WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy solutions class

  1. A class of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Kugler, M.

    1980-09-01

    We investigate a class of solutions of the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. The symmetry of this class prescribes a natural set of gauge invariant degrees of freedom. Using these degrees of freedom we obtain a simple set of equations which enables us to find all the solutions belonging to the class under discussion. (Author)

  2. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  3. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  4. Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.

  5. A Class of Quasi-exact Solutions of Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Yao Youkun; Xie Mingxia; Han Wenjuan; Draayer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A class of quasi-exact solutions of the Rabi Hamiltonian, which describes a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode radiation field via a dipole interaction without the rotating-wave approximation, are obtained by using a wavefunction ansatz. Exact solutions for part of the spectrum are obtained when the atom-field coupling strength and the field frequency satisfy certain relations. As an example, the lowest exact energy level and the corresponding atom-field entanglement at the quasi-exactly solvable point are calculated and compared to results from the Jaynes-Cummings and counter-rotating cases of the Rabi Hamiltonian.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  7. Alternative Energy Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, David E.; Berman, Marc J.; Breinlinger, Helmut; Gilly, Ladina; Graves, Sam; Kovatch, Patricia; Kulesza, Pete; Martinez, Dave; Minyard, Tommy; Prucnal, Dave; Seager, Mark; Vadgama, Ash

    2011-03-19

    How can HPC centers reduce cost and environmental impact by making creative use of local natural resources? Energy efficiency inside the data center is only part of the story. In keeping with the principle of reduce, reuse, recycle, we should be able to take advantage of local resources to increase efficiency either at new or existing locations. Are there creative ways to reduce PUE below 1? Is a more meaningful way needed to express and measure the environmental effects of operating HPC centers? We will explore approaches such as sustainable energy sources, use of ambient external air or water temperatures, and reuse of "waste" heat.

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  9. Solutions for a class of iterated singular equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Euler) equation as special cases. In [1] and [2], Altın studied radial type solutions of a class of singular partial differential equations of even order and obtained Lord Kelvin principle for this class of equations. In [5], all radial type solutions of eq.

  10. Existence of Multiple Solutions for a Class of Biharmonic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By a symmetric Mountain Pass Theorem, a class of biharmonic equations with Navier type boundary value at the resonant and nonresonant case are discussed, and infinitely many solutions of the equations are obtained.

  11. Invariant Solutions for a Class of Perturbed Nonlinear Wave Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed A. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximate symmetries of a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations are computed using two newly-developed methods. Invariant solutions associated with the approximate symmetries are constructed for both methods. Symmetries and solutions are compared through discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  13. Existence and concentration of solution for a class of fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    36

    Existence and concentration of solution for a class of fractional Hamiltonian systems with subquadratic potential. César E. Torres Ledesma. Departamento de Matemáticas,. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Av. Juan Pablo II s/n Trujillo, Perú. (ctl 576@yahoo.es, ctorres@dim.uchile.cl). Abstract. In this article we consider the ...

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. Class of nonsingular exact solutions for Laplacian pattern formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev-Weinstein, M.B.; Dawson, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a class of exact solutions for the so-called Laplacian growth equation describing the zero-surface-tension limit of a variety of two-dimensional pattern formation problems. These solutions are free of finite-time singularities (cusps) for quite general initial conditions. They reproduce various features of viscous fingering observed in experiments and numerical simulations with surface tension, such as existence of stagnation points, screening, tip splitting, and coarsening. In certain cases the asymptotic interface consists of N separated moving Saffman-Taylor fingers

  20. Nuclear energy, energy of the future or bad solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document presents the speeches of the debate on the nuclear energy solution for the future, presented during the meeting of the 6 may in Rennes, in the framework of the National Debate on the energies. The debate concerns the risks assessment and control, the solutions for the radioactive wastes, the foreign examples and the future of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. District energy a global solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damecour, R.; Andersson, B. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the development of district energy systems throughout the world is provided. Significant district energy data is provided for Canada, the United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe and Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. The overall conclusion is that district energy systems are here to stay and have a good chance of succeeding provided that the concept has the support of business, municipalities and national governments. The 40 years old district heating system in Vasteras, Sweden, the oldest and most successful district energy system in the world, was highlighted.

  2. Nuclear energy, energy of the future or bad solution?; Energie nucleaire, energie d'avenir ou fausse solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The document presents the speeches of the debate on the nuclear energy solution for the future, presented during the meeting of the 6 may in Rennes, in the framework of the National Debate on the energies. The debate concerns the risks assessment and control, the solutions for the radioactive wastes, the foreign examples and the future of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  3. A class of exact classical solutions to string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A A

    2002-12-31

    We show that the recently obtained class of spacetimes for which all of the scalar curvature invariants vanish (which can be regarded as generalizations of pp-wave spacetimes) are exact solutions in string theory to all perturbative orders in the string tension scale. As a result the spectrum of the theory can be explicitly obtained, and these spacetimes are expected to provide some hints for the study of superstrings on more general backgrounds. Since these Lorentzian spacetimes suffer no quantum corrections to all loop orders they may also offer insights into quantum gravity.

  4. A new class of solutions for interstellar magnetohydrodynamic shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, W. G.; Draine, B. T.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the equations of motion for steady MHD shock waves proopagating in interstellar clouds, for boundary conditions that preclude C shocks. In addition to J shocks, in which the neutral fluid component becomes subsonic at an adiabatic jump front, the equations admit a new class of solutions, called C-asterisk shocks, in which the transition to subsonic flow occurs continuously at a sonic point. Numerical methods are developed for computing the structure of J and C-asterisk shocks propagating in diffuse interstellar clouds. The effects of chemical, ionization, and recombination processes are included in this treatment. An alternative numerical method, which uses artificial viscosity to facilitate integration through sonic points, is analyzed and shown to be invalid. A set of exemplary solutions, computed for realistic shock parameters, shows that C-asterisk shocks occur for a broad range of conditions relevant to diffuse interstellar clouds.

  5. A numerical solution for a class of time fractional diffusion equations with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenov Vladimir G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical scheme for a class of fractional diffusion equations with fixed time delay. The study focuses on the uniqueness, convergence and stability of the resulting numerical solution by means of the discrete energy method. The derivation of a linearized difference scheme with convergence order O(τ2−α+ h4 in L∞-norm is the main purpose of this study. Numerical experiments are carried out to support the obtained theoretical results.

  6. Complex Technical Solution for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex technical solution for implementing renewable energy, namely: wind, solar photovoltaic and hydraulics. Because wind and solar photovoltaic energy habe a highly random character, it is required to find solution to store the product energy for unfavorable periods, without wind or solar radiations. This could be achieved using the third type of renewable energy, the hydraulic one, obtained from an hydroelectric pumped storage plant (HPSP, located in the imediate vicinity of the wind and solar photovoltaic plant.

  7. Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines challenges involved in the integration of renewable energy into existing electricity grids. It provides models of power systems to show how the integration will effect conventional grids and various solutions to minimize the impacts.

  8. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  9. The nuclear energy: an ecological solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Comby, B.

    2001-10-01

    In the future the developing countries energy needs will increase considerably. How this demand can be satisfy with a protection policy of the environment and of the future generations? Some solutions are proposed with a special interest for the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Existence of positive weak solutions for a class of singular elliptic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we are concerned with positive solutions for a class of singular elliptic equations. Under some conditions, we obtain weak solutions for the equations by elliptic regularization method and sub-super solution method.

  11. One class of exact solutions of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations of incompressible liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyshev, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    A special class of exact solutions of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations of incompressible liquid is separated. New stationary and nonstationary non-potential solutions are obtained, including vortex solutions [ru

  12. Renewable Energy Resources: Solutions to Nigeria power and energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladan-Haruna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Power and energy, with particularly electricity remains the pivot of economical and social development of any country. In view of this fact, a research on how renewable energy resources can solve Nigeria power and energy needs was carried out. It has identified main issues such as inconsistence government policies, corruptions and lack of fund hindering the development of renewable and power sectors for sustainable energy supply. The capacity of alternative energy resources and technology [hydropower, wind power, biomass, photovoltaic (solar), and geothermal power] to solve Nigerian energy crisis cannot be over-emphasized as some countries of the world who have no petroleum resources, utilizes other alternatives or options to solves their power and energy requirement. This paper reviews the prospects, challenges and solutions to Nigeria energy needs using renewable sources for development as it boost industrialization and create job opportunities

  13. Exact, rotational, infinite energy, blowup solutions to the 3-dimensional Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Manwai

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we construct a new class of blowup or global solutions with elementary functions to the 3-dimensional compressible or incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. And the corresponding blowup or global solutions for the incompressible Euler and Naiver-Stokes equations are also given. Our constructed solutions are similar to the famous Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flow. The obtained solutions with infinite energy can exhibit the interesting behaviors locally. Furthermore, due to divu → =0 for the solutions, the solutions also work for the 3-dimensional incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. -- Highlights: → We construct a new class of solutions to the 3D compressible or incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. → The constructed solutions are similar to the famous Arnold-Beltrami-Childress flow. → The solutions with infinite energy can exhibit the interesting behaviors locally.

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  15. Absence Excuses in Freshman College Classes and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Class attendance is directly tied to student learning and student-faculty satisfaction. Although learning style and attitudes have evolved in college students of the internet generation, the reasons why students skip classes and assignments, and measures to improve the situation have not been comprehensively studied. Increased numbers of students…

  16. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  17. The nuclear energy: an ecological solution?; L'energie nucleaire: solution ecologique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M.; Comby, B. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2001-10-01

    In the future the developing countries energy needs will increase considerably. How this demand can be satisfy with a protection policy of the environment and of the future generations? Some solutions are proposed with a special interest for the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Existence and concentration of solution for a class of fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    36

    the following condition. (W3) W(t, u) = −W(t,−u) for all (t, u) ∈ R × Rn. Then problem (1.1) possesses infinitely many nontrivial solutions. In order to find infinitely many solutions of (1.1) under the assumptions of Theorem 5.1, we shall use the 'genus' properties. Therefore, we recall the following definition and result (see [15]).

  19. Solutions for a class of iterated singular equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The domain of the operator L is the set of all real-valued functions u(x) of the class. C2(D), where x = (x1,x2,...,xn) denotes points in Rn and D is the regularity domain of u in Rn. Note that (1) includes the Laplace equation and an equidimensional (Euler) equation as special cases. In [1] and [2], Altın studied radial type ...

  20. Extremal solutions of a class of dynamic boundary hemivariational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a semilinear initial boundary value problem in a bounded cylindrical domain under flux conditions described by Clarke's generalized gradient of some locally Lipschitz function . Our main goal is to prove the existence of extremal solutions within a sector formed by a pair of appropriately defined upper and lower solutions when the function is of d.c. type, which means that can be represented as the difference of convex functions , . The main tools used in the proofs are results on nonlinear evolution equations, compact embeddings, comparison, truncation and regularization techniques.

  1. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-10-01

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new `industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  2. Class-A mode-locked lasers: Fundamental solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Anton V.; Viktorov, Evgeny A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a delay differential equation (DDE) model for mode-locked operation in class-A semiconductor lasers containing both gain and absorber sections. The material processes are adiabatically eliminated as these are considered fast in comparison to the delay time for a long cavity device. We determine the steady states and analyze their bifurcations using DDE-BIFTOOL [Engelborghs et al., ACM Trans. Math. Software 28, 1 (2002)]. Multiple forms of coexistence, transformation, and hysteretic behavior of stable steady states and fundamental periodic regimes are discussed in bifurcation diagrams.

  3. The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy in the form of modified Chaplygin gas with variable Λ and G and bulk viscosity have been considered. We discuss three types of average scalefactor by using a special law for deceleration parameter which is linear in time with negative slope. The exact ...

  4. A Large Class of Exact Solutions to the One-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Bekir

    2007-01-01

    A remarkable property of a large class of functions is exploited to generate exact solutions to the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The method is simple and easy to implement. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  5. Sparse Solutions for Single Class SVMs: A Bi-Criterion Approach

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we propose an innovative learning algorithm - a variation of One-class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) learning algorithm to produce sparser solutions...

  6. Analytic solution to a class of integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Xie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the integro-differential equation $$ epsilon^2 y''(x+L(xmathcal{H}(y=N(epsilon,x,y,mathcal{H}(y, $$ where $mathcal{H}(y[x]=frac{1}{pi}(Pint_{-infty}^{infty} frac{y(t}{t-x}dt$ is the Hilbert transform. The existence and uniqueness of analytic solution in appropriately chosen space is proved. Our method consists of extending the equation to an appropriately chosen region in the complex plane, then use the Contraction Mapping Theorem.

  7. Wind Energy Solutions : to bring renewable energy everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigent, K.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided details of Wind Energy Solutions (WES) Canada's current activities and research innovations. Established initially in Holland in 2004, WES Canada's corporate activities include technology development; licensing, registration and approvals; product development; manufacturing and distribution; and global service and maintenance training. WES Canada is the exclusive importer of WES turbines for Canada and the United States, and offers turnkey wind energy solutions for local dealers and installers. WES product technology aims to provide flexible logistics, as well as to facilitate local production and project development. WES turbines range from 2.5 kW to 250 KW and are available for both on-site power generation and grid-connected applications. The presentation provided specifications for the WES 5 Tulipo wind turbine, a low noise level, low vibration turbine that provides 2 independent safety systems: a failsafe brake on fast shaft of gear; and emergency yawing. A series of photographs demonstrated the installation process of the Tulipo. It was noted that many WES turbines are used in farming applications, as the turbine fits easily on 1 truck, and is easy to install with a foundation made by a local contractor using WES technical drawings engineered for local soil conditions. The turbine is also suitable for factories, harbours, schools and remote villages. It was concluded that the turbines have been specifically engineered for cold climates, as an imbalance control will prevent operation when the blades have significant ice build-up. refs., tabs., figs

  8. 75 FR 76962 - Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. (MAG E.S... Gauthier, Director, MAG Energy Solutions, Inc., 1010 Sherbrooke Quest, Suite 800, Montreal, Quebec, Canada...

  9. A class of doubly periodic wave solutions for the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yanze

    2005-01-01

    A general solution including two arbitrary functions is first obtained for the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation by means of WTC truncation method. A class of doubly periodic wave solutions, which are expressed as rational functions of the Jacobi elliptic functions with different moduli, result from the general solution. Limit cases are considered and some new solitary structures are revealed. The interaction properties of periodic waves are numerically studied and found to be nonelastic. Under long wave limit, a two-dromion solution with the new solution structure is obtained and interaction between the two dromions is completely elastic

  10. Analytical approximate solutions for a general class of nonlinear delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Căruntu, Bogdan; Bota, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    We use the polynomial least squares method (PLSM), which allows us to compute analytical approximate polynomial solutions for a very general class of strongly nonlinear delay differential equations. The method is tested by computing approximate solutions for several applications including the pantograph equations and a nonlinear time-delay model from biology. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by a comparison with approximate solutions previously computed using other methods.

  11. New class of aggregates in aqueous solution: an NMR, thermodynamic, and dynamic light scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Cecilia; La Mesa, Camillo; Mannina, Luisa; Stano, Pasquale; Viel, Stéphane; Segre, Annalaura

    2006-07-04

    We investigated the aggregation properties of two classes of aromatic and hydrophobic compounds, namely chloroacetamides and ethyl 3-phenyl-2-nitropropionates, in moderately concentrated aqueous solution (millimolar range). The identification of all species present in solution under specific experimental conditions was performed by 1D and 2D NMR, pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR, and dynamic light scattering techniques. Some physical-chemical properties (viscosity, surface tension, and colligative properties) of the aqueous solutions were also determined. Both classes of compounds behave quite similarly: in solution, three distinct species, namely a monomeric species, small and mobile aggregates, and large and stiff aggregates, are observed. The results give insight into a new class of aggregates, held together by pi-pi interactions, which show an unusual associative behavior in water.

  12. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  13. WIND ENERGY – ECOSUSTAINABILITY ENGINEERING SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewables provides increased safety energy supply and limiting imports of energy resources, interms of sustainable economic development. The new requirements for sustainable development have determinedthe world to put the issue of energy production methods and increase the share of energy produced fromrenewable energy. This paper presents the history of wind power, advantages and disadvantages of renewableenergy, particularly wind energy as an alternative source of energy. Windmills can be horizontal axis or verticalaxis Savonius and Darrieus rotor. Latest innovations allow operation of variable speed wind turbines, or turbinespeed control based on wind speed. Wind energy is considered one of the most sustainable choices betweenvariants future wind resources are immense.

  14. Dark matter and dark energy solutions using by observational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, E. C. Gunay; Yilmaz, I.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we examine dark energy, dark matter and baryonic matter in FRW by observational evidences. Also we study our model by considering possible dark energy candidates such as Phantom energy. Obtained solutions show that dark energy candidate may be phantom energy depending on accuracy of today's observation.

  15. Seasonal sensible thermal energy storage solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal energy storage can be defined as the temporary storage of thermal energy at high or low temperatures. Thermal energy storage is an advances technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Seasonal thermal energy storage has a longer thermal storage period, generally three or more months. This can contribute significantly to meeting society`s need for heating and cooling. The objectives of thermal energy storage systems are to store solar heat collected in summer for space heating in winter. This concept is not new; it is been used and developed for centuries because is playing an important role in energy conservation and contribute significantly to improving the energy efficiency and reducing the gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. New class of inhomogeneous cosmological perfect-fluid solutions without big-bang singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senovilla, J.M.M. (Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria y Radiologia Medica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salmanaca (Spain))

    1990-05-07

    A new class of exact solutions to Einstein's field equations with a perfect-fluid source is presented. The solutions describe spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models and have a realistic equation of state {ital p}={rho}/3. The properties of the solutions are discussed. The most remarkable feature is the absence of an initial singularity, the curvature and matter invariants being regular and smooth everywhere. We also present an alternative interpretation of the solution as a globally regular cylindrically symmetric space-time.

  17. Uniqueness of self-similar solutions to the network flow in a given topological class

    OpenAIRE

    Trumper, Mariel Sáez

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the uniqueness of expanding self-similar solutions to the network flow in a fixed topological class. We prove the result via the parabolic Allen-Cahn approximation proved in \\cite{triodginz}. Moreover, we prove that any regular evolution of connected tree-like network (with an initial condition that might be not regular) is unique in a given a topological class.

  18. Existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions for a class of partial functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Sheng Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first introduce a new class of pseudo almost periodic type functions and investigate some properties of pseudo almost periodic type functions; and then we discuss the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to the class of abstract partial functional differential equations $x'(t=Ax(t+f(t,x_t$ with finite delay in a Banach space X.

  19. New Class of Wide Energy Gap Benzotriimidazole Optical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of wide energy gap benzotriimidazole materials have been synthesized by a two-step condensation reaction. All of the benzotriimidazole compounds have π-π* absorption bands in the range of 250–400 nm. The photoluminescence (PL quantum efficiency of each benzotriimidazole depends strongly on the presence of electron withdrawing groups. PL quantum efficiencies of benzotriimidazoles without electron withdrawing groups were less than desirable (40–43%, while molecules with electron withdrawing groups displayed much stronger PL with efficiencies in the range of 73–75%. The electron withdrawing groups shift the emission to a longer wavelength, towards a more “true blue” color. This new class of benzotriimidazole optical materials could be used as electron-injecting and electron-transporting blue luminescence materials for potential organic light-emitting diode (OLED applications.

  20. Energy solutions for sustainable development. Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    production technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen, bio-energy and wind energy • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects, differences between the various major regions throughout the world • End-use technologies......, efficiency improvements and supply links • Security of supply with regard to resources, conflicts, black-outs, natural disasters and terrorism...

  1. Solitary Wave Solutions to a Class of Modified Green-Naghdi Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, Vincent; Nilsson, Dag; Wahlén, Erik

    2017-12-01

    We provide the existence and asymptotic description of solitary wave solutions to a class of modified Green-Naghdi systems, modeling the propagation of long surface or internal waves. This class was recently proposed by Duchêne et al. (Stud Appl Math 137:356-415, 2016) in order to improve the frequency dispersion of the original Green-Naghdi system while maintaining the same precision. The solitary waves are constructed from the solutions of a constrained minimization problem. The main difficulties stem from the fact that the functional at stake involves low order non-local operators, intertwining multiplications and convolutions through Fourier multipliers.

  2. Group analysis and exact solutions of a class of variable coefficient nonlinear telegraph equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-jiang; Ivanova, Nataliya M.

    2007-07-01

    A complete group classification of a class of variable coefficient (1+1)-dimensional telegraph equations f(x )utt=(H(u )ux)x+K(u)ux, is given, by using a compatibility method and additional equivalence transformations. A number of new interesting nonlinear invariant models which have nontrivial invariance algebras are obtained. Furthermore, the possible additional equivalence transformations between equations from the class under consideration are investigated. Exact solutions of special forms of these equations are also constructed via classical Lie method and generalized conditional transformations. Local conservation laws with characteristics of order 0 of the class under consideration are classified with respect to the group of equivalence transformations.

  3. Energy renovation solutions - catalogue; Energirenoveringstiltag - katalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2010-07-15

    The project's aim has been to develop methods and examples of extensive energy renovations to stimulate energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy in existing buildings. The current report represents an extensive technology catalogue of typical energy renovation measures in connection with the renovation of existing buildings. For every action the main aspects are explained concerning such issues as technology, use, barriers, indoor climate, energy conservation and prices. The report is mainly targeted at construction industry, but also many other stakeholders can benefit from the report. (ln)

  4. Energy solutions for sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2007-05-15

    The Risoe International Energy Conference took place 22 - 24 May 2007. The conference focused on: 1) Future global energy development options. 2) Scenario and policy issues. 3) Measures to achieve low-level stabilization at, for example, 500 ppm CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. 4) Local energy production technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen, bio-energy and wind energy. 5) Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies. 6) Providing renewable energy for the transport sector. 7) Systems aspects, differences between the various major regions throughout the world. 8) End-use technologies, efficiency improvements and supply links. 9) Security of supply with regard to resources, conflicts, black-outs, natural disasters and terrorism. (au)

  5. Wind Energy Solutions : to bring renewable energy everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw de, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed smaller wind turbines designed by the Netherlands-based company Wind Energy Solutions (WES). Ranging between 2.5 kW and 250 kW, the smaller turbines are used in farming applications as well as for factories, in isolated communities, and by utilities with smaller electricity grids. The company also designs off-grid and stand-alone turbines; turbines with equal-sized generators; and turbines that do not require dumploads, batteries, or flywheels. WES turbines have been installed at farms, in parking lots, airports, gas stations, and on the grounds of large office buildings. The company advises that it is important to conduct initial surveys of the location for planned turbines before purchasing them. Legal and financial issues must also be explored, and wind speed data must be obtained in order to select an appropriate turbine. WES has also designed a range of control rooms, turbine cables, and remote monitoring devices for smaller wind turbines, as well as electronic microprocessors and inverters with PLC interfaces. Details of wind turbine installation procedures were included in this presentation. tabs., figs

  6. Marine renewable energies. Stakes and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Olivier; Macadre, Laura-Mae

    2012-05-01

    Marine renewable energies are able to supply carbon free energy from various ocean resources (tides, waves, currents, winds, salinity and temperature gradients). This sector, currently at an early stage of deployment, has good prospects of development in the coming years. ENEA releases a report on marine renewable energies giving a transversal vision of the associated stakes and prospects of development. Technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each marine energy are analyzed. French and European sources of funding, regulatory framework and potential environmental and social impacts are also reported

  7. Solutions for environmental reporting and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhonen, T.

    2004-01-01

    Especially two areas of energy applications - environmental reporting and energy management - are emphasized due to the current EU legislation and opening energy markets. Emissions reporting is driven by several EU directives and international agreements, like Emissions Trading Scheme. The directives guide implementation of the emission information management and reporting procedures, but requirements and differences defined by the local authorities are challenging both for the system supplier and for the energy producer. Energy management of industrial energy production (CHP) is an application, which offers real-time tools for forecasting mill's energy need and optimizing the energy balance between a mill's own production, purchases and consumption. This can bring significant reductions in mill energy costs and consumption. For these applications, the exact and well-managed information is needed. Data is retrieved from plant historians and event databases, ERP's and external sources. Calculation applications generate characteristic values (KPI's), which are used for monitoring operation, improving plant availability and boosting performance. Common office tools, like MS Excel, are the most convenient tools for reporting and processing information. Integration tools are needed to combine data from several sources to a single channel, handling messaging between applications and distributing information. (author)

  8. Decentralised energy solutions: The CSIR energy autonomous campus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter-Brown, Clinton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Future energy systems will largely be based on Distributed Energy Resources (DER) –a combination of VRE, storage and demand response technologies. Technology and systems innovations are required to design, build and operate such energy systems...

  9. Multi-Class Queuing Networks Models for Energy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Cerotti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase of energy consumption and the related costs in large data centers has stimulated new researches on techniques to optimize the power consumption of the servers. In this paper we focus on systems that should process a peak workload consisting of different classes of applications. The objective is to implement a policy of load control which allows an efficient use of the power deployed to the resources. The proposed strategy controls the workload mix in order to achieve the maximum utilization of all the resources allocated. As a consequence, the power provision will be fully utilized and the throughput maximized. Thus, the costs to execute a given workload will be minimized, together with its energy consumption, since the required processing time is decreased.

  10. Cosmological effects of a class of fluid dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carturan, Daniela; Finelli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    We study the impact of a generalized Chaplygin gas as a candidate for dark energy on density perturbations and on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The generalized Chaplygin gas is a fluid component with an exotic equation of state p=-A/ρ α (a polytropic gas with negative constant and exponent). Such a component interpolates in time between dust and a cosmological constant, with an intermediate behavior as p=A 1/(1+α) +αρ. Perturbations of this fluid are stable on small scales but behave in a very different way with respect to standard quintessence. Moreover, a generalized Chaplygin gas could also represent an archetypal example of the phenomenological unified models of dark energy and dark matter. The results presented here show how CMB anisotropies and density perturbations in this class of models differ from those of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant

  11. Exact solutions to a class of nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations, including the Rangwala–Rao equation, the Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation, the Chen–Lee–Lin equation and the Ablowitz–. Ramani–Segur equation are investigated, and the exact solutions are derived with the aid of the homogeneous balance principle, and a set of ...

  12. Exact solutions to a class of nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A class of nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations, including the Rangwala–Rao equation, the Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation, the Chen–Lee–Lin equation and the Ablowitz–Ramani–Segur equation are investigated, and the exact solutions are derived with the aid of the homogeneous balance principle, and a set of subsidiary ...

  13. On the solution of a class of fuzzy system of linear equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... H-matrix and \\widetilde{b} is a fuzzy -vector. We then investigate the existence and uniqueness of a fuzzy solution to this system. The results can also be used for the class of M-matrices and strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the presented theoretical results.

  14. WOWW: A Solution Orientated Approach to Enhance Classroom Relationships and Behaviour within a Primary Three Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Lynne; Cubeddu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    A Working on What Works (WOWW) approach was utilised over six sessions in a mainstream Scottish primary class to enhance classroom relationships and behaviours. The aim of the intervention was to manage everyday classroom problems within a natural classroom environment. WOWW incorporates positive psychology and implements a solution-focused…

  15. A priori L∞ estimates for solutions of a class of reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zengji; Peng, Rui

    2016-05-01

    In this short paper, we establish a priori L∞-norm estimates for solutions of a class of reaction-diffusion systems which can be used to model the spread of infectious disease. The developed technique may find applications in other reaction-diffusion systems.

  16. A GENERAL-SOLUTION FOR A CLASS OF WEAKLY CONSTRAINED LINEAR-REGRESSION PROBLEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBERGE, JMF

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a globally optimal solution for a class of functions composed of a linear regression function and a penalty function for the sum of squared regression weights. Global optimality is obtained from inequalities rather than from partial derivatives of a Lagrangian function.

  17. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  18. Quantum solution to a class of two-party private summation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Zhang, Shun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we define a class of special two-party private summation (S2PPS) problems and present a common quantum solution to S2PPS problems. Compared to related classical solutions, our solution has advantages of higher security and lower communication complexity, and especially it can ensure the fairness of two parties without the help of a third party. Furthermore, we investigate the practical applications of our proposed S2PPS protocol in many privacy-preserving settings with big data sets, including private similarity decision, anonymous authentication, social networks, secure trade negotiation, secure data mining.

  19. Cool energy. Renewal solutions to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, M.

    1992-01-01

    This book begins with a chapter describing some of the economic and environmental consequences of America's fossil-fuel-based economy. It makes the case that, despite some progress in reducing pollution from fossil fuels, no lasting cure for the deteriorating environment - in particular, the looming threat of global warming - is possible without developing alternative fuel sources. That renewable energy can provide the bulk of the new supplies needed is the theme of the second chapter, which discusses the relative advantages of these resources compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power and evaluates their long-term potential. The bulk of the book considers five broad categories of renewable energy sources: solar, wind, biomass (plant matter), rivers and oceans, and geothermal. For each of these sources, the book describes its current application, discusses its costs, analyzes new technologies under development, and assesses its positive and negative environmental impacts. This book shows the vital role renewable sources can and should play in America's energy future. It cites studies indicating that, with the right policies, renewable energy could provide as much as half of America's energy within 40 years, and an even larger fraction down the road. Such a rapid shift from existing energy sources would be dramatic but not unprecedented. In 1920, coal supplied 70% of US energy, but within 40 years its share had dropped to just 20% as oil and natural gas use increased. Sooner or later, oil and natural gas will also fade in importance. The real question is when. This book makes the case that the time to move decisively toward a renewable energy economy has arrived

  20. New Solutions for Renewable Energy Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Mielczarski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the key problems in renewable energy trading. The support system for RES is operating on financial levels leaving to the RES producers decisions on the energy trade. However, the flawed legal regulations impose the obligations on Default Electricity Supplier (SzU1 to buy all RES production from the installations located in the areas of the SzU operation. Such legal provisions result in the additional burden on the SzU, which main duty is to provide electric energy to customers who do not want to enter competitive electricity markets. Additionally, over interpretation of the Energy Law provisions by the Energy Regulatory Authority (URE2, allowing the RES producers to trade a part of their production on electricity markets leaving the obligation on SzUs, has led to the speculative trade of renewable energy. Some RES producers sell the electricity produced in competitive markets during peak demand hours – usually working days from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. – when the Power Exchange prices are significantly higher than the obligatory purchase price. When during off peak demand hours electricity prices in the Power Exchange are lower than the obligatory level, RES producers sell the electric energy to SzUs at the obligatory price, determined by the URE. Such an abuse of fair trade results in the additional income for the RES producers being burden on SzUs, which have to transfer such costs to energy endusers. The simulations, carried out for Poland indicate that the additional costs can count for about 200 mln zł per year.

  1. Renewable Energy as a Solution to Nigerian Energy Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal Nadabo, Suleiman

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potentials of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and how to support, promote and courage the growth of renewable energy resources in Nigeria to close the gap of 60-70% of Nigerians that did not have access to energy that is environmentally friendly. Alternative energy sources are good and wonderful options because they are limitless. We will not run out of them as we may run out of the fossils fuels which are the major sources of energy in Nigeria...

  2. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  3. EPR's energy conversion system. Alstom's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.

    2009-01-01

    ARABELLE steam turbines have been developed by Alstom to be used as the energy conversion system of light water reactors with high output power like the N4 PWR and the EPR. ARABELLE turbines cumulate 200.000 hours of service with a reliability ratio of 99.97 per cent. This series of slides presents the main features of the turbine including: the use of the simple flux, the very large shape of low pressure blades, the technology of welded rotors. The other main equipment like the alternator, the condenser, the moisture separator-reheaters, the circulating pumps that Alstom integrates in the energy conversion system have benefited with technological improvements that are also presented. (A.C.)

  4. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) - Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Daylight Time ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) vi MEDES Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions MPPT maximum power point tracking...tracking ( MPPT ) grid-tied inverters will require replacement or modification to allow for substantial use in islanded microgrid configurations

  5. Exact solutions, energy, and charge of stable Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    In this work we deal with nontopological solutions of the Q-ball type in two spacetime dimensions. We study models of current interest, described by a Higgs-like and other, similar potentials which unveil the presence of exact solutions. We use the analytic results to investigate how to control the energy and charge to make the Q-balls stable. (orig.)

  6. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs

  7. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D. [ed.

    2000-07-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs.

  8. On distinguishing different models of a class of emergent Universe solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Souvik

    2018-03-01

    A specific class of singularity-free cosmological model has recently been considered in light of different observational data such as observed Hubble data, BAO data from luminous red galaxy survey by Slowan digital sky survey (SDSS) and CMB data from WMAP. However, it is observed that only 12-14 data points are used to study the viability of the model in late time. In this paper, we discuss the viability of all the models belonging to the same class of EU in light of union compilation data (SNIa) which consists of over a hundred data points, thus getting a more robust test for viability. More importantly, it is crucial that we can distinguish between the various models proposed in the class of solution obtained. We discuss here why with the present observational data it is difficult to distinguish between all of them. We show that the late-time behaviour of the model is typical to any asymptotically de Sitter model.

  9. Global, finite energy, weak solutions for the NLS with rough, time-dependent magnetic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Paolo; Michelangeli, Alessandro; Scandone, Raffaele

    2018-04-01

    We prove the existence of weak solutions in the space of energy for a class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the presence of a external, rough, time-dependent magnetic potential. Under our assumptions, it is not possible to study the problem by means of usual arguments like resolvent techniques or Fourier integral operators, for example. We use a parabolic regularisation, and we solve the approximating Cauchy problem. This is achieved by obtaining suitable smoothing estimates for the dissipative evolution. The total mass and energy bounds allow to extend the solution globally in time. We then infer sufficient compactness properties in order to produce a global-in-time finite energy weak solution to our original problem.

  10. On the solution of a class of fuzzy system of linear equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Inthis paper, we consider the system of linear equations A˜x = ˜b, where. A ∈ Rn×n is a crisp H-matrix and ˜b is a fuzzy n-vector. We then investigate the existence and uniqueness of a fuzzy solution to this system. The results can also be used for the class of M-matrices and strictly diagonally dominant matrices.

  11. Existence and uniqueness of solution for a class of stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junfei; Huang, Zaitang; Zeng, Caibin

    2013-01-01

    A class of stochastic differential equations given by dx(t) = f(x(t))dt + g(x(t))dW(t),  x(t 0) = x 0,  t 0 ≤ t ≤ T equations are obtained. Moreover, the existence and uniqueness of solution for stochastic Lorenz system, which is illustrated by example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  12. Geothermal energy - effective solutions for heating and cooling of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleska, Viktorija

    2014-01-01

    Energy and natural resources are essential prerequisites for the maintenance of the life and the development of human civilization. With the advancement of technology is more emphasis on energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Energy efficiency is using less power without reducing the quality of life. Almost half of the energy used is devoted to buildings, including heating and cooling. Buildings are a major source of CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere. Reducing the impact of buildings on the environment and the development of renewable energy, energy solutions are key factor in terms of sustainable development. Energy and geothermal pumps posts represent effective solutions for large facilities for heating and cooling. Geothermal energy piles represent a system of pipes that circulate thermal fluid and embedded in earth, thus extracting heat from the bearing to satisfy the needs for heating and cooling. Experience has shown that this type of energy piles can save up to two thirds of the cost of conventional heating, while geothermal pump has the ability to low temperature resources (such as groundwater and earth) to extract energy and raise the higher level needed for heating buildings. Their implementation is supported by an active group of researchers working with industry to demonstrate the benefits of dual benefit performance at the foundations. Initiative for renewable heat and potential for further adoption of solutions with these technologies is rapidly expanding. The use of this source of energy has great potential due to environmental, economic and social benefits. (author)

  13. On Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present paper describes the work carried out in the project ’Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters’, which is a Danish research project carried out in a period of three years from September 2014, with the aim of reducing cost of the moorings for four wave energy converters...

