WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy series country

  1. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  3. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth

  4. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  5. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  6. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  7. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced ''Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics

  8. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  9. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  10. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  11. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  12. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  13. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  14. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  15. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  16. Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.

  17. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  18. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  19. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  20. Energy problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasugi, Hirosaburo [Japan Industrial Tech. Association, Tokyo, Japan

    1989-06-20

    In order to rid the people's living of poverty in developing countries, first, the production of food has been planned to increase. And then, resource development and industrialization have been tried to improve with efforts. Because of such development and an increase in population, energy consumption has been increasing. Advanced countries have supported these countries in many ways, however, there is much difference in their assistance depend on various situations such as racial, religious, and political ones. Moreover, a gap between cities and farm villages has widen since infrastructure has not been fully equipped in developing countries. The electrification ratio is used as an index to show the degree of development in developing countries. It is low in the countries where development is lagging, particularly in farm villages. This gap is an urgent problem that faces developing countries. In order to cope with the actual conditions, advanced countries including Japan should be plan to reinforce their technological and economic assistance more suitable for farm villages. Furthermore, they should also improve the assistance system which includes a measure for environmental pollution control, considering the spot directly. 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  2. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    carry a selendang, a long stretch of cloth draped over the shoulder, which on less formal occasions was used to carry babies or objects. Urban...vols.) (The Asia Society.) New York: Scribner’s, 1988. 419 Indonesia: A Country Study Foss, Christopher F. (ed.). Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 1991-92

  3. Area Handbook Series: Uruguay, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    de la Banda Oriental, 1982. Faroppa, Luis, Marisa Buchelli, Alberto Couriel, and Alberto Ben- si6n. Cuatro tesis sobre la situacidn econdmica nacional...mercado de carnes. Montevideo: Fun- daci6n de Cultura Universitaria, 1979. -___ Modelo Batllista: ý Variacidn sobre un viejo tema ? Montevideo: Editorial...Uruguay.: Desde sus origenes hasta 1930. ( Temas del Siglo XX series.) Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental, 1984. Elizaincin, Adolfo. "The Emergence

  4. Area Handbook Series Guatemala, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    o’independencee, the cp tanc general of’ Guatemsala consisted of the present-day republics of’ C;entral Amierica-Guatemnala, El Salvador, (Ionduras, Nicar- agua ...countries that maintained significant political relationships with Guatemala were Chile and Argentina. Both had active military relationships with...1 d somiething tobreak (downi time, coliiitr\\s grossl\\yneItial 204 lburisf maZUrke’t San Anitoni o .Aguasv Cali’n tc. Resvidenats in San Antonio Aguas

  5. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Encompassing almost half the South American conti- nent and bordering every South American country except Ecuador and Chile , Brazil ranks as the fifth largest...and agricultural projects related to the program was slowed. Expansion of the sugarcane acreage was less 184 Construction site, Aguas Claras mine near...Development-OECD) purchased 60 percent of Brazil’s exports. Among Brazil’s 10 largest export markets, only Argentina (US$718 million), Chile (US$363 million

  6. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  7. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the Philippines’ own claim to Sabah, the territory in northeastern Bor- neo that had become a Malaysian state in 1963. Marcos and the Road to Martial...north, was on the risc 50 Historical Setting In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was or- ganized on Malaysian soil. The MNLF conducted an...particularly so where the 7enter was itself a full-scale 91 Philippines: A Country Study town, complete with restaurants, cinemas , banks, specialty

  8. Area Handbook Series. Albania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    inadequa prenal cue, tbe proportion of preature births increse •d from 7 to 11 perent between 197 amd early 1992. Hospits lacked es- sen"h mecidmund erp...were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also 151 Albania: A Country Study imported... entrepreneurs from the reta marketplace. At first, peasants began setting up road- side fruit and vegetables stands or carrying their produce to mar- kets in

  9. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    kid- napping of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann from Argentina. Another kidnapping, in 1986, brought to Israel for prosecution the nuclear...penalty could be imposed for treason or for conviction for Nazi war crimes but, as of 1988, 331 Israel: A Country Study Eichmann was the only person to be...See land ownership Eichmann , Adolph, 331-32 extensive threat concept, 267-68 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 58 Ezekiel, 11 Eisenstadt, S. N., 83 Ezra, II

  10. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  11. Nuclear energy in transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2000-01-01

    Transition countries, respectively the countries that have in the year's 89/90 broken with the communist political and economy system are passing through difficult years. From their traditional markets within the closely interconnected socialist economy system, which has disintegrated, they have to reorient themselves to new, often saturated and sophisticated markets. To integrate into Europe as equal partners, rather then remain poor relatives, they must reduce this development gap in a reasonable time, not longer than 15 years. Slower pace would not give acceptable perspective to their young people and they would look for it elsewhere, thereby reducing creative forces for progress. Examples of economic development show that sustained growth of GDP is impossible without similar industrial growth, which, in turn, requires corresponding increase of energy use. In the same time these countries are the parts of densely populated European region and are subject to emission restriction of effluents with local or global effects. It is difficult to see how these countries could attain their development goals, whilst respecting their Kyoto obligations, without supplying increased energy demand from nuclear sources. (author)

  12. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  13. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  14. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  15. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  17. Nuclear energy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemery, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the circumstances which must prevail before a reasonable technical, administrative and sociological case can be made to justify the introduction of nuclear power technology to a developing country. The role played by the IAEA in responding to needs of developing countries is considered and problems of nuclear plant safety and materials safeguards discussed. Plans for nuclear power in several developing countries are outlined

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  19. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  3. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  4. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  5. IEA countries energy policy. Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The International Energy Agency is interested by the energy policy of its 23 members countries. This book sums up the evolution of energy policy in 1991 and 1992, sticking particularly to energy proposal and demand, to energy efficiency, to interaction between energy and environment, to the energy technology and to research and development activities. The 23 countries are examined regularly. The elaborate examinations refer to the energy policy of each member country to dictate the common orientation of their policy. Ministers meetings of IEA take place regularly. The latest took place in PARIS on the fourth of June 1993 where the ministers confirmed that there were essential elements of the energy policy and that they recommended to all countries to take that in account in the formulation of their strategies. Beyond the examinations by country, this book contains a whole report which throws into relief the main new acts which were happened in the IEA members countries and a glimpse on the evolution of the energy situation in the no members countries. It gives specific data and informations on the governmental budgets allocated to research and development energy activities. 6 annexes, 12 graphs., 5 tabs

  6. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  7. Energy Issues and Problems in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeed

    1999-01-01

    In general, the developing countries due to changes in supply and demand for energy in the world, are facing several problems, such as: 1. Energy growth. 2.Energy consumption 3.Environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to study the problems caused by the increase in the energy consumption of the developing countries. also several guideline and solution schemes are recommended for these problems

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  9. Energy in developing countries and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose

    1986-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy in developing countries is discussed with respect to energy consumption, energy needs and energy future. The application of Article IV of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is examined for the developing countries. It is suggested that a revision of the NPT is needed to encourage effective nuclear disarmament. (UK)

