electrical energy supply of future offshore windparks by means of biogas technology; Modellbasierte Analyse zur Verbesserung der elektrischen Energiebereitstellung zukuenftiger Offshore-Windparks mittels Biogastechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, Martin

    2010-09-06

    Since the beginning of industrial revolution energy supply in Germany was based on fossil fuels. Climatic change, the greenhouse effect, the growth of population on the one hand and shortage on fossil fuels on the other hand and the will to be independent from importing resources from political instable countries are calling for serious changes. The primary modernisation of the current energy supply needs to target a sustainable, generation comprehensive solution. The use of renewable fuels is necessary. Wind energy usage is one of the most promising alternatives within the short-term to middle-term planning of environmental policy. As in Germany nearly all potential habitats on mainland already are tapped, significant development potential is seen at offshore habitats in North as well as Baltic Sea. Germany aims for the allotment of up to 25 GW of offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Sea till 2025. Electricity generation by wind energy plants subjects to the conditions the volatile characteristics of the wind. Within the planned big offshore wind energy farms comprising more than 80 plants changes in wind velocity as well as directions will lead to fluctuations in energy supply. Up to now the plant resource scheduling needed to react on the users demand. The further development of wind energy and the differences between forecasted and actual wind energy feeds do and will hinder this resource scheduling. New approaches need to be found to be able to ensure the security of energy supplies in Germany. These approaches should be sustainable and therefore be based on the usage of renewable fuels. Within this dissertation possible solutions as well as constraints of the usage of biogas as a nearly CO2 neutral fuel in combination with micro gas turbines adapted to the usage with biogas plants to be able to align the differences between forecasted and actual wind energy supply for a future offshore wind energy plant park are analysed. This combination allows an

  13. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  14. A liquefied energy chain for transport and utilization of natural gas for power production with CO2 capture and storage - Part 2: The offshore and the onshore processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelund, Audun; Gundersen, Truls

    2009-01-01

    A novel energy and cost effective transport chain for stranded natural gas utilized for power production with CO 2 capture and storage is developed. It includes an offshore section, a combined gas carrier, and an integrated receiving terminal. In the offshore process, natural gas (NG) is liquefied to LNG by liquid carbon dioxide (LCO 2 ) and liquid inert nitrogen (LIN), which are used as cold carriers. The offshore process is self-supported with power, hot and cold utilities and can operate with little rotating equipment and without flammable refrigerants. In the onshore process, the cryogenic exergy in LNG is used to cool and liquefy the cold carriers, which reduces the power requirement to 319 kWh/tonne LNG. Pinch and exergy analyses are used to determine thermodynamically optimized offshore and onshore processes with exergy efficiencies of 87% and 71%, respectively. There are very low emissions from the processes. The estimated specific costs for the offshore and onshore process are 8.0 and 14.6 EUR per tonne LNG, respectively, excluding energy costs. With an electricity price of 100 EUR per MWh, the specific cost of energy in the onshore process is 31.9 EUR per tonne LNG

  15. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  16. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  17. The nuclear energy: an essential source of the energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the energy consumption facing the environmental quality, the author presents the energy sources, used and possible. He shows the necessity to reduce the dependency towards the fossil fuels. He discusses the possibility of the CO 2 storage, the electric power use to decrease the CO 2 emissions. He then analyses the cogeneration alternative, the hybrid vehicles and the advantages of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  18. WindScanner.eu - a new remote sensing research infrastructure for on- and offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Knudsen, Soeren; Sjoeholm, M.; Angeloua, N.; Tegtmeier, A. [Technical Univ. og Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    A new remote sensing based research infrastructure for atmospheric boundary-layer wind and turbulence measurements named WindScanner have during the past three years been in its early phase of development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. During the forthcoming three years the technology will be disseminated throughout Europe to pilot European wind energy research centers. The new research infrastructure will become an open source infrastructure that also invites collaboration with wind energy related atmospheric scientists and wind energy industry overseas. Recent achievements with 3D WindScanners and spin-off innovation activity are described. The Danish WindScanner.dk research facility is build from new and fast-scanning remote sensing equipment spurred from achievements within fiber optics and telecommunication technologies. At the same time the wind energy society has demanded excessive 3D wind flow and ever taller wind profile measurements for the wind energy resource assessment studies on- and off shore of the future. Today, hub heights on +5 MW wind turbines exceed the 100 m mark. At the Danish DTU test site Oesterild testing is ongoing with a Siemens turbine with hub height 120 meters and a rotor diameter of 154 meters; hence its blade tips reaches almost 200 meters into the sky. The wind speed profiles over the rotor planes are consequently no longer representatively measured by a single cup anemometer at hub height from a nearby met-mast; power curve assessment as well as turbine control call for multi-height multi point measurement strategies of wind speed and wind shear within the turbines entire rotor plane. The development of our new remote sensing-based WindScanner.dk facility as well as the first measurement results obtained to date are here presented, including a first wind lidar measurement of turbulence in complex terrain within an internal boundary layer developing behind an escarpment. Also measurements of wind speed and direction profiles

  19. Indian energy sources in 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, A. C.

    Indian energy sources for electrical power generation are surveyed with a view to the development of the available hydroelectric resources. The capital-intensive nature of hydroelectric projects and their long gestation periods have impeded the rapid exploitation of the hydroelectric resources in the country, which are expected to provide 37% of the 16,200 MW capacity anticipated by 2001. Alternative sources of power such as solar and wind energy, biogas conversion and the use of industrial waste heat to produce electricity are discussed with case studies presented.

  20. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  1. Impacts of renewable energy on landscape. Alternative of offshore wind in marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Moraci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects determined in the landscape by plants powered by renewable sources represent some unresolved issues in terms of visual and landscape impact mitigation in general. These aspects relate to the landscape are recognized in all types of impact with due attention to the various components and dynamics involved identifiable in the landscape of reference.The wind power plants, in particular, while making unquestionable environmental benefits thanks to the production of energy from renewable sources, but imposes a significant cost to the landscape with the installation of wind turbines in contexts necessarily favorable to impact,  interrupting the skyline, creating territorial discontinuities, "subtracting" and altering the landscape in the absence of effective mitigation works.The environmental compatibility of the proposed solutions depends primarily on the location of wind farms.Is necessary indicate  an overall strategy, a shared model of planning and land management, as in other European countries such as Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom where the choice of locating wind farms has resulted in a new draft territory, construction and redesign of the landscape.

  2. Health evaluation of energy-generating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The American Medical Association's House of Delegates, at its December 1976 Clinical Convention, requested that an evaluation be made of the health hazards of nuclear, fossil, and alternative energy-generating sources, for employees of energy-producing facilities as well as for the general population. This report is a summary evaluation of such hazards prepared in response to that request. This report, which was adopted by the House of Delegates on June 21, 1978, appears here in a revised and corrected version

  3. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  4. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastroamidjojo, MSA.