  14. An accessibility solution of cloud computing by solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Priščáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a modern innovative technology of solution of a problem with data storage, data processing, company infrastructure building and so on. Many companies worry over the changes by the implementation of this solution because these changes could have a negative impact on the company, or, in the case of establishment of new companies, this worry results from an unfamiliar environment. Data accessibility, integrity and security belong among basic problems of cloud computing. The aim of this paper is to offer and scientifically confirm a proposal of an accessibility solution of cloud by implementing of solar energy as a primary source. Problems with accessibility rise from power failures when data may be stolen or lost. Since cloud is often started from a server, the server dependence on power is strong. Modern conditions offer us a new, more innovative solution regarding the ecological as well as an economical company solution. The Sun as a steady source of energy offers us a possibility to produce necessary energy by a solar technique – solar panels. The connection of a solar panel as a primary source of energy for a server would remove its power dependence as well as possible failures. The power dependence would stay as a secondary source. Such an ecological solution would influence the economical side of company because the energy consumption would be lower. Besides a proposal of an accessibility solution, this paper involves a physical and mathematical solution to a calculation of solar energy showered on the Earth, a calculation of the panel size by cosines method and a simulation of these calculations in MATLAB conditions.

  15. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  16. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  17. VRM: A Unified Framework for Closed-Form Solutions of a Special Class of Serial Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijian Huo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the virtual reconfiguration method (VRM to construct the unified framework for closed-form solutions of a special class of serial manipulators. Central to the research is the inverse kinematics problem (KP of 6- and 7-DOF serial manipulators, which contain either the Pieper's geometry or the Duffy's geometry. Given the desired end-effector pose of the manipulator, a virtual single chain (SLC is developed by connecting the base and the end-effector with a hypothetical link. The equivalent single open chain (SOC with different configurations can be obtained by cutting open the virtual SLC at one link between adjacent joints. Kinematic equivalence between the original manipulator and the new SOC is proven. Closed-form solutions of the original manipulator can be determined by solving the KP of the equivalent SOC. The VRM is further developed on the basis of the relationship between the manipulator and its equivalent SOC. In this paper, the KPs of 6-DOF manipulators with the spherical wrist and manipulators with the three-axis parallel shoulder joint are analysed. Principles and applications of the VRM are proposed. Finally, the validity and efficiency of the VRM are demonstrated by kinematics simulations of four different manipulators. Unlike traditional approaches, the VRM simplifies the computation of KPs and establishes a unified framework for closed-form solutions of the special class of 6- and 7-DOF serial manipulators, irrespective of the allocation of either the Pieper's geometry or the Duffy's geometry.

  18. 77 FR 20019 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 and 206(h), FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. (FirstEnergy Solutions) and...

  19. Neutrons for global energy solutions. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book of abstracts of the conference on neutrons for global energy solutions include contributions to the following topics: Views from politics: What do we need in European energy research: cooperation, large facilities, more science? Fundamental research for energy supply. View from the United States. View from industry: Neutrons for nuclear reactor development in transition stage between generation III and generation IV. Toyotas's expectations for neutron analysis. Instrumentation and cross cutting issues. Energy sources. Waste management and environment. Li ion batteries. Photovoltaics. Savings and catalysis. Fuel cells. Hydrogen storage.

  20. Regenerative energies - the environmentally friendly solution. Seminar volume. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Assmann, G.; Froese, B.; Jahn, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Information Environment organised its 16th journalists seminar on 9th March 1995 in Hamburg. In the second part of the seminar competent scientist gave an overview to the following questions: 1. Renewable energy as an solution from the dead end street? 2. What part of the energy demand could be covered by regenerative energy sources at all? 3. Ecology contra economy? 4. Inexhaustible energy source sun? 5. When do we start to import solar energy from the desert? 6. Move into the energy autarkic solar house in the year 2000? 7. Wind power plant park Germany? 8. Geothermal - component of the energy-mix 2005. The present volume contains the lectures which were given on these subjects. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency in Industrial Solutions – Walk the Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Dieter; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Holst, Jens-Christian

    2011-01-01

    and removing sulfur dioxide and other acidic gas components present in the off-gas stream by using dry absorbents and additional electrical power. Advantage in the impact category of acidification potential (by desulfurization) is a trade-off to disadvantages in global warming and resource depletion potential......This paper describes the outline of the energy efficiency and environmental care policy and management at Siemens Industry Solutions Division. This environmental policy coherently embraces strategic planning, eco-design of energy-efficient industrial processes and solutions, design evaluation...

  2. Classical solutions in quantum field theory solitons and instantons in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Erick J

    2012-01-01

    Classical solutions play an important role in quantum field theory, high energy physics and cosmology. Real-time soliton solutions give rise to particles, such as magnetic monopoles, and extended structures, such as domain walls and cosmic strings, that have implications for early universe cosmology. Imaginary-time Euclidean instantons are responsible for important nonperturbative effects, while Euclidean bounce solutions govern transitions between metastable states. Written for advanced graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, cosmology and related fields, this book brings the reader up to the level of current research in the field. The first half of the book discusses the most important classes of solitons: kinks, vortices and magnetic monopoles. The cosmological and observational constraints on these are covered, as are more formal aspects, including BPS solitons and their connection with supersymmetry. The second half is devoted to Euclidean solutions, with particular emphasis on ...

  3. Multi-stability and almost periodic solutions of a class of recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yiguang; You Zhisheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies multi-stability, existence of almost periodic solutions of a class of recurrent neural networks with bounded activation functions. After introducing a sufficient condition insuring multi-stability, many criteria guaranteeing existence of almost periodic solutions are derived using Mawhin's coincidence degree theory. All the criteria are constructed without assuming the activation functions are smooth, monotonic or Lipschitz continuous, and that the networks contains periodic variables (such as periodic coefficients, periodic inputs or periodic activation functions), so all criteria can be easily extended to fit many concrete forms of neural networks such as Hopfield neural networks, or cellular neural networks, etc. Finally, all kinds of simulations are employed to illustrate the criteria

  4. The Feasibility of Energy Efficiency class Improving of a Building from Economic Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova Daria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article 4 complexes energy efficiency measures for different energy efficiency classes are chosen, it is defined the thermal heating costs of the building during the heating period, it is defined the cost and the payback period of energy efficiency measures. The conclusion about the feasibility of capital repair of buildings by increasing energy efficiency class from an economic point of view is made.

  5. Features of the Energy Balance and Fragmentation Mechanisms at Spontaneous Failure of Class I and Class II Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris G.; Stacey, Thomas R.

    2017-10-01

    Practically, all types of rockbursts are accompanied by release of seismic energy, rock bulking (due to fracturing and fragmentation), and ejection of fragmented rocks in the opening. Principles of the energy redistribution during rockbursts in some regards are comparable with principles taking place at spontaneous failure of rock specimens under compression in loading systems. In both cases, the total potential elastic energy accumulated in the failing material and in the loading system (or surrounding rock mass) is converted into such components of dynamic energy as rupture energy, seismic energy (or energy of oscillation of the loading system due to dynamic energy release), and kinetic energy of flying fragments of the failed material. It is known that spontaneous failure takes place at the post-peak failure stage and is determined by the ratio between stiffness of the loading system and stiffness (or brittleness) of the failing material. However, principles of the energy redistribution between different components of the energy balance are still unclear. The paper discusses results of laboratory experiments conducted on rock specimens of different brittleness (including Class I and Class II) that were loaded in testing machines of different loading stiffness. The most brittle of the tested specimens are represented by quartzite and glass, and the less brittle by salt. The loading stiffness of testing machines used in experiments was variable within three decimal orders of magnitude. The specific variations of the dynamic energy balance depending on rock brittleness and loading stiffness were established. The role of each portion of elastic energy stemming from the specimen and from the loading system in determining the dynamic energy balance and fragmentation mechanisms operating at spontaneous failure is analysed. The results obtained contribute to the understanding of dynamic processes taking place during rockbursts.

  6. One class of meromorphic solutions of general two-dimensional nonlinear equations, connected with the algebraic inverse scattering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, D V

    1978-09-01

    For systems of nonlinear equations having the form [L(n) - ( partial differential/ partial differentialt), L(m) - ( partial differential/ partial differentialy)] = 0 the class of meromorphic solutions obtained from the linear equations [Formula: see text] is presented.

  7. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal...

  8. The solutions and thermodynamic dark energy in the accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, E. C. Günay [Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Recently, Tachyonic matter expressed in terms of scalar field is suggested to be the reason of acceleration of the universe as dark energy [1]-[3]. In this study, dynamic solutions and thermodynamic properties of matters such as Tachyonic matters were investigated.

  9. Enabling a Better Aft Heat Shield Solution for Future Mars Science Laboratory Class Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mary K.; Covington, Melmoth A.; Goldstein, Howard E.; Arnold, James O.; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    System studies are described that compare masses and estimated manufacturing costs of options for the as-flown Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aft body Thermal Light Weight Ablator (SLA) 561-V and its thickness was not optimized using the standard TPS Sizer Tool widely used for heat shield design. Use of the TPS sizing tool suggests that optimization of the SLA thickness could reduce the aft heat shield mass by 40 percent. Analysis of the predicted aft-shell aerothermodynamics suggests that the bulk of MSL class entry vehicle heat shields could incorporate Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI). AFRSI has a wellestablished record of relatively inexpensive manufacturing and flight certification based on its use on the lee side of the Space Shuttle. Runs with the TPS Sizer show that the AFRSI solution would be 60 percent lighter than the as-flown SLA. The issue of Reaction Control System (RCS) heating on the aft shell could be addressed by locally impregnating the AFRSI with silicone to enhance its robustness to short bursts ofheating. Stagnation point arcjet testing has shown that silicone impregnated AFRSI performs well at heat rates of 115 W/cm2 and 0.1 atmospheres for a duration of 40 seconds, far beyond conditions that are expected for MSL class vehicles. The paper concludes with a discussion of manufacturing processes for AFRSI, impregnation approaches and relative cost comparisons to the SLA solution.

  10. Threshold results for the existence of global and blow-up solutions to Kirchhoff equations with arbitrary initial energy

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yuzhu; Li, Qingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we will apply the modified potential well method and variational method to the study of the long time behaviors of solutions to a class of parabolic equation of Kirchhoff type. Global existence and blow up in finite time of solutions will be obtained for arbitrary initial energy. To be a little more precise, we will give a threshold result for the solutions to exist globally or to blow up in finite time when the initial energy is subcritical and critical, respectively. The decay...

  11. Wind energy evaluation and solution for home applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuca, E.; Tulbure, A.; Ileana, I.; Brezeanu, Gh.; Covaciu, C.

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to survey the literature regarding energy evaluation and find optimal solution based on models and experimental set-up's for small and medium home in Alba area. Wind resource evaluation is a critical element in projecting turbine performance at a given site. The energy available in a wind stream is proportional to the cube of its speed, which means that doubling the wind speed increases the available energy by a factor of eight. Furthermore, the wind resource itself is seldom a steady, consistent flow. It varies with the time of day, season, height above ground, and type of terrain. Proper siting in windy locations, away from large obstructions, enhances a wind turbine's performance. We used our measured data in 2 locations around our town and with this data inserted in some Matlab models we intend to build optimal experimental solution for produced home's generator's, around Alba town, up to 5 kW.

  12. A class solution for volumetric-modulated arc therapy planning in postprostatectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forde, Elizabeth; Bromley, Regina; Kneebone, Andrew; Eade, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to test a postprostatectomy volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning class solution. The solution applies to both the progressive resolution optimizer algorithm version 2 (PRO 2) and the algorithm version 3 (PRO 3), addressing the effect of an upgraded algorithm. A total of 10 radical postprostatectomy patients received 68 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV), which was planned using VMAT. Each case followed a set of planning instructions; including contouring, field setup, and predetermined optimization parameters. Each case was run through both algorithms only once, with no user interaction. Results were averaged and compared against Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0534 end points. In addition, the clinical target volume (CTV) D 100 , PTV D 99 , and PTV mean doses were recorded, along with conformity indices (CIs) (95% and 98%) and the homogeneity index. All cases satisfied PTV D 95 of 68 Gy and a maximum dose < 74.8 Gy. The average result for the PTV D 99 was 64.1 Gy for PRO 2 and 62.1 Gy for PRO 3. The average PTV mean dose for PRO 2 was 71.4 Gy and 71.5 Gy for PRO 3. The CTV D 100 average dose was 67.7 and 68.0 Gy for PRO 2 and PRO 3, respectively. The mean homogeneity index for both algorithms was 0.08. The average 95% CI was 1.17 for PRO 2 and 1.19 for PRO 3. For 98%, the average results were 1.08 and 1.12 for PRO 2 and PRO 3, respectively. All cases for each algorithm met the RTOG organs at risk dose constraints. A successful class solution has been established for prostate bed VMAT radiotherapy regardless of the algorithm used

  13. A class solution for volumetric-modulated arc therapy planning in postprostatectomy radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forde, Elizabeth, E-mail: eforde@tcd.ie [Radiation Oncology Department, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Bromley, Regina [Radiation Oncology Department, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew; Eade, Thomas [Radiation Oncology Department, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    This study is aimed to test a postprostatectomy volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning class solution. The solution applies to both the progressive resolution optimizer algorithm version 2 (PRO 2) and the algorithm version 3 (PRO 3), addressing the effect of an upgraded algorithm. A total of 10 radical postprostatectomy patients received 68 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV), which was planned using VMAT. Each case followed a set of planning instructions; including contouring, field setup, and predetermined optimization parameters. Each case was run through both algorithms only once, with no user interaction. Results were averaged and compared against Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0534 end points. In addition, the clinical target volume (CTV) D{sub 100}, PTV D{sub 99}, and PTV mean doses were recorded, along with conformity indices (CIs) (95% and 98%) and the homogeneity index. All cases satisfied PTV D{sub 95} of 68 Gy and a maximum dose < 74.8 Gy. The average result for the PTV D{sub 99} was 64.1 Gy for PRO 2 and 62.1 Gy for PRO 3. The average PTV mean dose for PRO 2 was 71.4 Gy and 71.5 Gy for PRO 3. The CTV D{sub 100} average dose was 67.7 and 68.0 Gy for PRO 2 and PRO 3, respectively. The mean homogeneity index for both algorithms was 0.08. The average 95% CI was 1.17 for PRO 2 and 1.19 for PRO 3. For 98%, the average results were 1.08 and 1.12 for PRO 2 and PRO 3, respectively. All cases for each algorithm met the RTOG organs at risk dose constraints. A successful class solution has been established for prostate bed VMAT radiotherapy regardless of the algorithm used.

  14. Asymptotically Almost Periodic Solutions for a Class of Stochastic Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the quadratic-mean asymptotically almost periodic mild solutions for a class of stochastic functional differential equations dxt=Atxt+Ft,xt,xtdt+H(t,xt,xt∘dW(t. A new criterion ensuring the existence and uniqueness of the quadratic-mean asymptotically almost periodic mild solutions for the system is presented. The condition of being uniformly exponentially stable of the strongly continuous semigroup {Tt}t≥0 is essentially removed, which is generated by the linear densely defined operator A∶D(A⊂L2(ℙ,ℍ→L2(ℙ,ℍ, only using the exponential trichotomy of the system, which reflects a deeper analysis of the behavior of solutions of the system. In this case the asymptotic behavior is described through the splitting of the main space into stable, unstable, and central subspaces at each point from the flow’s domain. An example is also given to illustrate our results.

  15. Energy for the future. New solutions - made in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Today we are once again in the middle of a new industrial and energy technology revolution. From a technology point of view, it is even a huge positive, as it opens up new markets for new and more energy and natural efficient solutions. Under this aspect, the paper under considerations consists of the following contributions: (a) From grassroots movement to political power; (b) Constructive experimentation; (c) Degrees for a green future (German universities offer a wide variety of courses in renewable energy); (d) Climbing the green career ladder (Diverse career opportunities in the renewable energy sector); (e) Natural power plants: Energy you can count on (German researchers successfully focus on the sun's energy); (f) Concentrated energy from the ocean (Dynamic development of wind energy in Germany); (g) Powerful waves and extraordinary treasures (German water experts are in demand all over the world); (h) Designer diesel and deep heat (Germany leads the fields in biofuels); (i) Sending the right signals (Climate protection as an opportunity for change); (k) Car today, bike tomorrow (Environmental psychologist Ellen Matthies); (l) The secret lies under the Bonnet (Hybrid technology paves the way for ''clean'' buses and trains); (m) Pioneering the ''silent'' car (Researchers put their foot on the accelerator for electromobility); (n) The school of the future (Students at RWTH Aachen University design an energy project for the classroom).

  16. Feasibility study on renewable energy systems and selected insulation applications : smart solutions for energy saving

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadra Fonseca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Energy represents a big challenge for future generations; not only mineral and fossil energy sources are being exhausted, but also GHG emissions pollute the environment and disrupt life natural cycles bringing serious irreversible impacts on earth. Renewable energy sources, on the other hand, are unexhausted and free of pollution; solar power systems play an important role in the generation of clean energy, being one of the most cost-effective solutions. Besides, solar power systems have ...

  17. A note on class of traveling wave solutions of a non-linear third order system generated by Lie's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, Lie's method is used to calculate solutions of a third order non-linear system of partial differential equations (nPDE). In our previous paper [Huber A. Appl Math Comput 2005;166/2:464], we have applied the tanh-method to generate solutions, in this case special class of solutions in form of traveling wave results (single soliton solutions as well as class of irregular solutions). Therefore, general families of solutions are of basic interest. Moreover, a complete characterization of the group properties is given. We determine the Lie point symmetry vector fields and calculate similarity 'ansaetze' for the first time. Further, we also derive a few non-linear transformations and some similarity solutions are obtained. The main purpose for the application of Lie's method is of course the fact that we are able to calculate class of general solutions which do not underlie such strong restrictions as in the case of traveling wave 'ansaetze'. Otherwise, it is necessary to perform a group analysis in order to improve the solution manifold by an alternative way. Moreover, a criterion for the integrability via the Painleve-conjecture is given and further, families of solutions in term of elliptic functions are derived via Lie's approach for the first time. Although no extensive studies are known up to this time a physical background of the considered system cannot exclude in future

  18. Optimization of a class of latent thermal energy storage systems with multiple phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nakamura, H. [Daido Inst. of Tech., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Reistad, G.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Martinez-Frias, J. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarollo Industrial, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a class of latent thermal energy storage (LTES) system. The analysis is based on a simplified model that allows the system performance to be evaluated in terms of a small set of parameters, while still retaining the main thermodynamic aspects associated with their operation. This analysis therefore permits the broad-based application potential of these systems to be viewed. The paper also discusses the applicability of the model to practical systems. This paper analyzes LTES with multiple energy storage cells and multiple phase-change materials (PCMs). The most general case of infinite energy storage cells and PCMs is solved, for the charge process only, as well as for the overall charge-discharge process. The results yield the optimum phase change temperature, expressed as a continuous function of position along the LTES. The method is equally applicable to the case of a finite number of storage cells. An example of the application of the method to this case is also included. The results show the optimum phase change temperatures for each of the problems being considered, along with the corresponding optimum exergetic efficiencies. The solutions to the optimization problems are surprisingly simple to express, considering the difficulty of the problems, and indicate the potential advantages of using LTES with multiple PCMs.

  19. 77 FR 790 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM...) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply...

  20. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  1. Boundedness of the solutions for certain classes of fractional differential equations with application to adaptive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of three classes of fractional differential equations appearing in the field of fractional adaptive systems, for the case when the fractional order is in the interval α ∈(0,1] and the Caputo definition for fractional derivatives is used. The boundedness of the solutions is proved for all three cases, and the convergence to zero of the mean value of one of the variables is also proved. Applications of the obtained results to fractional adaptive schemes in the context of identification and control problems are presented at the end of the paper, including numerical simulations which support the analytical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal unambiguous state discrimination of two density matrices: Lower bound and class of exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, Philippe; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Recently the problem of unambiguous state discrimination of mixed quantum states has attracted much attention. So far, bounds on the optimum success probability have been derived [T. Rudolph, R. W. Spekkens, and P. S. Turner, Phys. Rev. A 68, 010301(R) (2003)]. For two mixed states they are given in terms of the fidelity. Here we give tighter bounds as well as necessary and sufficient conditions for two mixed states to reach these bounds. Moreover we construct the corresponding optimal measurement strategies. With this result, we provide analytical solutions for unambiguous discrimination of a class of generic mixed states. This goes beyond known results which are all reducible to some pure state case. Additionally, we show that examples exist where the bounds cannot be reached

  3. Wind energy systems solutions for power quality and stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mohd Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases--and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering

  4. An Exact Analytical Solution to Exponentially Tapered Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that tapering the piezoelectric beam through its length optimizes the power extracted from vibration based energy harvesting. This phenomenon has been investigated by some researchers using semianalytical, finite element and experimental methods. In this paper, an exact analytical solution is presented to calculate the power generated from vibration of exponentially tapered unimorph and bimorph with series and parallel connections. The mass normalized mode shapes of the exponentially tapered piezoelectric beam with tip mass are implemented to transfer the proposed electromechanical coupled equations into modal coordinates. The steady states harmonic solution results are verified both numerically and experimentally. Results show that there exist values for tapering parameter and electric resistance in a way that the output power per mass of the energy harvester will be maximized. Moreover it is concluded that the electric resistance must be higher than a specified value for gaining more power by tapering the beam.

  5. Metal azides under pressure: An emerging class of high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal azides are well-known for their explosive properties such as detonation or deflagration. As chemically pure sources of nitrogen, alkali metal azides under high pressure have the ability to form polymeric nitrogen, an ultimate green high energy density material with energy density three times greater than that of known ...

  6. Metal azides under pressure: An emerging class of high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Metal azides are well-known for their explosive properties such as detonation or deflagration. As chemically pure sources of nitrogen, alkali metal azides under high pressure have the ability to form polymeric nitrogen, an ultimate green high energy density material with energy density three times greater than that ...

  7. The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-08

    Mar 8, 2017 ... Einstein's equations, the energy conservation law is violated. Therefore, the study of varying G and can be done through modified field equations and modi- fied conservation law [75,76]. In this paper, we have considered the dark energy and viscous fluid cosmol- ogy with variable G and in Bianchi type-III, ...

  8. Technologies of Selective Energy Supply at Evaporation of Food Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to create innovative evaporating equipment that can produce concentrates with a high content of solids, with a low level of thermal effects on raw materials. The significance of the solution of technological problems of the key process of food technologies - concentration of liquid solutions (juices, extracts, etc. is shown. Problems and scientific contradictions are formulated and the hypothesis on using of electromagnetic energy sources for direct energy transfer to solution’s moisture has been offered. The prospects of such an energy effect are proved by the energy management methods. The schemes of fuel energy conversion for the conventional thermal concentration technology and the innovative plant based on the electromagnetic energy generators are presented. By means of the similarity theory the obtained model is transformed to the criterial one depicted kinetic of evaporation process at the electromagnetic field action. The dimensionless capacity of the plant is expressed by the dependence between the Energetic effect number and relative moisture content. The scheme of automated experimental system for study of the evaporation process in the microwave field is shown. The experimental results of juice evaporation are presented. It has been demonstrated that the technologies of selective energy supply represent an effective tool for improvement of juice concentration evaporative plants. The main result of the research is design of the evaporator that allows reaching juice concentrates with °brix 95 at the temperature as low as 35 °С, i.e. 2…3 times superior than traditional technologies.

  9. Can passive house be the solution to our energy problems, and particularly with solar energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Merciadri, Luca

    2007-01-01

    A description about the main characteristics of the passive house concept. The aim of this document is to answer to the question ``Can passive house be the solution to our energy problems, and particularly with solar energy ?'' in an objective way.

  10. Class Energy Image Analysis for Video Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait is a unique perceptible biometric feature at larger distances, and the gait representation approach plays a key role in a video sensor-based gait recognition system. Class Energy Image is one of the most important gait representation methods based on appearance, which has received lots of attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the expressions and meanings of various Class Energy Image approaches, and analyzed the information in the Class Energy Images. Furthermore, the effectiveness and robustness of these approaches were compared on the benchmark gait databases. We outlined the research challenges and provided promising future directions for the field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that focuses on Class Energy Image. It can provide a useful reference in the literature of video sensor-based gait representation approach.

  11. Class Energy Image Analysis for Video Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhuowen; Xing, Xianglei; Wang, Kejun; Guan, Donghai

    2015-01-01

    Gait is a unique perceptible biometric feature at larger distances, and the gait representation approach plays a key role in a video sensor-based gait recognition system. Class Energy Image is one of the most important gait representation methods based on appearance, which has received lots of attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the expressions and meanings of various Class Energy Image approaches, and analyzed the information in the Class Energy Images. Furthermore, the effectiveness and robustness of these approaches were compared on the benchmark gait databases. We outlined the research challenges and provided promising future directions for the field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that focuses on Class Energy Image. It can provide a useful reference in the literature of video sensor-based gait representation approach. PMID:25574935

  12. 78 FR 12750 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM... sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. and...

  13. New solutions in energy supply. Business and investment forums for renewable energy. Africa and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This ENERGIE publication is one of a series highlighting the potential for innovative non-nuclear energy technologies to become widely applied and contribute superior services to the citizen. European Commission strategies aim at influencing the scientific and engineering communities, policy makers and key market actors to create, encourage, acquire and apply cleaner, more efficient and more sustainable energy solutions for their own benefit and that of our wider society. Funded under the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme for Research, technological Development and Demonstration (RTD), ENERGIE's range of supports cover research, development, demonstration, dissemination, replication and market uptake - the full process of converting new ideas into practical solutions to real needs. Its publications, in print and electronic form, disseminate the results of actions carried out under this and previous Framework Programmes, including former JOULE-THERMIE actions. Jointly managed by Directorate-General Energy and Transport and Directorate-General Research, ENERGIE has a total budget of Euro 1042 million over the period 1999 to 2002. Delivery is organised principally around two Key Actions, Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, and Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe, within the theme 'Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development', supplemented by coordination and cooperative activities of a sectoral and cross-sectoral nature. With targets guided by the Kyoto Protocol and associated policies, ENERGIE's integrated activities are focussed on new solutions which yield direct economic and environmental benefits to the energy user, and strengthen European competitive advantage by helping to achieve a position of leadership in the energy technologies of tomorrow. The resulting balanced improvements in energy, environmental and economic performance will help to ensure a sustainable future for Europe

  14. High-energy properties of a class of unitary eikonal models for multiproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L B

    1974-01-01

    The high-energy properties of a simple class of unitary, crossing- symmetric eikonal models of multiproduction are discussed on the basis of the general closed expression given for the S-matrix elements in a previous publication. In particular, the high-energy behaviour of the multiplicity moments is discussed and it is shown that the KNO scaling relation emerges in a very natural fashion in this class of models. (8 refs).

  15. Improving energy efficiency in industrial solutions - Walk the talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, D. (Siemens AG. Industry Solutions Div., Erlangen (Germany)); Finkbeiner, M. (Technische Univ. Berlin (TUB). Sustainable Engineering, Berlin (Germany)); Holst, J.-C.; Walachowicz, F. (Siemens AG. Corporate Technology, Berlin (Germany)); Irving Olsen, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). Management Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    This paper describes the outline of the energy efficiency and environmental care policy and management at Siemens Industry Solutions Division. This environmental policy coherently embraces strategic planning, eco-design of energy-efficient industrial processes and solutions, design evaluation and finally communication of both environmental and economic performance of solutions to customers. One of the main tools supporting eco-design and evaluation and controlling of derived design solutions is the so called 'Eco-Care-Matrix' (ECM). The ECM simply visualizes the eco-efficiency of solutions compared to a given baseline. In order to prevent from 'green washing' criticism and to ensure 'walk the talk' attitude the ECM should be scientifically well-founded using appropriate and consistent methodology. The vertical axis of an ECM illustrates the environmental performance and the horizontal axis describes the economical customer benefit of one or more green solutions compared to a defined reference solution. Different scientific approaches for quantifying the environmental performance based on life cycle assessment methodology are discussed especially considering the ISO standards 14040/14044:2006. Appropriate ECM application is illustrated using the example of the Siemens MEROS technology (Maximized Emission Reduction of Sintering) for the steel industry. MEROS is currently the most modern and powerful system for cleaning off-gas in sinter plants. As an environmental technology MEROS is binding and removing sulfur dioxide and other acidic gas components present in the off-gas stream by using dry absorbents and additional electrical power. Advantage in the impact category of acidification potential (by desulfurization) is a trade-off to disadvantages in global warming and resource depletion potential caused by use of electricity. Representing different impacts, indicator results for impact categories with different tendencies have to be

  16. The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-08

    Mar 8, 2017 ... Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early. Universe while it behaves as a cosmological constant at the late time. Chaplygin gas [20,21] is one of the candidates of the dark energy models to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The Chaplygin gas obeys an equation of state p = −A1/ρ ...

  17. Software Solution for a Renewable Energy Microgrid Emulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR, E.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a software solution and communication network used to implement and test management algorithms for different microgrid configurations. The results obtained are represented in a Graphical User Interface (GUI. Data is transferred between the devices and a central processing unit that has a communication protocol interpreter implemented using an RS-485 network. After being interpreted, the raw data containing useful information for the management algorithm is converted in numerical or Boolean values. These values are stored and used by the management algorithms implemented for cost optimization. A microgrid emulator is used for the proof of concept. The software solution and communication network together with the data interpreter can be easily used for other microgrid structures with or without modifications, depending on the number and types of equipment used. In the presented case the microgrid management control algorithm tries to keep the state of charge of the batteries between two values by using efficiently the available resources depicted by: solar energy, geothermal energy, and energy obtained from biomass. The microgrid setup has emulators for the geothermal and biomass generators and a photovoltaic system with storage capability and two inverters, a grid forming capable and a grid follower.

  18. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  19. Nordic Forest Energy Solutions in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gerasimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The situation in Karelia, a region in Northwest Russia, is analyzed in the context of forest energy. The annual potential energy available from wood harvesting is about 7 tera watt hours (TWh (3.6 million m3, which is equal to the total need of Karelia in energy for municipal heating. We point out that the contribution to the municipal economy, the moderate heating cost, the enhanced energy security in the cold Russian climate, the environmental friendliness, the better access to the forests and the utilization of the proven Nordic forest energy solutions (NFES might have important consequences for strategy-making processes in forest energy development. For this purpose, connecting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with SWOT (internal strengths (S or weaknesses (W and external opportunities (O or threats (T analysis is proposed to identify local operational strategies and assign priorities. Major threats include lack of government support, an insufficient road network, the dominance of extensive forest management, gasification and financial indiscipline. Analysis indicates that NFES are viewed positively for the Russian conditions. The forest biomass market has virtually unlimited opportunities for growth. Together, with the transition to intensive forest management, favorable policy in terms of forestry development programs can support bioenergy development. The advantageous location of existing power plants next to forests, increasing fossil fuel prices, the improvement of the road network and the availability of new technology are seen as potential opportunities for NFES. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets benefit forest leaseholders who would like to adopt forest energy. The lack of bioenergy technology development, high transportation cost, low awareness of NFES, high demands for roads, the requirement for skilled specialists and wood fuel quality are the main

  20. Design and Construction of 10 kWh Class Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Han, Y. H.; Park, B. J.; Bae, Y. C.; Lee, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    A superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) is an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy for storage, and vice versa. A 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system (FESS) has been developed to evaluate the feasibility of a 35 kWh class SFES with a flywheel Ip/If ratio larger than 1. The 10 kWh class FESS is composed of a main frame, a composite flywheel, active magnetic dampers (AMDs), a permanent magnet bearing, and a motor/generator. The flywheel of the FESS rotates at a very high speed to store energy, while being levitated by a permanent magnetic bearing and a pair of thrust AMDs. The 10 kWh class flywheel is mainly composed of a composite rotor assembly, where most of the energy is stored, two radial and two thrust AMD rotors, which dissipate vibration at critical speeds, a permanent magnet rotor, which supports most of the flywheel weight, a motor rotor, which spins the flywheel, and a central hollow shaft, where the parts are assembled and aligned to. The stators of each of the main components are assembled on to housings, which are assembled and aligned to the main frame. Many factors have been considered while designing each part of the flywheel, stator and frame. In this study, a 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system has been designed and constructed for test operation.

  1. Series Solutions of the N-Dimensional Position-Dependent Mass Schrodinger Equation with a General Class of Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Sever, Ramazan

    2006-01-01

    The analytical solutions of the N-dimensional Schrodinger equation with position-dependent mass for a general class of central potentials is obtained via the series expansion method. The position-dependent mass is expanded in series about origin. As a special case, the analytical bound-state series solutions and the recursion relation of the linear-plus-Coulomb (Cornell) potential with the decaying position-dependent mass m=m_{0}e^{-\\lambda r} are also found.

  2. Solution of fractional kinetic equation by a class of integral transform of pathway type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2013-04-01

    Solutions of fractional kinetic equations are obtained through an integral transform named Pα-transform introduced in this paper. The Pα-transform is a binomial type transform containing many class of transforms including the well known Laplace transform. The paper is motivated by the idea of pathway model introduced by Mathai [Linear Algebra Appl. 396, 317-328 (2005), 10.1016/j.laa.2004.09.022]. The composition of the transform with differential and integral operators are proved along with convolution theorem. As an illustration of applications to the general theory of differential equations, a simple differential equation is solved by the new transform. Being a new transform, the Pα-transform of some elementary functions as well as some generalized special functions such as H-function, G-function, Wright generalized hypergeometric function, generalized hypergeometric function, and Mittag-Leffler function are also obtained. The results for the classical Laplace transform is retrieved by letting α → 1.

  3. Effective climate-energy solutions, escape routes and peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective in the absence of serious environmental regulation. This holds, among others, for direct support of clean energy, voluntary energy conservation, technical standards on a limited set of products, unilateral stringent carbon pricing, and awaiting peak oil as a climate strategy. All of these suffer from “escape routes” that indirectly increase CO 2 emissions and thus make the original strategy ineffective. On the other hand, environmental regulation alone may lead to a myopia-bias, stimulating early dominance of cost-effective technologies and a focus on incremental innovations associated with such technologies rather than on radical innovations. Although adopting a partial viewpoint keeps the analysis simple, we urgently need a more inclusive systems perspective on climate solutions. This will allow the formulation of an effective climate policy package that addresses the various escape routes. - Highlights: ► Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective because of escape routes. ► In this context the relationship between peak oil and climate policy receives attention. ► Environmental regulation alone creates myopia-bias, the resolution of which requires technology-specific policies. ► To formulate an effective climate policy package an inclusive systems perspective is needed.