  10. Energy resources in Arab countries: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Lababidi, M. Mukhtar [Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Technical Affairs Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1999-12-01

    The author examines the energy resources of Middle East and North African countries under the headings: oil (proven reserves, undiscovered potential recovery, improved recovery techniques, production capacities), natural gas (reserves, undiscovered potential gas recovery), shale oil and tar sand, coal, uranium, hydro, wind energy, solar energy and biomass. (UK)

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  12. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Widayanti, Tjahya

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  13. Partner Country Series: Gas Pricing - China's Challenges and IEA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    China will play a positive role in the global development of gas, the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Executive Director, Maria Van der Hoeven has said in Beijing on 11 September, 2012 when launching a new IEA report: Gas Pricing and Regulation, China’s challenges and IEA experiences. In line with its aim to meet growing energy demand while shifting away from coal, China has set an ambitious goal of doubling its use of natural gas from 2011 levels by 2015. Prospects are good for significant new supplies – both domestic and imported, conventional and unconventional – to come online in the medium-term, but notable challenges remain, particularly concerning gas pricing and the institutional and regulatory landscape. While China’s circumstances are, in many respects unique, some current issues are similar to those a number of IEA countries have faced. This report highlights some key challenges China faces in its transition to greater reliance on natural gas, then explores in detail relevant experiences from IEA countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States as well as the European Union (EU). Preliminary suggestions about how lessons learned in other countries could be applied to China’s situation are offered as well. The aim of this report is to provide stakeholders in China with a useful reference as they consider decisions about the evolution of the gas sector in their country.

  14. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, V.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  15. Data Mining Smart Energy Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of smart metering technology the amount of energy data will increase significantly and utilities industry will have to face another big challenge - to find relationships within time-series data and even more - to analyze such huge numbers of time series to find useful patterns and trends with fast or even real-time response. This study makes a small review of the literature in the field, trying to demonstrate how essential is the application of data mining techniques in the time series to make the best use of this large quantity of data, despite all the difficulties. Also, the most important Time Series Data Mining techniques are presented, highlighting their applicability in the energy domain.

  16. Energy needs, developing countries and ICTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The energy consumption in the near future will go up at a more rapid rate than before. About four billion people use little energy today (1.6 billion are without electricity). The energy consumption will increase partly because more of them will begin to use more energy and partly because the population will increase (to an estimated 10-12 billion in the steady state). Dependence on fossil fuels cannot continue as now. Supplies are limited, availability will become a greater vagary as sources dry up and greenhouse effects may make them less useful even sooner. Sustainable energy options will have to be a mix of fossil fuels, nuclear energy, renewable sources and others like hydrogen. Participation of developing countries and dialogue with them are essential. Developing countries cannot follow the same path to progress as industrialized countries did in the past. Greater ingenuity is needed, which calls for greater investment in science. The industrialized countries have a large responsibility because unsustainable development in the developing part of the world will adversely affect every other part. ICTP's involvement in this respect involve dedicated scientific workshops over the years (some in cooperation with IAEA) with considerable participation from Developing Countries and TRIL Fellows. ICTP has a new section on Earth System Physics (consolidating energy issues as well). Since 1977 ICTP organized 21 courses and workshops, which were attended by about 2000 participants

  17. The SERI solar energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  18. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  19. Energy and economic growth in industrializing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouilidis, J E; Mitropoulos, C S

    1984-07-01

    This paper investigates some aspects of the interrelated paths of economic growth and energy demand, in the case of an industrializing economy, through the use of numerous econometric models. Translog functions have helped establish that income and price elasticities of energy, two critical parameters in the energy-economy interaction, exhibit falling trends with time. The value share of the industrial sector is strongly associated with both energy demand and energy intensity. Any increase in the former will lead to amplified increases in the latter, rendering the continuation of past trends in industrial expansion questionable under conditions of high energy costs. Substitution among capital, labor and energy does take place, though to a limited extent, as indicated by the aggregate measure of energy/non-energy substitution elasticity. All findings appear to suggest that energy policymaking, in an industrializing country like Greece, will be of low effectiveness until certain structural changes in the economy are realized.

  20. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  1. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    advice on financing instruments. In a recent keynote to the Climate and Clean Energy Investment Forum renewable energy technologies in the country. Informing Energy Access and Clean Energy Project Finance understanding and knowledge of how to design policies that enable financing and encourage investment in clean

  3. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J [Biomass Users Network-Brazil Regional Office, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author`s knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author) 115 refs, figs, tabs

  4. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  5. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives some examples of how technology transfer can successfully be given to third world countries to allow them to benefit in their quest for economic growth and better standards of living through reduced energy consumption and environmental pollution. It also suggests methods by which obstacles such as high investment costs, lack of information, market demand, etc., can be overcome in order to motivate technological transfer by industrialized countries

  6. Solar energy activities in the Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayigh, A.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Arab countries, 22 in total, are divided into three groups. Group one consists of all countries of the Middle East. The second group is the Arabian Peninsula, and the third group consists of all Arab countries in Africa. The paper outlines the solar density and sunshine hours, as well as wind data in the region and compares them with some industrialized countries. Brief surveys of various solar energy projects are tabulated: that is solar, wind and biomass. Several specific major projects in various parts of the Arab World will be discussed. More specifically, the cooling of the solar energy research building in Baghdad (120 tons of solar absorption chillers, 80 tons of heat pumps), the heating of King Abdu-Asis Airborne and Physical Training School near Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, the 350 kW PV. field of the solar energy village near Riyadh and the 100 kW solar thermal plant in Kuwait are discussed. It is worth noting that the present photovoltaic capacity in the Arab world is more than 3.0 MW and the yearly installation potential per year is 2.0 MW. There are at least five photovoltaic production facilities in the Arab countries. Two of them in Saudi Arabia with capacity of 400 kW, one in Iraq with a capacity of 200 kW, one in Tunisia with a capacity of 100 kW and on in Algeria with capacity of 100 kW. The Arab countries can absorb 5MW per year and more countries like Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Jordan and Libya are thinking of having their own production capabilities. Five desalination plants are also mentioned, plus the Yanbu plant of 240m/day, which is one of the largest in the world. The potential of wind energy utilisation is considered. Obstacles hindering the process of solar energy in the region are also outlined. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  8. Energy and cooperation among the Scandinavian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milas, R

    1984-11-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long experience of functional cooperation in the field of energy. The oil crisis has been largely attenuated for Norway since the exploitation of the North Sea oil deposits. The future will be oil or nuclear, this is the characteristic of energy cooperation on the Scandinavian, European and international levels. In this connection, no level excludes another and the Scandinavian countries are going to patiently attempt to benefit from their Scandinavian dimension over the short range, their European vocation for research and development and their free trade ideology for the surveillance of markets on the level of international agencies.