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  5. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  6. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-01-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  7. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  8. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  9. Identifying space for offshore wind energy in the North Sea. Consequences of scenario calculations for interactions with other marine uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongbloed, R.H.; Wal, J.T. van der; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy drives the development of offshore wind energy (OWE) leading to competing claims with other human and nature related uses of the North Sea. This paper investigates possibilities to identify space for new OWE while minimising effects on other uses. An inventory is made of the major uses in the Central and Southern North Sea, including the expected development towards 2030. The spatial distribution of non-wind uses is determined as well as the possibilities for differentiation based on density, economic value or nature value and co-existence. These possibilities are translated into calculation rules quantifying the relative importance. These calculation rules have been incorporated in a Decision Support System (DSS) to analyse how the priority of OWE development could impact non-wind uses. In a low OWE priority scenario consequences for other use was found to be very limited, with fisheries and wildlife affected most. In a high OWE priority scenario a considerable amount of OWE may be developed with substantial claims on sand extraction and military use areas and a shift towards higher value categories for shipping and fisheries. Relocation and co-existence of uses are important means to reduce the impact of increased OWE development. - Highlights: • A new method for minimising effects of new Offshore Wind Energy on other uses. • Calculation rules are based on density, economic or nature values of major marine activities. • Most activities are concentrated near the coast and expected to increase. • Increasing priority for OWE claims more and higher value area from other uses. • Relocation and co-use of areas reduce negative consequences

  10. Simulation of electricity supply of an Atlantic island by offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters associated with a medium scale local energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babarit, A.; Clement, A.H.; Duclos, G.; Ben Ahmed, H.; Debusschere, V.; Multon, B.; Robin, G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of sizing an electricity storage for a 5000 inhabitants island supplied by both marine renewables (offshore wind and waves) and the mainland grid is addressed by a case study based on a full year resource and consumption data. Generators, transmission lines and battery storage are accounted for through basic simplified models while the focus is put on electricity import/export budget. Self-sufficiency does not seem a reasonable goal to pursue, but partial autonomy provided by renewable sources and a medium size storage would probably be profitable to the island community. (author)

  11. Energy price comparison of new, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun; Sunardi

    2014-01-01

    Low cost transportation for people and goods is essential to the economic well-being of the nation. Until now, if the oil prices rise, the cost of transportation will automatically follow and most of the people suffering due to soaring prices of food and other items. Almost 100 percent of Indonesian transportation energy demand is supported by oil. Supply disruption - or even the threat of disruption - in the Middle East or elsewhere may lead to a shift in consumer prices and the cost of the industry in significant numbers. While costs in the energy sector, especially electricity in developed countries that also contribute significantly to support the transport sector, is much more stable and predictable. Energy requirements are so high in the transport sector tends to force people to seek the source and means of energy in other forms such as electricity or hydrogen that can match or exceed the performance of fuel oil. This paper aims to analyze the economics of energy price comparison to see the extent of the economic opportunities some kind of energy to play a significant role in the transport sector and the subsequent impact on the energy system. From the results obtained by the analysis that will be increasingly necessary role of nuclear energy and other specific energy as a source of electrical energy considering its economical aspects are relatively better. (author)

  12. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  13. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost of energy is included on how to expand working hours from daytime to also work at night.

  14. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  15. Proposing offshore photovoltaic (PV) technology to the energy mix of the Maltese islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapani, Kim; Millar, Dean L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant cost and carbon savings for offshore PV integration. ► Maximum savings at circa 315 MW for thin film PV integration. ► Minimum generating capacity of turbines significant in cost of electricity. ► Part-load efficiencies of current system could hugely limit the integration of renewables. - Abstract: The islands of Malta are located in the Mediterranean basin enjoying 5.3 kW h/m 2 /day of solar insolation, at a latitude of 35°50N. Electricity generation for the islands is dependent upon imported fossil fuels for combustion. The available solar resource could be exploited to offset the current generation of electricity using solar photovoltaic technology (PV). Due to the limited land availability onshore, the offshore environment surrounding the Maltese islands were considered for the installation of PV floating on the sea surface. The output from such an installation would have to be integrated with the existing conventional electricity generation infrastructure, which currently relies on gas and steam turbine technology. To assess the feasibility of floating PV being integrated with the existing fossil plant, monthly trend consumption data for Malta were analysed. The change in gasoil and heavy fuel oil (HFO) consumption resulting from the part load efficiency variation and the displacement of electricity generation from the PVs were estimated. A cost analysis was prepared for the system integration analysis specifically accounting for the reduction in combustion of fossil fuels at the power station and the capital expenditures and operating costs due to the floating PV installation. Aside from the basic cost-benefit of a floating PV installation, CO 2 savings are also considered

  16. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  17. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  18. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  20. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  1. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  2. Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

  3. Nearshore versus Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  4. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-01

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  5. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  6. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  7. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  8. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  9. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  10. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  11. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  12. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  13. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  14. Identifying the Optimal Offshore Areas for Wave Energy Converter Deployments in Taiwanese Waters Based on 12-Year Model Hindcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ju Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year sea-state hindcast for Taiwanese waters, covering the period from 2005 to 2016, was conducted using a fully coupled tide-surge-wave model. The hindcasts of significant wave height and peak period were employed to estimate the wave power resources in the waters surrounding Taiwan. Numerical simulations based on unstructured grids were converted to structured grids with a resolution of 25 × 25 km. The spatial distribution maps of offshore annual mean wave power were created for each year and for the 12-year period. Waters with higher wave power density were observed off the northern, northeastern, southeastern (south of Green Island and southeast of Lanyu and southern coasts of Taiwan. Five energetic sea areas with spatial average annual total wave energy density of 60–90 MWh/m were selected for further analysis. The 25 × 25 km square grids were then downscaled to resolutions of 5 × 5 km, and five 5 × 5 km optimal areas were identified for wave energy converter deployments. The spatial average annual total wave energy yields at the five optimal areas (S1–(S5 were estimated to be 64.3, 84.1, 84.5, 111.0 and 99.3 MWh/m, respectively. The prevailing wave directions for these five areas lie between east and northeast.

  15. Identification of effective 1D soil models for large-diameter offshore wind turbine foundations based on in-situ seismic measurements and 3D modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteijlen, W.G.

    2018-01-01

    Offshore wind generated electricity is currently one of the most promising sources of energy to contribute in creating a sustainable global energy mix. The latter is essential for minimising the detrimental impact of human-induced accelerated climate change. The cost of offshore wind power has

  16. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  17. HVDC grids for offshore and supergrid of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Presents the advantages, challenges, and technologies of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Grids This book discusses HVDC grids based on multi-terminal voltage-source converters (VSC), which is suitable for the connection of offshore wind farms and a possible solution for a continent wide overlay grid. HVDC Grids: For Offshore and Supergrid of the Future begins by introducing and analyzing the motivations and energy policy drives for developing offshore grids and the European Supergrid. HVDC transmission technology and offshore equipment are described in the second part of the book. The third part of the book discusses how HVDC grids can be developed and integrated in the existing power system. The fourth part of the book focuses on HVDC grid integration, in studies, for different time domains of electric power systems. The book concludes by discussing developments of advanced control methods and control devices for enabling DC grids.

  18. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  19. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  20. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  1. Alternative and renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-09-01

    The paper reviews the use of biomass as a source of energy and shows from a number of examples, particularly the growing of sugar beet for the manufacture of ethanol, that this way of producing fuel is not desirable. On a world basis it is possible that there might be a confrontation between the needs for 'food' and 'technological' calories of which there is already a hint in the so-called 'energy crop strategy'. In conclusion, given the present world food supply position, the intensification of food production should be given priority over attempts to produce fuel from biomass and we should not aim to use the photosynthetic process to provide technical calories. Other ways must be found to provide the latter, and it is suggested that nuclear energy should make an increasing contribution even in the developing countries. (Auth.)