  4. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  5. Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Conolly, David

    2015-01-01

    , significant focus is put on the electricity sector alone to solve the renewable energy integration puzzle. Smart grid research traditionally focuses on ICT, smart meters, electricity storage technologies, and local (electric) smart grids. In contrast, the Smart Energy System focuses on merging the electricity......The hypothesis of this paper is that in order to identify least cost solutions of the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources into current or future 100% renewable energy supplies one has to take a Smart Energy Systems approach. This paper outline why and how to do so. Traditionally......, heating and transport sectors, in combination with various intra-hour, hourly, daily, seasonal and biannual storage options, to create the flexibility necessary to integrate large penetrations of fluctuating renewable energy. However, in this paper we present the development and design of coherent Smart...

  6. Besicovitch almost periodic solutions for a class of second order differential equations involving reflection of the argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiong Piao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the Fourier series expansion and fixed point methods, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of Besicovitch almost periodic solutions for a class of second order differential equations involving reflection of the argument. Lipschitz nonlinear case is considered.

  7. Existence of Subharmonic Solutions for a Class of Second-Order p-Laplacian Systems with Impulsive Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zhen Gong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using minimax methods in critical point theory, a new existence theorem of infinitely many periodic solutions is obtained for a class of second-order p-Laplacian systems with impulsive effects. Our result generalizes many known works in the literature.

  8. A New Class of Ternary Compound for Lithium-Ion Battery: from Composite to Solid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wu, Hailong; Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Shengzhou; Tian, Xiaoqing; Cui, Yixiu; Liu, Xiaojiang; Yang, Yin

    2018-02-14

    Searching for high-performance cathode materials is a crucial task to develop advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high-energy densities for electrical vehicles (EVs). As a promising lithium-rich material, Li 2 MnO 3 delivers high capacity over 200 mAh g -1 but suffers from poor structural stability and electronic conductivity. Replacing Mn 4+ ions by relatively larger Sn 4+ ions is regarded as a possible strategy to improve structural stability and thus cycling performance of Li 2 MnO 3 material. However, large difference in ionic radii of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions leads to phase separation of Li 2 MnO 3 and Li 2 SnO 3 during high-temperature synthesis. To prepare solid-solution phase of Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 , a buffer agent of Ru 4+ , whose ionic radius is in between that of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions, is introduced to assist the formation of a single solid-solution phase. The results show that the Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system evolves from mixed composite phases into a single solid-solution phase with increasing Ru content. Meanwhile, discharge capacity of this ternary system shows significantly increase at the transformation point which is ascribed to the improvement of Li + /e - transportation kinetics and anionic redox chemistry for solid-solution phase. The role of Mn/Sn molar ratio of Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system has also been studied. It is revealed that higher Sn content benefits cycling stability of the system because Sn 4+ ions with larger sizes could partially block the migration of Mn 4+ and Ru 4+ from transition metal layer to Li layer, thus suppressing structural transformation of the system from layered-to-spinel phase. These findings may enable a new route for exploring ternary or even quaternary lithium-rich cathode materials for LIBs.

  9. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  10. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  11. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  12. Measuring energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies using a latent class stochastic frontier approach: An application to Chinese energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2014-01-01

    The importance of technology heterogeneity in estimating economy-wide energy efficiency has been emphasized by recent literature. Some studies use the metafrontier analysis approach to estimate energy efficiency. However, for such studies, some reliable priori information is needed to divide the sample observations properly, which causes a difficulty in unbiased estimation of energy efficiency. Moreover, separately estimating group-specific frontiers might lose some common information across different groups. In order to overcome these weaknesses, this paper introduces a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies. An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. Results show that the overall energy efficiency of China's provinces is not high, with an average score of 0.632 during the period from 1997 to 2010. - Highlights: • We introduce a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency. • Ignoring technological heterogeneity would cause biased estimates of energy efficiency. • An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. • There is still a long way for China to develop an energy efficient regime

  13. Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of adhering to stringent Quality of Service requirements, efficiently utilize resources, and conserve energy consumption are constantly being faced by Cloud Service Providers. In a bid to proffer solutions to these challenges, numerous researchers have proposed varied solutions. However, there has yet to be ...

  14. Method of solution preparation of polyolefin class polymers for electrospinning processing included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabolt, John F. (Inventor); Lee, Keun-Hyung (Inventor); Givens, Steven R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A process to make a polyolefin fiber which has the following steps: mixing at least one polyolefin into a solution at room temperature or a slightly elevated temperature to form a polymer solution and electrospinning at room temperature said polymer solution to form a fiber.

  15. Positive energy Weinberg states for the solution of scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitscher, G.

    1982-01-01

    Positive energy Weinberg states are defined and numerically calculated in the presence of a general complex Woods-Saxon potential. The numerical procedure is checked for the limit of a square well potential for which the Weinberg states and the corresponding eigenvalues are known. A finite number M of these (auxiliary) positive energy Weinberg states are then use as a set of basis functions in order to provide a separable approximation of rank M, V/sub M/, to a potential V, and also to the scattering matrix element S which obtains as a result of the presence of V, S/sub M/. Both V/sub M/ and S/sub M/ are obtained by means of algebraic manipulations which involve the matrix elements of V calculated in terms of the auxiliary postive energy Weinberg states Next, expressions are derived which enable one to iteratively correct for the error in V--V/sub M/. These expressions are a modified version of the quasi-particle method of Weinberg. The convergence of S/sub M/ to S, as well as the first order interation of the error in S/sub M/ is examined as a function M for a numerical example which uses a complex Woods-Saxon potential for V and assumes zero angular momentum. With M = 5 and one iteration an error of less than 10% in S is achieved; for M = 8 the error is less than 1%. The method is expected to be useful for the solution of large systems of coupled equations by matrix techniques or when a part of the potential is non-local

  16. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Anna [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF, International, Arlington, VA (United States); Hedman, Bruce [ICF, International, Arlington, VA (United States); Garland, Patti [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bautista, Paul [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future—as an: environmental solution, significantly reducing CO2 emissions through greater energy efficiency; competitive business solution, increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; local energy solution, deployable throughout the United States; and infrastructure modernization solution, relieving grid congestion and improving energy security.

  17. Multiple transonic solutions with a new class of shock transitions in steady isothermal solar and stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbal, S.R.; Tsinganos, K.

    1983-01-01

    A new class of shock transitions are shown to arise in the transonic solutions of the steady isothermal solar wind equations when, for example, momentum deposition gives rise to multiple critical points in the flow. These shock transitions between critical solutions occur for a certain range of the parameters characterizing the momentum deposition function. In the presence of such shock transitions, the isothermal wind equations admit multiple transonic solutions, namely a continuous solution passing through an inner critical point and solutions involving a shock transition between critical solutions. These multiple transonic solutions have the same flow speed at the base but different supersonic flow speeds at infinity. An additional interesting feature of the isothermal equations is the equivalence of nonradial flow tube divergence and momentum addition in giving rise to multiple critical points and hence to multiple transonic solutions with shock transitions. The physical relevance of these properties for astrophysical systems such as the inner solar wind, flows in extragalactic jets and accretion discs are discussed

  18. A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Collotta, Mario; Pau, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless netw...

  19. A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Collotta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless network. The approach, by using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE, introduces a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC in order to improve a Home Energy Management (HEM scheme, addressing the power load of standby appliances and their loads in different hours of the day. Since the consumer is involved in the choice of switching on/off of home appliances, the approach introduced in this work proposes a fuzzy-based solution in order to manage the consumer feedbacks. Simulation results show that the proposed solution is efficient in terms of reducing peak load demand, electricity consumption charges with an increase comfort level of consumers. The performance of the proposed BLE-based wireless network scenario are validated in terms of packet delivery ratio, delay, and jitter and are compared to IEEE 802.15.4 technology.

  20. Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy conservation in cloud computing. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from ...

  1. Conical intersections of free energy surfaces in solution: Effect of electron correlation on a protonated Schiff base in methanol solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Toshifumi; Nakano, Katsuhiro; Kato, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    The minimum energy conical intersection (MECI) optimization method with taking account of the dynamic electron correlation effect [T. Mori and S. Kato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 476, 97 (2009)] is extended to locate the MECI of nonequilibrium free energy surfaces in solution. A multistate electronic perturbation theory is introduced into the nonequilibrium free energy formula, which is defined as a function of solute and solvation coordinates. The analytical free energy gradient and interstate coupling vectors are derived, and are applied to locate MECIs in solution. The present method is applied to study the cis-trans photoisomerization reaction of a protonated Schiff base molecule (PSB3) in methanol (MeOH) solution. It is found that the effect of dynamic electron correlation largely lowers the energy of S 1 state. We also show that the solvation effect strongly stabilizes the MECI obtained by twisting the terminal C=N bond to become accessible in MeOH solution, whereas the conical intersection is found to be unstable in gas phase. The present study indicates that both electron correlation and solvation effects are important in the photoisomerization reaction of PSB3. The effect of counterion is also examined, and seems to be rather small in solution. The structures of free energy surfaces around MECIs are also discussed.

  2. Reimagining Energy in the North: Developing Solutions for Improving Renewable Energy Security in Northern Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Poelzer, G.; Noble, B.; Beatty, B.; Belcher, K.; Chung, T.; Loring, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global energy sector is at a crossroads. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, volatile fossil fuel prices, the emergence of sustainability markets, and advances in renewable energy technologies are setting the foundation for what could be one of the most significant societal transitions since the industrial revolution. There is a growing movement to "re-energize" Canada, through embracing pathways to facilitate a societal transition a low-carbon future. For example, circumpolar jurisdictions are poised for a transition to renewable energy. There are more than 250 remote, off-grid communities across Canada's North, of which approximately 170 are Indigenous, that rely largely on diesel-fueled generators. Diesel-fueled generation is generally reliable when properly maintained; however, supply is limited, infrastructure is at capacity or in need of major upgrading, and the volatile price of fuel can mean significant social, community and economic opportunity loss. Renewable energy projects offer one possible opportunity to address these challenges. But, given the challenges of human capacity, limited fiscal resources, and regulatory barriers, how can Northern communities participate in the global energy transition and not be left behind? To answer this question, the University of Saskatchewan, together with partners from the circumpolar North, are leading an initiative to develop a cross-sectoral and multi-national consortium of communities, utilities, industries, governments, and academics engaged in renewable energy in the North. This consortium will reimagine energy security in the North by co-creating and brokering the knowledge and understanding to design renewable energy systems that enhance social and economic value. Northern communities and utilities will learn directly from other northern communities and utilities across Canada and internationally about what can be achieved in renewable energy development and the solutions to current and future

  3. On the solution set for a class of sequential fractional differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Mustafa, Octavian G; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2010-01-01

    We establish here that under some simple restrictions on the functional coefficient a(t) the solution set of the fractional differential equation ( 0 D α t x)' + a(t)x = 0 splits between eventually small and eventually large solutions as t → +∞, where 0 D α t designates the Riemann-Liouville derivative of the order α in (0, 1).

  4. Explanatory Resources on Energy in High School Physics Classes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Domínguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and reflects on the explanatory resources that are used in high school physics classes for studying the topic of energy. Explanatory resources are a means of constructing and negotiating meaning. The research is an instrumental case study focusing on four years of high school physics classes on energy. The theoretical principles of sociocultural approaches and conversation analysis are taken as benchmarks for understanding how we construct and reconstruct meanings (on energy. The identification of the resources used in the process of meaning construction is of importance for understanding certain scientific phenomena addressed in the curricula. Among the resources most commonly employed to enhance explanation were definitions and the causes of phenomena. We also found that teachers’ interventions, either through verbal explanations or instructional proposals, were crucial for certain kinds of explanations and for the presence or absence of other resources associated with explanations.

  5. A Class of Convergent Rational Runge-Kutta Schemes for solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a class of convergent implicit Rational Runge-Kutta schemes using Taylor and binomial series expansion, are developed, analysed and computerized to solve ODEs. Numerical results arising from the new schemes compare favourably with the existing Euler's method. Furthermore, the results show that the ...

  6. On the Maximum Number of Periodical Solutions of a Class of Autonomous Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeva, M.

    2008-01-01

    The autonomous systems are investigated on a certain condition, assuming the existence of inner resonances. Nonlinear parts are polynomials of a certain class. The present article is a continuation of the last one, which was published by American Institute of Physics, New York in 2007. We are interested both in the existence and the number of periodical trajectories of the system with initial conditions.

  7. Energy access in rural Togo: the relevance of the energy kiosk solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galichon, Ines; Payen, Luc

    2017-03-01

    Solar home systems (SHS) represent today a viable and scalable solution to meet basic energy needs (lighting, mobile phone charging) - the first step of the energy ladder - but are much more limited when it comes to offering productive use of energy. Productive use of energy is however crucial to develop valuable economic activities in off-grid villages. Solar kiosk and mini-grids are two potential solutions to meet these productive energy needs. The main difference lies in the distribution network, which requires both investment and maintenance and thus is expensive. As an example, a $500/customer connection translates into a monthly grid fee equivalent to the monthly cost of a standard solar home system (which includes energy). It is likely that households consumption alone won't be sufficient to ensure the economic profitability of a mini-grid, if the mini-grid developer does not benefit from any public subsidy. Moreover, though mini-grids are usually developed for larger systems, in some cases solar kiosks have the same order of magnitude of installed power capacity as mini-grids (i.e. Ekocenter vs. Powergen RE). In the context of off-grid rural village with very limited energy consumption, start-ups or entrepreneurial projects might prefer to bet on the least capital intensive concept. With a lower nominal CAPEX and more diverse sources of revenues compared to mini-grids, solar kiosks appear as an easier solution to provide access to productive use of energy in the short term. The flexibility of their revenue sources is today a massive advantage of the model. Yet flexibility might also be a weakness as it hinders the firm from choosing a long term position, which is necessary to build a scaled up business model and company. Solar kiosks can progressively evolve in the mid-term towards an independent power producer model; but it can also leverage its last-mile customer proximity to offer a larger array of non-energy products and services. For example, a

  8. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for class of Navier boundary $p$-biharmonic problem near resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Massar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence and multiplicity of weak solutions for the following elliptic problem\\\\ $\\Delta(\\rho|\\Delta u|^{p-2}\\Delta u=\\lambda m(x|u|^{p-2}u+f(x,u+h(x$ in $\\Omega,$\\\\$u=\\Delta u=0$ on $\\partial\\Omega.$ By using Ekeland's variationalprinciple, Mountain pass theorem and saddle point theorem, theexistence and multiplicity of weak solutions are established.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  10. Solutions-based climate change education for K-Gray: Renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Through the National Science Foundation-funded MADE CLEAR (www.madeclear.org) climate change education project's Informal Climate Change Education (ICCE) Community, funds were received to collaboratively train teachers, informal educators, students, and university docents in climate change basics and solutions, specifically renewable energy and energy efficiency. In all, 10 docents, 50 classroom teachers, over 600 K-16 students, and several hundred science-interested citizens participated in programs and workshops lasting between one and seven hours. Using commercially available kits and other DIY projects, program participants used science content and engineering to develop models of wind turbines, wind mills, solar cells, solar cookers, solar stills, and wind-powered cars. Using thermal imaging cameras, Kill-a-Watt meters, "Carbon Food Print" kit, "Energy Matters" kit, and other tools, program participants learned about energy efficiency as not only a global climate change mitigation strategy, but also a way to save money. ICCE Community members and external partners, such as local electric cooperative personnel, university researchers, and state-sponsored energy efficiency program personnel, provided content presentations, discussions, and hands-on activities to program participants.

  11. Numerical study on the convergence to steady state solutions of a new class of high order WENO schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2017-11-01

    A new class of high order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes (Zhu and Qiu, 2016, [50]) is applied to solve Euler equations with steady state solutions. It is known that the classical WENO schemes (Jiang and Shu, 1996, [23]) might suffer from slight post-shock oscillations. Even though such post-shock oscillations are small enough in magnitude and do not visually affect the essentially non-oscillatory property, they are truly responsible for the residue to hang at a truncation error level instead of converging to machine zero. With the application of this new class of WENO schemes, such slight post-shock oscillations are essentially removed and the residue can settle down to machine zero in steady state simulations. This new class of WENO schemes uses a convex combination of a quartic polynomial with two linear polynomials on unequal size spatial stencils in one dimension and is extended to two dimensions in a dimension-by-dimension fashion. By doing so, such WENO schemes use the same information as the classical WENO schemes in Jiang and Shu (1996) [23] and yield the same formal order of accuracy in smooth regions, yet they could converge to steady state solutions with very tiny residue close to machine zero for our extensive list of test problems including shocks, contact discontinuities, rarefaction waves or their interactions, and with these complex waves passing through the boundaries of the computational domain.

  12. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  13. A solution to the inherent list on Nimitz class aircraft carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfson, Dianna

    2004-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Nimitz class aircraft carriers possess an inherent list to starboard that their list control systems (LCS) are typically unable to correct while under Combat Load Conditions. As a result, it has become necessary to use fresh water ballast in a number of inner bottom voids and damage control voids to augment the LCS. Maintaining liquid ballast in damage conrol voids in unacceptable, as it...

  14. Improvement Solutions and Methodology of UAV Micro-class Aerodynamic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Urbahs, Aleksandrs; Petrovs, Vladimirs; Urbaha, Margarita; Carjova, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains the analysis of basic features characterizing the development and modernization of micro-class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performance characteristics. The UAV is mainly used for environmental monitoring and for the monitoring of different industrial facilities. The study offers the ways of modernizing the UAV embodiment. It considers the methodology for improving UAV aerodynamic and structural characteristics by using modern calculation methods. The study also includes a...

  15. The greenhouse effect: the fallacies in the energy efficiency solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L.

    1990-03-01

    A reply to papers by Keepin and Kats claiming that, per tonne of coal not burned, improvements in energy efficiency are more cost-effective than substituting nuclear for coal-fired power. Widespread improvements in energy efficiency cannot by themselves do anything to halt the build-up of greenhouse gases around the globe. Neither can energy savings from improving efficiency substitute for new energy supply. Reductions in energy intensity of output that are not damaging to the economy are associated with increases, not decreases, in energy demand at the macroeconomic level.

  16. Criterion for polynomial solutions to a class of linear differential equations of second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Nasser; Hall, Richard L; Ciftci, Hakan

    2006-01-01

    We consider the differential equations y-prime = λ 0 (x)y' + s 0 (x)y, where λ 0 (x), s 0 (x) are C ∞ -functions. We prove (i) if the differential equation has a polynomial solution of degree n > 0, then δ n = λ n s n-1 - λ n-1 s n = 0, where λ n λ' n-1 + s n-1 + λ 0 λ n-1 ands n = s' n-1 + s 0 λ k-1 , n = 1, 2, .... Conversely (ii) if λ n λ n-1 ≠ 0 and δ n = 0, then the differential equation has a polynomial solution of degree at most n. We show that the classical differential equations of Laguerre, Hermite, Legendre, Jacobi, Chebyshev (first and second kinds), Gegenbauer and the Hypergeometric type, etc obey this criterion. Further, we find the polynomial solutions for the generalized Hermite, Laguerre, Legendre and Chebyshev differential equations

  17. Travelling wave solutions in a class of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a new generalization of KdV equation u t = u x u l-2 + α[2u xxx u p + 4pu p-1 u x u xx + p(p - 1)u p-2 (u x ) 3 ] and investigate its bifurcation of travelling wave solutions. From the above analysis, we know that there exists compacton and cusp waves in the system. We explain the reason that these non-smooth travelling wave solution arise by using the bifurcation theory

  18. Viscosity solutions of two classes of coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başar Tamer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies viscosity solutions of two sets of linearly coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations (one for finite horizon and the other one for infinite horizon which arise in the optimal control of nonlinear piecewise deterministic systems where the controls could be unbounded. The controls enter through the system dynamics as well as the transitions for the underlying Markov chain process, and are allowed to depend on both the continuous state and the current state of the Markov chain. The paper establishes the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions for these two sets of HJB equations, whose Hamiltonian structures are different from the standard ones.

  19. Preventing Control Constraint Violations by Use of Energy Balances for a Class of Coupled Systems: Applied to a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a scheme is presented for preventing violations of control signal constraints in a class of coupled systems. The scheme is an add-on solution to the existing control system; it works like a fault tolerant scheme, by accommodating the problem then occurring. The proposed scheme...... recomputes the reference values to the system such that control signal constraint violations are avoided. The new reference values are found using an energy balance of the system. The scheme is intended to handle rarely occurring constraint violations, so the only concern is that the system should be stable...... and not to optimize performance during all conditions. The scheme is applied to an example with a coal mill pulverizing coal for a power plant.  ...

  20. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  1. Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobtorweihen, S.; Zuniga, A. Chaides; Ingram, T.; Gerlach, T.; Keil, F. J.; Smirnova, I.

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative predictions of biomembrane/water partition coefficients are important, as they are a key property in pharmaceutical applications and toxicological studies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes. The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Additionally, solute orientations calculated with MD and COSMOmic are compared and again a good agreement is found. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations. For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations.

  2. Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobtorweihen, S.; Ingram, T.; Gerlach, T.; Smirnova, I.; Zuniga, A. Chaides; Keil, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of biomembrane/water partition coefficients are important, as they are a key property in pharmaceutical applications and toxicological studies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes. The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Additionally, solute orientations calculated with MD and COSMOmic are compared and again a good agreement is found. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations. For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations

  3. Class FH sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) as an energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestible energy (DE) content of milled and whole class FH sunflower seed (SS) was determined in a digestion trial and found to be respectively 18,7 and 9,9 MJ/kg on an air dry basis. Two diets for early weaned piglets formulated to be equal in protein, lysine and DE and respectively containing 18,0% roasted full-fat.

  4. Analytical expression for a class of spherically symmetric solutions in Lorentz-breaking massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xin-zhou; Xi, Ping

    2016-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the spherically symmetric solutions in Lorentz-breaking massive gravity. There is an undetermined function { F }(X,{w}1,{w}2,{w}3) in the action of Stückelberg fields {S}φ ={{{Λ }}}4\\int {{{d}}}4x\\sqrt{-g}{ F }, which should be resolved through physical means. In general relativity, the spherically symmetric solution to the Einstein equation is a benchmark and its massive deformation also plays a crucial role in Lorentz-breaking massive gravity. { F } will satisfy the constraint equation {T}01=0 from the spherically symmetric Einstein tensor {G}01=0, if we maintain that any reasonable physical theory should possess the spherically symmetric solutions. The Stückelberg field {φ }i is taken as a ‘hedgehog’ configuration {φ }i=φ (r){x}i/r, whose stability is guaranteed by the topological one. Under this ansätz, {T}01=0 is reduced to d{ F }=0. The functions { F } for d{ F }=0 form a commutative ring {R}{ F }. We obtain an expression of the solution to the functional differential equation with spherical symmetry if { F }\\in {R}{ F }. If { F }\\in {R}{ F } and \\partial { F }/\\partial X=0, the functions { F } form a subring {S}{ F }\\subset {R}{ F }. We show that the metric is Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-AdS or Schwarzschild-dS if { F }\\in {S}{ F }. When { F }\\in {R}{ F } but { F }\

  5. Partial regularity of viscosity solutions for a class of Kolmogorov equations arising from mathematical finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosestolato, M.; Święch, A.

    2017-02-01

    We study value functions which are viscosity solutions of certain Kolmogorov equations. Using PDE techniques we prove that they are C 1 + α regular on special finite dimensional subspaces. The problem has origins in hedging derivatives of risky assets in mathematical finance.

  6. Symmetric periodic solutions for a class of differential delay equations with distributed delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kennedy

    2014-03-01

    where $g$ and $f$ are smooth, bounded, and odd and satisfy a positive and a negative feedback condition, respectively. Using elementary fixed point theory we prove the existence of a nontrivial periodic solution of period $2 + 2d$ satisfying certain symmetries, given certain growth conditions on $f$ and $g$ near zero.

  7. Properties of solutions to a class of differential models incorporating Preisach hysteresis operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; O'Kane, J.P.; Pokrovskii, A.; Rachinskii, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 241, č. 22 (2012), s. 2010-2028 ISSN 0167-2789 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Preisach operator * differential equation * periodic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.669, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167278911001126

  8. New Class of Solutions for Water Infiltration Problems in Unsaturated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M; Momeni, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of approximate analytical solutions to Richards’ equation, which governs the problem of unsaturated flow in porous media. The existing methods generally fall within the category of numerical and analytical methods, often having many restrictions for practical situa...

  9. Solutions of half-linear differential equations in the classes Gamma and Pi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Taddei, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 7-8 (2016), s. 683-714 ISSN 0893-4983 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : half-linear differential equation * positive solution * asymptotic formula Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.565, year: 2016 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.die/1462298681

  10. Existence of multiple solutions for a class of nonhomogeneous problems with critical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Massar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and multiplicity of solutions for $(p_1(x,p_2(x$-equation with critical growth. The technical approach is mainly based on the variational method combined with the genus theory.

  11. The existence and global exponential stability of a periodic solution of a class of delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X H; Zou, Xingfu

    2009-01-01

    By employing Schauder's fixed point theorem and a non-Liapunov method (matrix theory, inequality analysis), we obtain some new criteria that ensure existence and global exponential stability of a periodic solution to a class of functional differential equations. Applying these criteria to a cellular neural network with time delays (delayed cellular neural network, DCNN) under a periodic environment leads to some new results that improve and generalize many existing ones we know on this topic. These results are of great significance in designs and applications of globally stable periodic DCNNs

  12. Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Bulíček, Miroslav

    2015-04-21

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.

  13. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundell, Per; Yin, Yihao [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2017-01-11

    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in https://arxiv.org/abs/1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by a sum of generalized Petrov type-D tensors that are Kerr-like or 2-brane-like in the asymptotic AdS{sub 4} region, and the twistor space connection is smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  14. Multiplicity of Solutions for a Class of Fourth-Order Elliptic Problems with Asymptotically Linear Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the following fourth-order elliptic equations: Δ2+Δ=(,,∈Ω,=Δ=0,∈Ω, where Ω⊂ℝ is a bounded domain with smooth boundary Ω and (, is asymptotically linear with respect to at infinity. Using an equivalent version of Cerami's condition and the symmetric mountain pass lemma, we obtain the existence of multiple solutions for the equations.

  15. Homoclinic Solutions for a Class of Second Order Nonautonomous Singular Hamiltonian Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the existence of homoclinic solutions for the following second order nonautonomous singular Hamiltonian systems u¨+atWuu=0, (HS where -∞solution. Our main hypotheses are the strong force condition of Gordon and the uniqueness of a global maximum of W. Different from the cases that (HS is autonomous at≡1 or (HS is periodic or almost periodic, as far as we know, this is the first result concerning the case that (HS is nonautonomous and N≥3. Besides the usual conditions on W, we need the assumption that a′t<0 for all t∈ℝ to guarantee the existence of homoclinic solution. Recent results in the literature are generalized and significantly improved.

  16. Tools and solutions for environmental reporting and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhonen, T.

    2004-01-01

    Especially two areas of energy applications - environmental reporting and energy management - are emphasized due to the current EU legislation and opening energy markets. Emissions reporting is driven by several EU directives and international agreements, like Emissions Trading Scheme. The directives guide implementation of the emission information management and reporting procedures, but requirements and differences defined by the local authorities are challenging both for the system supplier and for the energy producer. Energy management of industrial energy production (CHP) is an application, which offers real-time tools for forecasting mill's energy need and optimizing the energy balance between a mill's own production, purchases and consumption. This can bring significant reductions in mill energy costs and consumption. For these applications, the exact and well-managed information is needed. Data is retrieved from plant historians and event databases, ERP's and external sources. Calculation applications generate characteristic values (KPI's), which are used for monitoring operation, improving plant availability and boosting performance. Common office tools, like MS Excel, are the most convenient tools for reporting and processing information. Integration tools are needed to combine data from several sources to a single channel, handling messaging between applications and distributing information. (author)

  17. Fast reactors as a solution for future small-scale nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtseva, A.; Danilenko, K.; Dorofeev, K.

    2013-01-01

    Small nuclear power plants can provide a future platform for decentralized energy supply providing better levels of accessibility, safety and environmental friendliness. The optimal solution for SMR deployment is fast reactors with inherent safety. To compete alternative solutions SMRs must exhibit some evident advantages in: safety, technology, and economic. Small modular reactors with lead-bismuth coolant (SVBR-100) under development in Russia can be a prospective solution for future small and decentralized energy

  18. Ground State Solutions for a Class of Fractional Differential Equations with Dirichlet Boundary Value Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the method of the Nehari manifold to study the fractional differential equation (d/dt((1/2 0Dt-β(u′(t+(1/2 tDT-β(u′(t=  f(t,u(t, a.e. t∈[0,T], and u0=uT=0, where  0Dt-β, tDT-β are the left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals of order 0≤β<1, respectively. We prove the existence of a ground state solution of the boundary value problem.

  19. On the asymptotic solution to a class of linear integral equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautesen, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors consider Fredholm integral equations of the first kind whose kernels are a function of the difference between two points times a large parameter. Conditions on the kernel are stated in terms of a function corresponding to a Wiener-Hopf factorization of the Fourier transform of the kernel. They give the complete asymptotic expansions of the solution to the integral equations. As applications of the author's results, the author considers the steady-state, acoustical scattering of a plane wave by both a hard strip and a soft strip. The author's results are uniform with respect to the direction of incidence

  20. On existence of weak solutions to a Cauchy problem for one class of conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Kogut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the existence of weak solutions to the Cauchy problem for one classof hyperbolic conservation laws that models a highly re-entrant production system.The output of the factory is described as a function of the work in progress and theposition of the so-called push-pull point (PPP where we separate the beginning ofthe factory employing a push policy from the end of the factory, which uses a pullpolicy. The main question we discuss in this paper is about the optimal choice ofthe input in-ux, push and pull constituents, and the position of PPP.

  1. Symmetry analysis and exact solutions of one class of (1+3)-dimensional boundary-value problems of the Stefan type

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the group classification of one class of (1+3)-dimensional nonlinear boundary-value problems of the Stefan type that simulate the processes of melting and evaporation of metals. The results obtained are used for the construction of the exact solution of one boundary-value problem from the class under study.

  2. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  3. Simulations of Innovative Solutions for Energy Efficient Building Facades

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Aashish

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a heightened interest in making buildings more sustainable, which has been fueled largely by the relative increase in energy costs and advancements in manufacturing technology. Lighting consumes a substantial amount of the building energy consumption, making it necessary to look for alternative technology that depends more on natural lighting. A structural element for facades called the Translucent Concrete (TC) panel has been developed for capturing and deliveri...

  4. Chemical energy storage: Part of a systemic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a primer into concepts and opportunities of chemical energy storage. Starting from the quest for decarbonisation we reveal the possibilities of chemical energy storage. We briefly discuss the critical role of catalysis as enabling technology. We concentrate on options of large-scale production of chemicals from CO2 and green hydrogen. We discuss one potential application of fueling future combustion engines that could run with minimal regulated emissions without exhaust purifications and legal tricks.

  5. Energy conservation in rental housing: landlords' perceptions of problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.; Astrein, B.; Bernstein, S.; Piernot, C.; Strahs, S.

    1982-03-01

    Rental housing owners have had little incentive to invest in energy conservation measures for their buildings. As the cost of energy continues to rise, market incentives increase. This research explores the decision processes and criteria of a purposive sample of landlords in four cities: Boston, Chicago, Denver, and San Francisco. The report outlines landlords' reasons for investing or not investing in energy conservation measures, the barriers they perceive to energy conservation, and their perceived solutions to energy problems in rental housing.

  6. Multiplicity of solutions for a class of fractional Choquard-Kirchhoff equations involving critical nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiang, Mingqi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the multiplicity of solutions to the following nonlocal fractional Choquard-Kirchhoff type equation involving critical exponent, ( a+b[u]_{s,p}^p) (-Δ )_p^su=\\int _{R^N}|u(y)|^{p_{μ ,s}^*}/|x-y|^{μ }dy|u|^{p_{μ ,s}^*-2}u +λ h(x)|u|^{q-2}u\\quad { in } {R}^N, [u]_{s,p}=( \\int _{RN}\\int _{R^N}|u(x)- u(y)|^p/|x-y|^{N+sp}dxdy) ^{1/p} where a≥0, b>0 , 00 is a parameter, p_{μ ,s}^*=(N-{μ/2)p}/{N-sp} is the critical exponent in the sense of the Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality, 1genus theory.

  7. Solar energy solutions for an environmentally sustainable world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.I.; Pustovitov, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The United Nations Conference of Environment and Development has focused the world's attention on the complex relationship between the environment and economic development. The essence of this relationship, and the emerging theme of UNCED, is the concept of sustainability. Sustainable economic development improves quality of life and raises standards of living by using the Earth's resources in a way that ensures that they are continually renewed, and will continue to support future generations. This is the subject of this report. While energy resources are essential to economic development, the authors current patterns of energy use are not sustainable. Reliance on fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and large-scale hydroelectric projects has contributed to serious environmental problems, including atmospheric pollution, loss of land productivity, loss of biological diversity, ocean and fresh water pollution, and hazardous waste generation. Thus, if they are to achieve sustainability in their patterns of energy consumption, it is imperative that they bring about a rapid and widespread transition to the utilization of environmentally sound energy sources and technologies. Solar energy technologies are environmentally sound, socially beneficial, and economically practical. They have been proven in a wide variety of applications around the world. The barriers to the widespread implementation of solar technologies are no longer technical, but rather social, economic, and political. These barriers can and must be removed

  8. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  9. Energy-efficient networking solutions in cloud-based environments: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, F.A.; Lago, P.; Grosso, P.

    The energy consumed by data centers hosting cloud services is increasing enormously. This brings the need to reduce energy consumption of different components in data centers. In this work, we focus on energy efficiency of the networking component. However, how different networking solutions impact

  10. Energy efficient networking solutions in cloud-based environments: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh Moghaddam, F.; Lago, P.; Grosso, P.

    2015-01-01

    The energy consumed by data centers hosting cloud services is increasing enormously. This brings the need to reduce energy consumption of different components in data centers. In this work, we focus on energy efficiency of the networking component. However, how different networking solutions impact

  11. How to develop a world class electrical utility for the free markets of electrical energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, J.E.; Takala, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electricity distribution in Finland is going to the new stage where the electrical energy market will be gradually free from competition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of the world class utility. A feasibility study was made to research the condition in logistics and suitable methods for the implementation. Some ideas have been piloted to verify and find acceptable approaches of the implementation to practice. Utilities improved the cost efficiency and strategical business logistics in a customer oriented and flexible way. The methods and findings can be used on other public and industrial areas, too

  12. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  13. THE IDENTIFICATION OF SOLUTIONS TO COVER ENERGY DEMAND FROM RENEWABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant I.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources development in the conditions of existing country legal framework may provoke a significant electricity tariff increasing, out of consumer’s capacity to pay for the power consumed. This aspect should be taken into consideration at the stage of aiming the goal of involving the renewable sources in the energy balance. Based on the elaborated models, for wind farms and the sources on biomass the maximum allowed level of electricity generated is determined to satisfy country annual load curve.