  9. Energy Security and Renewable Energy in Least Developed Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries (UN, 2001) states: The levels of production and consumption of energy in the majority of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are inadequate and unstable. This clearly indicates a situation of energy insecurity. Starting from an encompassing definition of energy security (a country's ability to expand and optimise its energy resource portfolio and achieve a level of services that will sustain economic growth and poverty reduction), it becomes quickly clear that energy security in LDCs is a complex topic with numerous interlinkages to other sustainable development objectives. This paper attempts to give an overview of issues related to energy security in LDCs by focusing on the role renewable energy can play in that context.(author)

  10. Energy Market Liberalisation and Renewable Energy Policies in OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of energy liberalizations on policies that support renewable energy in a long panel of OECD countries. We estimate this effect accounting for the endogeneity of liberalisation related to joint decisions within a country's energy strategy. Using regulation in other industries as instruments, we find that energy liberalisation increases the public support to renewable energy. The effect of liberalisation is the second largest after the effect of per-capita income and is fully driven by reductions in entry barriers, while the effect of privatisation is negative. Finally, our results are robust to dynamic specifications and various policy indicators. (authors)

  11. Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2012 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2009 and 2010 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2011). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units. More detailed data in original units are published in the 2012 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

  12. Decomposing energy demand across BRIIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Morakinyo O.; Glass, Anthony J.; Weyman-Jones, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Energy plays an important role within the production technology of fast emerging economies, such that firms' reaction to changes in energy prices provides useful information on factor productivity and factor intensity, as well as the likely outcome of energy policy initiatives, among other things. Drawing on duality theory, this paper decomposes changes in energy demand into substitution and output effects using annual sector-level production data for Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China (BRIIC) for the period 1995–2009. Unlike previous studies, this study analyzed the economic properties of the underlying production technology. Results indicate that changes in energy demand are strongly dominated by substitution effects. More importantly, an intriguing finding that emerges from our analysis is the role of economies of scale and factor accumulation, as opposed to technical progress, in giving rise to the growth performance of sampled economies. - Highlights: • The analysis examines the structure and channels of changes in energy demand across productive sectors in BRIIC countries during 1995–2009. • We evaluate substitution and output effects as well as the nature of firm productivity across these countries. • Changes in energy demand arising from changes in (relative) price of energy is strongly dominated by substitution effects. • The main drivers of economic performance and energy use over the sample period are economies of scale and factor accumulation.

  13. Energy demand in seven OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patry, M.

    1990-01-01

    The intensity of utilization of energy has been declining in all OECD countries since the first oil price shock of 1973. In 1988, the OECD countries were consuming 1.7 billion tonnes of crude oil, that is two hundred million tonnes less than fifteen years ago. From 1974 to 1988, OECD oil consumption decreased at an average annual rate of 1.3% while the GDP of these countries rose by an average of 2.6% per annum. The authors present here a model of sectoral energy demand and interfuel substitution for the G-7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The ultimate goal is to determine the relative importance of the contributing factors to the observed reversal in energy consumption per unit of production in these countries. The results they present should be viewed as preliminary. They point in the paper to a number of extensions that should improve the theoretical quality of the modeling effort and the statistical robustness of the results. They are presently expanding the data set to pinpoint more adequately the effects of structural change and conservation

  14. Bringing developing countries into the energy equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, M.; Loup, J.; Laponche, Bernard; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie; Chateau, Bertrand; Heller, Thomas C.; Kieken, Hubert; Kleiche, Mustapha; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Goldemberg, Jose; Pizer, William A.

    2006-01-01

    This compilation of articles on energy and climate change is a selection of contributions to the first edition of Regards sur la Terre, an annual reference in French on the international dimension of sustainable development, launched on the initiative of the French development agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the institute for sustainable development and international relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales), and published by Presses de Sciences Po (Paris) in November 2006. Regards sur la terre includes an analysis of the most important international meetings and events of the last 12 months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic report, which focuses this year on energy and climate change. For almost two hundred years, the economic development of industrialized countries has gone hand in hand with growing consumption of fossil fuels, first coal, then oil and gas. The oil shocks of the 1970's had already revealed the fragility of this model, without however generating any major changes. The disconnection observed in the 1980's between a rapid return to economic growth and stagnating energy consumption was only provisional, and energy demand in the richest countries has again been rising since the 1990's; the development of alternative energy sources (nuclear power and renewables) has remained marginal and has failed to dethrone fossil fuels on which, paradoxically, the economies of industrialized countries are even more dependent today than they were 20 years ago. But with the turn of the century came major developments in the global energy landscape following the emergence of new and hitherto marginal actors: the rapid economic development of emerging countries is also dependent on an increasing supply of energy. Today this growing demand adds to tension on the oil and gas market, where the poorest countries are also the first victims. It could give new impetus to the

  15. Acceptance of nuclear energy in developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    This paper focuses on the presence of problems, governmental efforts and the state of each people's awareness in accepting nuclear energy especially in developed countries and reviews the past circumstances and recent activities. Significant differences among countries in the popularity of nuclear power depend largely on the environment of the particular country such as energy circumstances and also on the execution of the energy policy. Also it is pointed out that the difference comes from the consciousness of the execution of the people in such a policy they establish and decide whether they accept or not. The analysis, that the French people traditionally believe they cannot control risks and give high degree of trust to their government and specialists, whereas Americans conversely intervene in administration to control risks by themselves and try to change specialist's Judgment, explains one side of polarization in popularity of nuclear energy in the world. Japanese have tended to not to believe the administration probably due to recent continuous scandals of officials and motivation to require disclosure of information and to dispute, which lays on the background of retard of nuclear energy. For resolving the global issues such as warming, it is becoming more important that at least specialists of nuclear technology recover the loosing trust owing to the accidents and scandals through steady activities, show the whole view of trust worthy development plan of nuclear energy and regain the confidence by the people. (author)

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries. Canada 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Canada, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report acknowledges the marked shift of federal energy policy in the last decade away from heavy intervention to a more market-based approach. This has increased the strength and competitive position of Canada's energy producers, especially in oil and gas, and has provided more choice for consumers. Electricity, however, is an area that could benefit from a more market-based policy orientation. Federal provincial co-ordination is of fundamental importance. Other key issues highlighted in the review include the opportunities and challenges of international agreements on the environment, which increasingly drive energy policy decision-making; the adequacy and effectiveness of programmes to promote energy efficiency; and the balance and direction of energy research and development efforts. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author)

  17. Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2010 and 2011 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2012). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

  18. Future energy options for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaric, Z P

    1982-05-01

    An educated guess is made of the energy demand in developing countries well into the next century in order to estimate the possible role of new and renewable sources in meeting this demand. The world is roughly divided into industrialized (IND) and developing (LDC) countries. A plot of energy demand in both parts shows a possible structure of mixed energy to meet LDC demand, but there is a gap between demand and supply from conventional sources in LDCs that has to be met by new and renewable sources. When the demand for specific energy forms is projected, as much as two thirds of the final energy needed from new sources should be based on centralized-electricity and liquid-fuels technologies. Solar and geothermal energy must compete with nuclear and thermonuclear breeders, while solar prospects for chemical fuel supply in LDCs lacking adequate coal reserves seems promising. There is a large gap in research and development (R and D) spending on new energy between the two parts, which means that LDCs will have inappropriate technology at a high price. An increase in R and D spending on a regional basis should target funds to appropriate options. 6 references, 7 figures.