  2. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  3. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S, E-mail: douglasborgesdomingos@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  5. White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Avella, R.; Braccio, G.; Caserta, G.; Chiado' Rana, M.; Ciciolla, C.; Conte, G.; De Lillo, A.; Gerardi, V.; Giuliani, G.; Pignatelli, V.; Pirazzi, L.; Ricci, A.; Sarno, A.; Sonnino, A.; Viggiano, D.; Pazzi, V.; Silvestrini, G.; Morselli, F.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries [it

  6. Mechanisms blocking the dynamics of the European offshore wind energy innovation system – Challenges for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, Staffan; Karltorp, Kersti

    2013-01-01

    Decarbonizing electricity production in the EU may necessitate building new “low-carbon” capacity (excluding nuclear investments) to deliver 3500 TWh by 2050. Offshore wind power has the potential to contribute substantially to fill this gap. Realizing this potential is, however, difficult since deployment offshore does not constitute a simple diversification by the onshore wind turbine industry to a new segment. This paper identifies factors obstructing the development of the northern European innovation system centered on offshore wind power, specifies a set of associated policy challenges and discusses various policy responses. - Highlights: • Offshore wind power has a strategic role in decarbonizing EU's supply of electricity. • There are numerous obstacles to deployment of offshore wind turbines. • We specify seven major policy challenges in diverse policy domains. • Managing these requires coordination of interventions across policy domains and national boundaries

  7. Introduction Of Wavestar Wave Energy Converters At The Danish Offshore Wind Power Plant Horns Rev 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquis, L.; Kramer, Morten; Kringelum, J.

    is to be connected to a wind turbine at the DONG Energy owned wind power plant Horns Rev 2 placed off the western coast of Denmark. The plant delivers its energy production to a transformer station owned by Energinet.dk. Energinet.dk has the obligation to ensure that power is transmitted to the Danish consumers...... with this combination. This can increase the value of the produced power from future wind/wave plants. Further potential synergies of combining wind and wave energy in the same area include increased energy production from the available area and sharing of infrastructure costs as well as O&M facilities. In a future....... If Executed the project will be the first one in the world where wind and wave power are combined at full scale. The goal of the project is to evaluate the opportunities of combining wind and wave energy production on a commercial scale and to demonstrate the reduction of energy fluctuations...

  8. Offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring using space-borne fully polarimetric C and X band synthetic aperture radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Ressel, Rudolf

    2016-11-15

    Use of polarimetric SAR data for offshore pollution monitoring is relatively new and shows great potential for operational offshore platform monitoring. This paper describes the development of an automated oil spill detection chain for operational purposes based on C-band (RADARSAT-2) and X-band (TerraSAR-X) fully polarimetric images, wherein we use polarimetric features to characterize oil spills and look-alikes. Numbers of near coincident TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images have been acquired over offshore platforms. Ten polarimetric feature parameters were extracted from different types of oil and 'look-alike' spots and divided into training and validation dataset. Extracted features were then used to develop a pixel based Artificial Neural Network classifier. Mutual information contents among extracted features were assessed and feature parameters were ranked according to their ability to discriminate between oil spill and look-alike spots. Polarimetric features such as Scattering Diversity, Surface Scattering Fraction and Span proved to be most suitable for operational services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  10. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  11. Proposed Methodology for Assessing Cost of Synergies between Offshore Renewable Energy and Other Sea Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Hanssen, Jan Erik; O´Sullivan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Dragon and wind turbine, W2Power) and another (non-energy) sea use. The methodology described in the present study has the value of presenting synergies under an economic prospective. Synergies can be found both in structural, installation and maintenance costs. The CAPEX and OPEX for the energy...

  12. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  13. A quantitative, non-destructive methodology for habitat characterisation and benthic monitoring at offshore renewable energy developments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Sheehan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs. Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a "flying array" that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects. The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth, then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms⁻¹ current, the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath

  14. A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs). Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs) could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a “flying array” that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects). The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth), then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m) high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms−1 current), the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath MPAs and

  15. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at... batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations. (b) A reserve source of...

  17. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  18. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  19. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  20. Renewable energy sources: the case of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J

    1979-04-01

    Industrial nations have based their economic and social development on the use of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas). This trend is being followed by many developing countries, which have neither the natural resources nor the manpower to adopt this path. As a result, one finds in many of these countries islands of prosperity (based on consumption patterns copied from industrial nations surrounded by a sea of poverty. The problems resulting from this dual social structure are obvious in many parts of the world. It is argued here that renewable energy sources are a natural basis for the development of the poorer countries and that intelligent use of hydropower, biomass, and direct solar energy can shortut many of the problems faced today by industrial nations. The case of Brazil is analyzed as one of the countries in which these solutions are being tried. 5 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  1. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  2. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S; Rinkinen, J [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  3. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  4. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  5. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor to internatio...... that outsourcing can be used proactively to promote expanded international operations.......While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor...

  6. An Open Source Extensible Smart Energy Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, Linda [V-Squared, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Aggregated distributed energy resources are the subject of much interest in the energy industry and are expected to play an important role in meeting our future energy needs by changing how we use, distribute and generate electricity. This energy future includes an increased amount of energy from renewable resources, load management techniques to improve resiliency and reliability, and distributed energy storage and generation capabilities that can be managed to meet the needs of the grid as well as individual customers. These energy assets are commonly referred to as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). DERs rely on a means to communicate information between an energy provider and multitudes of devices. Today DER control systems are typically vendor-specific, using custom hardware and software solutions. As a result, customers are locked into communication transport protocols, applications, tools, and data formats. Today’s systems are often difficult to extend to meet new application requirements, resulting in stranded assets when business requirements or energy management models evolve. By partnering with industry advisors and researchers, an implementation DER research platform was developed called the Smart Energy Framework (SEF). The hypothesis of this research was that an open source Internet of Things (IoT) framework could play a role in creating a commodity-based eco-system for DER assets that would reduce costs and provide interoperable products. SEF is based on the AllJoynTM IoT open source framework. The demonstration system incorporated DER assets, specifically batteries and smart water heaters. To verify the behavior of the distributed system, models of water heaters and batteries were also developed. An IoT interface for communicating between the assets and a control server was defined. This interface supports a series of “events” and telemetry reporting, similar to those defined by current smart grid communication standards. The results of this

  7. Survey lecture on renewable energy sources. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliss, M

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with utilizable regenerative energy sources: geothermal energy, tidal energy, solar energy, running water energy, and wind energy. Tests for the development of these sources have been carried out, but only one of them has a considerable share in meeting the energy demand--that gained from running water. The others are only of regional importance (geothermal energy, tidal energy) or have lost the importance they once had (wind energy, biochemical energy in the form of wood). The latest discussions about the restrictions on fossil and nuclear energy sources and the environmental effects of the technologies necessary for their utilization have increased the interest in the ''inexhaustible'' energy sources. This is why the author outlines the possible importance of renewable energy sources.

  8. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Frid, C.; Andonegi, E.; Depestele, J.; Judd, A.; Rihan, D.; Rogers, S.I.; Kenchington, E.

    2012-01-01

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other...

  9. Mass balance constraints on the sources of the petrogenic hydrocarbon background in offshore sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Brown, J.S.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive sampling program was conducted in 1999 in the offshore sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to verify a recent claim that eroding coal beds are the source of petrogenic hydrocarbons background in the area. Samples taken in 1993 and 1994 were reanalyzed to determine concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Three Bering River coal samples plus 10 archived source-rock and 3 archived Gulf of Alaska seep and field oil samples from exploration activities in the 1960s and 1970s were also analyzed. The linear combination of the analyte distributions of 18 representative sources that most likely matched the compositions of each sample was derived using the least-squares method. Some of the potential contributing sources which were examined for this study included seep oil, eroding source rocks, eroding coal beds, glacial flour, recent terrestrial sources and human activity. It was determined that the recent claim was incorrect. Eroding Tertiary petroleum source rocks and residues of seep oils are the main sources of hydrocarbon background in the area, rather than area coals or residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. THE SUBSTANTIATION OF THE METHODICAL APPROACH FOR ESTIMATION OF DYNAMICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES OF OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY USING (THE GERMAN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gorlov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the introduction of renewable energy technologies (RES occurs against the backdrop of a developed hydrocarbon energy market, which raises the risk of seeing unreasonable decisions by investors. The development and use of various analytical tools can reduce such risks. Economic models based on calculations by dozens of experts of a number of macro- and micro-economic factors have been used to study the replacement of traditional energy technologies with already developed RES technologies. At the same time, simpler but more effective econometric methods are being developed, based on the data of real projects and allowing to conduct research for the recently launched RES technologies. The main purpose of this article is to substantiate one of such methodologies used to asses growth dynamics of developing offshore wind energy based on the example of Germany – the leading country in the North Sea basin.Methods: many foreign and domestic authoritative organizations have developed a number of fairly complex models in order to study the economic substitution processes in fuel and energy complexes of different countries, calculate trends and forecasts in this area. Such models take into account findings of dozens of experts focusing on various macro and micro economic parameters and factors, including GDP, growth of employment, welfare, trade and many others. However, econometric methods based on the study of learning curves and calculations of the present value of LCOE electricity according to real energy projects tend to be simpler and effective tool used in order to estimates the recently developed RES technologies for which substantial volumes of data have not yet developed. This article considers substantiation of such methodical and mathematical approaches used to evaluate the dynamics of the development of offshore wind energy technologies using the model "Times model", modified by the author.Results: the feasibility analysis of using

  11. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  12. Evaluation of energy efficiency efforts of oil and gas offshore processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    the energy performance of these facilities, by decreasing the power and heating requirements and designing more efficient processes. Several technologies that have been proposed are to (i) promote energy integration within the oil and gas processing plant, (ii) add an additional pressure extraction level......, (iii) implement multiphase expanders, and (iv) install a waste heat recovery system. The present work builds on two case studies located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The findings suggest that no generic improvement can...