  14. Initial Assessment of Mooring Solutions for Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Delaney, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates three different types of mooring systems in order to establish potential cost reductions and applicability to wave energy converters (WECs). Proposed mooring systems for three existing WECs create the basis for this study, and the study highlights areas of interest ...

  15. Broadband energy harvesting from parametric vibrations of a class of nonlinear Mathieu systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevras, Panagiotis; Theodossiades, Stephanos; Rahnejat, Homer

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the Mathieu equation with the inclusion of a cubic stiffness component is considered for broadband vibration energy harvesting. The results of numerical integration are compared with the corresponding solution of a regular Duffing oscillator which is widely used to model nonlinear energy harvesting. The use of Duffing oscillators has shown direct correspondence between the effective frequency range of the associated hysteretic phenomenon and the value of the nonlinearity coefficient. A broadband energy harvester requires strong nonlinearity, especially for high frequencies of interest. This letter demonstrates that the effectiveness of parametrically excited systems is not constrained by the same requirement. Based on this, it is suggested that parametrically excited systems can be a robust means of broadband vibration harvesting.

  16. Nuclear energy - the global solution for sustainable development in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorea, Valica; Popescu, Dan; Cristescu, Catalin

    2006-01-01

    The global population growth of the planet during the next 50 years will be accompanied by a dramatic increase in the demand for energy. Almost two-thirds of the world's population today has no access to electricity in developing countries. Without energy, the entire infrastructure would collapse: agriculture, transportation, waste collection. Developing and industrialized nations alike must address - both individually and collectively - how they can achieve sustainable growth. To date about 16 % of the world's electricity is produced by 443 reactors in 31 countries. They have a combined total capacity of 362 GW of electricity and produced a combined total of 2618 TWh in 2004, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency statistics. These reactors produce electricity for their respective countries safely, reliably and with the lowest environmental impact of any major energy source. Nuclear power provides steady energy at a consistent price without competing for resources from other countries. Some deficient in fossil fuels large countries (like France) rely on nuclear power up to about 80 % of their power necessities. United States (US) has the greatest number of commercial reactors in operation, but the share of nuclear power doesn't exceed 20 %, because of their abundant oil resources. On a percentage basis, Romania is one of the smaller users of nuclear energy. In Romania, according to the official data of the Romanian Ministry of Economy and Trade, nuclear energy share is only 10% of the gross power generation structure, with 5.560 GWh during the year 2004. Construction of the first unit of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda started in 1980 and of units 2-5 in 1982. Unit 1 was connected to the grid in mid of 1996 and entered commercial operation in December 1996. The state nuclear power corporation, Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica (SNN), established in 1998, operates Cernavoda NPP. Its capacity factor has averaged over 86 % so far and

  17. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Sťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-08-10

    Biphasic solvent systems composed of an ionic liquid (IL) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) have become frequented in synthesis, extractions and electrochemistry. In the design of related applications, information on interphase partitioning of the target organics is essential, and the infinite-dilution partition coefficients of the organic solutes in IL-scCO(2) systems can conveniently be obtained by supercritical fluid chromatography. The data base of experimental partition coefficients obtained previously in this laboratory has been employed to test a generalized predictive model for the solute partition coefficients. The model is an amended version of that described before by Hiraga et al. (J. Supercrit. Fluids, in press). Because of difficulty of the problem to be modeled, the model involves several different concepts - linear solvation energy relationships, density-dependent solvent power of scCO(2), regular solution theory, and the Flory-Huggins theory of athermal solutions. The model shows a moderate success in correlating the infinite-dilution solute partition coefficients (K-factors) in individual IL-scCO(2) systems at varying temperature and pressure. However, larger K-factor data sets involving multiple IL-scCO(2) systems appear to be beyond reach of the model, especially when the ILs involved pertain to different cation classes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The nuclear contribution to the solution of Brazilian energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the justifying of Brazilian Nuclear Programme. Due to the demand increasing of electric energy in Brazil, the government decided to an alternative source. Although the brazilian electric power program continue basically hydroelectric, the nuclear power plants began to be constructed. The strategy adopted, the prospection of uranium enrichment, the project and construction of nuclear power plants, the responsibilities of Nuclebras and Nuclen and several stages of this program are described. (C.M.)

  19. Wormhole solutions in f(R) gravity satisfying energy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-10-01

    Without reference to exotic sources construction of viable wormholes in Einstein’s general relativity remained ever a myth. With the advent of modified theories, however, specifically the f(R) theory, new hopes arose for the possibility of such objects. From this token, we construct traversable wormholes in f(R) theory supported by a fluid source which respects at least the weak energy conditions. We provide an example (Example 1) of asymptotically flat wormhole in f(R) gravity without ghosts.

  20. Transforming PV installations toward dispatchable, schedulable energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa [AE Solar Energy, Inc., Ft. Collins, Co (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Advanced Energy led SEGIS-AC program represents an industry partnership driven collaborative effort to continue to lower the barriers to increasing penetration of PV on the grid while also lowering overall system cost consistent with the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SEGIS-AC program follows the DOE sponsored three year SEGIS program, which had similar high level goals, but with a broader exploratory scope. In SEGIS-AC, the team carries forward a new communications based islanding detection technology developed during the SEGIS program. Advanced utility interactive controls are further developed, and a storage inverter system is developed focused on intermittency mitigation due to cloud induced transients. Communications based island detection coupled with advanced controls and a storage system are shown to improve utility distribution feeder performance and to enable increased solar PV penetration levels. By the conclusion of the program, multiple utilities and customers have expressed awareness and desire to make use of the technologies developed and demonstrated under this program. This factor has led the Advanced Energy led team to deem the program an overall success. The report following details the technologies developed and demonstrated, as well as industry engagement.

  1. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  2. Small hydroelectric improvements: energy solutions for the Amazon; Pequenos aproveitamentos hidroeletricos: solucoes energeticas para a Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Eduardo Jose Fagundes; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Stano Junior, Angelo (and others)

    2008-07-01

    For electrify isolated rural communities in the Amazon, the Ministerio de Minas e Energia - MME (Brazilian Mining and Energy Ministry), promoted under the 'Luz para todos' (Light for All) program, a series of activities aimed at the development and implementation of projects for small- scale power generation and training professionals, in the region, for the deployment of alternative energy solutions from renewable energy sources. Among these activities are the production of the collection 'Energy Solutions for the Amazon', consisting of five volumes. This is the first volume of the series that presents an overview of small hydroelectric improvements.

  3. Existence of high-energy solutions for supercritical fractional Schrodinger equations in R^N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Gan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study supercritical fractional Schr\\"odinger equations. Applying the finite-dimensional reduction method and the penalization method, we obtain the high-energy solutions for this equation.

  4. Consumption Management Informatics Solution for Increasing Consumers’ Awareness towards Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bâra Adela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an informatics solution for increase consumers’ awareness towards energy efficiency considering three main aspects: consumption optimization, market segmentation and smart application for monitoring and scheduling electrical appliances and real time billing information.

  5. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  6. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry - December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    AMO's research and development partnerships with industry have resulted in more than 220 technologies and other solutions that can be purchased today. This document includes a description of each solution, its benefits, and vendor contact information. The document also identifies emerging technologies and other resources to help industry save energy.

  7. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  8. Questionnaire survey, indoor climate measurements and energy consumption: Concerto initiative. Class1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellemose Knudsen, H.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Bergsoee, N.C. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Moerck, O.; Holmegaard Andersen, K. [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as ''low-energy class 1'' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup .} Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m{sup }thermal solar system for hot water preparation. The dense low-rise housing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008. This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58 flats, and measurements, assessments, and a series of physical measurements of selected indoor climate parameters in 7 selected single-family houses during March 2012. (Author)

  9. 78 FR 31986 - In the Matter of Energy Solutions Inc.; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Import and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... with applicable provisions of laws, regulations and orders issued by the Commission pursuant thereto... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 11005621, 11005896, 11005620, 11005897, 11006061... Energy Solutions Inc.; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Import and Export Licenses I EnergySolutions...

  10. Durability of API class B cement pastes exposed to aqueous solutions containing chloride, sulphate and magnesium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a durability study conducted on API class B cement, the type used in shallow oil wells, when exposed to aggressive formation water. Its resistance to the major ions, namely –SO4=, Mg+2 and Cl-–, is related both to its capacity to assimilate the aggressive action of each harmful agent and to the changes in the chemical reactivity of some of its components. The methodology used consisted in preparing and immersing cement specimens in neutral solutions containing variable concentrations of these ions to monitor the chemical reactions taking place. These solutions were analyzed and XRD studies were conducted for over a year to identify mineralogical variations. The purposes of the study were to determine the effects of joint ionic attack on this kind of cement and to monitor the variations in the calcium concentration in the aqueous solutions of Na2SO4, MgCl2 and NaCl in contact with API class B cement pastesEste trabajo se basa en el estudio de la durabilidad de un cemento API clase B, utilizado en pozos petrolíferos someros, frente a la agresividad de las aguas de formación a las que puede estar expuesto. Su eficacia frente a la exposición a los iones más importantes –SO4=, Mg+2 y Cl-– se relaciona con su capacidad de asimilar la acción agresiva de cada agente perjudicial, así como de las reacciones químicas que sufra por la reactividad de alguno de sus compuestos. La metodología aplicada supone la preparación de probetas de este cemento y su inmersión en disoluciones neutras, conteniendo los referidos iones a distintas concentraciones, para evaluar el desarrollo de las reacciones existentes en su seno. A tal fin se realizaron análisis de las disoluciones y estudios de DRX durante más de un año para conocer su evolución mineralógica. El objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar los efectos resultantes de los ataques conjuntos de los citados iones al referido cemento; así como la observación de las

  11. Anti-Crisis Solutions for Regional Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers anti-crisis solutions for the electricity sector that fall into the category of strategic ones. Their primary purpose is to ensure the flexibility and adaptability of the system and prevent emergencies in the future. The authors explain the need for a holistic approach to taking anti-crisis decisions in power engineering and propose ways to improve the economic mechanism of cost reduction based upon international practice and placed in the Russian context. The benefits of demand-side management in ensuring the reliability of power supplies amid crisis are shown. The paper looks at various implementation modalities for demandside management programmes and explores development prospects for distributed generation in Russia and stand-alone power supply options for manufacturing companies. Factors are assessed that affect the cost effectiveness of going off the grid. A general scheme of cost management aimed at reaching the strategic goals of the regional electricity sector is presented. The authors reveal possible applications and advantages of using predictive analytics for effective cost management. Ways of improving asset management are considered as well as the possibility of their employment in the Russian context. The key barriers to their implementations and ways of overcoming them are identified

  12. Risk management solutions for the new energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is one of five successor companies of former Ontario Hydro. With a current capacity of more than 30,000 MW, OPG is the fourth largest power generator in North America. Its generation mix includes 50 per cent nuclear with the balance being between fossil fuel and hydro energy. This power point presentation discussed the role of OPG in Ontario's new deregulated market place. The market is immature and new billing schemes are in the process of being introduced. This presentation discussed hourly market clearing price (spot market) and the need for hourly data, or interval meters. Issues regarding increased price volatility, load variability and how consumers can avoid high prices through load control were also discussed. In Ontario's new market place, the purchasing options for electric power include the wholesale market participant, retailers of electricity, retail participants, default supply and self generation. A brief review of each of these procurement options was included with this presentation. tabs., figs

  13. Combining choice experiments with psychometric scales to assess the social acceptability of wind energy projects: A latent class approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazzera, Elisabetta; Mura, Marina; Contu, Davide

    2012-01-01

    A choice experiment exercise is combined with psychometric scales in order: (1) to identify factors that explain support/opposition toward a wind energy development project; and (2) to assess (monetary) trade-offs between attributes of the project. A Latent Class estimator is fitted to the data, and different utility parameters are estimated, conditional on class allocation. It is found that the probability of class membership depends on specific psychometric variables. Visual impacts on valued sites are an important factor of opposition toward a project, and this effect is magnified when identity values are attached to the specific site, so much that no trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals characterized by strong place attachment. Conversely, other classes of individuals are willing to accept compensations, in form of private and/or public benefits. The distribution of benefits in the territory, and preservation of the option value related to the possible development of an archeological site, are important for a class of individuals concerned with the sustainability of the local economy. - Highlights: ► A Choice Experiment approach is used to assess acceptability of a wind farm project. ► Psychometric variables are used to model heterogeneity in a Latent Class model. ► No trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals. ► Another class of individuals is interested in private benefits. ► Other classes are interested in public benefits and sustainability of the development.

  14. Dependence of Interaction Free Energy between Solutes on an External Electrostatic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Kun Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the athermal effect of an external electrostatic field on the stabilities of protein conformations and the binding affinities of protein-protein/ligand interactions, the dependences of the polar and hydrophobic interactions on the external electrostatic field, −Eext, were studied using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. By decomposing Eext into, along, and perpendicular to the direction formed by the two solutes, the effect of Eext on the interactions between these two solutes can be estimated based on the effects from these two components. Eext was applied along the direction of the electric dipole formed by two solutes with opposite charges. The attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes decreased for solutes treated as point charges. In contrast, the attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes increased, as observed by MD simulations, for Eext = 40 or 60 MV/cm. Eext was applied perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes. The attractive interaction free energy was increased for Eext = 100 MV/cm as a result of dielectric saturation. The force on the solutes along the direction of Eext computed from MD simulations was greater than that estimated from a continuum solvent in which the solutes were treated as point charges. To explore the hydrophobic interactions, Eext was applied to a water cluster containing two neutral solutes. The repulsive force between these solutes was decreased/increased for Eext along/perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes.

  15. Labelling and determination of the energy in reactive intermediates in solution enabled by energy-dependent reaction selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Singleton, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Any long-lived chemical structure in solution is subject to statistical energy equilibration, so the history of any specific structure does not affect its subsequent reactions. This is not true for very short-lived intermediates because energy equilibration takes time. Here, this idea is applied to achieve the 'energy labelling' of a reactive intermediate. The selectivity of the ring-opening α-cleavage reaction of the 1-methylcyclobutoxy radical is found here to vary broadly depending on how the radical was formed. Reactions that provide little excess energy to the intermediate lead to a high selectivity in the subsequent cleavage (measured as a kinetic isotope effect), whereas reactions that provide more excess energy to the intermediate exhibit a lower selectivity. Accounting for the expected excess energy allows the prediction of the observed product ratios and, in turn, the product ratios can be used to determine the energy present in an intermediate.

  16. On the Physical Origin of the Oppenheimer-Ahluwalia Zero-Energy Solutions of Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.

    By virtue of the Chubykalo-Smirnov-Rueda generalized form of the Maxwell-Lorentz equation, a new form of the energy density of the electromagnetic field is obtained. This result allows us to explain a physical origin of the Oppenheimer-Ahluwalia zero-energy solutions of the Maxwell equations.

  17. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  18. School beverage environment and children's energy expenditure associated with physical education class: an agent-based model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-J; Xue, H; Kumanyika, S; Wang, Y

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity contributes to children's energy expenditure and prevents excess weight gain, but fluid replacement with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may diminish this benefit. The aim of this study was to explore the net energy expenditure (EE) after physical education (PE) class given the competition between water and SSB consumption for rehydration and explore environmental factors that may influence the net EE, e.g. PE duration, affordability of SSB and students' SSB preference. We built an agent-based model that simulates the behaviour of 13-year-old children in a PE class with nearby water fountains and SSB vending machines available. A longer PE class contributed to greater prevalence of dehydration and required more time for rehydration. The energy cost of a PE class with activity intensity equivalent to 45 min of jogging is about 300 kcal on average, i.e. 10-15% of average 13-year-old children's total daily EE. Adding an SSB vending machine could offset PE energy expenditure by as much as 90 kcal per child, which was associated with PE duration, students' pocket money and SSB preference. Sugar-sweetened beverage vending machines in school may offset some of the EE in PE classes. This could be avoided if water is the only readily available source for children's fluid replacement after class. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. A Thermodynamical Approach for Evaluating Energy Consumption of the Forward Osmosis Process Using Various Draw Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-mu Zeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The forward-osmosis (FO processes have received much attention in past years as an energy saving desalination process. A typical FO process should inclu de a draw solute recovery step which contributes to the main operation costs of the process. Therefore, investigating the energy consumption is very important for the development and employment of the forward osmosis process. In this work, NH3-CO2, Na2SO4, propylene glycol mono-butyl ether, and dipropylamine were selected as draw solutes. The FO processes of different draw solute recovery approaches were simulated by Aspen PlusTM with a customized FO unit model. The electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (Electrolyte-NRTL and Universal Quasi Chemical (UNIQUAC models were employed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the feed and draw solutions. The simulation results indicated that the FO performance decreased under high feed concentration, while the energy consumption was improved at high draw solution concentration. The FO process using Na2SO4 showed the lowest energy consumption, followed by NH3-CO2, and dipropylamine. The propylene glycol mono-butyl ether process exhibited the highest energy consumption due to its low solubility in water. Finally, in order to compare the equivalent work of the FO processes, the thermal energy requirements were converted to electrical work.

  20. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  1. Heat of solution and site energies of hydrogen in disordered transition-metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, R.C.; Griessen, R.

    1989-01-01

    Site energies, long-range effective hydrogen-hydrogen interactions, and the enthalpy of solution in transition-metal alloys are calculated by means of an embedded-cluster model. The energy of a hydrogen atom is assumed to be predominantly determined by the first shell of neighboring metal atoms. The semiempirical local band-structure model is used to calculate the energy of the hydrogen atoms in the cluster, taking into account local deviations from the average lattice constant. The increase in the solubility limit and the weak dependence of the enthalpy of solution on hydrogen concentration in disordered alloys are discussed. Calculated site energies and enthalpies of solution in the alloys are compared with experimental data, and good agreement is found. Due to the strong interactions with the nearest-neighbor metal atoms, hydrogen atoms can be used to determine local lattice separations and the extent of short-range order in ''disordered'' alloys

  2. Spherical harmonics and energy polynomial solution of the Boltzmann equation for neutrons, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, P.S. de

    1974-01-01

    The approximate solution of the source-free energy-dependent Boltzmann transport equation for neutrons in plane geometry and isotropic scattering case was given by Leonard and Ferziger using a truncated development in a series of energy-polynomials for the energy dependent neutron flux and solving exactly for the angular dependence. The presence in the general solution of eigenfunctions belonging to a continuous spectrum gives rise to difficult analytical problems in the application of their method even to simple problems. To avoid such difficulties, the angular dependence is treated by a spherical harmonics method and a general solution of the energy-dependent transport equation in plane geometry and isotropic scattering is obtained, in spite of the appearance of matrices as argument of the angular polynomials [pt

  3. Highly crystalline mesoporous C{sub 60} with ordered pores. A class of nanomaterials for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzigar, Mercy R.; Joseph, Stalin; Ilbeygi, Hamid [Future Industries Institute (FII), Division of Information Technology Energy and Environment (DivITEE), University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Park, Dae-Hwan; Talapaneni, Siddulu Naidu [Global Innovative Center for Advanced Nanomaterials (GICAN), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia); Sarkar, Sujoy; Chandra, Goutam; Umapathy, Siva; Srinivasan, Sampath [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry and Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore (India); Vinu, Ajayan [Future Industries Institute (FII), Division of Information Technology Energy and Environment (DivITEE), University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Global Innovative Center for Advanced Nanomaterials (GICAN), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2018-01-08

    Highly ordered mesoporous C{sub 60} with a well-ordered porous structure and a high crystallinity is prepared through the nanohard templating method using a saturated solution of C{sub 60} in 1-chloronaphthalene (51 mg mL{sup -1}) as a C{sub 60} precursor and SBA-15 as a hard template. The high solubility of C{sub 60} in 1-chloronaphthalene helps not only to encapsulate a huge amount of the C{sub 60} into the mesopores of the template but also supports the oligomerization of C{sub 60} and the formation of crystalline walls made of C{sub 60}. The obtained mesoporous C{sub 60} exhibits a rod-shaped morphology, a high specific surface area (680 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), tuneable pores, and a highly crystalline wall structure. This exciting ordered mesoporous C{sub 60} offers high supercapacitive performance and a high selectivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and methanol tolerance for ORR. This simple strategy could be adopted to make a series of mesoporous fullerenes with different structures and carbon atoms as a new class of energy materials. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Energy Distribution of a Regular Black Hole Solution in Einstein-Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Radinschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study about the energy momentum of a new four-dimensional spherically symmetric, static and charged, regular black hole solution developed in the context of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics is presented. Asymptotically, this new black hole solution behaves as the Reissner-Nordström solution only for the particular value μ=4, where μ is a positive integer parameter appearing in the mass function of the solution. The calculations are performed by use of the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg, and Møller energy momentum complexes. In all the aforementioned prescriptions, the expressions for the energy of the gravitating system considered depend on the mass M of the black hole, its charge q, a positive integer α, and the radial coordinate r. In all these pseudotensorial prescriptions, the momenta are found to vanish, while the Landau-Lifshitz and Weinberg prescriptions give the same result for the energy distribution. In addition, the limiting behavior of the energy for the cases r→∞, r→0, and q=0 is studied. The special case μ=4 and α=3 is also examined. We conclude that the Einstein and Møller energy momentum complexes can be considered as the most reliable tools for the study of the energy momentum localization of a gravitating system.

  5. 77 FR 28594 - Southern Energy Solution Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Energy Solution Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Southern Energy Solution Group, LLC's application for market...

  6. 77 FR 64980 - Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC's application for market...

  7. Influence of interface energies on solute partitioning mechanisms in doped aluminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Shen J., E-mail: sdillon@illinois.edu [University of Illinois, Materials Science and Engineering, 1304 West Green Street, Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Harmer, Martin P. [Lehigh University, Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Rohrer, Gregory S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The experiments described in this paper have been designed to understand how particular dopants in alumina (Ca, Mg, Si, and Y) affect microstructural development through the energetics of their associated precipitates. Specifically, the role of the interphase boundary energy and precipitation activation energy are considered to be in competition with grain boundary complexion (disorder) transitions for partitioning excess solute. The results reveal a relationship between the relative precipitation activation energy and the temperature at which grain boundary complexion transitions occur. The large differences in activation energy primarily derive from the interphase boundary energy. Precipitates that form lower interphase boundary energies tend to suppress complexion transitions, while systems that contain precipitates with high interphase boundary energies are more susceptible. Based on the findings, a new criterion for additive selection to control complexion transitions and abnormal grain growth is proposed that is based on interfacial energies between the host and precipitate.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimund, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π(1+√w -1 ), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at "maximum power density operating pressure" requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimund, Kevin K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Wilson, Aaron D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π/(1+√w⁻¹), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at “maximum power density operating pressure” requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  10. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF FREE MAGNETIC ENERGY ASSOCIATED WITH FOUR X-CLASS FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Ju; Xu Yan; Park, S.-H.; Wang Haimin; Chen, P. F.; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We study the temporal variation of free magnetic energy E free around the time of four X-class flares. The high-cadence photospheric vector magnetograms obtained by the digital vector magnegograph system at the Big Bear Solar Observatory are used as the boundary conditions to reconstruct the three-dimensional nonlinear force-free (NLFF) coronal field. In order to remove the effect of the net Lorentz force and torque acting in the photosphere, the vector magnetograms are preprocessed using the method devised by Wiegelmann et al.. Then a well-tested multigrid-like optimization code by Wiegelmann is applied to the preprocessed boundary data to extrapolate the NLFF coronal field with which we are able to estimate the free energy E free . In all the four events, we find a significant drop of E free starting ∼15 minutes before the peak time of the associated nonthermal flare emission, although long-term trend varies from event to event. We discuss the physical implication of the result, i.e., the magnetic relaxation is already going on in the corona well before the flare reconnection.

  11. An analytic solution for energy loss and time-of-flight calculations for intermediate-energy light ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, RJM; Hulsbergen, W; Prendergast, EP; van den Brink, A; de Haas, AP; Habets, JJLM; Kamermans, R; Koopmans, M; Kuijer, PG; de Laat, CTAM; Ostendorf, RW; Peghaire, A; Rossewij, M

    1999-01-01

    Particle identification in intermediate heavy-ion collisions, using a modern 4 pi detector which contains several active layers, relies on a parametrisation or numerical integration of the energy loss in thick layers of detector material for different ions. Here an analytical solution applicable

  12. A non-local theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    1999-01-01

    We consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws on the space of symmetric second-order matrices. The right-hand side of this system contains the functional calculus operator f-bar(U) generated in the general case only by a continuous scalar function f(u). For these systems we define and describe the set of singular entropies, introduce the concept of generalized entropy solutions of the corresponding Cauchy problem, and investigate the properties of generalized entropy solutions. We define the class of strong generalized entropy solutions, in which the Cauchy problem has precisely one solution. We suggest a condition on the initial data under which any generalized entropy solution is strong, which implies its uniqueness. Under this condition we establish that the 'vanishing viscosity' method converges. An example shows that in the general case there can be more than one generalized entropy solution

  13. Iterative algorithm to compute the maximal and stabilising solutions of a general class of discrete-time Riccati-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Vasile; Morozan, Toader; Stoica, Adrian-Mihail

    2010-04-01

    In this article an iterative method to compute the maximal solution and the stabilising solution, respectively, of a wide class of discrete-time nonlinear equations on the linear space of symmetric matrices is proposed. The class of discrete-time nonlinear equations under consideration contains, as special cases, different types of discrete-time Riccati equations involved in various control problems for discrete-time stochastic systems. This article may be viewed as an addendum of the work of Dragan and Morozan (Dragan, V. and Morozan, T. (2009), 'A Class of Discrete Time Generalized Riccati Equations', Journal of Difference Equations and Applications, first published on 11 December 2009 (iFirst), doi: 10.1080/10236190802389381) where necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the maximal solution and stabilising solution of this kind of discrete-time nonlinear equations are given. The aim of this article is to provide a procedure for numerical computation of the maximal solution and the stabilising solution, respectively, simpler than the method based on the Newton-Kantorovich algorithm.

  14. High energy particle background at neutron spallation sources and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashyna, N.; Kanaki, K.; Kittelmann, T.; Filges, U.; Deen, P.; Herwig, K.; Ehlers, G.; Greene, G.; Carpenter, J.; Connatser, R.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Bentley, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Modern spallation neutron sources are driven by proton beams ~ GeV energies. Whereas low energy particle background shielding is well understood for reactors sources of neutrons (~20 MeV), for high energies (100s MeV to multiple GeV) there is potential to improve shielding solutions and reduce instrument backgrounds significantly. We present initial measured data on high energy particle backgrounds, which illustrate the results of particle showers caused by high energy particles from spallation neutron sources. We use detailed physics models of different materials to identify new shielding solutions for such neutron sources, including laminated layers of multiple materials. In addition to the steel and concrete, which are used traditionally, we introduce some other options that are new to the neutron scattering community, among which there are copper alloys as used in hadronic calorimeters in high energy physics laboratories. These concepts have very attractive energy absorption characteristics, and simulations predict that the background suppression could be improved by one or two orders of magnitude. These solutions are expected to be great benefit to the European Spallation Source, where the majority of instruments are potentially affected by high energy backgrounds, as well as to existing spallation sources.

  15. The design of Smart Energy Systems for 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    , heating and transport sectors, and on using the flexibility in demands and various short term and longer term storage in the different sectors. Such a redesign also entails that the Smart Energy System is comprised of a number of smart grid infrastructures for different sectors in the energy system, i......In this paper we launch the design of Smart Energy Systems through the 100% renewable energy system analyses and research behind the CEESA research project. The transition from fossil fuels towards the integration of more and more renewable energy requires rethinking and redesign of the energy...... system. Traditionally a lot of focus internationally is put on the electricity sector to solve the integration puzzle focusing on electricity storage technologies e.g. batteries, hydrogen storage and on (electricity) smart grids. In Smart Energy Systems the focus is integration of the electricity...

  16. Energy efficiency and renewable energy modeling with ETSAP TIAM - challenges, opportunities, and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Balyk, Olexandr; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Cabrera

    The objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL), a United Nations (UN) global initiative, are to achieve, by 2030: 1) universal access to modern energy services; 2) a doubling of the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency; and 3) a doubling of the share of renewable energy...... in the global energy mix (United Nations, 2011; SE4ALL, 2013a). The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent the energy efficiency objective supports the other two objectives, and to what extent the SE4ALL objectives support the climate target of limiting the global mean temperature increase to 2° C...... over pre-industrial times. To accomplish this, pathways are constructed for each objective, which then form the basis for a scenario analysis using the Energy Technology System Analysis Program TIMES Integrated Assessment Model (ETSAP-TIAM). This presentation focuses on the modeling challenges...

  17. Comparative energetics of the 5 fish classes on the basis of dynamic energy budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The eco-physiology of taxa in an evolutionary context can best be studied by a comparison of parameter values of the energy budget that accounts for the inter-relationships of all endpoints of energy allocation. To this end, the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model have been estimated for 64 fish species from all 5 fish classes. The values are compared with those of the whole collection of over 300 species from most large animal phyla. The goodness of fit was very high, but the data were rather incomplete, compared with the energy balance for full life cycles. Metabolic acceleration, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis, seems to be confined, among fish, to some species of ray-finned fish and seems to have evolved independently several times in this taxon. We introduce a new altriciality index, i.e. the ratio of the maturity levels at puberty and birth, and conclude that ray-finned fish are more altricial, and cartilaginous fish are more precocial than typical animals. Fish allocate more to reproduction than typical animals. Parameter estimates show that 66% of the fish species considered invest less in reproduction than the value that would maximize the reproduction rate of fully grown individuals. By comparison, 85% of all the animal species in the collection do so. Consistent with theoretical expectations, allocation to reproduction and maturity at birth increase with cubed (ultimate structural) length, and reserve capacity with length for non-ray-finned fish, with the consequence that reproduction rate decreases with length. Ray-finned fish, however, have a maturity at birth and a reserve capacity almost independent of length, and a reproduction rate that increases with cubed length. Reserve capacity tends to increase with ultimate length for non-accelerating ray-finned fish, but not for accelerating species. Reproduction rate decreases inter

  18. Peptide conformational preferences in osmolyte solutions: Transfer free energies of deca-alanine

    OpenAIRE

    Kokubo, Hironori; Hu, Char Y.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    The nature in which the protecting osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and the denaturing osmolyte urea affect protein stability is investigated simulating a deca-alanine peptide model in multiple conformations of the denatured ensemble. Binary solutions of both osmolytes and mixed osmolyte solutions at physiologically-relevant concentrations of 2:1 (urea:TMAO) are studied using standard molecular dynamics simulations and solvation free energy calculations. Component analysis reveals the d...

  19. Nuclear energy is part of the solution to meet the challenge of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie; Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Published at the initiative of three scientific associations (the French, American, and European Nuclear Society), this report outlines that all low carbon energies, nuclear energy included, will be needed to struggle against climate change and to ensure the development of emerging countries. It also outlines that urgent measures are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and that nuclear energy is a proven low carbon solution which is now available at large scale. It finally outlines that every country has the right to access the largest possible portfolio of low carbon technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions while reaching its objectives in terms of energy and development

  20. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna [Sentech, Inc.; Hampson, Anne [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Hedman, Mr. Bruce [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Garland, Patricia W [ORNL; Bautista, Paul [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  1. Cost Optimization of Mooring Solutions for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bjerg Thomsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing desire for using renewable energy sources throughout the world has resulted in a considerable amount of research into and development of concepts for wave energy converters. By now, many different concepts exist, but still, the wave energy sector is not at a stage that is considered commercial yet, primarily due to the relatively high cost of energy. A considerable amount of the wave energy converters are floating structures, which consequently need mooring systems in order to ensure station keeping. Despite being a well-known concept, mooring in wave energy application has proven to be expensive and has a high rate of failure. Therefore, there is a need for further improvement, investigation into new concepts and sophistication of design procedures. This study uses four Danish wave energy converters, all considered as large floating structures, to investigate a methodology in order to find an inexpensive and reliable mooring solution for each device. The study uses a surrogate-based optimization routine in order to find a feasible solution in only a limited number of evaluations and a constructed cost database for determination of the mooring cost. Based on the outcome, the mooring parameters influencing the cost are identified and the optimum solution determined.

  2. An analytical solution for the nonlinear energy spectrum equation by the decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, A [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Av. Tiaraju810, 97546-550 Alegrete, RS (Brazil); Vilhena, M T M B de; Bodmann, B E J [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99/4, 90460-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moreira, D [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Rua Carlos Barbosa S/N, 96412-420 Bage, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br

    2008-10-24

    We discuss the isotropic turbulence decay and solve the energy density spectrum (EDS) equation considering the inertial transfer energy and viscosity terms, using the Heisenberg parameterization. In the present approach, buoyant and shear terms are neglected and turbulence is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. The nonlinear integro-differential equation is solved by Adomian's generic decomposition method, which yields an analytical recursive expression and upon truncation gives an approximate solution. We show the resulting EDS and the time-dependent decay of the intensity of the turbulent kinetic energy. Our results prove consistent the Heisenberg parameterization for the transfer term of the inertial energy. The analytical character of the solution permits a validation of the nonlinear details of the physical model.

  3. Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ciullo, Dan; deLongpre, Jeff; Mcarthur, Sim; Nowakowski, Jake; Shene, Rich; Taylor, Earvin; White, Roosevelt; Cheng, Po-Yu; Heng, Yinghui; Wong, Chia Sern; Wong, Wai Keat; Phua, Yee Ling; Zlatsin, Philip; Choon, Junwei; Neo, Yong Shern

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change the means by which warfare is conducted to improve operational efficiencies and overall effectiveness. The Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering and Analysis (SEA-19B) Capstone project team examined how existing directed energy technologies can ...

  4. Removing barriers to women entrepreneurs’ engagement in decentralized sustainable energy solutions for the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Glemarec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Rapidly falling renewable technology costs and new business models mean that decentralized energy solutions hold great promise to accelerate universal sustainable energy access. Across developing countries, women are typically the primary household energy managers. Close to their customers, women entrepreneurs have the potential to lower customer acquisition and servicing costs and drive these new decentralized solutions. However, they remain under-represented in the industry. This paper attempts to understand the root causes of this gender gap. It formulates the research hypothesis that market transformation policies intended to reduce investment risks to accelerate energy access may not benefit men and women entrepreneurs equally because of the existing structural barriers that women face. To test this hypothesis, the paper conducts a gender sensitive investment barrier and risk analysis, overlaid onto an existing gender neutral taxonomy of investment barriers and risks for decentralized sustainable energy solutions. A key finding is that for women entrepreneurs, existing structural impediments to gender equality translate into additional investment barriers as well as increased likelihood of occurrence and severity of the financial impact of generic investment risks. The paper offers an illustrative theory of change to facilitate a dialogue on the specific interventions needed to address these gender differentiated risks locally. It concludes that market transformation efforts for universal sustainable energy access must include targeted policy measures to ensure equal benefits to men and women entrepreneurs, and optimize the use of public resources to catalyze private investment and reduce poverty.