  19. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  1. Renewable energy education in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bara, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The global call for more and more penetration of renewable energy sources in the energy mix for several countries driven by various different motives including the desire for attaining sustainable development through the use of these renewable sources, for decreasing pollution, trying to decrease dependency on imported fuels or to exploit the locally available renewable resources, this call has not been satisfactorily responded to, partially, it is believed here, due to the lack of awareness and adequate manpower qualifications in these sources at the different levels of decision making. Energy education in many countries is still not so dynamic to coup with the ever changing circumstances and developments related to the demand, supply, technologies, economics policies as well as environmental aspects this is more noticed in the world developing countries, with other related obstacles facing the desired and needed wider application of renewable energy sources. The paper will try to handle this situation, analyzing its components, citing some examples of good fruitful practice in this connection, and drawing some recommendations that may help in improving the same

  2. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paga, Enrique; Birol, Fatih

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  3. Energy statistics: A manual for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made by developing countries during the last 20 years in the collection and compilation of energy statistics. the present Manual is a guide, which it is hoped will be used in countries whose system of statistics is less advanced to identify the main areas that should be developed and how this might be achieved. The generally accepted aim is for countries to be able to compile statistics annually on the main characteristics shown for each fuel, and for energy in total. These characteristics are mainly concerned with production, supply and consumption, but others relating to the size and capabilities of the different energy industries may also be of considerable importance. The initial task of collecting data from the energy industries (mines, oil producers, refineries and distributors, electrical power stations, etc.) may well fall to a number of organizations. ''Energy'' from a statistical point of view is the sum of the component fuels, and good energy statistics are therefore dependent on good fuel statistics. For this reason a considerable part of this Manual is devoted to the production of regular, comprehensive and reliable statistics relating to individual fuels. Chapters V to IX of this Manual are concerned with identifying the flows of energy, from production to final consumption, for each individual fuel, and how data on these flows might be expected to be obtained. The very different problems concerned with the collection of data on the flows for biomass fuels are covered in chapter X. The data needed to complete the picture of the national scene for each individual fuel, more concerned with describing the size, capabilities and efficiency of the industries related to that fuel, are discussed in chapter XI. Annex I sets out the relationships between the classifications of the various types of fuels. The compilation of energy balances from the data obtained for individual fuels is covered in chapter XIII. Finally, chapter

  4. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  5. Rural energy and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The study from which this article is drawn was carried out under the auspices of the World Energy Council, in collaboration with the FAO, and under the supervision of a steering committee made up of experts in which the author played an active role. The article begins with an in-depth analysis of the energy crisis in rural areas of developing countries and their economic implications, which contribute to increasing poverty among rural populations. It then assesses the limits and problems related to intervention and the solutions attempted in the past, with the aim of drawing lessons from the various experiments undertaken. From these, we see an edifying and worrying factor emerging as despite a great deal of well-intentioned effort, rural energy poverty still remains at an unacceptable level today in the so-called modern world of the third millennium. Indeed 2 billion people (accounting for a third of the world population and almost all living in developing countries) do not have access to modern forms of energy and still depend on firewood, leftovers from the harvest and animal waste in order to meet their energy needs. It therefore appears necessary and urgent if we intend to take up the challenge of meeting energy requirements in rural areas, to fundamentally change the attitudes and mentalities of decision-makers at a political and other levels (planners, consultants, donors etc). It also means changing direction in research to find solutions. The author then presents a range of 'solutions' advices and recommendations aimed at ensuring that future energy provision in rural areas is more stable and sustainable, enabling rural populations to live the decent life that they should be entitled to expect today. (author)

  6. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  7. Indicators of energy security in industrialised countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2010-01-01

    Energy security has become a popular catch phrase, both in the scientific arena as well as in the political discussion. Yet, in general the applied concepts of energy security are rather vague. This paper sheds some light on concepts and indicators of energy security. First, we conceptually discuss the issue of energy supply security and explain why it is not to handle by one science alone and what economics may contribute in order to structure the topic. After providing a brief survey of existing attempts to define or measure energy security we suggest an additional dimension along which indicators of energy security may be classified: ex-post and ex-ante indicators. Finally, we illustrate our concept on the basis of several simplified indicators. While ex-post indicators are mostly based on price developments, ex-ante indicators are to a greater extent aimed at illustrating potential problems. Our illustration suggests that it is worthwhile to take into account the market structure along with the political stability of exporting countries. (author)

  8. Sustainable energy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M [Environmental Policy Division, The World Bank, Washington D.C. (US)

    1991-07-01

    Increased energy use is a vital pre-requisite for economic development, and less developing countries (LDCs) are struggeling to meet energy needs at acceptable costs. LDC decision-makers share the worldwide environmental concerns, but also face other urgent issues like poverty. The industrialised countries can afford to substitute environmental protection for further material growth, but the LDCs will need concessional funding to participate in addressing global environmental problems. Global financing issues may be analysed and resolved through tradeoffs among several criteria including affordability/additionality, fairness/equity, and economic efficiency. The short-term LDC response to sustainable energy issues will be limited mainly to conventional technologies in efficiency improvements, conservation and resource development. The industrialised nations should provide financial resources to LDCs and develop the technology to be used in the 21st century. Pilot international funds like the Global Environmental Facility and the Ozone Fund will help LDCs participate in the effort to solve global environmental issues. (author) 16 refs.

  9. Area Handbook Series. Cote D’Lvoire; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    production; Mimi Cantwell, Sharon Costcllo, Vincent Ercolano, Ruth Nieland, and Sharon Schultz edited the chapters; Beverly Wolpert performed the final...John Dixon (ed.), Social Welfare iniAfrica. (Cofpara- tive Social Welfare Series.) London: Groom Helh, 1987. Bourke , Gerald. "A Tarnished Miracle...nm Bourke , Gerald. A Tarnished Miracle," Africa Report, 312, No. 6, Noveiilei -Dcemiber 1987, 62-64.’ brayto’n, Abbojt A. Stability and

  10. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    the Independent Party (Partido Independiente -PI) to support his own candidacy, waged a campaign against the government’s financial irresponsi- bility...range Photo by James D. Rudolph ley, chiefly by small farmers, began only in the 1920s. The open- ing of the Inter-American Highway in the post -World...the country (see The Calder6n Era, ch. 1). In the post -World War 11 era, anticlericalism was no longer a major issue, in prt because many of the

  11. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. The energy in developing countries and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author analyses energy in general for developing countries and also nuclear energy. He concludes that the future of energy in these countries has better alternatives than to depend on nuclear energy. (C.M.)