  13. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-20

    This is the repository for Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS), which is an open source operating system that is engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. BEMOSS offers the following key features: (1) Open source, open architecture – BEMOSS is an open source operating system that is built upon VOLTTRON – a distributed agent platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). BEMOSS was designed to make it easy for hardware manufacturers to seamlessly interface their devices with BEMOSS. Software developers can also contribute to adding additional BEMOSS functionalities and applications. (2) Plug & play – BEMOSS was designed to automatically discover supported load controllers (including smart thermostats, VAV/RTUs, lighting load controllers and plug load controllers) in commercial buildings. (3) Interoperability – BEMOSS was designed to work with load control devices form different manufacturers that operate on different communication technologies and data exchange protocols. (4) Cost effectiveness – Implementation of BEMOSS deemed to be cost-effective as it was built upon a robust open source platform that can operate on a low-cost single-board computer, such as Odroid. This feature could contribute to its rapid deployment in small- or medium-sized commercial buildings. (5) Scalability and ease of deployment – With its multi-node architecture, BEMOSS provides a distributed architecture where load controllers in a multi-floor and high occupancy building could be monitored and controlled by multiple single-board computers hosting BEMOSS. This makes it possible for a building engineer to deploy BEMOSS in one zone of a building, be comfortable with its operation, and later on expand the deployment to the entire building to make it more energy efficient. (6) Ability to provide local and remote monitoring – BEMOSS provides both local and remote monitoring

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gross

    turn, will provide some guidance for wind power developers and policy makers to prepare and adapt for climate change impacts on wind energy production. Although offshore locations around Mexico were used as a case study, the dataset is global and hence the methodology presented can be readily applied at any desired location.

  15. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Magar, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    some guidance for wind power developers and policy makers to prepare and adapt for climate change impacts on wind energy production. Although offshore locations around Mexico were used as a case study, the dataset is global and hence the methodology presented can be readily applied at any desired location.

  16. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Magar, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    provide some guidance for wind power developers and policy makers to prepare and adapt for climate change impacts on wind energy production. Although offshore locations around Mexico were used as a case study, the dataset is global and hence the methodology presented can be readily applied at any desired location. PMID:27788208

  17. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  18. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.

    2013-01-01

    -related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas......Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal....... Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once...

  19. Specification of Instrumentation of Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the exp......Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based...

  20. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  1. Marine Benthic Habitats and Seabed Suitability Mapping for Potential Ocean Current Energy Siting Offshore Southeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mulcan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the legal framework for ocean current energy policy and regulation to develop a metric for assessing the biological and geological characteristics of a seabed area with respect to the siting of OCE devices, a framework of criteria by which to assess seabed suitability (seabed suitability framework that can facilitate the siting, and implementation of ocean current energy (OCE projects. Seafloor geology and benthic biological data were analyzed in conjunction with seafloor core sample geostatistical interpolation to locate suitable substrates for OCE anchoring. Existing submarine cable pathways were considered to determine pathways for power transmission cables that circumvent biologically sensitive areas. Suitability analysis indicates that areas east of the Miami Terrace and north of recently identified deep-sea coral mounds are the most appropriate for OCE siting due to abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biological presence (i.e., little to no benthic communities. Further reconnaissance requires higher resolution maps of geological substrate and benthic community locations to identify specific OCE development locations, classify benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts.

  2. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  3. An online low energy gaseous ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shuoxue; Guo Liping; Peng Guoliang; Zhang Jiaolong; Yang Zheng; Li Ming; Liu Chuansheng; Ju Xin; Liu Shi

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of helium and/or hydrogen in nuclear materials may cause performance deterioration of the materials. In order to provide a unique tool to investigate the He-and/or H-caused problems, such as interaction of helium with hydrogen and defects, formation of gas bubbles and its evolution, and the related effects, we designed a low energy (≤ 20 keV) cold cathode Penning ion source, which will be interfaced to a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM), for monitoring continuously the evolution of micro-structure during the He + or H + ion implantation. Studies on discharge voltage-current characteristics of the ion source, and extraction and focusing of the ion beam were performed. The ion source works stably with 15-60 mA of the discharge current.Under the gas pressure of 5 x 10 -3 Pa and 1.5 x 10 -2 Pa, the discharge voltage are about 380 V and 320 V, respectively. The extracted ion current under lower gas pressure is greater than that under higher gas pressure, and it increases with the discharge current and extraction voltage. The ion lens consisting of three equal-diameter metal cylinder focus the ion beam effectively, so that the beam density at the 150 cm away from the lens exit increases by a over one order of magnitude. For ion beams of around 10 keV, the measured beam density is about 200 nA · cm -2 , which is applicable for ion implantation and in situ TEM observation for many kinds of nuclear materials. (authors)

  4. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  5. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  6. CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Montlaur, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses novel CFD techniques to compute offshore wind and tidal applications. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are regarded as the main design tool to explore the new engineering challenges presented by offshore wind and tidal turbines for energy generation. The difficulty and costs of undertaking experimental tests in offshore environments have increased the interest in the field of CFD which is used to design appropriate turbines and blades, understand fluid flow physical phenomena associated with offshore environments, predict power production or characterise offshore environments, amongst other topics.

  7. Spatial structure of kinetic energy spectra in LES simulations of flow in an offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Wolf-Gerrit; Creech, Angus

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of wind turbine and wind farm wakes was investigated numerically for the case of Lillgrund wind farm consisting of a tightly packed array of 48 turbines. The simulations for a number of wind directions at a free wind speed of just under the rated wind speed in a neutrally stable atmosphere were carried out using Large-Eddy Simulations with the adaptive Finite-Element CFD solver Fluidity. The results were interpolated from the irregularly spaced mesh nodes onto a regular grid with comparable spatial resolution at horizontal slices at various heights. To investigate the development of the wake as the flow evolves through the array, spectra of the kinetic energy in sections perpendicular to the wind directions within the wake and to the sides of the array were calculated. This paper will present the key features and spectral slopes of the flow as a function of downstream distance from the front turbine through and beyond the array. The main focus will be on the modification of the spectra as the flow crosses a row of turbines followed by its decay in the run-up to the next row, but we will also present to wake decay of the wind farm wake downstream of the array.

  8. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  9. Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    A corporation’s offshore outsourcing may be seen as the result of a discrete, strategic decision taken in response to an increasing pressure from worldwide competition. However, empirical evidence of a representative cross-sector sample of international Danish firms indicates that offshore sourcing...... in low-cost countries is best described as a learning-by-doing process in which the offshore outsourcing of a corporation goes through a sequence of stages towards sourcing for innovation. Initially, a corporation’s outsourcing is driven by a desire for cost minimization. Over a period of time...... the outsourcing experience lessens the cognitive limitations of decision-makers as to the advantages that can be achieved through outsourcing in low-cost countries: the insourcer/vendor may not only offer cost advantages, but also quality improvement and innovation. The quality improvements that offshore...