  5. Nuclear energy is part of the solution to struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie; Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This document is the contribution of the SFEN to the preparation of the Paris Conference on Climate (COP21). It is based on various scenarios proposed by the IEA and assessments made by different work groups of the IPCC. This contribution outlines that the world will need all low-carbon energies, notably nuclear energy. It outlines that, in 35 years of time, 80 pc of electricity will have to be low-carbon electricity, that the situation is complex as CO 2 emission must be decreased while facing basic needs of humanity, that the IPCC identifies three types of low-carbon electricity (renewable, nuclear and CCS for carbon capture and sequestration), and that the electrification of uses is an efficient vector for de-carbonation. It also outlines that we must at once use available low-carbon energies: 70 pc of the carbon budget has already been spent; nuclear energy is an industrial, available, low-carbon and efficient solution; nuclear energy is the first low-carbon electricity source in OECD countries; nuclear energy is a solution to support growth in emerging countries; nuclear energy will keep on being an asset to reduce CO 2 emissions. The last part outlines that every country should be able to access an as large as possible portfolio of low-carbon technologies, and that nuclear energy is an opportunity to meet this challenge

  6. Exact solutions of linearized Schwinger endash Dyson equation of fermion self-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Schwinger endash Dyson equation of fermion self-energy in the linearization approximation is solved exactly in a theory with gauge and effective four-fermion interactions. Different expressions for the independent solutions, which, respectively, submit to irregular and regular ultraviolet boundary condition are derived and expounded. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Global solutions with infinite energy for the one-dimensional Zakharov system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Pecher

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Zakharov system is shown to have a unique global solution for data without finite energy. The proof uses the ``I-method'' introduced by Colliander, Keel, Staffilani, Takaoka, and Tao in connection with a refined bilinear Strichartz estimate.

  8. Non-existence of global solutions to generalized dissipative Klein-Gordon equations with positive energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Olegovich Korpusov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial-boundary-value problem for generalized dissipative high-order equation of Klein-Gordon type is considered. We continue our study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems with arbitrary positive energy. The modified concavity method by Levine is used for proving blow-up of solutions.

  9. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available by inadequate grid electricity infrastructure. This state of affairs has culminated in massive deforestation and desertification of some parts of Africa. One technology solution is to harness the energy from the sun through solar absorbers. This has applications...

  10. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish

    2015-01-01

    The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators....... A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency situations...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water...

  11. An analytic solution for energy loss and time-of-flight calculations for intermediate-energy light ions

    CERN Document Server

    Snellings, R; Prendergast, E P; Brink, A V D; Haas, A P D; Habets, J J L; Kamermans, R; Koopmans, M; Kuijer, P G; Laat, C T A; Ostendorf, R W; Peghaire, A; Rossewij, M

    1999-01-01

    Particle identification in intermediate heavy-ion collisions, using a modern 4 pi detector which contains several active layers, relies on a parametrisation or numerical integration of the energy loss in thick layers of detector material for different ions. Here an analytical solution applicable over an energy range of a few MeV up to a 100A MeV and for ions up to at least Z=8 is presented. Also, the consequences for time-of-flight measurements (TOF) in detectors behind several thick layers of detector material are discussed. The solution is applied to the data of the Huygens detector, which uses a TPC (dE/dx) and plastic scintillators for particle identification (E and TOF or dE/dx and TOF).

  12. Collaborative Business Models for Energy Efficient Solutions An Exploratory Analysis of Danish and German Manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Brem, Alexander; Bogers, Marcel

    , Amit, & Massa, 2011). Especially in the face of the grand challenge of climate change, looking for energy efficient solutions offers particular opportunities to businesses to stay competitive. This is an opportunity not only for big companies in metropolitan areas, but also for small and medium sized......The growing dynamics of innovation and productivity affect businesses in most industries and countries. Companies face these challenges by constantly developing new technologies and business models - the logic with which they create and capture value (Afuah, 2014; Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010; Zott...... more energy efficient solutions seems to pay off. News items in media like “The Guardian” show at least that there is supraregional attention (Guardian, 2015). We tap into these developments through a study of exploring collaborations and business models that have the potential to increase energy...

  13. Energy Capture from Thermolytic Solutions in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Reverse electrodialysis allows for the capture of energy from salinity gradients between salt and fresh waters, but potential applications are currently limited to coastal areas and the need for a large number of membrane pairs. Using salt solutions that could be continuously regenerated with waste heat (≥40°C) and conventional technologies would allow much wider applications of salinity-gradient power production. We used reverse electrodialysis ion-exchange membrane stacks in microbial reverse- electrodialysis cells to efficiently capture salinity-gradient energy from ammonium bicarbonate salt solutions. The maximum power density using acetate reached 5.6 watts per square meter of cathode surface area, which was five times that produced without the dialysis stack, and 3.0 ± 0.05 watts per square meter with domestic wastewater. Maximum energy recovery with acetate reached 30 ± 0.5%.

  14. Causes and Solutions for High Energy Consumption in Traditional Buildings Located in Hot Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barayan, Olfat Mohammad

    A considerable amount of money for high-energy consumption is spent in traditional buildings located in hot climate regions. High-energy consumption is significantly influenced by several causes, including building materials, orientation, mass, and openings' sizes. This paper aims to identify these causes and find practical solutions to reduce the annual cost of bills. For the purpose of this study, simulation research method has been followed. A comparison between two Revit models has also been created to point out the major cause of high-energy consumption. By analysing different orientations, wall insulation, and window glazing and applying some other high performance building techniques, a conclusion was found to confirm that appropriate building materials play a vital role in affecting energy cost. Therefore, the ability to reduce the energy cost by more than 50% in traditional buildings depends on a careful balance of building materials, mass, orientation, and type of window glazing.

  15. Consequences of energy conservation violation: late time solutions of Λ(T)CDM subclass of f(R,T) gravity using dynamical system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Hamid [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, Amir Hadi [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kahnooj Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Very recently, Josset and Perez (Phys. Rev. Lett. 118:021102, 2017) have shown that a violation of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) could result in an accelerated expansion state via the appearance of an effective cosmological constant, in the context of unimodular gravity. Inspired by this outcome, in this paper we investigate cosmological consequences of a violation of the EMT conservation in a particular class of f(R,T) gravity when only the pressure-less fluid is present. In this respect, we focus on the late time solutions of models of the type f(R,T) = R + βΛ(-T). As the first task, we study the solutions when the conservation of EMT is respected, and then we proceed with those in which violation occurs. We have found, provided that the EMT conservation is violated, that there generally exist two accelerated expansion solutions of which the stability properties depend on the underlying model. More exactly, we obtain a dark energy solution for which the effective equation of state depends on the model parameters and a de Sitter solution. We present a method to parametrize the Λ(-T) function, which is useful in a dynamical system approach and has been employed in the model. Also, we discuss the cosmological solutions for models with Λ(-T) = 8πG(-T){sup α} in the presence of ultra-relativistic matter. (orig.)

  16. Energy efficiency solutions for driers used in the glass manufacturing and processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătrașcu Roxana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is relevant to increasing efficiency in energy projects, by saving energy, by its’ rational use or by switching to other forms of energy. The goal is to secure energy supply on short and long term, while increasing efficiency. These are enforced by evaluating the companies’ energy status, by monitoring and adjusting energy consumption and organising a coherent energy management. The manufacturing process is described, starting from the state and properties of the raw material and ending with the glass drying technological processes involved. Raw materials are selected considering technological and economic criteria. Manufacturing is treated as a two-stage process, consisting of the logistic, preparation aspect of unloading, transporting, storing materials and the manufacturing process itself, by which the glass is sifted, shredded, deferrized and dried. The interest of analyzing the latter is justified by the fact that it has a big impact on the final energy consumption values, hence, in order to improve the general performance, the driers’ energy losses are to be reduced. Technological, energy and management solutions are stated to meet this problem. In the present paper, the emphasis is on the energy perspective of enhancing the overall efficiency. The case study stresses the effects of heat recovery over the efficiency of a glass drier. Audits are conducted, both before and after its’ implementation, to punctually observe the balance between the entering and exiting heat in the drying process. The reduction in fuel consumption and the increase in thermal performance and fuel usage performances reveal the importance of using all available exiting heat from processes. Technical faults, either in exploitation or in management, lead to additional expenses. Improving them is in congruence with the energy conservation concept and is in accordance with the Energy Efficiency Improvement Program for industrial facilities.

  17. On the strong solution of a class of partial differential equations that arise in the pricing of mortgage backed securities

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana

    2011-01-01

    We consider a reduced form pricing model for mortgage backed securities, formulated as a non-linear partial differential equation. We prove that the model possesses a weak solution. We then show that under additional regularity assumptions on the initial data, we also have a mild solution. This mild solution is shown to be a strong solution via further regularity arguments. We also numerically solve the reduced model via a Fourier spectral method. Lastly, we compare our numerical solution to real market data. We observe interestingly that the reduced model captures a number of recent market trends in this data, that have escaped previous models.

  18. Nuclear energy is part of the solution to struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    This document is a contribution to the preparation of the Paris COP21 conference. It recalls the main objectives of the Kyoto Protocol, and then states and discusses three main issues to reach these objectives: the world will need all low-carbon energies including nuclear energy (80 per cent of electricity must be low-carbon within 35 years; CO 2 emissions must be reduced while meeting humanity basic needs; the IPCC has identified three types of low-carbon electricity: renewable, nuclear, and based on carbon capture and sequestration; the electrification of uses is an efficient vector of de-carbonation), it is urgent to use available low-carbon energies right now (70 per cent of the carbon budget has already been consumed; nuclear energy is an available industrial low-carbon solution; nuclear energy is the first source of low-carbon electricity in OECD countries and this is an asset to be preserved to meet climate objectives; nuclear energy is a solution to support a low-carbon growth in emerging countries; nuclear energy will remain a stake to reduce CO 2 emissions), and each country should have access to the larger as possible portfolio of low-carbon technologies (very few scenarios succeed in remaining under the 2 degree C limit without nuclear; all national objectives and peculiarities must be integrated for each country joining the struggle against climate change; nuclear energy allows the reduction of CO 2 emissions while strengthening supply safety and economic safety; within 35 years, the technology portfolio will be larger due to the development of energy storage systems, renewable energies and fourth-generation reactors)

  19. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented.

  20. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    and a concern in other applications where multiple amplifier channels are generating heat problems. It is found that power losses at low power levels account for close to 78 % of the energy consumption based on typical consumer behavior investigations. This paper investigates the theoretical limits of stepless...... power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...

  1. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    edu, Janet. twomey@wichita. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-04-30

    This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  2. Ending America’s Energy Insecurity: How Electric Vehicles Can Drive the Solution to Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Missile CBO Congressional Budget Office CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy DOE United States Department of Energy EV Electric Vehicle EIA...friendly nations like Canada and Mexico (EIA, 2011a), the entire world supply would be impacted by a significant disruption anywhere in the oil market...produced by Gulf of Mexico federal offshore sites before the hurricanes struck (Leotta, 2006). Production was virtually halted in the wake of both storms

  3. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  4. Non-minimal coupling of torsion-matter satisfying null energy condition for wormhole solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    We explore wormhole solutions in a non-minimal torsion-matter coupled gravity by taking an explicit non-minimal coupling between the matter Lagrangian density and an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. This coupling describes the transfer of energy and momentum between matter and torsion scalar terms. The violation of the null energy condition occurred through an effective energy-momentum tensor incorporating the torsion-matter non-minimal coupling, while normal matter is responsible for supporting the respective wormhole geometries. We consider the energy density in the form of non-monotonically decreasing function along with two types of models. The first model is analogous to the curvature-matter coupling scenario, that is, the torsion scalar with T-matter coupling, while the second one involves a quadratic torsion term. In both cases, we obtain wormhole solutions satisfying the null energy condition. Also, we find that the increasing value of the coupling constant minimizes or vanishes on the violation of the null energy condition through matter. (orig.)

  5. 21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies-for use in the US and abroad-is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21-A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant-producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat-could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems-Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation-Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels-The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration-Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research-Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials

  6. Solution of two energy-group neutron diffusion equation by triangular elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia Filho, A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of the triangular finite elements of first order in the solution of two energy-group neutron diffusion equation in steady-state conditions is aimed at. The EFTDN (triangular finite elements in neutrons diffusion) computer code in FORTRAN IV language is developed. The discrete formulation of the diffusion equation is obtained applying the Galerkin method. The power method is used to solve the eigenvalues' problem and the convergence is accelerated through the use of Chebshev polynomials. For the equation systems solution the Gauss method is applied. The results of the analysis of two test-problems are presented. (Author) [pt

  7. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  8. Periodic Solutions of the Duffing Harmonic Oscillator by He's Energy Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-Naggar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duffing harmonic oscillator is a common model for nonlinear phenomena in science and engineering. This paper presents He´s Energy Balance Method (EBM for solving nonlinear differential equations. Two strong nonlinear cases have been studied analytically. Analytical results of the EBM are compared with the solutions obtained by using He´s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (FAF and numerical solutions using Runge-Kutta method. The results show the presented method is potentially to solve high nonlinear oscillator equations.

  9. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    and understanding of WindShare's role in sustainable energy. WindShare Co-operative provided the structure whereby members felt a part of the solution in terms of sustainable energy development. Policies and practices at all levels of government should encourage the advancement of green energy co-operatives to support Canada's efforts at public involvement in combating climate change and pollution.

  10. Comparison of excitation energy transfer in cyanobacterial photosystem I in solution and immobilized on conducting glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Sebastian; Giera, Wojciech; D'Haene, Sandrine; van Grondelle, Rienk; Gibasiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-05-01

    Excitation energy transfer in monomeric and trimeric forms of photosystem I (PSI) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in solution or immobilized on FTO conducting glass was compared using time-resolved fluorescence. Deposition of PSI on glass preserves bi-exponential excitation decay of ~4-7 and ~21-25 ps lifetimes characteristic of PSI in solution. The faster phase was assigned in part to photochemical quenching (charge separation) of excited bulk chlorophylls and in part to energy transfer from bulk to low-energy (red) chlorophylls. The slower phase was assigned to photochemical quenching of the excitation equilibrated over bulk and red chlorophylls. The main differences between dissolved and immobilized PSI (iPSI) are: (1) the average excitation decay in iPSI is about 11 ps, which is faster by a few ps than for PSI in solution due to significantly faster excitation quenching of bulk chlorophylls by charge separation (~10 ps instead of ~15 ps) accompanied by slightly weaker coupling of bulk and red chlorophylls; (2) the number of red chlorophylls in monomeric PSI increases twice-from 3 in solution to 6 after immobilization-as a result of interaction with neighboring monomers and conducting glass; despite the increased number of red chlorophylls, the excitation decay accelerates in iPSI; (3) the number of red chlorophylls in trimeric PSI is 4 (per monomer) and remains unchanged after immobilization; (4) in all the samples under study, the free energy gap between mean red (emission at ~710 nm) and mean bulk (emission at ~686 nm) emitting states of chlorophylls was estimated at a similar level of 17-27 meV. All these observations indicate that despite slight modifications, dried PSI complexes adsorbed on the FTO surface remain fully functional in terms of excitation energy transfer and primary charge separation that is particularly important in the view of photovoltaic applications of this photosystem.

  11. Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for a General Class of Discontinuous Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential stability issues are considered for almost periodic solution of the neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution are achieved in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, by applying differential inclusions theory, matrix inequality analysis technique, and generalized Lyapunov functional approach. In addition, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of the solution of the neural networks are also investigated under the framework of the solution in the sense of Filippov. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  12. Mapping the conformational free energy of aspartic acid in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comitani, Federico; Rossi, Kevin; Ceriotti, Michele; Sanz, M Eugenia; Molteni, Carla

    2017-04-14

    The conformational free energy landscape of aspartic acid, a proteogenic amino acid involved in a wide variety of biological functions, was investigated as an example of the complexity that multiple rotatable bonds produce even in relatively simple molecules. To efficiently explore such a landscape, this molecule was studied in the neutral and zwitterionic forms, in the gas phase and in water solution, by means of molecular dynamics and the enhanced sampling method metadynamics with classical force-fields. Multi-dimensional free energy landscapes were reduced to bi-dimensional maps through the non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm sketch-map to identify the energetically stable conformers and their interconnection paths. Quantum chemical calculations were then performed on the minimum free energy structures. Our procedure returned the low energy conformations observed experimentally in the gas phase with rotational spectroscopy [M. E. Sanz et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 3573 (2010)]. Moreover, it provided information on higher energy conformers not accessible to experiments and on the conformers in water. The comparison between different force-fields and quantum chemical data highlighted the importance of the underlying potential energy surface to accurately capture energy rankings. The combination of force-field based metadynamics, sketch-map analysis, and quantum chemical calculations was able to produce an exhaustive conformational exploration in a range of significant free energies that complements the experimental data. Similar protocols can be applied to larger peptides with complex conformational landscapes and would greatly benefit from the next generation of accurate force-fields.

  13. Solutions for Energy Efficient and Sustainable Heating of Ventilation Air: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Žandeckis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high energy efficiency and sustainability standards defined by modern society and legislation requires solutions in the form of complex integrated systems. The scope of this work is to provide a review on technologies and methods for the heating of ventilation air as a key aspect for high energy and environmental performance of buildings located in a cold climate. The results of this work are more relevant in the buildings where space heating consumes a significant part of the energy balance of a building, and air exchange is arranged in an organized manner. A proper design and control strategy, heat recovery, the use of renewable energy sources, and waste heat are the main aspects which must be considered for efficient and sustainable ventilation. This work focuses on these aspects. Air conditioning is not in the scope of this study.

  14. Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance.

  15. Integrated electrification solution for autonomous electrical networks on the basis of RES and energy storage configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most medium and small islands of the Aegean Archipelagos face serious infrastructure problems, strongly related with the limited electrical energy available at extremely high cost. On the other hand, the area is characterized by very high wind speeds and abundant solar energy, thus the exploitation of the available renewable energy sources (RES) may significantly contribute to the fulfillment of the local societies energy demand at minimum environmental and macroeconomic cost. However, the stochastic availability of wind energy and the variable availability of solar energy, the daily and seasonal electricity demand fluctuations, as well as the limited local electrical network capacity result in serious restrictions concerning the maximum renewable power penetration. In this context, the present paper investigates the possibility of creating a combined electricity generation facility based on the exploitation of wind or/and solar potential of an area as well as on the utilization of an appropriate energy storage configuration in order to replace the existing thermal power stations with rational investment requirements. For this purpose, the major parameters of the proposed integrated configuration are firstly calculated and its financial viability is accordingly analyzed. One of the main targets of the proposed solution is to maximize the RES exploitation of the area at a minimum electricity generation cost, while special emphasis is given in order to select the most cost-efficient energy storage device available. According to the results obtained the proposed solution is not only financially attractive but also improves the quality of the electricity offered to the local communities, substituting the expensive and heavily polluting existing thermal power stations

  16. Calculation of Reaction Free Energies in Solution: A Comparison of Current Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besora, Maria; Vidossich, Pietro; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori; Maseras, Feliu

    2018-02-08

    The result of the application of different approaches based on the ideal gas/rigid rotor/harmonic oscillator (IGRRHO) model, commonly used in popular software packages, for the calculation of free energies in solution is compared with that of ab initio molecular dynamics for a process involving ligand exchange in palladium complexes. The IGRRHO-based approaches considered differ in most cases in the extent to which the rotational and translational contributions are included in the correction. Our study supports the use the free energy values directly obtained from dispersion-corrected DFT functionals without any correction or with minor corrections at most.

  17. Highly efficient solutions for smart and bulk power transmission of 'green energy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Wilfried; Retzmann, Dietmar; Uecker, Karl

    2010-09-15

    Environmental constraints, loss minimization and CO2 reduction will play an increasingly more important role in future. Security and sustainability of power supply as well as economic efficiency needs application of advanced technologies. Innovative solutions with HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) have the potential to cope with these challenges. They provide the features which are necessary to avoid technical problems in power systems, they increase the transmission capacity and system stability very efficiently and help prevent cascading outages. Furthermore, they are essential for Grid Access of Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro, Wind and Solar-Energy.

  18. Asymptotic solution to the isothermal nth order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Dhaundiyal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the influence of relevant parameters of biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solution of the isothermal nth-order distributed activation energy model (DAEM using the Rayleigh distribution as the initial distribution function F(E of the activation energies. In this study, the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the reaction order and the scale parameters are investigated. This paper also derived the asymptotic approximation for the DAEM. The influence of these parameters is used to calculate the kinetic parameters of the isothermal nth-order DAEM with the help of thermo-analytical results of TGA/DTG analysis.

  19. Recent progress in solution plasma-synthesized-carbon-supported catalysts for energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun Li, Oi; Lee, Hoonseung; Ishizaki, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely utilized as the electrode materials in energy conversion and storage technologies, such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In these systems, the oxygen reduction reaction is an important step that determines the overall performance. A novel synthesis route, named the solution plasma process, has been recently utilized to synthesize various types of metal-based and heteroatom-doped carbon catalysts. In this review, we summarize cutting-edge technologies involving the synthesis and modeling of carbon-supported catalysts synthesized via solution plasma process, followed by current progress on the electrocatalytic performance of these catalysts. This review provides the fundamental and state-of-the-art performance of solution-plasma-synthesized electrode materials, as well as the remaining scientific and technological challenges for this process.

  20. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks by using a fuzzy-based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrito, Salvatore; Nicolosi, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks are characterized by a distributed architecture realized by a set of autonomous electronic devices able to sense data from the surrounding environment and to communicate among them. These devices are battery powered since they may be used even to monitor hazardous events in inaccessible areas. As a consequence, it is preferable to assure the adoption of energy management solutions in order to extend the WSN lifetime, as far as possible. Moreover, it is crucial to guarantee that the nodes receive the transmitted data correctly. It is clear that trading off power optimization and quality of service has become one the most important concerns when dealing with modern systems based on WSNs. This paper introduces a solution based on a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) focusing on the minimization of energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes. This is made possible because the sleeping time of these nodes is dynamically regulated by a FLC.

  1. Sustainable energy equals freedoms and choice: bioenergy and biofuels als energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejigu, M. [Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES)]|[Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS)

    2006-07-01

    We are gathered here to explore the potential of modern bioenergy and discuss ways and means of promoting its wider production and investment. Our primary goal is the attainment of human development - development that is sustainable and balances economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. Well, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, defines development as ''the process of expanding real freedoms people can enjoy.'' Where development has taken place, people have more freedoms. People living in well developed countries enjoy freedoms at the individual and community levels. They can move from place to place, own property, receive education and health services, work at night if they choose to, etc. without any fear or threat. Energy is critical to the survival of human society. It is a means to achieve development, hence freedoms. Higher level of electrification, for example, has always been a vital indicator of industrial development. (orig.)

  2. Project management and institutional complexity in domestic housing refurbishment with innovative energy solutions : a case study analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Applying innovative energy solutions (IES) in dense residential areas in the Netherlands is a challenge. This paper presents a typology that supports the analysis and understanding of policy implementation processes to encourage the adoption of innovative energy solutions in urban residential areas.

  3. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  4. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  5. Infinitely many large energy solutions of superlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence of infinitely many large energy solutions for the superlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations $$displaylines{ -Delta u+V(xu+ phi u=f(x,u quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3,cr -Delta phi=u^2, quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3, }$$ via the Fountain Theorem in critical point theory. In particular, we do not use the classical Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition.

  6. The French market of solutions for active energy efficiency. Energy, central home automation systems, consumption monitoring software, distributed load shedding, energy performance contract... which tools will stand out?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at proposing an overview of solutions for energy efficiency and at assessing their impact on energy consumption, at identifying the growth dynamics of three market segments (assisted efficiency, automated efficiency and contract-based efficiency), at comparing the posture and strategies of the different actors present on this market (energy providers, equipment manufacturers, pure players, NTIC...), at identifying actors who are in the best position to benefit market development, and at imagining tomorrow's supply for energy efficiency. The report addresses the definition of active energy efficiency, the rationale of its development, the European regulatory and legal context, the strengthening of regulatory and environmental constraints in France, the three different market segments (examples, opportunities), and the competition context

  7. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Janet M. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has

  8. Exact and grid-free solutions to the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model with bounded acceleration for a class of fundamental diagrams

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Shanwen

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we propose a new exact and grid-free numerical scheme for computing solutions associated with an hybrid traffic flow model based on the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) partial differential equation, for a class of fundamental diagrams. In this hybrid flow model, the vehicles satisfy the LWR equation whenever possible, and have a constant acceleration otherwise. We first propose a mathematical definition of the solution as a minimization problem. We use this formulation to build a grid-free solution method for this model based on the minimization of component function. We then derive these component functions analytically for triangular fundamental diagrams, which are commonly used to model traffic flow. We also show that the proposed computational method can handle fixed or moving bottlenecks. A toolbox implementation of the resulting algorithm is briefly discussed, and posted at https://dl.dropbox.com/u/1318701/Toolbox.zip. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Stable, metastable and unstable solutions of a spin-1 Ising system based on the free energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskİin, Mustafa; Özgan, Şükrü

    1990-04-01

    Stable, metastable and unstable solutions of a spin-1 Ising model with bilinear and biquadratic interactions are found by using the free energy surfaces. The free energy expression is obtained in the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method. All these solutions are shown in the two-dimensional phase space, especially the unstable solutions which in some cases are difficult to illustrate in the two-dimensional phase space, found by Keskin et al. recently.

  10. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  11. Finite analytic numerical solution axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and energy equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Yoon, Y.H.

    1983-01-01

    Convective heat transfer for steady-state laminar flow in axisymmetric coordinates is considered. Numerical solutions for flow pattern and temperature distribution are obtained by the finite analytic numerical method applied to the Navier-Stokes equations expressed in terms of vorticity and stream function, and the energy equation. The finite analytic numerical method differs from other numerical methods in that it utilizes a local analytic solution in an element of the problem to construct the total numerical solution. Finite analytic solutions of vorticity, stream function, temperature, and heat transfer coefficients for flow with Reynolds numbers of 5, 100, 1000, and 2000, and Prandtl numbers of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 with uniform grid sizes, are reported for an axisymmetric pipe with a sudden expansion and contraction. The wall temperature is considered to be isothermal and differs from the inlet temperature. It is shown that the finite analytic is stable converges rapidly, and simulates the convection of fluid flow accurately, since the local analytic solution is capable of simulating automatically the influence of skewed convection through the element boundary on the interior nodal values, thereby minimizing the false numerical diffusion

  12. EU-Russia energy relations. What chance for solutions? A focus on the natural gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Dimo

    2011-07-01

    Public debate about energy relations between the EU and Russia is distorted. These distortions present considerable obstacles to the development of true partnership. At the core of the conflict is a struggle for resource rents between energy producing, energy consuming and transit countries. Supposed secondary aspects, however, are also of great importance. They comprise of geopolitics, market access, economic development and state sovereignty. The European Union, having engaged in energy market liberalisation, faces a widening gap between declining domestic resources and continuously growing energy demand. Diverse interests inside the EU prevent the definition of a coherent and respected energy policy. Russia, for its part, is no longer willing to subsidise its neighbouring economies by cheap energy exports. The Russian government engages in assertive policies pursuing Russian interests. In so far, it opts for a different globalisation approach, refusing the role of mere energy exporter. In view of the intensifying struggle for global resources, Russia, with its large energy potential, appears to be a very favourable option for European energy supplies, if not the best one. However, several outcomes of the strategic game between the two partners can be imagined. Engaging in non-cooperative strategies will in the end leave all stakeholders worse-off. The European Union should therefore concentrate on securing its partnership with Russia instead of damaging it. Stable cooperation would need the acceptance that the partner may pursue his own goals, which might be different from one's own interests. The question is, how can a sustainable compromise be found? This thesis finds that a mix of continued dialogue, a tit for tat approach bolstered by an international institutional framework and increased integration efforts appears as a preferable solution. (orig.)

  13. A Bulk-Water-Dependent Desolvation Energy Model for Analyzing the Effects of Secondary Solutes on Biological Equilibria†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Daryl K.

    2011-01-01

    A new phenomenological model for interpreting solute effects on biological equilibria is presented. The model attributes changes in equilibria to differences in the desolvation energy of the reacting species which, in turn, reflect changes in the free energy of the bulk water on addition of secondary solutes. The desolvation approach differs notably from other solute models by treating the free energy of bulk water as a variable and by not ascribing the observed shifts in reaction equilibria to accumulation or depletion of solutes next to the surfaces of the reacting species. On the contrary, the partitioning of solutes is viewed as a manifestation of the different subpopulations of water that arise in response to the surface boundary conditions. A thermodynamic framework consistent with the proposed model is used to derive a relationship for a specific reaction, an aqueous solubility equilibrium, in two or more solutions. The resulting equation reconciles some potential issues with the transfer free energy model of Tanford. Application of the desolvation energy model to the analysis of a two-state protein folding equilibrium is discussed and contrasted to the application of two other solute models developed by Timasheff and by Parsegian. Future tabulation of solvation energies and bulk water energies may allow biophysical chemists to confirm the mechanism by which secondary solutes influence binding and conformational equilibria and may provide a common ground for experimentalists and theoreticians to compare and evaluate their results. PMID:21284393

  14. Agro-energy - A solution for climate or a crisis exit for capital?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive advertisement has presented agro-energy as a solution to the global warming and to the energy crisis. But how will it be possible to replace fossil fuels? It would be surprising that an economic system like capitalism does not try to supply some remedies to a situation that paralyzes it and threatens its own survivor-ship. But are these measures favorable to humanity and susceptible to warrant the future of the Earth? Are we trying to save the mankind and its vital capacities or to preserve capitalism? This book examines the role of energy in the development of humanity and then the degradation of climate and the way that capitalism has treated the problem. It deals with the real conditions of biofuels development, reveals the ecological and social conditions of their production, and denounces the social and natural catastrophes they are leading to. The book ends with a thinking about the economical function of biofuels and on the solutions offered by renewable energy sources. It proposes some changes that reveal the core of the problem: changing our development model. (J.S.)

  15. An Ad-Hoc Initial Solution Heuristic for Metaheuristic Optimization of Energy Market Participation Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Faia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of the electricity sector has culminated in the introduction of competitive markets. In addition, the emergence of new forms of electric energy production, namely the production of renewable energy, has brought additional changes in electricity market operation. Renewable energy has significant advantages, but at the cost of an intermittent character. The generation variability adds new challenges for negotiating players, as they have to deal with a new level of uncertainty. In order to assist players in their decisions, decision support tools enabling assisting players in their negotiations are crucial. Artificial intelligence techniques play an important role in this decision support, as they can provide valuable results in rather small execution times, namely regarding the problem of optimizing the electricity markets participation portfolio. This paper proposes a heuristic method that provides an initial solution that allows metaheuristic techniques to improve their results through a good initialization of the optimization process. Results show that by using the proposed heuristic, multiple metaheuristic optimization methods are able to improve their solutions in a faster execution time, thus providing a valuable contribution for players support in energy markets negotiations.

  16. Existence and rigorous asymptotics of the solutions of a class of singularly perturbed delay-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Na

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the singularly perturbed delayed systems of Tichonov′s type with fast and slow variables in a fast bimolecular reaction model. By means of the boundary layer function method, sewing connection and the implicit function theorem, we prove the existence of the solutions of our problems near the degenerate solution for a sufficiently small µ and determine its asymptotic behavior in µ. Meanwhile, the asymptotic expression of the systems is also constructed.

  17. Energy efficiency vs. performance of the numerical solution of PDEs: An application study on a low-power ARM-based cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göddeke, Dominik; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Geveler, Markus; Ribbrock, Dirk; Rajovic, Nikola; Puzovic, Nikola; Ramirez, Alex

    2013-03-01

    Power consumption and energy efficiency are becoming critical aspects in the design and operation of large scale HPC facilities, and it is unanimously recognised that future exascale supercomputers will be strongly constrained by their power requirements. At current electricity costs, operating an HPC system over its lifetime can already be on par with the initial deployment cost. These power consumption constraints, and the benefits a more energy-efficient HPC platform may have on other societal areas, have motivated the HPC research community to investigate the use of energy-efficient technologies originally developed for the embedded and especially mobile markets. However, lower power does not always mean lower energy consumption, since execution time often also increases. In order to achieve competitive performance, applications then need to efficiently exploit a larger number of processors. In this article, we discuss how applications can efficiently exploit this new class of low-power architectures to achieve competitive performance. We evaluate if they can benefit from the increased energy efficiency that the architecture is supposed to achieve. The applications that we consider cover three different classes of numerical solution methods for partial differential equations, namely a low-order finite element multigrid solver for huge sparse linear systems of equations, a Lattice-Boltzmann code for fluid simulation, and a high-order spectral element method for acoustic or seismic wave propagation modelling. We evaluate weak and strong scalability on a cluster of 96 ARM Cortex-A9 dual-core processors and demonstrate that the ARM-based cluster can be more efficient in terms of energy to solution when executing the three applications compared to an x86-based reference machine.

  18. A Class of Numerical Methods for the Solution of Fourth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations in Polar Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Talwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this piece of work using only three grid points, we propose two sets of numerical methods in a coupled manner for the solution of fourth-order ordinary differential equation uiv(x=f(x,u(x,u′(x,u′′(x,u′′′(x, asolution is obtained as a byproduct of the discretization procedure. We use block iterative method and tridiagonal solver to obtain the solution in both cases. Convergence analysis is discussed and numerical results are provided to show the accuracy and usefulness of the proposed methods.