  13. Nuclear energy for sustainable energy growth in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear energy is a tool to eliminate poverty in developing countries and there is a need for training and expertise. The international community is asked to support the development of generation IV reactors and fusion reactors. No policy is yet established for a wide range international collaboration. A mechanism for secondary participation in major international nuclear energy projects should be established and less expensive projects complementary to the main stream ones should be developed. IGNITOR Project is not established as a broad international collaboration. However its cost, approximately one tenth of ITER, time to construct, estimated around five years, and main physical objective, i.e, a burning-plasma experiment, makes it very attractive for participation of developing countries. Remote operation and data analysis: ITER GRID: real time interactions of large, geographically extended teams; real time interactions between small specialized groups; requirement of fast between-pulse analysis; simulations producing very large data sets (GB → TB → PB); grid can be assembled with many small computers clusters; suitable for participation of low-budget groups; expertise available from high-energy physics

  14. Developing a comprehensive time series of GDP per capita for 210 countries from 1950 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Spencer L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Income has been extensively studied and utilized as a determinant of health. There are several sources of income expressed as gross domestic product (GDP per capita, but there are no time series that are complete for the years between 1950 and 2015 for the 210 countries for which data exist. It is in the interest of population health research to establish a global time series that is complete from 1950 to 2015. Methods We collected GDP per capita estimates expressed in either constant US dollar terms or international dollar terms (corrected for purchasing power parity from seven sources. We applied several stages of models, including ordinary least-squares regressions and mixed effects models, to complete each of the seven source series from 1950 to 2015. The three US dollar and four international dollar series were each averaged to produce two new GDP per capita series. Results and discussion Nine complete series from 1950 to 2015 for 210 countries are available for use. These series can serve various analytical purposes and can illustrate myriad economic trends and features. The derivation of the two new series allows for researchers to avoid any series-specific biases that may exist. The modeling approach used is flexible and will allow for yearly updating as new estimates are produced by the source series. Conclusion GDP per capita is a necessary tool in population health research, and our development and implementation of a new method has allowed for the most comprehensive known time series to date.

  15. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries

  16. Are shocks to renewable energy consumption permanent or temporary? Evidence from 54 developing and developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ender; Gozgor, Giray

    2018-02-01

    The renewable energy sources are considered as the important factor to decrease the level of carbon emissions and to promote the global green economy. Understanding the dynamics of renewable energy consumption, this paper analyzes whether there is a unit root in renewable energy consumption in 54 countries over the period 1971-2016. To this end, the unit root test of Narayan-Popp with two endogenous (unknown) breaks is implemented. The paper finds that renewable energy consumption series are stationary around a level and the time trend in 45 of 54 countries. In other words, renewable energy consumption follows a unit root process only in nine countries: Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, and Turkey. The evidence implies that renewable energy demand policies, which aimed to decrease the carbon emissions, will only have permanent effects in those nine countries.

  17. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ente Vasco de la Energia

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined

  18. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  19. Travel Series as TV Entertainment: Genre characteristics and touristic views on foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marit Waade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Why is it not the deprived developing country, but rather the tempting destination the host arrives in when guiding the audience in a travel series? And how can we explore the specific combination of entertainment and education that travel series represent? Basically the travel series genre is a hybrid of journalistic documentary, entertaining lifestyle series and TV ads and the different series put different emphasis on the different genre elements. Travel series represent a certain kind of mediated consumption and they reflect lifestyle identity in relation to touristic consumer cultures. Like other lifestyle series dealing with consumption products and lifestyle markers encompassing fashion, food, garden, design and interior that balance somewhere between journalism and advertising, travel series typically deal with destinations, travel modes, cultural experiences and food as commodities. To understand the cultural and democratic value of travel series as a popular TV genre in the context of public service broadcasting, it is not the fact that the series contain educative and enlightening information about foreign cultures told in an entertaining and popular way that are of my interest. Rather it is tourism and media consumer culture as such, one has to expound as valuable democratic and cultural practice. The article presents different matrices of the respectively cultural and consumer knowledge that the different types of travel series include.

  20. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  1. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  2. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butera, F.; Farinelli, U.

    1992-01-01

    With the use of critical analyses of some examples of technology transfer by industrialized to third world countries, this paper illustrates the importance, in technology transfer, of giving due consideration to the specific social and marketing contexts of the targeted developing country and its physical and financial capability to acquire all the technology necessary to make the total realization of a desired industrial scheme feasible from the economic, technical and social points of view. It also indicates that the most effective transfers are those in which efforts are made to optimize local work force learning levels, process scheme efficiency and cost through the careful integration of innovative with conventional technologies

  3. Drivers for renewable energy: A comparison among OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Smith, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The difference in the shares of renewable energy in total primary energy supply among OECD countries is immense. We attempt to identify some key factors that may have driven this difference for renewable energy in general and bioenergy in particular. We found that besides country-specific factors, gross national product (GDP) and renewable energy and bioenergy market deployment policies have significant and positive impacts on the per capita supply of both renewable energy and bioenergy in OECD countries. R and D expenditures, energy prices, CO 2 emissions, and other energy policies are statistically insignificant in terms of their impact on renewable energy and bioenergy supply. However, this does not necessarily mean that they are not potential drivers for renewable energy and bioenergy, but rather suggests that their magnitudes have not been big enough to significantly influence energy supply based on the historical data from 1994 to 2003. These findings lead to useful policy implications for countries attempting to promote renewable energy and bioenergy development. -- Highlights: ► We identify the drivers of renewable energy development in OECD countries. ► Common drivers include GDP per capita and market deployment policies. ► Country-specific drivers reveal different pathways for bioenergy development.

  4. Operation of multiple superconducting energy doubler magnets in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbfleisch, G.; Limon, P.J.; Rode, C.

    1977-01-01

    In order to understand the operational characteristics of the Energy Doubler, a series of experiments were begun which were designed to be a practical test of running superconducting accelerator magnets in series. Two separate tests in which two Energy Doubler dipoles were powered in series are described. Of particular interest are the static losses of the cryostats and the behavior of the coils and cryostats during quenches. The results of the tests show that Energy Doubler magnets can be safely operated near their short sample limit, and that the various safety devices used are adequate to protect the coils and the cryostats from damage

  5. Capital goods for energy development: power equipment for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Questions of energy policy in developing countries are considered, with the goal of 'evolution from exports to indigenization' i.e. independence. Levels of technologies are considered in relation to the resources of each country. Nuclear power is considered among other energy sources. (G.Q.)

  6. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  7. Energy and Development in Emerging Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, John; Vincent, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Energy is an important component of the economy and is a fundamental factor of production. In general we expect is use to grow in some relation to growth in economic activity. Empirically we see a closer relationship (higher E/GDP elasticity) in emerging economies where the energy intensive stage of development is still in process. Traditional fossil energy sources remain the least cost source of providing many or most energy services but present an environmental challenge. Managing the growth of energy use and its impact on the environment is a central challenge of 'green growth'. Examples of the interactions of energy development in China are used to provide a deeper understanding of these links. (author)

  8. Integration of energy markets with neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.; Vermeulen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch wholesale markets for energy are still hindered by the various bottlenecks, which lead to higher costs for energy consumers than in well operating markets. A more efficient utilization of the import infrastructure could result in savings for energy consumers up to several tens of millions of euros. The managers of the transport infrastructure must take on a more active approach to eliminate these market obstacles. [mk] [nl

  9. Lessons Learned from the Energy Policies of IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This information paper provides policy makers and managers, facing tough energy policy challenges, with a wider perspective of how the same issues are being addressed by different IEA member countries. The topics included are: Government structures for co-ordinating energy and climate policies; The use of long-term energy forecasts and scenarios; and Progress in the delivery of key energy security policies.