  10. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO 2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  11. Approches pour la reduction de l'impact de defaut dans le transport d'energie du parc eolien offshore via VSC-HVDC =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadja, Mounir

    Dans ce travail est presente un systeme de generation d'energie d'un parc eolien offshore et un systeme de transport utilisant les stations VSC-HVDC connectees au reseau principal AC onshore. Trois configurations ont ete etudiees, modelisees et validees par simulation. Dans chacune des configurations, des contributions ameliorant les cotes techniques et economiques sont decrites ci-dessous : La premiere contribution concerne un nouvel algorithme MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) utilise pour l'extraction de la puissance maximale disponible dans les eoliennes des parcs offshores. Cette technique d'extraction du MPPT ameliore le rendement energetique de la chaine de conversion des energies renouvelables notamment l'energie eolienne a petite et a grande echelles (parc eolien offshore) qui constitue un probleme pour les constructeurs qui se trouvent confrontes a developper des dispositifs MPPT simples, moins couteux, robustes, fiables et capable d'obtenir un rendement energetique maximal. La deuxieme contribution concerne la reduction de la taille, du cout et de l'impact des defauts electriques (AC et DC) dans le systeme construit pour transporter l'energie d'un parc eolien offshore (OWF) vers le reseau principal AC onshore via deux stations 3L-NPC VSCHVDC. La solution developpee utilise des observateurs non-lineaires bases sur le filtre de Kalman etendu (EKF). Ce filtre permet d'estimer la vitesse de rotation et la position du rotor de chacune des generatrices du parc eolien offshore et de la tension du bus DC de l'onduleur DC-AC offshore et des deux stations 3L-NPC-VSC-HVDC (offshore et onshore). De plus, ce developpement du filtre de Kalman etendu a permis de reduire l'impact des defauts AC et DC. Deux commandes ont ete utilisees, l'une (commande indirect dans le plan abc) avec EKF integre destinee pour controler le convertisseur DC-AC offshore et l'autre (commande d-q) avec EKF integre pour controler les convertisseurs des deux stations AC-DC et DC-AC tout en

  12. Voltage margin control for offshore multi-use platform integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mier, V.; Casielles, P.G.; Koto, J.

    This paper discusses a multiterminal direct current (MTDC) connection proposed for integration of offshore multi-use platforms into continental grids. Voltage source converters (VSC) were selected for their suitability for multiterminal dc systems and for their flexibility in control. A five...... terminal VSC-MTDC which includes offshore generation, storage, loads and ac connection, was modeled and simulated in DigSILENT Power Factory software. Voltage margin method has been used for reliable operation of the MTDC system without the need of fast communication. Simulation results show......, sell or store energy attending to the price in the electricity market....

  13. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Hvenekær Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Offshore vindenergi er i høj grad modnet i det seneste årti med en årligt installeret kapacitet på mere end1 GW. En vigtig faktor for den videre udvikling af offshore vindenergi i stor målestok, er en reduktion af de samlede udgifter til produceret energi. I betragtning af for eksempel faldet i olieprisen siden sommeren 2014 og dens fortsatte fald ind i 2015, er det endnu vigtigere at sænke omkostningerne til etablering af vedvarende energikilder såsom offshore vindenergi, for at nå frem til ...

  14. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  15. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  16. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  17. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ente Vasco de la Energia

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined

  18. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  19. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  20. Development of Offshore Wind Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind power development target as initially proposed in "The 12=Five-Year" on energy recourses development and renewable energy recourses currently under development is to reach 5m KW by 2015 and 30m KW by 2020. With the unfolding of offshore wind turbine planning from different areas, the curtain of offshore wind power development for our country's "The 12=Five-Year" has been opened.

  1. Renewable energy sources for tenable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manazza, G.

    1992-01-01

    Planning criteria for feasible tenable development strategies for industrialized and developing countries are discussed. Attention is given to the role to be played by industrial countries in renewable energy source development and technology transfer to curb the onslaught of global greenhouse effects related environmental problems. The paper cautions against the use of the expression 'tenable' in combination with 'growth'. It recommends, instead, the substitution of the expression, 'tenable growth', which implies the indefinite growth of something which is physical, with 'tenable development', a preferred term, since it denotes the realization of an optimum strategy, compatible with environmental ecosystems, for the betterment of living conditions. An assessment is made of the overall social-economic impacts of such a strategy on the proposed European free trade market and on developing countries struggling to survive in a fiercely competitive world. Here, the paper notes that, for the effective implementation of a tenable development strategy, it is of prime importance to make optimum use of the education system to instil a new set of social values and modify individual behaviour relative to the development and use of natural resources

  2. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  3. Foster alternate sources of energy or perish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    With proper planning, load identification and community sharing, the energy requirements of the non-commercial sector can be left to the renewable energy resources. Of course, the day is not far off when the world energy demand shall fully count on the renewable energy resources of the world. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  4. Energy sources taxes. 1989-1992 Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pery, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    Owing to the development of nuclear power industry and energy conservation, the french energy independence has well progressed since 1973. But french imports are still higher than 50 percent of energy consumption in the country and important uncertainties exist such the cost of energy supply or the risks of supply disruption. This paper describes energy fiscal policy and taxes in France and its development possibilities

  5. Source composition of cosmic rays at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliusson, E.; Cesarsky, C.J.; Meneguzzi, M.; Casse, M.

    1975-01-01

    The source composition of the cosmic ray is usually calculated at an energy of a few GeV per nucleon. Recent measurements have however indicated that the source composition may be energy dependent. In order to give a quantitative answer to this question the source composition at 50GeV/nucleon has been calculated using an exponential distribution of path lengths and in the slab approximation. The results obtained at high energy agree very well with the source composition obtained at lower energies, except the abundance of carbon which is significantly lower than the generally accepted value of low energies [fr

  6. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  7. 76 FR 76174 - Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry-Auction Format...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ``Multiple Factor Auctions,'' in which non- financial considerations are taken into account at the outset. If... tends to award leases to developers with good financial backing. Because the winning bidders would need... variations of the package auction format merit consideration for leasing packages of lots for offshore...

  8. A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryan, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Albertani, Roberto [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering; Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2016-07-15

    Wind energy production in the U.S. is projected to increase to 35% of our nation’s energy by 2050. This substantial increase in the U.S. is only a portion of the global wind industry growth, as many countries strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A major environmental concern and potential market barrier for expansion of wind energy is bird and bat mortality from impacts with turbine blades, towers, and nacelles. Carcass surveys are the standard protocol for quantifying mortality at onshore sites. This method is imperfect, however, due to survey frequency at remote sites, removal of carcasses by scavengers between surveys, searcher efficiency, and other biases as well as delays of days to weeks or more in obtaining information on collision events. Furthermore, carcass surveys are not feasible at offshore wind energy sites. Near-real-time detection and quantification of interaction rates is possible at both onshore and offshore wind facilities using an onboard, integrated sensor package with data transmitted to central processing centers. We developed and experimentally tested an array of sensors that continuously monitors for interactions (including impacts) of birds and bats with wind turbines. The synchronized array includes three sensor nodes: (1) vibration (accelerometers and contact microphones), (2) optical (visual and infrared spectrum cameras), and (3) bioacoustics (acoustic and ultrasonic microphones). Accelerometers and contact acoustic microphones are placed at the root of each blade to detect impact vibrations and sound waves propagating through the structure. On-board data processing algorithms using wavelet analysis detect impact signals exceeding background vibration. Stereo-visual and infrared cameras were placed on the nacelle to allow target tracking, distance, and size calculations. On-board image processing and target detection algorithms identify moving targets within the camera field of view. Bioacoustic recorders monitor vocalizations

  9. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  10. Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Samuel, Anand A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

  11. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  12. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  13. Offshore VSC-HVDC Networks : Impact on Transient Stability of AC Transmission Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition towards a sustainable society calls for the massive deployment of renewable energy sources such as large wind parks located far offshore. High-voltage direct current transmission based on voltage sourced converter technology (VSC-HVDC) offers a wide range of technological benefits