  19. Energy time dispersion of a new class of magnetospheric ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed high time resolution (\\geq6 s data during the onset and the decay phase of several energetic (\\geq35 keV ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock by the CCE/AMPTE and IMP-7/8 spacecraft, during times of intense substorm/geomagnetic activity. We found that forward energy dispersion at the onset of events (earlier increase of middle energy ions and/or a delayed fall of the middle energy ion fluxes at the end of events are often evident in high time resolution data. The energy spectra at the onset and the decay of this kind of events show a characteristic hump at middle (50-120 keV energies and the angular distributions display either anisotropic or broad forms. The time scale of energy dispersion in the ion events examined was found to range from several seconds to \\sim1 h depending on the ion energies compared and on the rate of variation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF direction. Several canditate processes are discussed to explain the observations and it is suggested that a rigidity dependent transport process of magnetospheric particles within the magnetosheath is most probably responsible for the detection of this new type of near bow shock magnetospheric ion events. The new class of ion events was observed within both the magnetosheath and the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  20. Positive solution of a time and energy dependent neutron transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    A constructive method is given for the determination of a solution and an existence--uniqueness theorem for some nonlinear time and energy dependent neutron transport problems, including the linear transport system. The geometry of the medium under consideration is allowed to be either bounded or unbounded which includes the geometry of a finite or infinite cylinder, a half-space and the whole space R/subm/ (m=1,2,center-dotcenter-dotcenter-dot). Our approach to the problem is by successive approximation which leads to various recursion formulas for the approximations in terms of explicit integrations. It is shown under some Lipschitz conditions on the nonlinear functions, which describe the process of neutrons absorption, fission, and scattering, that the sequence of approximations converges to a unique positive solution. Since these conditions are satisfied by the linear transport equation, all the results for the nonlinear system are valid for the linear transport problem. In the general nonlinear problem, the existence of both local and global solutions are discussed, and an iterative process for the construction of the solution is given

  1. Applied energy solutions to grain elevator units; Cogeracao em unidades armazenadoras de graos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos Alberto [Universidadfe Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAST/UFRPE), Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia], E-mail: carlos.teixeira@uast.ufrpe.br; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Martins, Jose Helvecio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2009-07-01

    Solutions of energy can be adopted, to help the demand side management. The distributed generation and the cogeneration are management at the supply side, that should be adopted in grain elevator units. Aiming to point energy solutions to grain elevator units to become more energetically independent from the utilities and oscillations of the market. This study was done in a grain elevator units from Sao Paulo State. They were considered: (I) the patterns of electric power consumption in this crop periods; (II) different types of cogeneration systems; and (III) connection costs. The main conclusions of this work were: cogeneration is possible and viable in grain elevator units; the price of sale of the surplus energy in the cogeneration system influences, directly, decision to implement a cogeneration system; the electric power generation with the own production of firewood was decisive in the profitability of the cogeneration project; the option of connection of the electric power net favors the implantation of a cogeneration system; and the possibility of rejection steam use for drying grains (author)

  2. Systems solutions for new market situations in the deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vouets, W.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article presents a comprehensive overview of the various functions that are necessary for the efficient and secure operation of the electricity supply system in Switzerland within the framework of a deregulated electricity market. Both the physical and financial markets involved in the restructuring of the electricity market are examined in detail. The challenges placed on the parties involved in this process and the basic principles involved are discussed, including the generation, distribution and consumption of electricity and the control of production and demand. The mechanisms involved in this complex system are illustrated graphically and the requirements placed on an 'energy exchange' and its 'stockbrokers' are discussed from both the physical and financial points of view. Practical solutions are discussed and questions on topics in this area that are still to be answered are listed, including the availability of industrial solutions, support provided by information technology and grid-protection systems. Finally, the role of utilities that provide services both in the energy area (e.g. the supply of electricity, gas and water) as well as in the financial area (e.g. cost-calculation, wholesale and customer tariff aspects, profit optimisation and customer relations management) is discussed. The article is concluded with a summary of the situation and a look at the future of the energy market in Switzerland

  3. Energy-preserving H1-Galerkin schemes for shallow water wave equations with peakon solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Yuto; Matsuo, Takayasu

    2012-01-01

    New energy-preserving Galerkin schemes for the Camassa–Holm and the Degasperis–Procesi equations which model shallow water waves are presented. The schemes can be implemented only with cheap H 1 elements, which is expected to be sufficient to catch the characteristic peakon solutions. The keys of the derivation are the Hamiltonian structures of the equations and an L 2 -projection technique newly employed in the present Letter to mimic the Hamiltonian structures in a discrete setting, so that the desired energy-preserving property rightly follows. Numerical examples confirm the effectiveness of the schemes. -- Highlights: ► Numerical integration of the Camassa–Holm and Degasperis–Procesi equation. ► New energy-preserving Galerkin schemes for these equations are proposed. ► They can be implemented only with P1 elements. ► They well capture the characteristic peakon solutions over long time. ► The keys are the Hamiltonian structures and L 2 -projection technique.

  4. Product energy deposition of CN + alkane H abstraction reactions in gas and solution phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we report the first theoretical studies of post-transition state dynamics for reaction of CN with polyatomic organic species. Using electronic structure theory, a newly developed analytic reactive PES, a recently implemented rare-event acceleration algorithm, and a normal mode projection scheme, we carried out and analyzed quasi-classical and classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the reactions CN + propane (R1) and CN + cyclohexane (R2). For (R2), we carried out simulations in both the gas phase and in a CH2Cl2 solvent. Analysis of the results suggests that the solvent perturbations to the (R2) reactive free energy surface are small, leading to product energy partitioning in the solvent that is similar to the gas phase. The distribution of molecular geometries at the respective gas and solution phase variational association transition states is very similar, leading to nascent HCN which is vibrationally excited in both its CH stretching and HCN bending coordinates. This study highlights the fact that significant non-equilibrium energy distributions may follow in the wake of solution phase bimolecular reactions, and may persist for hundreds of picoseconds despite frictional damping. Consideration of non-thermal distributions is often neglected in descriptions of condensed-phase reactivity; the extent to which the present intriguing observations are widespread remains an interesting question.

  5. A new class of energy based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness enhancement and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    A class of joint-level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to the recently proposed energy Liapunov function approach except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. By using energy Liapunov functions with the modified potential energy, a much simpler analysis can be used to show closed-loop global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and model parameter errors are present, a sliding-mode-like modification of the control law is proposed to add a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is also addressed within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted, and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by replacing the model parameters in the nonadaptive control laws by their estimates.

  6. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  7. Nonexistence of bounded energy solutions for a fourth order equation on thin annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ayed, Mohamed; Hammami, Mokhless; El Mehdi, Khalil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem P ε : Δ 2 u ε u ε (n+4)/(n-4) , u ε > in 0 in A ε ; u ε = Δu ε = 0 on ∂A ε , where {A ε is contained in R n , ε > 0} is a family of bounded annulus shaped domains such that A ε becomes 'thin' as ε → 0. Our main result is the following: Assume n ≥ 6 and let C > 0 be a constant. Then there exists ε 0 > 0 such that for any ε 0 , the problem P ε has no solution u ε , whose energy, ∫ A ε vertical barΔu ε vertical bar 2 is less than C. Our proof involves a rather delicate analysis of asymptotic profiles of solutions u ε when ε → 0. (author)

  8. Waste-to-energy plants - a solution for a cleaner future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Waste-to-energy plants reduce the municipal solid waste volume by about 80% and convert it into residue. The residue quality naturally depends on the burned waste quality and also on the combustion parameters. Hence, tighter control of the plant can improve the residue quality. The generated combustion energy is regarded as renewable energy and is typically used to feed a turbine to generate electricity. Waste-to-energy furnaces react slowly on changing waste charge, so they are not used for peak load generation. The generated electrical power is a plant by product and is sold as base load generation. Usually the waste is burned on a grate which limits the plant size to about 160,000 tons of waste per year or 20 tons of waste per hour or about 28 MW. More recent technology utilizes fluidized bed combustion, which allows larger plant sizes up to 50 MW. Due to the unknown waste composition and stringent environmental standards involved, waste-to-energy plants employ sophisticated flue gas cleaning devices for emission control. ABB's Performance Monitoring continuously compares actual plant and equipment performance to expected performance. This includes the on-line calculation of the waste calorific heat allowing operator decision support and automated control system responses. Dedicated reports offer detailed data on operations, maintenance and emissions to plant management staff. ABB combustion optimization solutions use model based predictive control techniques to reliably find the most suitable set-points for improving the heat rate and reducing emissions like NO x . (author)

  9. Sound energy decay in coupled spaces using a parametric analytical solution of a diffusion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizard, Paul; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Katz, Brian F G

    2014-05-01

    Sound field behavior in performance spaces is a complex phenomenon. Issues regarding coupled spaces present additional concerns due to sound energy exchanges. Coupled volume concert halls have been of increasing interest in recent decades because this architectural principle offers the possibility to modify the hall's acoustical environment in a passive way by modifying the coupling area. Under specific conditions, the use of coupled reverberation chambers can provide non-exponential sound energy decay in the main room, resulting in both high clarity and long reverberation which are antagonistic parameters in a single volume room. Previous studies have proposed various sound energy decay models based on statistical acoustics and diffusion theory. Statistical acoustics assumes a perfectly uniform sound field within a given room whereas measurements show an attenuation of energy with increasing source-receiver distance. While previously proposed models based on diffusion theory use numerical solvers, the present study proposes a heuristic model of sound energy behavior based on an analytical solution of the commonly used diffusion equation and physically justified approximations. This model is validated by means of comparisons to scale model measurements and numerical geometrical acoustics simulations, both applied to the same simple concert hall geometry.

  10. Phase Change Materials as a solution to improve energy efficiency in Portuguese residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C.; Pinheiro, A.; Castro, M. F.; Bragança, L.

    2017-10-01

    The buildings sector contributes to 30% of annual greenhouse gas emissions and consumes about 40% of energy. However, this consumption can be reduced by between 30% and 80% through commercially available technologies. The consumption of energy in the dwellings is mostly associated with the heating and cooling of the interior environment. One solution to reduce these consumptions is the implementation of technologies and Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Thermal Energy Storage (TES). So, the aim of this work is to analyse the advantages, in terms of decreasing energy consumption, associated with the application of PCMs in Portuguese residential buildings. For this, eight PCMs with different melting ranges were analysed. These materials were analysed through a dynamic simulation performed with EnergyPlus software. The results achieved, showed that the materials studied allow to reduce up to 13% of the heating needs and up to 92% of the cooling needs of a building located in the North of Portugal, at an altitude higher than 100m.

  11. Towards integrated solutions for water, energy, and land using an integrated nexus modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Humanity has already reached or even exceeded the Earth's carrying capacity. Growing needs for food, energy and water will only exacerbate existing challenges over the next decades. Consequently, the acceptance of "business as usual" is eroding and we are being challenged to adopt new, more integrated, and more inclusive development pathways that avoid dangerous interference with the local environment and global planetary boundaries. This challenge is embodied in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which endeavor to set a global agenda for moving towards more sustainable development strategies. To improve and sustain human welfare, it is critical that access to modern, reliable, and affordable water, energy, and food is expanded and maintained. The Integrated Solutions for Water, Energy, and Land (IS-WEL) project has been launched by IIASA, together with the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). This project focuses on the water-energy-land nexus in the context of other major global challenges such as urbanization, environmental degradation, and equitable and sustainable futures. It develops a consistent framework for looking at the water-energy-land nexus and identify strategies for achieving the needed transformational outcomes through an advanced assessment framework. A multi-scalar approach are being developed that aims to combine global and regional integrated assessment tools with local stakeholder knowledge in order to identify robust solutions to energy, water, food, and ecosystem security in selected regions of the world. These are regions facing multiple energy, water and land use challenges and rapid demographic and economic changes, and are hardest hit by increasing climate variability and change. This project combines the global integrated assessment model (MESSAGE) with the global land (GLOBIOM) and water (Community Water Model) model respectively, and the integrated

  12. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, T.; Buch, C.; Kruse, B; Sauar, E.

    2000-06-01

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50 TWh of renewable

  13. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, T.; Buch, C.; Kruse, B; Sauar, E.

    1999-06-01

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50 TWh of renewable

  14. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, T.; Buch, C.; Kruse, B; Sauar, E.

    2000-06-01

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50

  15. A minimax inequality for a class of functionals and applications to the existence of solutions for two-point boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Alizadeh Afrouzi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish an equivalent statement to minimax inequality for a special class of functionals. As an application, we prove the existence of three solutions to the Dirichlet problem $$displaylines{ -u''(x+m(xu(x =lambda f(x,u(x,quad xin (a,b,cr u(a=u(b=0, }$$ where $lambda>0$, $f:[a,b]imes mathbb{R}o mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function which changes sign on $[a,b]imes mathbb{R}$ and $m(xin C([a,b]$ is a positive function.

  16. Copper Oxide Thin Films through Solution Based Methods for Electrical Energy Conversion and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changqiong

    Copper oxides (Cu2O and CuO), composed of non-toxic and earth abundant elements, are promising materials for electrical energy generation and storage devices. Solution based techniques for creating thin films of these materials, such as electrodeposition, are important to understand and develop because of their potential for realizing substantial energy savings compared to traditional fabrication methods. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), with its direct band gap, is a p-type semiconductor that is well suited for creating solution-processed photovoltaic devices (solar cells); several key advancements made toward this application are the primary focus of this thesis. Electrodeposition of single-phase, crystalline Cu2O thin films is demonstrated using previously unexplored, acidic lactate/Cu2+ solutions, which has provided additional understanding of the impacts of growth solution chemistry on film formation. The influence of pH on the resulting Cu2O thin film properties is revealed by using the same ligand (sodium lactate) at various solution pH values. Cu2O films grown from acidic lactate solutions can exhibit a distinctive flowerlike, dendritic morphology, in contrast to the faceted, dense films obtained using alkaline lactate solutions. Relative speciation distributions of the various metal complex ions present under different growth conditions are calculated using reported equilibrium association constants and experimentally supported by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Dependence of thin film morphology on the lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio and applied potential is described. Cu2O/eutectic gallium-indium Schottky junction devices are formed and devices are tested under monochromatic green LED illumination. Further surface examination of the Cu2O films using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the fact that films grown from acidic lactate solution with a small lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio, which exhibit improved photovoltaic performance compared to films grown from

  17. Foester resonance energy transfer in solution-processed Si-nanoparticle/carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xiaowei; Liu Nan; Zheng Dingxiang; Shi Minmin; Wu Gang; Wang Mang; Chen Hongzheng, E-mail: hzchen@zju.edu.c [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization of Ministry of Education, State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-10-14

    By exploiting a simple solution approach, we bound ethoxy-terminated Si nanoparticles to surface functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via covalent bonds. Quenching of photoluminescence (PL) of the Si nanoparticles was observed once they were conjugated to the MWCNTs. Analysis of the time-resolved PL decay and calculation indicated that Foester resonance energy transfer from the Si nanoparticles to the MWCNTs may be responsible for the PL quenching. The results suggest novel potential applications of the unique Si/MWCNT nanocomposites in optoelectronic devices.

  18. The Analysis of Closed-form Solution for Energy Detector Dynamic Threshold Adaptation in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bozovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is the most important process in cognitive radio in order to ensure interference avoidance to primary users. For optimal performance of cognitive radio, it is substantial to monitor and promptly react to dynamic changes in its operating environment. In this paper, energy detector based spectrum sensing is considered. Under the assumption that detected signal can be modelled according to an autoregressive model, noise variance is estimated from that noisy signal, as well as primary user signal power. A closed-form solution for optimal decision threshold in dynamic electromagnetic environment is proposed and analyzed.

  19. Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renéa van Roij

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An enormous dissipation of the order of 2 kJ/L takes place during the natural mixing process of fresh river water entering the salty sea. “Capacitive mixing” is a promising technique to efficiently harvest this energy in an environmentally clean and sustainable fashion. This method has its roots in the ability to store a very large amount of electric charge inside supercapacitor or battery electrodes dipped in a saline solution. Three different schemes have been studied so far, namely, Capacitive Double Layer Expansion (CDLE, Capacitive Donnan Potential (CDP and Mixing Entropy Battery (MEB, respectively based on the variation upon salinity change of the electric double layer capacity, on the Donnan membrane potential, and on the electrochemical energy of intercalated ions.

  20. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...... 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive...

  1. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Qin, Chunling; Yu, Hui; Xia, Xingchuan; Wang, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yanshan; Hu, Qingfeng; Zhao, Weimin

    2015-04-29

    Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC) and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications.

  2. Energy and the new class. [Assault of ''new breed'' of American on established institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.

    1979-03-14

    The bounty of the US is taken for granted by its population. Nowhere is this misvaluation of a society and its benefits more evident than in the energy industries. But energy represents a tool by which society can be shaped; a device by which the standared of living and the very nature of the national lifestyle can be controlled, modified, amplified, or reduced. Two examples examined to show how energy shapes social order and human life are the women's movement and the desire to live in the Sunbelt. Five phenomena are then examined to point out the desire to restrain the nation's rampant pursuit of a higher standard of living, as opposed to the more subjective and seemingly more desirable goal of a better quality of life: the civil rights movement; the environmental movement; the Vietnam War; the Watergate scandal; and the assumption that prosperity at today's level is irreducible, concrete, and not subject to diminution. The ''new class'' is essentially made up of those educated in the liberal arts, divorced from an understanding of the mechanics of free-enterprise institutions and of the sicences. The antagonistic view of the new class of corporations and its assault on established institutions are noted. Energy companies are frustrated in telling their story, but the story that must be told is not the story of how excellently the energy sector has performed, but the story of how a new breed of Americans is seeking to remake America in its own image without the rest being aware of what is going on. (MCW)

  3. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  4. Evaluation of Department of Energy-held potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW), and through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and/or for health and safety reasons, the waste is being stored by DOE. A determination is required, considering specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, whether disposal is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facility or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility is appropriate. This report presents the preliminary results of an assessment conducted by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. legal counsel and GTCC LLW Program staff

  5. Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  6. Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Poland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’. By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance.

  7. Picosecond excitation energy transfer of allophycocyanin studied in solution and in crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Choubeh, Reza; Sonani, Ravi R; Madamwar, Datta; Struik, Paul C; Bader, Arjen N; Robert, Bruno; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2018-03-01

    Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis with the use of large light-harvesting antennae called phycobilisomes (PBSs). These hemispherical PBSs contain hundreds of open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores bound to different peptides, providing an arrangement in which excitation energy is funnelled towards the PBS core from where it can be transferred to photosystem I and/or photosystem II. In the PBS core, many allophycocyanin (APC) trimers are present, red-light-absorbing phycobiliproteins that covalently bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores. APC trimers were amongst the first light-harvesting complexes to be crystallized. APC trimers have two spectrally different PCBs per monomer, a high- and a low-energy pigment. The crystal structure of the APC trimer reveals the close distance (~21 Å) between those two chromophores (the distance within one monomer is ~51 Å) and this explains the ultrafast (~1 ps) excitation energy transfer (EET) between them. Both chromophores adopt a somewhat different structure, which is held responsible for their spectral difference. Here we used spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence to study EET in these APC trimers both in crystallized and in solubilized form. We found that not all closely spaced pigment couples consist of a low- and a high-energy pigment. In ~10% of the cases, a couple consists of two high-energy pigments. EET to a low-energy pigment, which can spectrally be resolved, occurs on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. This transfer turns out to be three times faster in the crystal than in the solution. The spectral characteristics and the time scale of this transfer component are similar to what have been observed in the whole cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, for which it was ascribed to EET from C-phycocyanin to APC. The present results thus demonstrate that part of this transfer should probably also be ascribed to EET within APC trimers.

  8. Air turbine - an interesting solution for straw energy conversion into electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălănescu, D. T.; Homutescu, V. M.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Straw is a non-hazardous by-product of crop plants processing. Currently, it represent one of the most important biomass resource. The huge quantities of straw annually produced generate big problems in what concerns their disposal. The traditional field burning is no longer accepted, so another disposal solutions must be found and recycling is the most attractive. The paper refers to such a solution consisting in the conversion of the straw energy potential into electricity in a power plant based on an air turbine. This power system it is in fact an external combustion engine, derived from a gas turbine engine and operating with air as working fluid instead of combustion gases. In order to make possible the use of straw as fuel, the conventional combustion chamber is substituted by a hot air generator. Schematic of this power system and the results of its energetic analysis are presented in the paper. There are analysed the main performance indicators, namely thermal efficiency, output power, fuel consumption and specific fuel consumption. The results of the study indicate the analysed power system as an interesting solution for straw recycling.

  9. Optimal Thermal Unit Commitment Solution integrating Renewable Energy with Generator Outage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivasakthi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern of global climate changes, the promotion of renewable energy sources, primarily wind generation, is a welcome move to reduce the pollutant emissions from conventional power plants. Integration of wind power generation with the existing power network is an emerging research field. This paper presents a meta-heuristic algorithm based approach to determine the feasible dispatch solution for wind integrated thermal power system. The Unit Commitment (UC process aims to identify the best feasible generation scheme of the committed units such that the overall generation cost is reduced, when subjected to a variety of constraints at each time interval. As the UC formulation involves many variables and system and operational constraints, identifying the best solution is still a research task. Nowadays, it is inevitable to include power system reliability issues in operation strategy. The generator failure and malfunction are the prime influencing factor for reliability issues hence they have considered in UC formulation of wind integrated thermal power system. The modern evolutionary algorithm known as Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO algorithm is applied to solve the intended UC problem. The potential of the GWO algorithm is validated by the standard test systems. Besides, the ramp rate limits are also incorporated in the UC formulation. The simulation results reveal that the GWO algorithm has the capability of obtaining economical resolutions with good solution quality.

  10. The Energy Impact in Buildings of Vegetative Solutions for Extensive Green Roofs in Temperate Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Barozzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many bibliographical studies have highlighted the positive effects of green roofs as technological solutions both for new and renovated buildings. The one-year experimental monitoring campaign conducted has investigated, in detail, some aspects related to the surface temperature variation induced by the presence of different types of vegetation compared to traditional finishing systems for flat roofs and their impact from an energy and environmental point of view. The results obtained underlined how an appropriate vegetative solution selection can contribute to a significant reduction of the external surface temperatures (10 °C–20 °C for I > 500 W/m2 and 0 °C–5 °C for I < 500 W/m2, regardless of the season compared to traditional flat roofs. During the winter season, the thermal gradients of the planted surface temperatures are close to zero compared to the floor, except under special improving conditions. This entails a significant reduction of the energy loads from summer air conditioning, and an almost conservative behavior with respect to that from winter heating consumption. The analysis of the inside growing medium temperatures returned a further interesting datum, too: the temperature gradient with respect to surface temperature (annual average 4 °C–9 °C is a function of solar radiation and involves the insulating contribution of the soil.

  11. Exact solution of thermal energy storage system using PCM flat slabs configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechiri, Mohammed; Mansouri, Kacem

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An exact solution of a latent heat storage unit (LHSU) consisting of several flat slabs was obtained. • The working fluid (HTF) circulating by forced convection between the slabs charges and discharges the storage unit. • The charging/discharging process is investigated for various HTF working conditions and different design parameters. - Abstract: An analytical investigation of thermal energy storage system (TESS) consisting of several flat slabs of phase change material (PCM) is presented. The working fluid (HTF) circulating on laminar forced convection between the slabs charges and discharges the storage unit. The melting and solidification of the PCM was treated as a radial one dimensional conduction problem. The forced convective heat transfer inside the channels is analyzed by solving the energy equation, which is coupled with the heat conduction equation in the PCM container. The comparison between the present exact solution with the numerical predictions and experimental data available in literature shows good agreement. The charging/discharging process is investigated in terms of liquid–solid interface position, liquid fraction, total heat transmitted to the PCM and thermal storage efficiency for various HTF working conditions and different design parameters such as PCM slab length, fluid passage gap and thickness of PCM duct container

  12. Multi-class clustering of cancer subtypes through SVM based ensemble of pareto-optimal solutions for gene marker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2010-11-12

    With the advancement of microarray technology, it is now possible to study the expression profiles of thousands of genes across different experimental conditions or tissue samples simultaneously. Microarray cancer datasets, organized as samples versus genes fashion, are being used for classification of tissue samples into benign and malignant or their subtypes. They are also useful for identifying potential gene markers for each cancer subtype, which helps in successful diagnosis of particular cancer types. In this article, we have presented an unsupervised cancer classification technique based on multiobjective genetic clustering of the tissue samples. In this regard, a real-coded encoding of the cluster centers is used and cluster compactness and separation are simultaneously optimized. The resultant set of near-Pareto-optimal solutions contains a number of non-dominated solutions. A novel approach to combine the clustering information possessed by the non-dominated solutions through Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier has been proposed. Final clustering is obtained by consensus among the clusterings yielded by different kernel functions. The performance of the proposed multiobjective clustering method has been compared with that of several other microarray clustering algorithms for three publicly available benchmark cancer datasets. Moreover, statistical significance tests have been conducted to establish the statistical superiority of the proposed clustering method. Furthermore, relevant gene markers have been identified using the clustering result produced by the proposed clustering method and demonstrated visually. Biological relationships among the gene markers are also studied based on gene ontology. The results obtained are found to be promising and can possibly have important impact in the area of unsupervised cancer classification as well as gene marker identification for multiple cancer subtypes.

  13. Free Energy and Equilibrium: The Basis of Change in G Degrees = -RT In K for Reactions in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the derivation of a thermodynamic relation. The relation is derived, for reactants in solution, from a treatment of the free energy of the reducing system as a function of the degree of advancement of the solution. Includes microcomputer figures/diagrams produced by programs developed to simulate this study. (JN)

  14. 77 FR 58424 - Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc. because it has...

  15. Leisure of the theory class. [Relationship of socio-economic status and espousals on energy or the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.V.

    1978-05-11

    The energy debate is evolving into discussions of how to select options capable of meeting long-range social goals and how to apply the appropriate weight to the various perceptions that underlie individual opinions. The causal relationships linking personal status and attitudes is examined to see if there is a correlation between economic well-being and enthusiasm for a no-growth economy. The affluent U.S. college-educated, primarily concerned with self-actualization, show an inversion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs compared to people in developing countries. They are also in a position to express and promote theories for no-risk technology. The author suggests that these theorists be required to submit the same detailed support for their theories as is required for new energy facilities. The theory class is noted for acting upon faith rather than evidence; for ideas rather than workable plans.

  16. Composição química da solução do solo nas diferentes classes de poro do solo Chemical composition of soil solution in different soil pore classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vincent Gloaguen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A composição química da solução do solo pode ser considerada indicadora da presença de nutrientes ou contaminantes no solo. Para analisar a variação dessa composição nos poros do solo, utilizou-se um sistema de extração sequencial da solução do solo em diferentes classes de diâmetro de poro. Colunas de PVC foram construídas e preenchidas com terra fina seca ao ar de um Cambissolo Háplico distrófico, e irrigadas com água destilada (T1, efluente de estação de tratamento de esgoto sanitário EETE (T2 e EETE + 1,2 g L-1 CaSO4 (T3, aplicando lâminas de 150 e 300 mm. Antes da irrigação e após cada lâmina, aplicaram-se na base de cada coluna os seguintes potenciais: 0, 13,3, 26,7, 40,0 e 53,3 kPa para extração e coleta da solução do solo nas faixas de poros: Ø > 76,2 µm, 44,6 44,6 m. Todos os dados foram ajustados significativamente ao modelo linear Y = a - b.log(X, onde Y é o atributo avaliado e X o diâmetro de poro do solo. Embora a concentração de NO3-na microporosidade supere o valor limite [NO3-]lim para água doce potável (Classe 1, a baixa concentração na macroporosidade (sempre inferior a [NO3-]lim/4 limita o risco de contaminação por lixiviação. Constatou-se também que a adição de gesso promove a redução da concentração de NO3-e de Na+ no solo.The chemistry of the soil solution can be regarded as an indicator of the presence of nutrients or contaminants in the soil. To evaluate the variation of this chemical composition in the soil pores, a sequential system of extraction of the soil solution from the different soil pore classes was used. Soil columns were constructed and filled with air-dried fine soil of a Dystrophic Ultisol, and irrigated with: distilled water (T1, treated wastewater (T2 and treated wastewater + 1.2 g L-1 CaSO4 (T3 at irrigation levels of 150 and 300 mm, added progressively (without leaching. Before and after irrigation the soil solution was extracted by applying successive

  17. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.K.; Fischer, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW

  18. Solution combustion synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-tang; Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-11-14

    The design and synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials is one of the key steps for achieving highly efficient energy conversion and storage on an industrial scale. Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a time- and energy-saving method as compared with other routes, especially for the preparation of complex oxides which can be easily adapted for scale-up applications. This review summarizes the synthesis of various metal oxide nanomaterials and their applications for energy conversion and storage, including lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen and methane production, fuel cells and solar cells. In particular, some novel concepts such as reverse support combustion, self-combustion of ionic liquids, and creation of oxygen vacancies are presented. SCS has some unique advantages such as its capability for in situ doping of oxides and construction of heterojunctions. The well-developed porosity and large specific surface area caused by gas evolution during the combustion process endow the resulting materials with exceptional properties. The relationship between the structural properties of the metal oxides studied and their performance is discussed. Finally, the conclusions and perspectives are briefly presented.

  19. Catching the wind - clean and sustainable solutions to China's energy shortfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2002-01-01

    China's power generating capacity has increased markedly in recent years largely due new coal-fired power stations, but sadly, the environmental consequences were largely ignored. Apart from the coal used for power generation, coal is also used to fuel industrial boilers and in houses: some of the world's most polluted cities are in China. In the late 1990s, China began to curb the environmental impact by closing smaller power stations and retrofitting clean-up plant to the bigger stations, but there is still a lot of cleaning-up still to do. The government of China is now offering incentives for the development of renewable sources of energy, and wind power is seen as a clean and sustainable solution to the air pollution problem. The government has identified various geographical regions suitable for wind farms. Solar energy is also seen as a promising source of energy and is being employed in areas remote from power grids. The paper discusses incentives and bank loans for the development and application of renewables

  20. On a Class of Mean Field Solutions of the Monge Problem for Perfect and Self-Interacting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquard, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The Monge problem (Monge 1781; Taton 1951), as reformulated by Kantorovich (2006a, 2006b) is that of the transportation at a minimum "cost" of a given mass distribution from an initial to a final position during a given time interval. It is an optimal transport problem (Villani, 2003, sects. 1, 2). Following the fluid mechanical solution provided by Benamou and Brenier (2000) for quadratic cost functions (Villani, 2003, sects. 5.4, 8.1), Lagrangian formulations are needed to solve this boundary value problem in time and to determine the Actions as time integral of Lagrangians that are measures of the "cost" of the transportations (Benamou and Brenier, 2000, prop. 1.1). Given canonical Hamilltonians of perfect and self-interacting systems expressed in function of mass densities and velocity potentials, four versions of explicit constructions of Lagrangians, with their corresponding generalized coordinates, are proposed: elimination of the velocity potentials as a function of the densities and their time derivatives by inversion of the continuity equations; elimination of the gradient of the velocity potentials from the continuity equations thanks to the introduction of vector fields such that their divergences give the mass densities; generalization in nD of Gelfand mass coordinate (1963) by the introduction of n-dimensional vector fields such that the determinant of their Jacobian matrices give the mass densities; and, last, introduction of the Lagrangian coordinates that describe the characteristics of the different models and are parametrized by the former auxiliary vector fields. Using this version, weak solutions of several models of Coulombian and Newtonian systems known in Plasma Physics and in Cosmology, with spherically symmetric boundary densities, are given as illustrations.

  1. Five-dimensional teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity, the axially symmetric solution, energy and spatial momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, G. L. Nashed

    2011-11-01

    A theory of (4+1)-dimensional gravity is developed on the basis of the teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity. The fundamental gravitational field variables are the five-dimensional vector fields (pentad), defined globally on a manifold M, and gravity is attributed to the torsion. The Lagrangian density is quadratic in the torsion tensor. We then give the exact five-dimensional solution. The solution is a generalization of the familiar Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions of the four-dimensional teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. We also use the definition of the gravitational energy to calculate the energy and the spatial momentum.

  2. Proceedings of the 2007 Low-Income Energy Network (LIEN) annual conference : cool ideas, hot solutions : working together to end energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanji, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Low-Income Energy Network (LIEN) is a network of community organizations that promote programs and policies that address the problems of energy poverty and homelessness. LIEN raises awareness about reducing Ontario's contribution to smog and climate change by promoting a healthy economy through the more efficient use of energy and a transition to renewable energy sources. This conference provided a forum to propose solutions to low-income energy issues such as rising energy prices and rate affordability; reducing bills and pollution through energy conservation programs for low-income consumers; creating a comprehensive province-wide, low-income energy consumers' strategy; and, including energy poverty on the public agenda. One of the 3 presentations from this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Proceedings of the 2007 Low-Income Energy Network (LIEN) annual conference : cool ideas, hot solutions : working together to end energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanji, Z. [Low-Income Energy Network, Toronto, ON (Canada)] (comp.)

    2007-07-01

    The Low-Income Energy Network (LIEN) is a network of community organizations that promote programs and policies that address the problems of energy poverty and homelessness. LIEN raises awareness about reducing Ontario's contribution to smog and climate change by promoting a healthy economy through the more efficient use of energy and a transition to renewable energy sources. This conference provided a forum to propose solutions to low-income energy issues such as rising energy prices and rate affordability; reducing bills and pollution through energy conservation programs for low-income consumers; creating a comprehensive province-wide, low-income energy consumers' strategy; and, including energy poverty on the public agenda. One of the 3 presentations from this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. New classes of potentials for which the radial Schroedinger equation can be solved at zero energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadan, Khosrow; Kobayashi, Reido

    2006-01-01

    Given two spherically symmetric and short-range potentials V 0 and V 1 for which the radial Schroedinger equation can be solved explicitly at zero energy, we show how to construct a new potential V for which the radial equation can again be solved explicitly at zero energy. The new potential and its corresponding wavefunction are given explicitly in terms of V 0 and V 1 , and their corresponding wavefunctions ψ 0 and ψ 1 . V 0 must be such that it sustains no bound states (either repulsive, or attractive but weak). However, V 1 can sustain any (finite) number of bound states. The new potential V has the same number of bound states, by construction, but the corresponding (negative) energies are, of course, different. Once this is achieved, one can start then from V 0 and V, and construct a new potential V-bar for which the radial equation is again solvable explicitly. And the process can be repeated indefinitely. We exhibit first the construction, and the proof of its validity, for regular short-range potentials, i.e. those for which rV 0 (r) and rV 1 (r) are L 1 at the origin. It is then seen that the construction extends automatically to potentials which are singular at r = 0. It can also be extended to V 0 long range (Coulomb, etc). We finally give several explicit examples

  5. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Einstein field equations for static anisotropic spheres are solved and exact interior solutions obtained. This paper extends earlier treatments to include anisotropic models which accommodate a wider variety of physically viable energy densities. Two classes of solutions are possible. The first class contains the limiting case ...

  6. Two Types of Solutions to a Class of (p,q-Laplacian Systems with Critical Sobolev Exponents in RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the following elliptic system with critical Sobolev exponents:  -div⁡∇up-2∇u+m(xup-2u=λup⁎-2u+(1/ηGu(u,v,  x∈RN; -div⁡∇vq-2∇v+n(xvq-2v=μvq⁎-2v+(1/ηGv(u,v,  x∈RN; u(x>0,v(x>0,  x∈RN, where μ,λ>0,1solutions to the elliptic system with η∈(q,p⁎ or η∈(1,p will be established.

  7. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  8. Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) model: Formulation and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Kincaid, C.T.; Monti, A.M.