  10. Trends in energy efficiency in countries of the Mediterranean Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This report describes trends in energy efficiency in four countries of the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea (Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia) and five Mediterranean European countries (France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal). This study is based on energy efficiency indicators per sector of energy consumption as they are developed within the frame of the MEDENER project for the four southern countries and of the ODYSSEE-MURE project for the European countries. The report presents the context of energy efficiency (challenges and objectives, trends in energy consumption, primary and final intensities), discusses trends of energy efficiency in the transformation sector, in the housing sector, in the transport sector (trends in consumption, road and air transport), in the industry (sector intensities), in the tertiary sector (global trends, sector indicators), and in agriculture and fishing (global trends and sector indicators)

  11. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  13. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingping; Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: → To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. → Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. → A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  14. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. - Research Highlights: →Progress and implications of energy regulations in developing countries. →Investigation assessed the progress made on energy regulations using online survey. →Energy regulation activities is progressively increasing in developing countries. →The study identified 25 developing countries without energy regulatory standards. →The study shows relationship between energy regulation and energy consumption.

  15. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  16. Financing the alternative: renewable energy in developing and transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Christa N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of credit allocation to renewable energy firms in developing and transition countries. Using a simple en- dogenous growth model, we show that the development of the renewable energy sector, i.e. the diversification of renewable energy resources used in primary energy production, depends on the quality of financial intermedia- tion, debtor information costs to banks, and financing needs of renewable energy firms. Policies should aim at increasing financial ...

  17. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  18. The Energy Markets of the APEC Countries: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the export possibilities of Russian energy resources to the markets of the APEC countries. The analysis is made with the help of the IEA Model of short-term energy security (MOSES Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels. This model addresses four dimensions of energy security. These include external and domestic factors, reflecting both risk exposure and resilience, the ability of energy systems to adapt to or withstand disruptions. In MOSES countries with similar characteristics are grouped in the energy profiles (from A to E by each energy resource. Countries with profiles from B to E present potential markets for Russian energy resources, while countries with the profile A are our competitors. The most promising market of energy resources is China, but for Russia it is likely to become a monopsony market. The authors assume that Russia will retain its position with respect to the concluded long-term contracts for energy resources supply, but expectations about the formation of a large market niche are overestimated. The study concludes that Russia can strengthen its competitive positions due to the launch of complete products on the markets of the APEC countries, especially, due to the creation of new market niches on the basis of technological leadership

  19. A SES (sustainable energy security) index for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of the energy system of a country is a prerequisite for framing good energy polices. However, the existing indices which claim to measure energy security have limited applicability for developing countries. Energy sustainability is also increasingly gaining importance and countries are keen to measure it to tailor their energy policies. Therefore, the concept of SES (sustainable energy security) has been proposed as the goal for a developing country. This paper presents an analytical framework for the assessment of SES of an energy system and the methodology for constructing an SES index. A hierarchical structure has been proposed and the energy system has been divided into 'supply', 'conversion & distribution' and 'demand' sub-systems. Each subsystem is further divided into its components which are evaluated for four dimensions of SES, Availability, Affordability, Efficiency and (Environmental) Acceptability using quantitative metrics. Energy indices are constructed using 'scores' (objective values), and 'weights' (subjective values representing tradeoffs) which are then aggregated, bottom-up, to obtain an overall SES Index for a country. The proposed SES Index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible. Such a SES Index can be used to design policy interventions for transitioning to a sustainable and a secure energy future. - Highlights: • A SES (sustainable energy security) index is proposed for developing countries. • A hierarchical structure includes the entire energy system from supply to end use. • The performance of all energy sources, energy carriers and sectors is assessed. • Availability, affordability, efficiency and acceptability dimensions are evaluated. • The SES index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible.

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Belgium, including recommendations on future policy. Belgium has been successful in phasing out the exploitation of its high-cost and uncompetitive coal, without major social problems. To enhance its energy supplies, it has developed a nuclear industry based on a high level of technology and promoted natural gas imports. The electricity and gas industries are highly concentrated and integrated, in many cases preventing competition from working to benefit consumers. Structural reforms in the electricity and gas markets are required to create competitive, efficient, and flexible markets. The report also recommends that responsibilities transferred from the federal government to the three governments need to be harmonized, especially those concerning climate change

  1. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  3. Electrical Power and Illumination Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electrical power and illumination systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  4. Advanced Grid Control Technologies Workshop Series | Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Smart Grid and Beyond John McDonald, Director, Technical Strategy and Policy Development, General Control Technologies Workshop Series In July 2015, NREL's energy systems integration team hosted workshops the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) and included a technology showcase featuring projects

  5. Carbon and energy taxes in a small and open country

    OpenAIRE

    S. Solaymani

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia, as a small and developing country, must reduce carbon emissions because the country is one of the top CO2-emitting countries in the ASEAN region. Therefore, the current study implements two environmental tax policies; carbon and energy taxes, in order to examine the impacts of these policies on the reduction of carbon emission in the whole of the economy by applying a computable general equilibrium model. Since the whole of the government revenue from these tax policies is transferr...

  6. Renewable Energy Policy Country Profiles. 2011 version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teckenburg, E.; Rathmann, M.; Winkel, T. [ECOFYS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Busch, S. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Technical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2011-08-15

    The core objective of the project RE-Shaping is to assist Member State (MS) governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC and to guide a European policy for RES in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The effectiveness and the efficiency of current and future RES support schemes is analysed with specific focus on a single European market for renewable electricity products. Current best practices are identified, and (future) costs of RES and the corresponding support necessary to initiate stable growth are assessed. Better integration of RES policies with climate and innovation policy as well as liberalised energy markets will be analysed and promoted. Options for flexibility between Member States will be analysed. The future deployment of RES in each MS will be calculated based on the Green-X model to assist MS in implementing national action plans and to support a long term vision of the European RES policy. The latter will be based on an in-depth analysis of the long term RES potentials and costs. The impact of policies on risks for RES financing will be analysed and improved policies and financing instruments will be proposed.

  7. Energy balances of OECD countries 1970/1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The present volume provides standardized energy balance sheets expressed in a common unit of tons of oil equivalent for all OECD Countries. It covers the years 1970 to 1982 year by year and includes many revisions and additions to data previously published. The balances in the present volume are based on data published in OECD Energy Statistics 1971-1981 and OECD Energy Statistics 1981-1982. Tables for each OECD Country include production, import, export, consumption by the different industries, transportation, agriculture, residential sector of the different energies: solid fuels, petroleum, gas, nuclear power and hydroelectricity [fr

  8. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in four low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using the econometrics in time-series methods. Along the estimation process, I use the annual data on energy consumption and real GDP per capita over the years of 1971 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time series are not stationary for all countries at levels, but log of economic growth in Benin and Congo become stationary after taking the differences of the data, and log of energy consumption become stationary for all countries and LGR in Kenya and Zimbabwe are found to be stationary after taking the second differences of the time-series. The findings of the Johansen co-integration test demonstrate that the variables LEC and LGR are not co-integrated for the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe, so no long-run relationship between the variables arises in any country. The Granger causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to economic growth in Kenya and no causality linkage between EC and GR in Benin, Congo and Zimbabwe.