  14. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  15. Discovery of siderite in marine sediment: Source and effect of violent gas venting at the Tsanyao Mud Volcano, offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y.; Lin, S.; Hsieh, I. C.; Lien, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Tsanyao mud volcano is a 400 meters high, 5 kilometers in diameter, a center crater of 50 meters width activing venting mud diapir. The gigantic size of mud volcano indicate massive transportation of material, i.e., gas, fluid, and breccia from deep to the sea floor in building up the mud volcano. The mud volcano is located at the upper slope of the accretionary wedge with a surrounding water depth of about xx m, offshore Southwestern Taiwan. On shore, a series of active mud volcanos also exist in a trend similar to those found offshore. In order to understand sources of gas, fluid, solid materials and the effect of gas migration and associate authigenic mineral formation, we have obtained multibeam bathymetry, water column echo sounding, together with sediment XRD and SEM and pore water composition of methane, sulfide, sulfate, chloride, potassium, lithium, boron, and water O-18 at the study mud volcano. We have observed more than 30 flares around the main cone within a perimeter of 10 square miles. δ13C values of methane in the pore water ranged from -30 to -50 ‰. The lower C13 ratios, together with high C2+/C1 ratios demonstrated that vent gas is mostly thermogenic in origin. Higher thermal gradient and water temperature indicated that cone top is unfavorable for gas-hydrate formation, however, gas hydrate may exist at a deeper part of the mud volcano system. High concentration of sulfide presence right near the sulfate-methane interface, a result of anoxic methane oxidation. However, low concentrations of pyrite in sediments indicated that AOM did not favor pyrite formation at depth. In addition, abundant siderite were found in the sediments collected in the mud volcano cone. Rapid consumption of sulfate through AOM reaction generated a condition favor the siderite fomation, instead of the typical pyrite formation commonly observed.

  16. An assessment of the environmental effects of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on the development of an approach to the formal environmental assessment of large-scale offshore wind farms around the UK coast which will be required by EU Directives. The legislative background and policy framework are outlined, and key issues to be addressed in the environmental assessment are highlighted. Available information on the manufacture and transportation of wind farm equipment, turbine and cable installation, operation of an offshore wind farm, and wind farm decommissioning is reviewed and recommendations are given. The role of offshore wind power in meeting the UK's commitment to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and its targets for generating 10% of the UK's electricity from renewable energy sources is discussed.

  17. 10 CFR 150.7 - Persons in offshore waters not exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons in offshore waters not exempt. 150.7 Section 150.7... AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Offshore Waters § 150.7 Persons in offshore waters not exempt. Persons in offshore waters are not exempt...

  18. Energy. From natural sources to production challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Human beings have always needed energy to feed themselves and move about. Energy can be found in various forms. Today's technologies are capable of tapping all possible resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, wind, sun) to produce large quantities of energy. Now, at the start of the 21. century, energy remains essential for mankind. It represents a major political, economic, scientific and environmental challenge. Of the many properties found in material objects, energy is not only one of the most important but also one of the most abstract, since it is not actually tangible. (authors)

  19. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Pignotti, S.

    2000-01-01

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion [it

  20. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  1. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  2. Coupled Simulations of Wind Turbines and Offshore Support Structures : Strategies based on the Dynamic Substructuring Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, P.L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Large scale offshore wind power has been recognized as a key technology to increase the share of renewable energy. However, as this energy source is currently still relatively expensive, efforts are made to significantly reduce its costs. Cost reductions are to be achieved, for instance, by

  3. The economics of offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  4. The economics of offshore wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas [Department of Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  5. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  6. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  7. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  8. 天津近海风能资源的高分辨率数值模拟与评估%High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Assessment of the Offshore Wind Energy Resource in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳娟; 李明财; 任雨; 熊明明

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy is a rapidly growing alternative energy source and has been widely developed around the world over the last 10 years. Offshore wind power generation is now becoming a new trend in the development of future wind power generation because wind tends to blow faster and be more uniform over offshore areas than on the land. Accurate assessment of wind energy resource is fundamental and valuable for wind energy developers and potential wind energy users because it allows them to choose a general area of the estimated high wind resource for more detailed examination. However, it is difficult to make direct observations from meteorological variables over offshore areas, which calls for numerical simulation with high resolution so as to derive the availability and potential of wind energy. The distribution of wind energy resources with 1 km horizontal resolution and 10 m vertical resolution in Tianjin coastal areas was simulated using the numerical model MM5 and Calmet to derive wind energy potential over the offshore areas. In addition, the simulation efficiency was determined by comparing observation data with three wind-measurement towers over the same period. Results show that the annual mean wind speed and trend of daily mean wind speed were simulated well, and the relative deviations between observations and simulated values at three wind measurement towers were 7.11%, 12.99%, and 6.14%, respectively. This suggests that the models are effective in assessing the offshore wind energy resource in Tianjin. The long time wind energy resource was obtained by comparing simulated year’s and recent 20 years’ mean wind speed. It was found that annual mean wind speed is (6.6~7.0)m/s, and annual mean wind power density is above 340w/m2, which indicate that the offshore wind energy resource in Tianjin is exploitable and could be used for grid-connected power generation. The assessment shows that the MM5/Calmet model is capable of providing reasonable wind status

  9. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the effects...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms.......Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...

  10. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonescu, S.; Garjoaba, M.; Antonescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  11. Multi-Source Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Nodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increasing interest in the development of wireless sensor networks. But the unsatisfactory or limited available energy source is one of the major bottlenecks which are limiting the wireless sensor technology from mass deployment. Ambient energy harvesting is the most promising solution towards autonomous sensor nodes by providing low cost, permanent, and maintenance-free energy source to wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we first invested available energy s...

  12. Sustainable biotechnology: sources of renewable energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Om V; Harvey, Steven P

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anuj K. Chandel, Om V. Singh, and L.Venkateswar Rao 63 Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James J. Valdes and Jerry B. Warner...

  13. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  14. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  15. Feasibility study of offshore wind turbine installation in Iran compared with the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafaeipour, Ali [Industrial Engineering Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energies have potential for supplying of relatively clean and mostly local energy. Wind energy generation is expected to increase in the near future and has experienced dramatic growth over the past decade in many countries. Offshore winds are generally stronger and more constant than onshore winds in many areas. The economic feasibility for utilization of offshore wind energy depends on the favorable wind conditions in the area. The present paper analyses offshore wind speed in global scale and also studies feasibility of introducing this technology for harnessing wind in Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea, Urmia Lake and Gulf of Oman. Wind speed data were collected from different sources. The ocean surface winds at a 10 m height from satellite passes as processed by NOAA/NESDIS, from near real-time data collected by NASA/JPL's Sea Winds Scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT. Development of renewable energy is one of priority research goals in Iran. There are many installed wind turbines in suitable regions like Manjil and Binalood, but there has not been any offshore wind installation yet in Iran. It is suggested that policy makers to invest and pay more attentions toward harnessing renewable energy sources like offshore wind in Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern parts of Iran. (author)

  16. The potential of new renewable energy sources in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, P.; Kaiser, T.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of an evaluation made by the so-called 'Swiss Energy Trialogue' ETS on the potential offered by new renewable energy sources in Switzerland. The evaluation forecasts an important contribution to Swiss energy supply by renewable energy sources by the year 2050. The authors are of the opinion that, in spite of a considerable increase in the offers of renewable energy and the full use of energy saving potential, a discrepancy will exist between estimates of energy needs and the actual energy available from renewable resources if large-scale power generation facilities are not built. Activities proposed by the Swiss government are discussed and analysed. In particular, possible contributions to be made by renewable energy sources are examined. Suggestions made by ETS concerning possible courses of action are discussed

  17. Wave Run-Up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; De Vos, Leen

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, several offshore wind-farms are built and offshore wind energy promises to be a suitable alternative to provide green energy. However, there still are some engineering challenges in placing the wind turbine foundations offshore. For example, unexpected damage to boat landing...