    1987-10-01

    The CFEST (Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport) code has been developed to analyze coupled hydrologic, thermal, and solute transport processes. It treats single-pahse Darcy ground-water flow in a horizontal or vertical plane, or in fully three-dimensional space under nonisothermal conditions. The code has the capability to model discontinuous and continuous layering, time-dependent and constant sources/sinks, and transient as well as steady-stae ground-water flow. The code offers a wide choice of boundary conditions such as precsribed heads, nodal injection or withdrawal, constant or spatially varying infiltration rates, and welemental source/sink. Initial conditions for the flow analysis can be prescribed pressure or hydraulic head. The heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and porosity can be described by geologic unit or explicity for given elements. Three-dimensional elelments are generated from user-defined well logs at each surface node. To facilitate interaction between disciplines, support programs are provided to plot the finite element grid, well logs, contour maps of input and output parameters, and vertical cross sections. Ground-water travel paths and times and volumetric rates from a specified point can be determined from support programs. This report includes governing partial differential equations, finite element formulation, a use's manual, verification test examples, sample problems, and source listings. 36 refs., 121 figs., 36 tabs

  9. Optimum technoeconomic energy autonomous photovoltaic solution for remote consumers throughout Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous photovoltaic systems have turned into one of the most promising ways to handle the electrification requirements of numerous isolated consumers worldwide. Such an autonomous system comprises a number of photovoltaic panels, properly connected, and a battery storage device, along with the corresponding electronic equipment. Considering the high solar potential of most Greek territories, an integrated study is conducted based on long term solar potential experimental measurements in order to determine the optimum configuration of a stand alone photovoltaic system at representative locations all over Greece. The proposed solution 'guarantees' zero load rejections for all the areas and time periods examined. For this purpose, a fast and reliable numerical code 'PHOTOV-III' has been used. The algorithm provides analytical results concerning the energy autonomy and the operational status of the autonomous system components. Besides, the optimum panel tilt angle, minimizing the first installation cost of a small photovoltaic system, is predicted. Finally, by introducing available financial aspects, it is possible to determine the optimum system dimensions on a minimum first installation cost basis. According to the results obtained, an autonomous photovoltaic system can definitely contribute to solution of the urgent electrification problem of remote consumers spread throughout Greece, also improving their life quality level

  10. Energy Method Solution for the Vertical Deformation of Longitudinally Coupled Prefabricated Slab Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Upwarping on the longitudinally coupled prefabricated slab track system caused by the rising temperature is a common distress, which deteriorates the mechanical properties of the coupled slabs and the vertical stability of slabs. The objective of this paper is to quantify the upwarping deformation on the slab subjected to temperature force and to find out the influence of different factors on the upwarping phenomenon of the slabs. An analytical expression is deduced using energy method, and a finite element model is also established to verify the analytical solution’s adequacy. The following main findings are drawn: (1 when the amplitude of the initial elastic misalignment we is equal to a half of the amplitude of the initial plastic misalignment wp and the half-wavelength lmin takes the most unfavorable value, the maximum relative error between the analytical solution and the result in FEM is only 2.64%, which demonstrates that the analytical solution correlates well with the FEM results. (2 lmin is closely related with wp. With the increase of wp, lmin becomes longer, and the maximum length of the half-wavelength is 7.769 m. (3 When the total amplitude we+wp exaggerates, the slab will be much likely to suffer upwarping.

  11. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Sara; Rothgeb, Stacey; Polly, Ben; Earle, Lieko; Merrigan, Tim

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America Program enables the transformation of the U.S. housing industry to achieve energy savings through energy-efficient, high-performance homes with improved durability, comfort, and health for occupants. Building America bridges the gap between the development of emerging technologies and the adoption of codes and standards by engaging industry partners in applied research, development, and demonstration of high-performance solutions.

  12. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for 'next-generation' x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop 'Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources' was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysis of the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions

  13. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  14. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results.

  15. New design solutions for low-power energy production in water pipe systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of ongoing research for a European Union 7th Framework Program Project regarding energy converters for very low heads, and aims to analyze optimization of new cost-effective hydraulic turbine designs for possible implementation in water supply systems (WSSs or in other pressurized water pipe infrastructures, such as irrigation, wastewater, or drainage systems. A new methodology is presented based on a theoretical, technical and economic analysis. Viability studies focused on small power values for different pipe systems were investigated. Detailed analyses of alternative typical volumetric energy converters were conducted on the basis of mathematical and physical fundamentals as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD associated with the interaction between the flow conditions and the system operation. Important constraints (e.g., size, stability, efficiency, and continuous steady flow conditions can be identified and a search for alternative rotary volumetric converters is being conducted. As promising cost-effective solutions for the coming years, adapted rotor-dynamic turbomachines and non-conventional axial propeller devices were analyzed based on the basic principles of pumps operating as turbines, as well as through an extensive comparison between simulations and experimental tests.

  16. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine); Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Evstigneev, Maxim P., E-mail: max_evstigneev@mail.ru [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. > The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. > Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  17. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. → The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. → Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  18. Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    This study reviews and ranks major proposed solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-E85 and cellulosic E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in six out of 11 categories, including the two most important, mortality and climate damage reduction. Although HFCVs are less efficient than BEVs, wind- HFCVs ranked second among all combinations. Tier 2 options provide significant benefits and are recommended. Tier 3 options are less desirable. However, hydroelectricity, which was ranked ahead of coal- CCS and nuclear with respect to climate and health, is an excellent load balancer, thus strongly recommended. The Tier-4 combinations (cellulosic- and corn-E85) were ranked lowest overall and with respect to

  19. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report

  20. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG&G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report.

  1. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  2. Activity coefficients and free energies of nonionic mixed surfactant solutions from vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jennifer A; Ray, Gargi Basu; Leaist, Derek G

    2011-05-19

    The thermodynamic properties of mixed surfactant solutions are widely investigated, prompted by numerous practical applications of these systems and by interest in molecular association and self-organization. General techniques for measuring thermodynamic activities, such as isopiestic equilibration, are well-established for multicomponent solutions. Surprisingly, these techniques have not yet been applied to mixed surfactant solutions, despite the importance of the free energy for micelle stability. In this study, equations are developed for the osmotic coefficients of solutions of nonionic surfactant A + nonionic surfactant B. A mass-action model is used, with virial equations for the activity coefficients of the micelles and free surfactant monomer species. The equations are fitted to osmotic coefficients of aqueous decylsulfobetaine + dodecylsulfobetaine solutions measured by vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry. Equilibrium constants for mixed-micelle formation are calculated from the free monomer concentrations at the critical micelle concentrations. The derived activity coefficients of the micelles and free monomers indicate large departures from ideal solution behavior, even for dilute solutions of the surfactants. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the total surfactant components are evaluated by Gibbs-Duhem integration of the osmotic coefficients. Relatively simple colligative property measurements hold considerable promise for free energy studies of multicomponent surfactant solutions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Renewable energy systems a smart energy systems approach to the choice and modeling of 100% renewable solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this new edition of Renewable Energy Systems, globally recognized renewable energy researcher and professor, Henrik Lund, sets forth a straightforward, comprehensive methodology for comparing different energy systems' abilities to integrate fluctuating and intermittent renewable energy sources. The book does this by presenting an energy system analysis methodology and offering a freely available accompanying software tool, EnergyPLAN, which automates and simplifies the calculations supporting such a detailed comparative analysis. The book provides the results of more than fifteen comprehensive energy system analysis studies, examines the large-scale integration of renewable energy into the present system, and presents concrete design examples derived from a dozen renewable energy systems around the globe. Renewable Energy Systems, Second Edition also undertakes the socio-political realities governing the implementation of renewable energy systems by introducing a theoretical framework approach aimed at ...

  4. A direct method for numerical solution of a class of nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations and its application to the nonlinear fission and fusion reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yasuaki; Ise, Takeharu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1975-12-01

    A new method has been developed for numerical solution of a class of nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations with quadratic nonlinearity. After dividing the domain of the variable into subintervals, piecewise approximations are applied in the subintervals. The equation is first integrated over a subinterval to obtain the piecewise equation, to which six approximate treatments are applied, i.e. fully explicit, fully implicit, Crank-Nicolson, linear interpolation, quadratic and cubic spline. The numerical solution at each time step is obtained directly as a positive root of the resulting algebraic quadratic equation. The point reactor kinetics with a ramp reactivity insertion, linear temperature feedback and delayed neutrons can be described by one of this type of nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations. The algorithm is applied to the Argonne benchmark problem and a model problem for a fast reactor without delayed neutrons. The fully implicit method has been found to be unconditionally stable in the sense that it always gives the positive real roots. The cubic spline method is divergent, and the other four methods are intermediate in between. From the estimation of the stability, convergency, accuracy and CPU time, it is concluded that the Crank-Nicolson method is best, then the linear interpolation method comes closely next to it. Discussions are also made on the possibility of applying the algorithm to the fusion reactor kinetics in the form of a nonlinear partial differential equation. (auth.)

  5. Effects of zonal flows on correlation between energy balance and energy conservation associated with nonlinear nonviscous atmospheric dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.

    2018-03-01

    The nonlinear Euler equations are used to model two-dimensional atmosphere dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell. The energy balance is deduced on the basis of two classes of functorially independent invariant solutions associated with the model. It it shown that the energy balance is exactly the conservation law for one class of the solutions whereas the second class of invariant solutions provides and asymptotic convergence of the energy balance to the conservation law.

  6. Agro-energy - A solution for climate or a crisis exit for capital?; L'agroenergie - Solution pour le climat ou sortie de crise pour le capital?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtart, F. [CETRI, Louvain La Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    Intensive advertisement has presented agro-energy as a solution to the global warming and to the energy crisis. But how will it be possible to replace fossil fuels? It would be surprising that an economic system like capitalism does not try to supply some remedies to a situation that paralyzes it and threatens its own survivor-ship. But are these measures favorable to humanity and susceptible to warrant the future of the Earth? Are we trying to save the mankind and its vital capacities or to preserve capitalism? This book examines the role of energy in the development of humanity and then the degradation of climate and the way that capitalism has treated the problem. It deals with the real conditions of biofuels development, reveals the ecological and social conditions of their production, and denounces the social and natural catastrophes they are leading to. The book ends with a thinking about the economical function of biofuels and on the solutions offered by renewable energy sources. It proposes some changes that reveal the core of the problem: changing our development model. (J.S.)

  7. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between perylene and riboflavin in micellar solution and analytical application on determination of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattar, S.L.; Kolekar, G.B.; Patil, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between perylene and riboflavin is studied in micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The fluorescence of perylene is quenched by riboflavin and quenching is in accordance with Stern-Volmer relation. The efficiency of energy transfer is found to depend on the concentration of riboflavin. The value of critical energy transfer distance (R 0 ) calculated by using Foster relation is 32.13 A, and as it is less than 50 A, it indicates efficient energy transfer in the present system. The analytical relation was established between extent of sensitization and concentration of riboflavin, which helped to estimate vitamin B 2 directly from pharmaceutical tablets

  8. Investigations for Improvement of Energy Yield of Rotor-blades from the 1.5 MW Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaresque, N.; Bicker, S.; Dollinger, C.; Fandrich, A.; Gatz, S.; Hölling, M.; Irschik, K.; Reichstein, T.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; von Zengen, C.

    2016-09-01

    In a combined approach of extensive measurement and accompanying simulation a wind turbine blade used in the 1.5 MW class was investigated for improvement of aerodynamic properties and especially the energy yield. One blade was dismantled and its geometry was locally measured by a specially designed laser scanning-system. From this geometry data set five 2D wind tunnel models were manufactured and measured in the wind tunnel of Deutsche Wind Guard Engineering GmbH at Bremerhaven, Germany. In addition, extensive CFD investigations were performed to investigate the usefulness of so-called aerodynamic devices like vortex generators, Gurney flaps and others for improving energy yield. As a result it could be shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the manufactured blades - if measured in terms of lift-to-drag ratio - is at a high level but still can be further improved. 3D CFD investigations were able to show the influence of Gurney flaps and boundary layer fences and their interactions.

  9. Photophysical investigation of energy transfer luminescence of lanthanide chelates with aromatic polyaminocarboxylate ligands in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Takashi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Some photophysical data including emission lifetimes ({tau}), total emission quantum yields ({Phi}), and ligand phosphorescence data are reported for the energy-transfer luminescence of the Eu(III) chelate of Quin 2 and the Tb(III) chelate of BAPTA: Quin 2 means 2-[(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-aminoquinoline-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid; BAPTA means 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid. The energy diagrams for the ligand T{sub 1} and the metal-center f-f levels are proposed. The {tau} values of Tb(III)-BAPTA chelates are 1.73 ms in H{sub 2}O and 3.44 ms in D{sub 2}O. The Eu(III)-Quin 2 chelate system shows a bi-exponential decay of emission; {tau}=0.048 and 0.20 ms in H{sub 2}O and 0.066 and 1.44 ms in D{sub 2}O. The Quin 2 chelate is kinetically inert, so that the interchange of these two conformer structures are very slow at room temperature. The number of water molecules in the primary coordination sphere is calculated from the lifetime data to be 1.9-2.4 for Eu-Quin 2 and 0.5 for Tb-BAPTA. The {Phi} values in aqueous solutions are rather small in these systems; 0.009 for Tb-BAPTA and 0.0023 for Eu-Quin 2, but these are enough counterbalanced by the large molar absorptivities giving the great sensitization factors for the ions; the sensitization factors against each aqua ion are 1380 for Eu-Quin 2 and 1600 for Tb-BAPTA. (author).

  10. Enhanced Efficiency in Plastic Solar Cells via Energy Matched Solution Processed NiOx Interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Ndione, Paul F.; Widjonarko, N. Edwin; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Meyer, Jens; Ratcliff, Erin L.; Kahn, Antoine; Armstrong, Neal R.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Berry, Joseph J.; Olson, Dana C.

    2011-07-18

    We show enhanced efficiency and stability of a high performance organic solar cell (OPV) when the work-function of the hole collecting indium-tin oxide (ITO) contact, modified with a solution-processed nickel oxide (NiOx) hole-transport layer (HTL), is matched to the ionization potential of the donor material in a bulk-heterojunction solar cell. Addition of the NiOx HTL to the hole collecting contact results in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.7%, which is a 17.3% net increase in performance over the 5.7% PCE achieved with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL on ITO. The impact of these NiOx films is evaluated through optical and electronic measurements as well as device modeling. The valence and conduction band energies for the NiOx HTL are characterized in detail through photoelectron spectroscopy studies while spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to characterize the optical properties. Oxygen plasma treatment of the NiOx HTL is shown to provide superior contact properties by increasing the ITO/NiOx contact work-function by 500 meV. Enhancement of device performance is attributed to reduction of the band edge energy offset at the ITO/NiOx interface with the poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothidiazole) (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester PCBM and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) active layer. A high work-function hole collecting contact is therefore the appropriate choice for high ionization potential donor materials in order to maximize OPV performance.

  11. Enhanced Efficiency in Plastic Solar Cells via Energy Matched Solution Processed NiOx Interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Ndione, Paul F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Widjonarko, N. Edwin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lloyd, Matthew T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Meyer, Jens [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Ratcliff, Erin L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM); Kahn, Antoine [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Armstrong, Neal R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM); Curtis, Calvin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics

    2011-07-18

    We show enhanced efficiency and stability of a high performance organic solar cell (OPV) when the work-function of the hole collecting indium-tin oxide (ITO) contact, modified with a solution-processed nickel oxide (NiOx) hole-transport layer (HTL), is matched to the ionization potential of the donor material in a bulk-heterojunction solar cell. Addition of the NiOx HTL to the hole collecting contact results in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.7%, which is a 17.3% net increase in performance over the 5.7% PCE achieved with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL on ITO. The impact of these NiOx films is evaluated through optical and electronic measurements as well as device modeling. The valence and conduction band energies for the NiOx HTL are characterized in detail through photoelectron spectroscopy studies while spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to characterize the optical properties. Oxygen plasma treatment of the NiOx HTL is shown to provide superior contact properties by increasing the ITO/NiOx contact work-function by 500 meV. Enhancement of device performance is attributed to reduction of the band edge energy offset at the ITO/NiOx interface with the poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothidiazole) (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester PCBM and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC₇₀BM) active layer. A high work-function hole collecting contact is therefore the appropriate choice for high ionization potential donor materials in order to maximize OPV performance.

  12. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  13. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules

  14. Solutions of the Dirac-Fock Equations and the Energy of the Electron-Positron Field

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, M

    2005-01-01

    We consider atoms with closed shells, i.e., the electron number $N$ is $2,\\ 8,\\ 10,...$, and weak electron-electron interaction. Then there exists a unique solution $\\gamma$ of the Dirac-Fock equations $[D_{g,\\alpha}^{(\\gamma)},\\gamma]=0$ with the additional property that $\\gamma$ is the orthogonal projector onto the first $N$ positive eigenvalues of the Dirac-Fock operator $D_{g,\\alpha}^{(\\gamma)}$. Moreover, $\\gamma$ minimizes the energy of the relativistic electron-positron field in Hartree-Fock approximation, if the splitting of $\\gH:=L^2(\\rz^3)\\otimes \\cz^4$ into electron and positron subspace, is chosen self-consistently, i.e., the projection onto the electron-subspace is given by the positive spectral projection of $D_{g,\\alpha}^{(\\gamma)}$. For fixed electron-nucleus coupling constant $g:=\\alpha Z$ we give quantitative estimates on the maximal value of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ for which the existence can be guaranteed.

  15. Water and power for the desert -- Energy solutions for the Near and Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siersdorfer, D.

    2007-07-01

    2007 will mark a unique milestone in human history: for the first time ever, more people on earth will live and work in cities than in rural areas. Moreover, only four of the twenty biggest megacities with populations over 10 million will be in industrial nations; the others will be in threshold and developing countries. Accelerating urbanization and economic growth will fuel a massive demand for adequate infrastructures - such as power and water supplies. Reliable and economical supply of power and water to populations in regions of harsh environments, e.g. in the Near and Middle East, ensures basic survival rather than merely providing for a pleasant life. Economical supply of power and water for desert regions requires a wide mix of reliable technologies already available today and new technologies under development for future needs. Siemens Power Generation's Energy Solution Division, having proven its responsiveness in the past by playing a vital role in the development of the Near and Middle East, will continue to provide answers in future for meeting power and water demand within the regionally specific environment. (auth)

  16. A Concise Presentation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Mwaniki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased worldwide wind power generation, a large percentage of which is grid connected. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind energy conversion system (WECS has many merits and, as a result, large numbers have been installed to date. The DFIG WECS operation, under both steady state and fault conditions, is of great interest since it impacts on grid performance. This review paper presents a condensed look at the various applied solutions to the challenges of the DFIG WECS including maximum power point tracking, common mode voltages, subsynchronous resonance, losses, modulation, power quality, and faults both internal and from the grid. It also looks at approaches used to meet the increasingly stringent grid codes requirements for the DFIG WECS to not only ride through faults but also provide voltage support. These are aspects of the DFIG WECS that are critical for system operators and prospective investors and can also serve as an introduction for new entrants into this area of study.

  17. PERIODIC-SOLUTIONS IN SPONTANEOUSLY BROKEN THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRIHAYE, Y; KUNZ, J

    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  18. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P energy (RE) on the empty body weight gain (EBWG) were not different among the different sex classes (P > 0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs.

  19. On large-time energy concentration in solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in the whole 3D space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalák, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 10 (2012), s. 801-815 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * large-time behavior of solutions * energy concentration Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.948, year: 2012

  20. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rothgeb, Stacey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  1. Development of the Nordic Bioeconomy: NCM reporting: Test centers for green energy solutions - Biorefineries and business needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene; Björnsdóttir, Bryndís; Brandt, Asbjørn

    In 2014 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a new bioeconomy project: “Test centers for green energy solutions – Biorefineries and Busi-ness needs”. The purpose was to strengthen green growth in the area of the bioeconomy by analyzing and mapping the current status of the bio-economy...

  2. 75 FR 62852 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Chevron Energy Solutions Lucerne Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-49561 L51010000 FX0000 LVRWB09B3220 LLCAD08000] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Chevron Energy Solutions Lucerne Valley Solar Project, California and the Approved Plan Amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area...

  3. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-09-15

    The conference focused on: 1) Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues. 2) Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 - 2020 and subsequent decline. 3) Renewable energy supply technologies such as bioenergy, wind and solar. 4) Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies. 5) Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. 6) Providing renewable energy for the transport sector. 7) Systems aspects for the various regions throughout the world. 8) End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use. 9) Energy savings. (au)

  4. Analysis of Energy Efficiency Measures and Retrofitting Solutions for Social Housing Buildings in Spain as a Way to Mitigate Energy Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aranda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy poverty is a common issue in social housing all over Europe, with a harder impact in Southern European countries. Social housing buildings play an important role in energy poverty. They are usually owned and managed by public institutions and usually share common characteristics and issues. Behavioural changes and energy retrofitting are interesting paths forward but some solutions do not fit well in this type of housing due to socioeconomic reasons. This paper makes a thorough analysis of possible energy efficiency measures in social housing buildings, characterizing them by energy and economic savings and investment and proposing different methods of prioritization. A rational approach of behavioural and retrofitting solutions that best fit into this particular housing type is delivered, with the aim to increase the thermal comfort of the residents and mitigate the energy poverty issue. Results show that there is a wide range of domestic efficiency measures to be applied in this type of dwellings at none or low costs, bringing annual savings per average dwelling of about 510 €/year (55% of initial energy costs including measures both at domestic level, and at building level with a final aggregated payback of the investments to be about 1.5 years.

  5. On the number of free energy extremums of a solid solution with two long-range order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dateshidze, N.A.; Ratishvili, I.G.

    1977-01-01

    The free energy of ordering f.c.c. lattice solid solution is investigated. The ordering is regarded as homogeneous in the whole bulk of the crystal (i.e. resistant towards formation of antiphase domains). It is described by one of the appropriate distribution functions which contains two long-range order parameters. The calculations have revealed the extrema of the free energy function, and their shape and behaviour upon variations of temperature are analyzed. It is shown that under certain circumstances the system can display more than one minimum of free energy within the ordered phase

  6. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  7. Solution of functional equations and reduction of dimension in the local energy transfer theory of incompressible, three-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlack, M.; McComb, W. D.; Quinn, A. P.

    2001-02-01

    It is shown that the set of integrodifferential and algebraic functional equations of the local energy transfer theory may be considerably reduced in dimension for the case of isotropic turbulence. This is achieved without restricting the solution space. The basis for this is a complete analytical solution to the functional equations Q(kt,t')=H(kt,t')Q(kt',t') and H(kt,s)H(ks,t')=H(kt,t'). The solution is proved to depend only on a single function φ(kt) solely determining Q and H. Hence the dimension of both the dependent and the independent variables is reduced by one. From the latter, the corresponding two integrodifferential equations are lowered to a single integrodifferential equation for φ(kt), extended by an integral side condition on the k dependence of φ(kt). In the limit ν-->0, a partial solution to the reduced set of equations is presented in the Appendix.

  8. Solution conformational features and interfacial properties of an intrinsically disordered peptide coupled to alkyl chains: a new class of peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Antonella; Leone, Marilisa; Tesauro, Diego; Aufiero, Rosa; Bénarouche, Anaïs; Cavalier, Jean-François; Longhi, Sonia; Carriere, Frederic; Rossi, Filomena

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the large panel of biological functions of peptides and their high specificity and potency, the development of peptide-based therapeutic and diagnostic tools has received increasing interest. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are an emerging class of molecules in which a bioactive peptide is covalently conjugated to a hydrophobic moiety. Due to the coexistence in the molecule of a hydrophilic peptide sequence and a hydrophobic group, PAs are able to self-assemble spontaneously into a variety of nanostructures, such as monolayers, bilayers, and vesicles. In this work we have synthesized a disordered peptide, henceforth called R11, and two lipophilic derivatives of R11 bearing two alkyl chains, connected or not to R11 by an ethoxylic-based linker. The structural properties in solution of these new PAs were investigated using CD and NMR. R11 lipophilic derivatives display typical features of PAs, such as the formation of micelles and unilamellar vesicles. In addition, their surface properties were studied using Langmuir monomolecular films and the results obtained support the formation of molecular aggregates upon compression of the PA films. The presence of the alkyl chains induces not only the self-assembly of these new PAs into supramolecular aggregates but also a gain of structure within the disordered peptide.

  9. Constructive Solutions of Energy-Active Fences for Solar Radiation Utilization and Methodological Arguments for Their Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, R. A.; Shchukina, T. V.; Akulova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The design of an external wall is proposed, it allows for efficient utilization of solar energy to reduce the load on buildings heating. A special feature of the technical solution is the location of thermal insulation from the inside of the energy-active fence with air space formation relative to the accumulating layer. The given design makes it possible to avoid accommodations overcooling in case of adverse weather conditions during the cold season and overheating during warm weather. It was proposed to base costs increase for energy-saving buildings construction including those with integrated solar radiation conversion systems and to use the methodology for estimating additional technical solutions based on the calculation of economic efficiency.

  10. Exotic energy injection with ExoCLASS: application to the Higgs portal model and evaporating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, Patrick; Krämer, Michael; Lesgourgues, Julien; Poulin, Vivian

    2018-03-01

    We devise a new user-friendly tool interfaced with the Boltzmann code CLASS to deal with any kind of exotic electromagnetic energy injection in the universe and its impact on anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background. It makes use of the results from standard electromagnetic cascade calculations develop in the context of WIMP annihilation, generalized to incorporate any injection history. We first validate it on a specific WIMP scenario, the Higgs Portal model, confirming that the standard effective on-the-spot treatment is accurate enough. We then analyze the more involved example of evaporating Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) with masses in the range [3×1013,5×1016] g, for which the standard approximations break down. We derive robust CMB bounds on the relic density of evaporating PBHs, ruling out the possibility for PBHs with a monochromatic distribution of masses in the range [3×1013,2.5×1016] g to represent all of the Dark Matter in our Universe. Remarkably, we confirm with an accurate study that the CMB bounds are several orders of magnitude stronger than those from the galactic gamma-ray background in the range [3×1013,3×1014] g. A future CMB experiment like CORE+, or an experiment attempting at measuring the 21 cm signal from the Dark Ages could greatly improve the sensitivity to these models.

  11. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  12. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  13. Meat batter production in an extended vane pump-grinder injecting curing salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: variation of curing salt amount injected with the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Terjung, Eva-Maria; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump-grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0-100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages. The amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg -1 . Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L * ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a * from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b * from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump-grinder system by up to 23%. The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an 'ice-free' meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Best in Class Project Management and Contract Management Initiative at the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Camp, S.G.; Stevenson, J.S.; Deiters, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Since its founding in 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) has struggled with a legacy of inadequate project and contract management. This has been manifested in recurring scope changes, cost overruns and schedule delays, and has been documented in multiple internal and external reviews. To address this issue, EM has developed a vision for building a 'Best in Class' Project Management and Contract Management (BICPM) organization. To develop the strategy and implement the process to accomplish this vision, EM contracted with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and their support contractors. EM and the USACE Team developed a five-phased approach to implement the BICPM Initiative: (I) develop assessment criteria, (II) assess existing project and contract management capabilities, (III) develop an implementation plan, (IV) implement corrective actions, and (V) institutionalize BICPM. Under Phases I and II, the USACE Team assessed the status of project and contract management capabilities at 16 EM offices. These assessments evaluated strengths and weaknesses in 12 key project management capabilities and benchmarks and three contract management benchmarks. Under Phase III, EM and the USACE Team developed the Corporate Implementation Plan which identified the key challenges and provided a road-map to address these challenges and to implement BICPM. These challenges included: Federal staffing shortages; integration of project and contract management; further development of project-oriented culture; project baseline maintenance; consistent implementation of the DOE order for project management, 413.3A; and role of EM Headquarters in BICPM. The shortage of qualified resources dedicated to supporting Federal project and contract management functions was identified as a primary cause for project and contract management difficulties within EM. The Corporate Implementation Plan outlined a set of 18 specific Recommended Priority

  15. Enthalpy-entropy compensation of ionic liquid-type Gemini imidazolium surfactants in aqueous solutions: a free energy perturbation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoyu; Gu, Daming; Liu, Haiyan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhong

    2011-06-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy perturbation (FEP) were performed for studying the enthalpy-entropy compensation with a series of ionic liquid-type Gemini imidazolium surfactants (ILGIS), with different carbon atoms of the hydrophobic group or the spacer chain length, in aqueous solutions. According to the law of mass action, the thermodynamic properties of micellization in aqueous solutions for ILGIS were discussed. The results show that the solvation free energy changes calculated from the free energy perturbation are close to the Gibbs free energy calculated from the surface tension method and can be used to discriminate the tendency for micellization and predict the thermodynamic properties of ILGIS. The micellization of ILGIS in aqueous solutions is a spontaneous and entropy-driven process. It is enthalpy-entropy compensated, and the enthalpy-entropy compensation plots exhibit an excellent linearity. The compensation temperature was found to be (307±2) K. As the number carbon atoms in the alkyl chains is increased, the tendency and stability of micellization both increase. At spacer length S≤6, with the spacer chain length increasing, the thermodynamic favorability and stability of the micelles decrease. However, if S>6, thermodynamic favorability and stability increase with raising the spacer chain length. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series. Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs, which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic

  17. Can solar -biogas hybrid systems be the solution to sustainable energy supply in rural areas?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to modern energy services is a fundamental prerequisite for property reduction and sustainable human development. Many remote rural South African communities are characterized by low energy demand and low population densities, making...

  18. Oklahoma Orchestrates Energy Efficiency Solutions: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    Oklahoma demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  19. Expanding Energy Performance Contracting in china: policy solutions and market mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Meng, Lu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shi, Wenjing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roshchanka, Volha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Energy performance contracting is an important market mechanism that uses energy savings to pay over time for the upfront costs of energy efficiency retrofits in buildings, industries, and other types of facilities. Through energy performance contracts (EPCs), Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) play an important role in implementing energy efficiency retrofits. Both China and the United States have large markets for EPCs and significant opportunities for growth. The Chinese government has made great efforts in promoting the country’s ESCO business and expanding its EPC markets. This paper makes a series of recommendations for China to adopt more ambitious policy measures to encourage deep energy savings projects via EPCs. These recommendations are built on initial insights from a white paper developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the assistance from the ESCO Committee of China’s Energy Conservation Association (EMCA). Key recommendations are listed below.

  20. An energy vision: The transformation towards sustainability-interconnected challenges and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van; Nakicenovic, N.; Riahi, K.; Brew-Hammond, A.; Kammen, D.; Modi, V.; Nilsson, M; Smith, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    The energy system is currently facing a number of challenges, most notably high consumption levels, lack of energy access, environmental concerns like climate change and air pollution, energy security concerns and the need for a long-term focus. Addressing these critical issues simultaneously will

  1. Modeling and Solution Methods for the Energy-Efficient Train Timetables Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Kidd, Martin Philip

    2015-01-01

    Timely recuperation of energy through regenerative braking is crucial in order to ensure energy ecient railway timetables. This requires a careful synchronisation of train departures such that high energy peaks, as a result of simultaneously accelerating trains, can be avoided. In this report we...

  2. A Unique Climate and Energy Policy - Key Problems and Possible Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses problems of independent application of climate and energy policy. In order to accomplish the goals from The Paris Climate Agreement, an agreement about the goals and measures for climate preservation from 2015, a unique climate and energy policy is suggested, as well as the measures for the implementation of it. To achieve no CO2 and GHG emissions in the energy sector, to have it be completely market based, energy efficient and technologically approved, a unique climate and energy policy is a necessary option and the only viable option to accomplish previously agreed climate goals.(author).

  3. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Nuclear energy, a solution in the struggle against global warming in quest of recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author first comments assessments of the continuous increase of greenhouse gas emissions as they appear in the IPCC report of September 2013 and in the results published by the Global Carbon Project. She also evokes the commitments in emission reductions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and some dramatic consequences global warming may have according to the IPCC scenarios. Then, she addresses the share of nuclear energy in energy production and outlines its stakes and benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. She notices that international bodies (European Commission, World Bank) do not mention nuclear energy in their plan for energy production development, but mainly rely on the development of renewable energies. The author then outlines the reasons why the development of renewable energies does not necessarily goes with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. She also notices that a new generation of ecologists considers nuclear energy as a tool to struggle against climate warming

  5. Cost Optimization of Mooring Solutions for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    to be expensive and has a high rate of failure. Therefore, there is a need for further improvement, investigation into new concepts and sophistication of design procedures. This study uses four Danish wave energy converters, all considered as large floating structures, to investigate a methodology in order...... commercial yet, primarily due to the relatively high cost of energy. A considerable amount of the wave energy converters are floating structures, which consequently need mooring systems in order to ensure station keeping. Despite being a well-known concept, mooring in wave energy application has proven......The increasing desire for using renewable energy sources throughout the world has resulted in a considerable amount of research into and development of concepts for wave energy converters. By now, many different concepts exist, but still, the wave energy sector is not at a stage that is considered...

  6. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment

  7. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  8. Bluetooth 5 Energy Management through a Fuzzy-PSO Solution for Mobile Devices of Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a fundamental requirement for a wireless protocol to be suitable for use within the Internet of Things. New technologies are emerging aiming at an energy-efficient communication. Among them, Bluetooth Low Energy is an appealing solution. Recently, the specifications of Bluetooth 5 have been presented with the purpose to offer significant enhancements compared to the earlier versions of the protocol. Bluetooth 5 comes with new communication modes that differ in range, speed, and energy consumption. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution to cope with the selection of the communication mode, among those introduced with Bluetooth 5, that allows the best energy efficiency. This communication mode, used by mobile devices, is dynamically regulated by varying the transmission power, returned as the output of a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is presented to achieve the optimal parameters of the proposed FLC, i.e., optimizing the triangular membership functions, by varying their range, to reach the best results concerning the battery life of mobile devices. The proposed FLC is based on triangular membership functions because they represent a good trade-off between computation cost and efficiency. The paper presents a detailed description of the FLC design, a logical analysis of the PSO algorithm for the derivation of best performance conditions values, and experimental assessments, obtained through testbed scenarios.

  9. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen; Hokao, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause-rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior.

  10. Financing energy efficiency investments. Third party financing: practical problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, A.

    1992-01-01

    Third Party Financing means the packaging together of both technical aid and the necessary funding for energy cost saving investments by an outside company (outside to the energy user that is), using the energy cost savings themselves to pay for that investment. There are two key factors which differentiate Third Party Financing and conventional approaches to the implementation of energy conservation projects, the first of which is the provision of all the necessary technical services - both initial and detailed energy audits, engineering design and implementation - from one source. The second difference involves viewing the energy cost savings as a ''stream oincome'' which will repay the cost of the investment. This approach has a number of attractions to energy users: the outside company brings both its technical expertise and the necessary up-front capital to fund the energy saving investment. In addition, because the payments to the outside company are contingent, either wholly or in part, upon the level and timing of the energy cost savings the technical and financial risk for the investment is transferred from the energy user to the outside company. However, although simple in concept, third party financing is complex in practice. How does an energy user judge one third party financing proposal against another? If an agreement is made, how are energy savings measured or what happens if there is a dispute between the two parties? These are examples of the practical questions addressed in this paper which must be resolved if third party financing is to be used to assist energy saving. (Author)

  11. On the energy inequality for weak solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible fluids on unbounded domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dell'Oro, Filippo; Feireisl, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, November (2015), s. 136-148 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier - Stokes equations * unbounded domain * weak solutions * energy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X15002692

  12. On the energy inequality for weak solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible fluids on unbounded domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dell'Oro, Filippo; Feireisl, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, November (2015), s. 136-148 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes equations * unbounded domain * weak solutions * energy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X15002692

  13. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  14. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units. This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary Building America research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capital improvement funding.

  15. Trade Disputes over Renewable Energy Supporting Policies: Recent Cases, WTO Rules, and Possible Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xianli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concerns about climate change impacts and the high oil prices have made many countries include promoting renewable energy use their national sustainable development strategies. One frequently mentioned barrier to increasing the transition toward renewable energy in many countries is lack of funding – in most cases energy from cleaner sources are also more expensive. And who pays for the GHG emission reductions is the top reason behind the stalemate of the international climate nego...