  9. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria - 2014 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country's decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions. Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner. A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  10. Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Duro, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Theil's second measure to analyze international energy intensity differences. This index allows differences to be broken down within and between groups of countries in a consistent manner. An analysis of OECD countries for the period 1971-1999 shows some basic points: first, the fall in energy intensities differences is attributable both to within-group and between-group inequality components; second, between-group inequalities are currently the main contributor to the whole inequality value; finally, a detailed exploration on within-group inequalities reveals the significant explanatory role played by EU-countries

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries 2003. 2003 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains an analysis of developments in energy policies in the Member countries of the International Energy Agency. It features an overview of major trends in the energy markets, notably the renewed interest in energy security on the part of policy-makers. The study describes how, during the period before and during the war in Iraq, the IEA successfully worked to secure oil supply. 2003 was also a year when growing gas demand and rising import dependency in most IEA Member countries obliged energy policy makers to look at the longer term issue of security of gas supply. In addition to these external developments, an internal dimension of energy security arose in the context of electricity and gas market reform. The book also describes the efforts by countries having ratified the Kyoto Protocol to implement the agreements and the trend of energy R and D policies, as well as developments in energy security and energy market reform in major non-OECD countries. It includes: summaries of the in-depth reviews of Austria, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan and Switzerland conducted from October 2002 to June 2003. The full reviews are published separately

  12. Renewable energy. Market and policy trends in IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy has received high levels of attention in recent years as an alternative to traditional hydrocarbons. Governments, industry and consumers have adopted and promoted renewable technologies in response to concerns about energy security and the environment, and as a solution to electricity access problems in developing countries. To what degree has renewable energy gained a share in the energy mix? What lessons can be learned from efforts made thus far? Renewable Energy - Market and Policy Trends in IEA Countries reviews the experience of IEA countries after the oil crisis in the 1970's initiated a surge of investments in renewables research and development. While use of renewables has grown rapidly, they still account for only a small portion of the IEA energy mix. Hydropower, bio-energy and geothermal energy are mature technologies that contribute about 5 - 6% to primary energy supply. Solar, wind, and other new renewables have experienced rapid technology development, but as yet they represent only a small share. This work examines policies and measures that have been introduced in IEA countries to increase the cost effective deployment of renewables, reviews the objectives behind these policies, and evaluates the results. The aim is to identify best practices in order to assist governments in making future policy decisions

  13. Assessing the energy vulnerability: Case of industrialised countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansounou, Edgard

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of new big consumer countries on the energy markets and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about fair distribution of the remaining resources for the common and sustainable well-being of the mankind. High volatility of energy prices discourages the investment and delays the energy technology transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources, to enable technology transfer towards emerging and developing countries and to avoid struggle for energy procurement. In this paper, a composite index of energy demand/supply weaknesses is defined as a proxy of energy vulnerability. The proposed index is based on several indicators such as energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply weaknesses and non-diversity in transport fuels. The assessment of this composite index for selected industrialised countries is discussed as well as the sensitivity to various factors

  14. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  15. Energy research projects in the Nordic countries - catalogue 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Nordic energy ministers at their meeting February 9, 1982 agreed upon a working plan for the Nordic energy cooperation. As part of this plan a contact group was established in order to maintain coordination and cooperation within the area of energy research and development. This group decided April 1982 to establish a catalogue of energy research projects in the Nordic countries. A pilot catalogue was published in June 1982. The 1983 catalogue gives an up-to-date survey of energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. About 2125 projects are described, and information is given on investigator(s), performing organization, financing body, funds, and period. The catalogue is prepared by the Nordic energy libraries through their cooperation in Nordic Atomic Libraries Joint Secretariat. The information is also included in the data base Nordic Energy Index (NEI), which is online accessible at I/S Datacentralen, Copenhagen, via EURONET, SCANNET, TYMNET, AND TELENET. (BP)

  16. Energy and nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In this publication of the IAEA, after the introduction, four substantive parts follow. Part I, Energy demand and rational energy supply, deals with the needs for energy, primary energy resources and reserves, energy transport, storage, distribution and conservation, including the environmental effects on energy development. Part II, Economic aspects of energy development, presents an integrated view of the basic concepts of energy economics, evaluation of alternative energy projects with an in-depth comparison of electricity generation costs of nuclear and fossil-fuelled power plants. Part III, World energy development status and trends, begins with an overview of the world energy status and trends and continues with a presentation of the energy situation in industrialized countries and in developing countries. Part IV, Energy planning, deals with the optimization techniques, energy planning concepts and computerized models. The launching conditions and implementation of a nuclear power programme are described in detail. 582 references are given in the text and a bibliographical list of 356 titles has been added

  17. Role of forest biomass energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Forest biomass holds a significant position for energy production in developing countries. Its importance is elucidated through various activities performed by the rural industries. The socio-economic and environmental aspects in utilizing this type of energy are also discussed. (Author)

  18. Energy taxes, trends and structure in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Most forms of energy are taxed in industrialised countries, but taxes vary amongst regions and between products. Oil taxes are by far the most important. They accounted in 1999 for 45 per cent of the total value of the oil barrel in the market. Natural gas is taxed much less than oil, but taxes are increasing, whereas coal taxes are absent or remain negligible. Environmental considerations have resulted in higher energy taxes in some countries ? the best examples in recent years are Germany and the UK. However, treasury revenue is still the most important determinant both for the level and for the structure of energy taxes. (author)

  19. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewable combustible and waste. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. The data contained in this publication are presented in comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent in Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1993-1994, the sister volume of this publication. (authors). figs., tabs

  20. Implementation of sustainable energy programs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Energy, a major contributor to development, is an essential element for increasing quality of life. During the next decades, the developing world will experience an explosive increase of energy demand, requiring enormous efforts and ingenuity to be fully satisfied. Delays may create public frustration for not achieving paradigm levels of quality of life, giving eventually rise to serious pressures on governments. The concept of sustainable energy options for development cannot be analyzed under the same prism in developed and developing countries. The relative degree of a country development should be introduced when setting up the path to sustainable development. (author)

  1. Road safety forecasts in five European countries using structural time series models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2014-01-01

    Modeling road safety development is a complex task and needs to consider both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed. The objective of this research is to apply structural time series models for obtaining reliable medium- to long-term forecasts of road traffic fatality risk using data from 5 countries with different characteristics from all over Europe (Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Norway, and Switzerland). Two structural time series models are considered: (1) the local linear trend model and the (2) latent risk time series model. Furthermore, a structured decision tree for the selection of the applicable model for each situation (developed within the Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis [DaCoTA] research project, cofunded by the European Commission) is outlined. First, the fatality and exposure data that are used for the development of the models are presented and explored. Then, the modeling process is presented, including the model selection process, introduction of intervention variables, and development of mobility scenarios. The forecasts using the developed models appear to be realistic and within acceptable confidence intervals. The proposed methodology is proved to be very efficient for handling different cases of data availability and quality, providing an appropriate alternative from the family of structural time series models in each country. A concluding section providing perspectives and directions for future research is presented.