  18. Integration of new distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Bakken, Bjoern H.; Hetland, Jens

    2001-01-01

    In years with average runoff, Norway will be a net importer of electric power. The use of electric energy is not declining and so the gap between supply and demand is increasing. A large-scale increase of the production of new hydroelectric power is unlikely for political reasons. Gas power by today's technology is controversial and basing the national energy supply on import is undesirable. It is possible to concentrate on decentralized electricity production in small units. On the supply side, increased taxation can be used to reduce consumption; but this may hit unfairly. Direct regulation to limit consumption is undesirable in a free market. One solution on the consumer side may be a more flexible energy use by way of new technology, incorporating thermal energy. Research and development in a united energy sector is needed to realize the potential of small combined heating and power units connected to the existing system. Some efforts have already been made

  19. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2001-01-01

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  20. Sable Offshore Energy Inc.: Response to 'The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board Benefits Plan Decision Report' Condition No. 3: Employment and Training Plan; Condition No. 4: Research and Development Plan; Condition No. 6: Disadvantaged Individual or Groups; Condition No. 7: Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Decisions of the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, regarding the responses of Sable Offshore Energy Inc (SOEI) to conditions imposed by the Board in the Sable Offshore Energy Project Canada-Nova Scotia Benefit Plan Decision Report, have been announced. According to the press release (copy attached), the Board accepted the responses of SOEI regarding the establishment and staffing of an office in Nova Scotia for the implementation and project management and training of project personnel, the level of expenditures for research and development to be undertaken in Nova Scotia, proposed initiatives for employment and training opportunities for disadvantaged individuals and groups, and a technology transfer plan that will facilitate succession planning and create joint venturing opportunities for Nova Scotian and Canadian industry. tabs., figs

  1. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  2. Spent grain as energy source for breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, P; Meyer-Pittroff, R [Technical Univ. of Munich, Freising (West Germany)

    1990-01-01

    About 1.7 million tons of spent grain are produced from brewing operations each year in the Federal Republic of Germany. Because there is more spent grain than can be sold as cattle fodder, other uses for this product are being sought. These include composting, methane generation, and direct combustion. Researchers are using anaerobic fermentation as a means of producing biogas and using waste energy from the brewery to heat the fermenter. Combustion of spent grain can give a net energy of 12.8 MJ per kg dry grain. With biogas production, about 15-20% of the whole primary energy or 50% of the primary energy used in the boiling house could be substituted by the biogas.

  3. Non-conventional sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhishikar, Subhash

    1993-01-01

    The article describes flat plate solar collector, concentration solar collector, applications of solar energy, biomass gasification process, and biomass fueled Stirling engine. Cost aspect is also considered. (M.G.B). 3 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  5. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems [it

  6. Comparing nuclear power with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco C.

    2001-01-01

    The economics of electric generation of nuclear, hydro, oil and gas origin are compared. A similar comparison is also made from the health and environment standpoint for the fossil, nuclear, solar and wind generation. A risk assessment for energies of different origin is outlined and the significance of the greenhouse effect is emphasised. A comprehensive economic and environmental evaluation is recommended for the energy planning

  7. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  8. Component for articulated offshore loading towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.

    1980-09-01

    The construction of offshore natural gas liquefaction plants must be regarded as technically feasible and the marketing prospects for LNG - a source of clean burning energy - appear excellent. Nevertheless, the optimum loading procedure for LNG tankers in the - sometimes adverse - offshore environment is still a matter under discussion by the experts - with a tendency to adopt and adapt well-proven components from the offshore crude oil sector. Here, articulated towers are in use for tankerloading and the crude oil is pumped at ambient temperature through the cardan joint of the tower itself. In the case of the cryogenic liquid LNG, this method would entail intolerable risks. Leaks and subsequent LNG spills within the tower joint will cause low temperature-embrittlement and most likely damage the cardan connection at the tower's base plate on the sea bed. The described submarine joint for ultra-cold liquids, which has the same cardanic properties as the cardan joint of the tower is completely separated from the latter. Thus a cryogenic leakage in this submarine joint will under no circumstance reach and affect the tower cardan.

  9. 27-Level DC–AC inverter with single energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper reports a novel 27-level DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source. ► The efficiency of the inverter is very high. The output waveform is almost sinusoidal. ► The cost is low as the number of power switches required is only 12. - Abstract: A novel design of multilevel DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source is presented in this paper. The proposed approach enables multilevel output to be realised by a few cascaded H-bridges and a single energy source. As an illustration, a 27-level inverter has been implemented based on three cascaded H-bridges with a single energy source and two capacitors. Using the proposed novel switching strategy, 27 levels can be realized and the two virtual energy sources can be well regulated. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed inverter.

  10. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  11. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umapathaiah, R.; Sharma, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  12. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M.; Parsons, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  13. Potentials of a hybrid offshore farm for the island of Fuerteventura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veigas, M.; Iglesias, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The island is committed to reduce its CO 2 emissions by developing renewable energy. • A hybrid wave-wind farm is proposed for taking advantage of both resources. • The energy output by means of the hybrid farm is quantified. • The impact caused on the nearshore wave climate was also investigated. - Abstract: The island of Fuerteventura (Spain), on its way towards energy self-sufficiency, is investing in renewable sources to produce green energy. In this manner the island, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, would be able to decrease its carbon footprint. Considering these goals, the main objective of this work is to investigate the output energy from renewable energy sources, and in particular, wave and offshore wind by means of the installation of a hybrid offshore wave-wind farm off the western coast of the island, where the resource is substantial. The farm, consisting of offshore wind turbines and co-located wave energy converters (WECs), would realise the synergies between wave and offshore wind energy. As a second objective, the impact caused on the nearshore climate in terms of deficit of wave height is investigated by means of the implementation of the SWAN model. It is found that, on the one hand, the impact generated is not very noticeable, and on the other hand, the produced energy constitutes an excellent approach to satisfying the energy needs of the island

  14. Nuclear power: an eco friendly energy source for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Singh, Om Pal

    2009-01-01

    When viewed from a large set of criteria such as abundance of energy resources, environmental impacts, low fuel inventory, quantum of waste generated and green house gas emissions, nuclear power can be considered as a large scale sustainable energy source. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment, especially in relation to kilowatt-hr produced, because nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases and produce small quantity of waste. In other words, nuclear energy is the most environmental friendly electricity source. There are no significant adverse effects to water, land, habitat, species and air resources. The present paper discusses the sustainability and feasibility of nuclear power as an eco friendly energy source in the changing and challenging competitive power market. (author)

  15. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  16. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The nuclear energy in the frame of the energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogas, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the different technological alternatives for addressing the energy challenges of our society (security of supply, competitiveness and sustain ability), emphasizing the need for nuclear energy to achieving those goals. Recently, the view of society about nuclear power has shifted from a position of outright hostility towards an acceptance still not totally defined. That is so, that people of environmentalism as the founders of Green peace James Love lock, Patrick Moore or the writer Gwyneth Cravens have said that nuclear energy is the option to produce energy that less increases CO 2 emissions, and that without it targets for reduction may not meet. (Author) 4 refs

  18. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, M.; Benjamin, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  19. Energy research and energy technologies. Fossil energy sources. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    After an introduction into the research programme and an overview of the sponsored projects, the main part of the book gives a description of the projects in the research area fossile energy sources. Several indexes provide access to this comprehensive compilation: a project number index, an index of interconnected projects, and an index of companies. The organization plan of ''BEO'', the project group biology, energy, ecology, is appended. (UA) [de