  16. A genetic algorithm solution for the operation of green LTE networks with energy and environment considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-01-01

    The Base Station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings in cellular networks by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, the exploitation of renewable energies, as additional power sources in smart grids, becomes a real challenge to network operators to reduce power costs. In this paper, we propose a method based on genetic algorithms that decreases the energy consumption of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from the smart grid without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  18. Nuclear Energy - a Part of a Solution to Generate Electric Power in Croatia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The growth in Croatian energy, particularly electricity, demand together with growing environmental considerations is such that Croatia needs to have flexibility to respond, by having the option of expanding the nuclear sector. This paper deals with nuclear energy as an option for sustainable Croatian economic development, and with the nuclear power controversy. The conclusion is that there is a necessity for extended use of nuclear energy in Croatia. Most certainly the nuclear technology can provide the energy necessary to sustain progress and, as a country without coal, Croatia should favour nuclear power utilisation as the lowest cost option for base-load electricity generation. (author)

  19. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  20. Renewable energy systems the choice and modeling of 100% renewable solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    How can society quickly convert to renewable energy? Can worldwide energy needs ever be met through 100% renewable sources? The answers to these questions rest largely on the perception of choice in the energy arena. It is of pivotal importance that engineers, researchers and policymakers understand what choices are available, and reasonable, when considering the design and deployment of new energy systems. The mission of this new book, written by one of the world's foremost experts in renewable power, is to arm these professionals with the tools and methodologies necessary to make smart choic

  1. A Note on Weak Solutions of Conservation Laws and Energy/Entropy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Michálek, Martin; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka

    2018-03-01

    A common feature of systems of conservation laws of continuum physics is that they are endowed with natural companion laws which are in such cases most often related to the second law of thermodynamics. This observation easily generalizes to any symmetrizable system of conservation laws; they are endowed with nontrivial companion conservation laws, which are immediately satisfied by classical solutions. Not surprisingly, weak solutions may fail to satisfy companion laws, which are then often relaxed from equality to inequality and overtake the role of physical admissibility conditions for weak solutions. We want to answer the question: what is a critical regularity of weak solutions to a general system of conservation laws to satisfy an associated companion law as an equality? An archetypal example of such a result was derived for the incompressible Euler system in the context of Onsager's conjecture in the early nineties. This general result can serve as a simple criterion to numerous systems of mathematical physics to prescribe the regularity of solutions needed for an appropriate companion law to be satisfied.

  2. Approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning for optimal carbon-energy combined-flow in multi-energy power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoshun; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Limin; Huang, Linni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimal carbon-energy combined-flow (OCECF) model is firstly established. • A novel approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning is designed. • The proposed algorithm has a high convergence stability and reliability. • The proposed algorithm can be applied for OCECF in a large-scale power grid. - Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning for optimal carbon-energy combined-flow in multi-energy power systems. The carbon emissions, fuel cost, active power loss, voltage deviation and carbon emission loss are chosen as the optimization objectives, which are simultaneously optimized by five different Q-value matrices. The dynamic optimal weight of each objective is calculated online from the entire Q-value matrices such that the greedy action policy can be obtained. Case studies are carried out to evaluate the optimization performance for carbon-energy combined-flow in an IEEE 118-bus system and the regional power grid of southern China.

  3. Comparison of caffeine disposition following administration by oral solution (energy drink) and inspired powder (AeroShot) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizure, S Casey; Meibohm, Bernd; Nelson, Kembral; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B

    2017-12-01

    To determine the disposition and effects of caffeine after administration using a new dosage form (AeroShot) that delivers caffeine by inspiration of a fine powder into the oral cavity and compare it to an equivalent dose of an oral solution (energy drink) as the reference standard. Healthy human subjects (n = 17) inspired a 100 mg caffeine dose using the AeroShot device or consumed an energy drink on separate study days. Heart rate, blood pressure and subject assessments of effects were measured over an 8-h period. Plasma concentrations of caffeine and its major metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic, cardiovascular and perceived stimulant effects were compared between AeroShot and energy drink phases using a paired t test and standard bioequivalency analysis. Caffeine disposition was similar after caffeine administration by the AeroShot device and energy drink: peak plasma concentration 1790 and 1939 ng ml -1 , and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 15 579 and 17 569 ng ml -1 × h, respectively, but they were not bioequivalent: AeroShot AUC of 80.3% (confidence interval 71.2-104.7%) and peak plasma concentration of 86.3% (confidence interval 62.8-102.8%) compared to the energy drink. Female subjects did have a significantly larger AUC compared to males after consumption of the energy drink. The heart rate and blood pressure were not significantly affected by the 100 mg caffeine dose, and there were no consistently perceived stimulant effects by the subjects using visual analogue scales. Inspiration of caffeine as a fine powder using the AeroShot device produces a similar caffeine profile and effects compared to administration of an oral solution (energy drink). © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for high-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.

    1985-11-01

    A steady-state solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution in pitch angle and velocity of fast ions slowing down into a multispecies Maxwellian plasma is given. The analysis extends previous results to the velocity regime 1.8 vsub(i)less than v less than 0.8 vsub(e), where vsub(i) and vsub(e) are the ion and electron thermal velocities, respectively. Consequently the solution models classical slowing down of fusion reaction products, such as α-particles. The solution also covers, and corrects, earlier results for the distribution function of slowing down neutral beam ions. With 9 refs and 3 figures. (Author)

  5. Outsourcing of nuclear energy. The solution of the NIMBY-problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zon, C.

    2006-01-01

    March 2006 the president of the USA came to an agreement with India about a cooperative on the civil use of nuclear energy. According to the use the cooperation has a strategic importance, it improves international safety, contributes to energy supply security and environmental protection. Also, economic and technological developments will be stimulated as a result of the agreement [nl

  6. An energy vision for a planet under pressure. Transformation to sustainability: interconnected challenges and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van; Nakicenovic, N.; Riahi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, global energy systems face an array of challenges, from access for the poor to reliability and security. Meanwhile, the provision of energy creates local human and ecological health impacts as well as dangerous global climate change. Addressing these issues simultaneously will require a

  7. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Mathiesen, Brian vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    in the perspective of centuries is renewable energy provided by the sun and exploited in the form of solar heat, solar electricity (PVs), wind power, hydro power, wave power, and some types of biomass etc. A future dominating role of intermittent renewable sources requires new integrated systems thinking on both......Buildings account for a substantial part of the total energy consumption. In Denmark this number is about 40 % and this is approximately the same in most industrial countries. On this background there is an urgent need to develop strategies for reducing the energy demand in the building sector....... Renovation of existing buildings must have high priority as houses often last for 50 to 100 years, while the time perspective for the desired transformation to low-energy houses is less than 30 years in order to mitigate global warming and avoid irreversible tipping-points. The only sustainable energy supply...

  8. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels I. Meyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for a substantial part of the total energy consumption. In Denmark this number is about 40 % and this is approximately the same in most industrial countries. On this background there is an urgent need to develop strategies for reducing the energy demand in the building sector. Renovation of existing buildings must have high priority as houses often last for 50 to 100 years, while the time perspective for the desired transformation to low-energy houses is less than 30 years in order to mitigate global warming and avoid irreversible tipping-points. The only sustainable energy supply in the perspective of centuries is renewable energy provided by the sun and exploited in the form of solar heat, solar electricity (PVs, wind power, hydropower, wave power, and some types of biomass etc. A future dominating role of intermittent renewable sources requires new integrated systems thinking on both the supply and demand side for heat, electricity and transport. Implementing such Smart Energy Systems requires integrated strategic energy planning on the national and local level. With the fundamental changes in the energy supply technologies expected during the coming years, it is important to synchronize investments in energy conservation measures with investments in the supply side, in order to avoid overinvestment in supply systems and thus to minimize the total costs of the transformation to Smart Energy Systems. This paper highlights some of the most important barriers for renovation of existing buildings in Denmark and points to policies for overcoming these barriers. Some of the policies have been presented in the reports of a recent Danish research project (CEESA

  9. An energy-optimal solution for transportation control of cranes with double pendulum dynamics: Design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Wu, Yiming; Chen, He; Fang, Yongchun

    2018-03-01

    Underactuated cranes play an important role in modern industry. Specifically, in most situations of practical applications, crane systems exhibit significant double pendulum characteristics, which makes the control problem quite challenging. Moreover, most existing planners/controllers obtained with standard methods/techniques for double pendulum cranes cannot minimize the energy consumption when fulfilling the transportation tasks. Therefore, from a practical perspective, this paper proposes an energy-optimal solution for transportation control of double pendulum cranes. By applying the presented approach, the transportation objective, including fast trolley positioning and swing elimination, is achieved with minimized energy consumption, and the residual oscillations are suppressed effectively with all the state constrains being satisfied during the entire transportation process. As far as we know, this is the first energy-optimal solution for transportation control of underactuated double pendulum cranes with various state and control constraints. Hardware experimental results are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, whose superior performance is reflected by being experimentally compared with some comparative controllers.

  10. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.

    2015-02-13

    Physical phenomena such as energy quantization have to-date been overlooked in solution-processed inorganic semiconducting layers, owing to heterogeneity in layer thickness uniformity unlike some of their vacuum-deposited counterparts. Recent reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization in inorganic semiconductor layers with appreciable surface roughness, as compared to the mean layer thickness, and present experimental evidence of the existence of quantized energy states in spin-cast layers of zinc oxide (ZnO). As-grown ZnO layers are found to be remarkably continuous and uniform with controllable thicknesses in the range 2-24 nm and exhibit a characteristic widening of the energy bandgap with reducing thickness in agreement with theoretical predictions. Using sequentially spin-cast layers of ZnO as the bulk semiconductor and quantum well materials, and gallium oxide or organic self-assembled monolayers as the barrier materials, two terminal electronic devices are demonstrated, the current-voltage characteristics of which resemble closely those of double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes. As-fabricated all-oxide/hybrid devices exhibit a characteristic negative-differential conductance region with peak-to-valley ratios in the range 2-7.

  11. Case Study Analysis of U.S. Policy Solutions to Enable China New Energy Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-28

    This report summarizes various policies for encouraging investment and installation of renewable energy across the country. In particular, we attempt to explain the benefits of, and considerations behind, each policy type and provide examples of implementation across the United States While recognized as important, this report does not address policies or examples of successful energy efficiency or alternative-fuel vehicle strategies. In addition, we summarize the renewable energy policy strategies undertaken by three areas of the United States: New Jersey, Hawaii, and San Francisco.

  12. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Linda; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D 1cc , V 60GyEq , V 40GyEq , and D mean between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality

  13. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Linda, E-mail: l.rossi@erasmusmc.nl; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D{sub 1cc}, V{sub 60GyEq}, V{sub 40GyEq}, and D{sub mean} between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality.

  14. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 μA). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  15. Trade Disputes over Renewable Energy Supporting Policies: Recent Cases, WTO Rules, and Possible Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xianli

    2011-01-01

    the WTO, for wind energy supporting policies. Recently, Japan has a trade dispute against Canada related to renewable energy equipment in Ontario. The American United Steelworkers are calling for their government to penalise China for grants to Chinese wind turbine and key component manufacturers....... This paper will examine the interfaces between various wind energy supporting policies and the WTO trade rules. Some trade disputes will be used as case studies to explain the reasons behind such disputes. Suggestions will be provided on how to avoid such disputes in practice....... of funding – in most cases energy from cleaner sources are also more expensive. And who pays for the GHG emission reductions is the top reason behind the stalemate of the international climate negotiations. Developing countries are requesting large financial support from developed countries for their climate...

  16. Integrating U.S. climate, energy, and transportation policies : RAND workshops address challenges and potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus among policymakers that bold government action is needed : to mitigate climate change, particularly through integrated climate, energy, and transportation : policy initiatives. In an effort to share different perspectives o...

  17. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  18. An investigation of standby energy losses in residential sector: Solutions and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [G. Narayanamma Institute of Technology and Science (for Women), Hyderabad (India); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the standby power losses of household appliances and determines these losses by field measurements and bottom-up approaches. It is revealed that average standby power losses of e-appliances at household in Oman is 103.4 Watts and could further increase if other miscellaneous appliances are also taken into account. Calculations show that TV sets alone are responsible to consume 1.89 MW standby powers across the country. The paper considers various technological and socio-economic options to diminish the standby power consumption and signify that 42.72% of energy consumed by appliances can be saved by end-users implementing suitable measures. Energy management programmes like energy efficiency standards, labelling and policy instruments to tackle the standby power losses are also discussed. Finally, paper looks into the barriers and their way-outs to implement the energy efficiency standards and labelling.

  19. Thermal Comfort Project: A Cool Solution to the Nation's Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    This fact sheet describes how the CTTS thermal comfort project will increase energy security by reducing fuel consumed by auxiliary loads such as air conditioning. It also describes physiological and psychological computer models and thermal comfort manikin.

  20. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  1. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: BrightBuilt Home, Modular Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    When done well, modular home production can provide lower costs and excellent quality control (QC)—compared to conventional home building methods— while still allowing a great deal of customization. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) is a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team that worked with three Maine companies to compare standard codecompliant modular homes with a modular zero energy home. Those companies were BrightBuilt Home (BBH), Black Bros. Builders, and Keiser Homes.

  2. To dare nuclear energy to find the solution of the climate issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report first briefly recalls the IPCC reference scenarios which allow the global temperature increase to be limited to 2 degrees (Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6), and rely on a massive CO 2 capture and storage. Two categories of scenarios have been proposed: IMAGE by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, and MESSAGE by the Austrian International Institute for Applied System Analysis. But only the MESSAGE category limits CO 2 storage to 24 billions of tons by means of a massive development of nuclear energy between 2060 and 2100 or of a drastic decrease of energy consumption. Each category comprises three scenarios: a Supply scenario which authorizes high energy consumption, an Efficiency scenario which is also a phasing out nuclear scenario with a 45 per cent reduction of energy consumption, and an intermediate Mix scenario. This study proposes nuclear variations of the Mix and Supply scenarios, with a strong development of nuclear energy from 2020 rather than from 2060, and with a share of 60 per cent for the nuclear energy. It is then possible to considerably reduce the role of CO 2 storage

  3. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-06-17

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  5. Ergodicity, configurational entropy and free energy in pigment solutions and plant photosystems: influence of excited state lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine ergodicity and configurational entropy for a dilute pigment solution and for a suspension of plant photosystem particles in which both ground and excited state pigments are present. It is concluded that the pigment solution, due to the extreme brevity of the excited state lifetime, is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. Conversely, due to the rapid energy transfer among pigments, each photosystem is ergodic and the configurational entropy is positive. This decreases the free energy of the single photosystem pigment array by a small amount. On the other hand, the suspension of photosystems is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. The overall configurational entropy which, in principle, includes contributions from both the single excited photosystems and the suspension which contains excited photosystems, also approaches zero. Thus the configurational entropy upon photon absorption by either a pigment solution or a suspension of photosystem particles is approximately zero. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive approach to energy and environment in the Eco Care Program for design, engineering and operation of Siemens Industry Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, D. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)); Finkbeiner, M. (Technische Univ. Berlin (TUB), Systemumwelttechnik (SUT), Berlin (Germany)); Geiger, D. (Siemens AG, Munich (Germany)); Olsen, S.I. (Danish Technical Univ. (DTU), Management Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)); Walachowicz, F. (Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany))

    2009-09-15

    This paper intends to describe the outline of the Eco Care Program (ECP) at the Siemens-Division Industry Solutions and its implementation. ECP aims to embrace and to coordinate main activities within the product lifecycle management (PLM) process considering both economic targets in terms of overall lifecycle costs as well as energy efficiency and other important environmental issues in the innovation management for industrial solutions. ECP consists of adapted methods for assessing the environmental and financial impacts of industrial solutions (plants, processes, single technologies or even services) and tools which helps to derive reliable assessment results. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a suitable method for assessing environmental impacts of products and solutions over their entire lifecycle focusing on those lifecycle phases which may contribute significantly to environmental burdens or benefits. To meet these requirements the main challenge is to simplify the assessment methodology as far as reliability and accuracy of results is preserved. To present results in both dimensions of economical performance and environmental impact the paper introduces the concept of the 'eco care matrix' (ECM). Environmental sound industrial solutions have advantages in both 'eco' dimensions (eco-nomical + eco-logical). The analytical approach presented is further on implemented in two complementary and independent industrial application fields: in order to exemplify usability of the approach in quite complex process technology different hot metal producing technologies (blast furnace route vs. smelting reduction routes COREX / FINEX). The second pilot application is targeted on the assessment of infrastructure solutions especially focusing on the comparison of environmental and financial effects of different technologies and payment schemes of electronic city tolling systems for London and Copenhagen. Experienced results derived from these two pilot

  7. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  8. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  9. An efficient approach to the numerical solution of rate-independent problems with nonconvex energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartels, S.; Kružík, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2011), s. 1275-1300 ISSN 1540-3459 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : numerical solution * nonconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-0364707.pdf

  10. THE PREDICTION OF pH BY GIBBS FREE ENERGY MINIMIZATION IN THE SUMP SOLUTION UNDER LOCA CONDITION OF PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYOUNGJU YOON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the pH of the sump solution should be above 7.0 to retain iodine in a liquid phase and be within the material compatibility constraints under LOCA condition of PWR. The pH of the sump solution can be determined by conventional chemical equilibrium constants or by the minimization of Gibbs free energy. The latter method developed as a computer code called SOLGASMIX-PV is more convenient than the former since various chemical components can be easily treated under LOCA conditions. In this study, SOLGASMIX-PV code was modified to accommodate the acidic and basic materials produced by radiolysis reactions and to calculate the pH of the sump solution. When the computed pH was compared with measured by the ORNL experiment to verify the reliability of the modified code, the error between two values was within 0.3 pH. Finally, two cases of calculation were performed for the SKN 3&4 and UCN 1&2. As results, pH of the sump solution for the SKN 3&4 was between 7.02 and 7.45, and for the UCN 1&2 plant between 8.07 and 9.41. Furthermore, it was found that the radiolysis reactions have insignificant effects on pH because the relative concentrations of HCl, HNO3, and Cs are very low.

  11. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  12. An IoT-Based Solution for Monitoring a Fleet of Educational Buildings Focusing on Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrivopoulos, Orestis

    2017-01-01

    Raising awareness among young people and changing their behaviour and habits concerning energy usage is key to achieving sustained energy saving. Additionally, young people are very sensitive to environmental protection so raising awareness among children is much easier than with any other group of citizens. This work examines ways to create an innovative Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) ecosystem (including web-based, mobile, social and sensing elements) tailored specifically for school environments, taking into account both the users (faculty, staff, students, parents) and school buildings, thus motivating and supporting young citizens’ behavioural change to achieve greater energy efficiency. A mixture of open-source IoT hardware and proprietary platforms on the infrastructure level, are currently being utilized for monitoring a fleet of 18 educational buildings across 3 countries, comprising over 700 IoT monitoring points. Hereon presented is the system’s high-level architecture, as well as several aspects of its implementation, related to the application domain of educational building monitoring and energy efficiency. The system is developed based on open-source technologies and services in order to make it capable of providing open IT-infrastructure and support from different commercial hardware/sensor vendors as well as open-source solutions. The system presented can be used to develop and offer new app-based solutions that can be used either for educational purposes or for managing the energy efficiency of the building. The system is replicable and adaptable to settings that may be different than the scenarios envisioned here (e.g., targeting different climate zones), different IT infrastructures and can be easily extended to accommodate integration with other systems. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in real-world environment in terms of scalability, responsiveness and simplicity. PMID:28994719

  13. An IoT-Based Solution for Monitoring a Fleet of Educational Buildings Focusing on Energy Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaxilatis, Dimitrios; Akrivopoulos, Orestis; Mylonas, Georgios; Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis

    2017-10-10

    Raising awareness among young people and changing their behaviour and habits concerning energy usage is key to achieving sustained energy saving. Additionally, young people are very sensitive to environmental protection so raising awareness among children is much easier than with any other group of citizens. This work examines ways to create an innovative Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) ecosystem (including web-based, mobile, social and sensing elements) tailored specifically for school environments, taking into account both the users (faculty, staff, students, parents) and school buildings, thus motivating and supporting young citizens' behavioural change to achieve greater energy efficiency. A mixture of open-source IoT hardware and proprietary platforms on the infrastructure level, are currently being utilized for monitoring a fleet of 18 educational buildings across 3 countries, comprising over 700 IoT monitoring points. Hereon presented is the system's high-level architecture, as well as several aspects of its implementation, related to the application domain of educational building monitoring and energy efficiency. The system is developed based on open-source technologies and services in order to make it capable of providing open IT-infrastructure and support from different commercial hardware/sensor vendors as well as open-source solutions. The system presented can be used to develop and offer new app-based solutions that can be used either for educational purposes or for managing the energy efficiency of the building. The system is replicable and adaptable to settings that may be different than the scenarios envisioned here (e.g., targeting different climate zones), different IT infrastructures and can be easily extended to accommodate integration with other systems. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in real-world environment in terms of scalability, responsiveness and simplicity.

  14. An IoT-Based Solution for Monitoring a Fleet of Educational Buildings Focusing on Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Amaxilatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Raising awareness among young people and changing their behaviour and habits concerning energy usage is key to achieving sustained energy saving. Additionally, young people are very sensitive to environmental protection so raising awareness among children is much easier than with any other group of citizens. This work examines ways to create an innovative Information & Communication Technologies (ICT ecosystem (including web-based, mobile, social and sensing elements tailored specifically for school environments, taking into account both the users (faculty, staff, students, parents and school buildings, thus motivating and supporting young citizens’ behavioural change to achieve greater energy efficiency. A mixture of open-source IoT hardware and proprietary platforms on the infrastructure level, are currently being utilized for monitoring a fleet of 18 educational buildings across 3 countries, comprising over 700 IoT monitoring points. Hereon presented is the system’s high-level architecture, as well as several aspects of its implementation, related to the application domain of educational building monitoring and energy efficiency. The system is developed based on open-source technologies and services in order to make it capable of providing open IT-infrastructure and support from different commercial hardware/sensor vendors as well as open-source solutions. The system presented can be used to develop and offer new app-based solutions that can be used either for educational purposes or for managing the energy efficiency of the building. The system is replicable and adaptable to settings that may be different than the scenarios envisioned here (e.g., targeting different climate zones, different IT infrastructures and can be easily extended to accommodate integration with other systems. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in real-world environment in terms of scalability, responsiveness and simplicity.

  15. Forced intrusion of water and aqueous solutions in microporous materials: from fundamental thermodynamics to energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H

    2017-12-07

    We review the high pressure forced intrusion studies of water in hydrophobic microporous materials such as zeolites and MOFs, a field of research that has emerged some 15 years ago and is now very active. Many of these studies are aimed at investigating the possibility of using these systems as energy storage devices. A series of all-silica zeolites (zeosil) frameworks were found suitable for reversible energy storage because of their stability with respect to hydrolysis after several water intrusion-extrusion cycles. Several microporous hydrophobic zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) also happen to be quite stable and resistant towards hydrolysis and thus seem very promising for energy storage applications. Replacing pure water by electrolyte aqueous solutions enables to increase the stored energy by a factor close to 3, on account of the high pressure shift of the intrusion transition. In addition to the fact that aqueous solutions and microporous silica materials are environmental friendly, these systems are thus becoming increasingly interesting for the design of new energy storage devices. This review also addresses the theoretical approaches and molecular simulations performed in order to better understand the experimental behavior of nano-confined water. Molecular simulation studies showed that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional and sufficiently open. In an extreme confinement situations such as in ferrierite zeosil, condensation seem to take place through a continuous supercritical crossing from a diluted to a dense fluid, on account of the fact that the first-order transition line is shifted to higher pressure, and the confined water critical point is correlatively shifted to lower temperature. These molecular simulation studies suggest that the most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium

  16. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.

    2013-01-15

    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  17. On the Energy of Rotating Gravitational Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Mashhoon, Bahram; McClune, James C.; Chavez, Enrique; Quevedo, Hernando

    1996-01-01

    A class of solutions of the gravitational field equations describing vacuum spacetimes outside rotating cylindrical sources is presented. A subclass of these solutions corresponds to the exterior gravitational fields of rotating cylindrical systems that emit gravitational radiation. The properties of these rotating gravitational wave spacetimes are investigated. In particular, we discuss the energy density of these waves using the gravitational stress-energy tensor.

  18. Increasing the Efficiency in Renewable Energy-Challenges and Solutions for Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sridhar Acharya

    2017-01-01

    It is very much true that people living in most of the rural areas depend on renewable energy resources for their daily domestic requirements. They either get an interrupted power supply from the traditional commercial electric supply or in some cases where the people living in a remote location may not get the traditional supply due to the distance. The people in the rural area already started using renewable energy resources for their daily needs. But it is seen that most of the rural area ...

  19. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Mathiesen, Brian vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    in the perspective of centuries is renewable energy provided by the sun and exploited in the form of solar heat, solar electricity (PVs), wind power, hydro power, wave power, and some types of biomass etc. A future dominating role of intermittent renewable sources requires new integrated systems thinking on both...

  20. Analytical solution and experimental validation of the energy management problem for fuel cell hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; M. Grimminck; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Bram Veenhuizen

    2011-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem.

  1. Analytical solution of the energy management for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J. van den Bosch; E. Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem.

  2. Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rica, R.A.; Ziano, R.; Salerno, D.; Mantegazza, F.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984; Brogioli, D.

    2013-01-01

    An enormous dissipation of the order of 2 kJ/L takes place during the natural mixing process of fresh river water entering the salty sea. “Capacitive mixing” is a promising technique to efficiently harvest this energy in an environmentally clean and sustainable fashion. This method has its roots in

  3. A comprehensive study on technologies of tyre monitoring systems and possible energy solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubba, Ali E; Jiang, Kyle

    2014-06-11

    This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS) powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented.

  4. Producing energy from cardboard factory waste, Finding sustainable solutions for handling non-recyclable waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Eska Graphic Board is a cardboard factory which requires large amounts of energy in the form of heat for the production of graphical cardboard. Currently, Eska has on-site gas powered boilers to produce heat and a combined-heat-and-power (CHP) system to p

  5. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  6. 77 FR 62231 - Excelerate Liquefaction Solutions I, LLC, Nutreco Canada Inc., JM & RAL Energy Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... export natural gas to Mexico. 3131 08/14/12 12-79-NG Constellation Order granting blanket Energy Gas... Power; Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and... notice that during August 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and...

  7. Asymptotic energy and enstrophy concentration in solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations in R3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalák, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2009), s. 377-394 ISSN 0430-3202 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * asymptotic behavior * fast decays * energy concentration * enstrophy concentration Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Closed-loop spray drying solutions for energy efficient powder production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Visser, Q.; Bitter, J.H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a closed-loop dryer system to reduce the energy consumption for milk powder production. The system is based on a monodisperse droplet atomizer which reduces the amount of fines in the exhaust air, and allows dehumidification and recirculation of the air over the dryer. In this

  9. A Comprehensive Study on Technologies of Tyre Monitoring Systems and Possible Energy Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Kubba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented.

  10. India : Energy-Efficient Street Lighting--Implementation and Financing Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a clear need for energy-efficient (EE) technologies that can be applicable in the municipal street lighting sector. The objective of this manual is to support the preparation and implementation of street lighting projects in India, using performance contracting and other public private partnership-based delivery approaches. This manual draws upon global best practices, inclu...

  11. Energy System of Drones - A review of solutions of extending flight time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    , but their disadvantages provide a hurdle that is not possible to overlook. They demand a high surface area and have a weather dependency that makes it difficult to stay in air during cloudy days. It may be possible to use them as a supplement on smaller hybrid fixed-wing drones, but not as a main power system....... All this would introduce too many problems under operation, therefore were turbines left out as a solution. Further there are fuel cells. They have a disadvantage of a low power to weight ratio and mostly use high pressurized cylinders filled with hydrogen. The cylinder can be seen as a small bomb...

  12. Cross-sectoral coordination for sustainable solutions in Croatia: The (meta) governance of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Stamatios; Demir, Cansu; Kull, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency not only requires the improvement of current technologies, but also advancement of and more coherent institutional governance. This paper captures the major structural and organisational elements of institutional governance in place for promoting energy efficiency. Looking at Croatia – one of the most successful cases of energy efficiency programming of the past decade – the paper zooms in on governance coordination (metagovernance) between actors from different sectors and operating at multiple levels. By showcasing the positive implications of the programme, the authors contribute to the debate concerned with identifying better institutional frameworks to attain sustainable development. The programme showed effective governance through vertical and horizontal coordination among institutions and stakeholders resulting in simultaneous social and economic development and improved energy efficiency in public buildings. Through the case of Croatia, this study identifies how metagovernance has supported coordination among actors aiming to create sustainable development in general and how metagovernance functions in energy efficiency related projects, in particular. The paper also sheds light on communication frameworks of governance coordination and institutional constraints lying at the heart of the vagueness of sustainable development. It also discusses private sector involvement to achieve better institutional framework to attain sustainable development. - Highlights: • This study identified how metagovernance has supported coordination among actors. • State played a key role in the coordination by acting as a catalyst. • UNDP acted as a mediator between government and society for capacity building. • Public authorities are less likely to continue activities without external support. • Private sector’s knowledge and resources are crucial to support project objectives.

  13. Life Cycle Network Modeling Framework and Solution Algorithms for Systems Analysis and Optimization of the Water-Energy Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Garcia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The water footprint of energy systems must be considered, as future water scarcity has been identified as a major concern. This work presents a general life cycle network modeling and optimization framework for energy-based products and processes using a functional unit of liters of water consumed in the processing pathway. We analyze and optimize the water-energy nexus over the objectives of water footprint minimization, maximization of economic output per liter of water consumed (economic efficiency of water, and maximization of energy output per liter of water consumed (energy efficiency of water. A mixed integer, multiobjective nonlinear fractional programming (MINLFP model is formulated. A mixed integer linear programing (MILP-based branch and refine algorithm that incorporates both the parametric algorithm and nonlinear programming (NLP subproblems is developed to boost solving efficiency. A case study in bioenergy is presented, and the water footprint is considered from biomass cultivation to biofuel production, providing a novel perspective into the consumption of water throughout the value chain. The case study, optimized successively over the three aforementioned objectives, utilizes a variety of candidate biomass feedstocks to meet primary fuel products demand (ethanol, diesel, and gasoline. A minimum water footprint of 55.1 ML/year was found, economic efficiencies of water range from −$1.31/L to $0.76/L, and energy efficiencies of water ranged from 15.32 MJ/L to 27.98 MJ/L. These results show optimization provides avenues for process improvement, as reported values for the energy efficiency of bioethanol range from 0.62 MJ/L to 3.18 MJ/L. Furthermore, the proposed solution approach was shown to be an order of magnitude more efficient than directly solving the original MINLFP problem with general purpose solvers.

  14. Estimating the richness of a population when the maximum number of classes is fixed: a nonparametric solution to an archaeological problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin I Eren

    Full Text Available Estimating assemblage species or class richness from samples remains a challenging, but essential, goal. Though a variety of statistical tools for estimating species or class richness have been developed, they are all singly-bounded: assuming only a lower bound of species or classes. Nevertheless there are numerous situations, particularly in the cultural realm, where the maximum number of classes is fixed. For this reason, a new method is needed to estimate richness when both upper and lower bounds are known.Here, we introduce a new method for estimating class richness: doubly-bounded confidence intervals (both lower and upper bounds are known. We specifically illustrate our new method using the Chao1 estimator, rarefaction, and extrapolation, although any estimator of asymptotic richness can be used in our method. Using a case study of Clovis stone tools from the North American Lower Great Lakes region, we demonstrate that singly-bounded richness estimators can yield confidence intervals with upper bound estimates larger than the possible maximum number of classes, while our new method provides estimates that make empirical sense.Application of the new method for constructing doubly-bound richness estimates of Clovis stone tools permitted conclusions to be drawn that were not otherwise possible with singly-bounded richness estimates, namely, that Lower Great Lakes Clovis Paleoindians utilized a settlement pattern that was probably more logistical in nature than residential. However, our new method is not limited to archaeological applications. It can be applied to any set of data for which there is a fixed maximum number of classes, whether that be site occupancy models, commercial products (e.g. athletic shoes, or census information (e.g. nationality, religion, age, race.

  15. Electrocoagulation-Adsorption to Remove Anionic and Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by PV-Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castañeda-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cationic dye malachite green (MG and the anionic dye Remazol yellow (RY were removed from aqueous solutions using electrocoagulation-adsorption processes. Batch and continuous electrocoagulation procedures were performed and compared. Carbonaceous materials obtained from industrial sewage sludge and commercial activated carbons were used to adsorb dyes from aqueous solutions in column systems with a 96–98% removal efficiency. The continuous electrocoagulation-adsorption system was more efficient for removing dyes than electrocoagulation alone. The thermodynamic parameters suggested the feasibility of the process and indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic (ΔS=0.037 and −0.009 for MG and RY, resp.. The ΔG value further indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous (−6.31 and −10.48; T=303 K. The kinetic electrocoagulation results and fixed-bed adsorption results were adequately described using a first-order model and a Bohart-Adams model, respectively. The adsorption capacities of the batch and column studies differed for each dye, and both adsorbent materials showed a high affinity for the cationic dye. Thus, the results presented in this work indicate that a continuous electrocoagulation-adsorption system can effectively remove this type of pollutant from water. The morphology and elements present in the sludge and adsorbents before and after dye adsorption were characterized using SEM-EDS and FT-IR.

  16. Best practice - market mechanisms, transparency and control aid the enforcement of energy-efficient solutions in the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, W.; Schaefli, M.; Siegrist, S.; Haessig, W.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined how the immense potential for saving energy in the building area can be tapped. The report examines the question why so-called 'best practice' solutions have not been so successful on the market place and which measures are necessary to make them more popular. In particular, the report looks at thermal solar installations, fan-assisted balanced ventilation systems, windows, insulation and air-water heat pumps. Various factors are examined in detail, including the relationship between market players, their level of knowledge and education, market structures and legal considerations as well as financial viability, preferences and external costs. Measures to be taken are recommended for the educational area as well as for increasing the level of competition in the building sector

  17. Definition of an intramolecular Eu-to-Eu energy transfer within a discrete [Eu2L] complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonat, Aline; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2012-06-25

    -to-Eu energy-transfer process. A mathematical model was developed to interpret the experimental data, leading to energy-transfer rates of 0.98 ms(-1) for the transfer from the site with q=0 to that with q=2 and vice versa. Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed at the B3LYP level were used to investigate the conformation of the complex in solution, and to estimate the intermetallic distance, which provided Förster radii (R(0)) values of 8.1 Å for the energy transfer from site I to site II, and 6.8 Å for the reverse energy transfer. These results represent the first evidence of an intramolecular energy-transfer equilibrium between two identical lanthanide cations within a discrete molecular complex in solution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. "Racializing" Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  19. Changing practices of energy consumption: The influence of smart grid solutions in households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  20. A Solution to Cosmological Constant, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Avtar-Singh, S C

    2004-01-01

    The observed spontaneity in nature, specifically the spontaneous decay of particles, has been mathematically treated in the formulation of a Gravity Nullification model (GNM). GNM is combined with the classical gravitation model and the general theory of relativity to model the universe expansion. This model eliminates singularities in the existing Big Bang model of the universe, predicts effects of gravity on the observed mass evolution, dark matter/energy, and accelerated expansion of the universe. GNM provides a physical understanding of the shortcomings of the Big Bang model such as the Cosmological Constant problems, puzzles of dark matter or dark energy without the need for the incredible inflation scenario involving a “superluminal expansion” of the universe in its early evolution. A mathematical expression is derived for the Anti-gravity Cosmological parameter including the effects of mass and gravity. A good agreement is seen with the recent observations of the universe behavior.