  20. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  1. Danish offshore wind - Key environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Danish experience from the past 15 years shows that offshore wind farms, if placed right, can be engineered and operated without significant damage to the marine environment and vulnerable species. The comprehensive environmental monitoring programmes of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm confirm that, under the rieght conditions, even big wind farms pose low risk to birds, mammals and fish, even though there will be changes in the living conditions of some species by an increase in habitat heterogeneity. The monitoring also shows that appropriate siting of offshore wind farms is an essential precondition for ensuring limited impact on nature and the environment, and that careful spatial planning is necessary to avoid damaging cumulative impacts. Due consideration to limiting the impacts on nature together with positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms in local communities and challenging energy policy objectives at national and international levels mean that prospects look bright for future offshore expansion. (au)

  2. CFD simulation of energy sources in EAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Büyükkaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of energy production and heat transfer by carbon combustion and electrical arc is performed using Fluent computational fluid dynamic (CFD software in this manuscript. The heat energy generated by carbon burning and electric arc radiation during combustion of the scrap in the EAO has been examined in detail. For this reason, modeling studies have utilized the combustion reactions of carbon particles and electromagnetically emitted radiation. Firstly, particle surface and gas reactions are investigated in terms of injected carbon burning. The result of the chemical reaction at the burner outlet is about 3000 K of the core temperature during combustion. It has been determined that the temperature which acts on the slag is 2200 K. The radiation temperature was found to be highest in the area under the electrodes and fell to 1850 K in the area where the melt was poured. Under steady operating conditions, it was seen that electric energy was absorbed by about 5.5% of the electrodes. As a result of this study, CFD software can be used to model combustion and radiation and energy generation and heat transfer for an electric arc furnace at the design study.

  3. Methane hydrates. An overlooked energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, R.; Castellazzi, L.; Bassano, C.

    2001-01-01

    A virtually unthought-of world energy reserve, at least twice as large as known fossil-fuel reserves, opens new opportunities and deserves investments in research on methods for discovering and exploiting deposits, and in the development of relevant technologies [it

  4. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  5. Coastal effects of offshore energy systems. An assessment of oil and gas systems, deepwater ports, and nuclear power plants off the coast of New Jersey and Delaware. Volume II. Parts 1 and 2. Working papers 4 thru 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    This report consists of ten working papers prepared as background material for the assessment of the effects of three proposed offshore energy systems on the coastal areas of New Jersey and Delaware. The three proposed offshore energy systems are: exploration for and development of offshore oil and gas, deepwater ports for supertankers, and floating nuclear powerplants. The 10 working papers cover: federal and state regulation of the three systems, the biological impacts, the risk of oil spills in developing oil and gas resources and operating deepwater ports, the air and water quality impacts, regional energy supply and demand considerations, the fiscal effects of developing the three systems, environmental studies, a safety analysis of floating nuclear powerplants, an analysis of fuel and waste handling of floating nuclear powerplants, and an analysis of the economic considerations of floating nuclear powerplants

  6. The potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Besides hydropower and biomass, solar energy and biomass are candidates for renewable sources of energy. The demand for biomass, solar energy and ambient heat has been rising in all spheres: from 6.8% in 1983 to about 10% in 1990. The development of the market for solar and heat pump systems is continuing its positive tendency. It is expected, that solar as well as heat pump technologies could provide substantial contribution to the energy supply in Austria. The technical usable potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria is analysed. (author)

  7. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  8. Synthetic seismograms in laterrally heterogeneous anelastic media: Modal summation for the case of offshore seismic sources (deep-sea trough)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Leonardo; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2001-12-01

    While waiting for the increment of strong motion data, especially for earthquake prone areas outside the United States and Japan, a very useful approach to perform immediate site specific seismic hazard assessment is the development and use of modelling tools. They are based, on one hand, on the theoretical knowledge of the physics of the seismic source and of wave propagation and, on the other hand, on the exploitation of the relatively rich database, already available, that can be used for the definition of the source and structural models. With these input data we model the ground motion using the mode-coupling approach for sharply varying laterally heterogeneous anelastic media, i.e. computing the coupling coefficients for the modes transmitted and reflected at the vertical interface, between two quarter spaces in welded contact. The formalism can be readily applied to any laterally heterogeneous structure by using a custom series of layered anelastic structures in welded contact at vertical interfaces. The case of seismic wave propagation in smooth varying laterally heterogeneous layered media, is solved with an approximation, equivalent to WKBJ method. The theoretical formulation that combines both WKBJ and the coupling coefficients approaches, is implemented in a computer program package. The computer code we have developed allows us to calculate synthetic seismograms for a wide range of laterally inhomogeneous layered anelastic media. As a case study we use an earthquake which occurred on December 16, 1999 (m b =4.8) beneath the Bartlett sea trough, south of Santiago de Cuba city, that was recorded by an accelerometer (SMA-100) placed in Rio Carpintero (RCC) station, at an epicentral distance of about 30 Km. The path travelled by the waves corresponds to a complex structure from undersea source to inland seismic station. A good fit between the observed transverse component (SH-waves) of acceleration and the corresponding synthetic signal is obtained for a

  9. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  10. Experience with voltage control from large offshore windfarms: The Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    and frequency control carried out at central, conventional power plants. Moreover, the control of some larger decentralized combined heat and power units is activated for voltage control and system balancing, which is specific for the Danish system. In the years to come, according to the government's goal...... of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the Danish power system, the share of large offshore windfarms in the Danish power generation mix will increase greatly, replacing central power plants, including their control characteristics during periods of strong winds. Large offshore windfarms must...... and switchable capacitor banks of the offshore wind turbines, which are smaller than those of central power plants measured per unit of the active power rating. Combine this with the use of AC cables, tens of kilometres long, to connect the large offshore windfarms to the on-land transmission system...

  11. Electrical Structure of Future Off-shore Wind Power Plant with a High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan

    The increasing demand of electric power and the growing consciousness towards the changing climate has led to a rapid development of renewable energy in the recent years. Among all, wind energy has been the fastest growing energy source in the last decade. But the growing size of wind power plants......, better wind conditions at off-shore and the general demand to put them out of sight have all contributed to the installation of large wind power plants in off-shore condition. However, moving wind power plants far out in the off-shore comes with many associated problems. One of the main challenges...... is the transmission of power over long distance. Historically, the power transmission from off-shore wind power plants has been done via HVAC submarine cables. This provides a simple solution, but AC cables cannot be arbitrarily long. It is shown in the report that major issues with HVAC cable transmission system...

  12. Tapping the zero-point energy as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by combining the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-organization. The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence. Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output

  13. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  14. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamptey, J.; Moo-Young, M.; Sullivan, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  16. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  17. Text-Mining and Gamification for the Qualification of Service Technicians in the Maintenance Industry of Offshore Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies Beinke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The competition of maintenance services in the offshore wind industry is continually increasing. The quality of the services acts as the distinguishing feature in the industry. Furthermore, there are public standards, which lead to the permanent necessity to offer further education and training programs for employees. To meet the requirements for further training in the specific field of application within the offshore wind industry, a gamified e-learning application has been developed and is introduced in this paper. It consists of a complete solution, which contains the automated analysis of service protocols to identify qualification needs, the involvement of service technicians in the generation of learning materials, the preparation, transmission as well as the further development of those materials in accordance with the principles of e-learning. Finally, the solution contains a gamified mobile application for qualification, which is designed to meet the individual learning needs of the service technicians. This concept paper follows a problem-centred approach. Based on the current state of technology and research, the problem and motivation are identified and the urgency is verified. Furthermore, a detailed specification of the solution and a first implementation approach is presented.

  18. Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km 2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed. [it

  19. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  20. Dynamic droop scheme considering effect of intermittent renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic droop control scheme for islanded microgrids dominated by intermittent renewable energy sources, which is able to perform desirable power sharing in the presence of renewable energy source fluctuation. First, allowable maximum power points of wind generator and PV...... flexibility and effectiveness in the presence of the renewable energy sources fluctuation....... controller of each DG unit is activated through local logic variable inferred by wind speed and solar insolation information. Simulation results are given for validating the droop control scheme. The proposed dynamic droop scheme preserves the advantage of conventional droop control method, and provides...