  2. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  3. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.

    2010-01-01

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use.

  4. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  6. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  7. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  8. Energy balances of non-OECD countries, 2001-2002. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances, expressed in tonnes of oil equivalent for over 100 non-OECD countries. Historical tables summarize production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. This book includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. More detailed data in original units are published in Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2001-2002, the sister volume of this publication. Bi-lingual edition: English - French. In general the CD-Rom and on-line service contain detailed time-series back to 1971

  9. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  10. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  11. Using time series structural characteristics to analyze grain prices in food insecure countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Frank; Funk, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Two components of food security monitoring are accurate forecasts of local grain prices and the ability to identify unusual price behavior. We evaluated a method that can both facilitate forecasts of cross-country grain price data and identify dissimilarities in price behavior across multiple markets. This method, characteristic based clustering (CBC), identifies similarities in multiple time series based on structural characteristics in the data. Here, we conducted a simulation experiment to determine if CBC can be used to improve the accuracy of maize price forecasts. We then compared forecast accuracies among clustered and non-clustered price series over a rolling time horizon. We found that the accuracy of forecasts on clusters of time series were equal to or worse than forecasts based on individual time series. However, in the following experiment we found that CBC was still useful for price analysis. We used the clusters to explore the similarity of price behavior among Kenyan maize markets. We found that price behavior in the isolated markets of Mandera and Marsabit has become increasingly dissimilar from markets in other Kenyan cities, and that these dissimilarities could not be explained solely by geographic distance. The structural isolation of Mandera and Marsabit that we find in this paper is supported by field studies on food security and market integration in Kenya. Our results suggest that a market with a unique price series (as measured by structural characteristics that differ from neighboring markets) may lack market integration and food security.

  12. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  13. Energy indicators for tracking sustainability in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, Andreas; Spreng, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fact that human activities and most sustainability issues are closely related to energy use, the energy system is a sound framework for providing lead indicators for sustainable development. Common energy-economic models enable the estimation of future states of the energy system. An energy system-based lead indicator set can be used to develop consistent and coherent future indicator estimates and to track sustainability, a clear advantage over existing sets. In developed countries, the sustainability discussion is focused on environmental topics, while in developing countries the issues of poverty and equity are equally important. Consequently, for measuring sustainable development in a developing country, the inclusion of a poverty indicator in a set of lead indicators is essential. By correlation and descriptive analysis, it is shown that reliable energy-based indicators of poverty can be created. Although no one-dimensional indicator is a comprehensive measure of poverty, the explanatory power of energy poverty indicators is comparable to that of other poverty indicators. Thus, the use of energy indicators is not restricted to environmental and economic issues but is also relevant for social issues

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  16. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run.

  17. Forecast errors in IEA-countries' energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Every year Policy of IEA Countries includes a forecast of the energy consumption in the member countries. Forecasts concerning the years 1985,1990 and 1995 can now be compared to actual values. The second oil crisis resulted in big positive forecast errors. The oil price drop in 1986 did not have...... the small value is often the sum of large positive and negative errors. Almost no significant correlation is found between forecast errors in the 3 years. Correspondingly, no significant correlation coefficient is found between forecasts errors in the 3 main energy sectors. Therefore, a relatively small...

  18. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  19. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  20. Energy use in the new millenium. Trends in IEA countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-10

    At their Gleneagles Summit in July 2005, G8 leaders identified climate change and securing clean energy and sustainable development as key global challenges. They agreed that we must transform the way we use energy and that we must start now. Improved energy efficiency is essential to meeting this goal. Therefore, the G8 asked the IEA to provide analysis of energy use and efficiency developments in buildings, appliances, transport and industry. This publication is a response to the G8 request. Looking back, it shows how changes in energy efficiency, economic structure, income, prices and fuel mix have affected recent trends in energy use and CO2 emissions in IEA countries. The results are a 'wake-up call' for us all. Since 1990, the rate of energy efficiency improvement in IEA countries has been less than 1% per year - much lower than in previous decades and not nearly enough to stem the growth of CO2 emissions. If we are to tackle climate change and move towards a sustainable energy future then this rate will need to double. We must - and we can - do better. By means of in-depth energy indicators, this publication provides important insights to policy-makers about current energy use and CO2 emission patterns that will help shape priorities for future action.

  1. Causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth: A multi-country analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Ku, Se-Ju

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth using the data from six countries among 20 countries that have used nuclear energy for more than 20 years until 2005. To this end, time-series techniques including the tests for unit roots, co-integration, and Granger-causality are employed to Argentina, France, Germany, Korea, Pakistan, and Switzerland. The main conclusion is that the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is not uniform across countries. In the case of Switzerland, there exists bi-directional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. This means that an increase in nuclear energy consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further nuclear energy consumption. The uni-directional causality runs from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption without any feedback effects in France and Pakistan, and from nuclear energy to economic growth in Korea. However, any causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in Argentina and Germany is not detected.

  2. Deployment of energy efficient technologies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient and reliable power generation and power distribution represent the engine for economic growth in developing countries. A vast majority of the population in these countries does not have access to electricity, and those that do are often faced with an unreliable power distribution system. Now is the ideal time to transfer efficient energy technologies which also adhere to environmental standards. There are a myriad of inexpensive ways to avoid energy losses, such as cogeneration, the addition of natural gas turbines to coal-fired heating boilers. Even power generation itself can be more efficient. These improvements would encourage the financing world to pay closer attention and invest more rapidly in projects aimed at improving efficient power generation. The International Energy Agency was created in 1974 with the participation of 25 countries, and its mandate was expanded to include the deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies in developing countries. Technology transfer involves more than the shipping of equipment combined with some expert assistance. It involves the active participation of several partners, from the private sector, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), and academic institutions. The objective is to empower the recipient population, thereby reducing the need for imports. It is a joint international effort where the results benefit all participants. The author also discussed the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) with the aim of disseminating information concerning climate change in the hope of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. Discussions to assist countries in the examination of avenues open to them in the field of energy are also fostered. Training in energy efficient technologies represents an important aspect of the role of CTI. It applies to decision makers to help them establish appropriate guidelines and regulations with regard to these technologies. Sustainable development can be achieved

  3. Promotion of renewable energy in some MENA region countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladim, K.; Bouchakour, S.; Arab, A. Hadj; Ould Amrouche, S.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years Middle East and North African (MENA) countries, are showing efforts about the integration of renewable electricity into their power markets. Indeed, installations were already achieved and renewable energy programs were launched. The Algerian program remains one of the most ambitious with its installation capacity up to 22GW of power generating to be installed by 2030. More than 60 % of the total capacity is planned to be solar photovoltaic (PV). Like Algeria, Morocco has integrated development project with a target to develop by 2020 a 2000 MW capacity of electricity production from solar energy. The Tunisian government has launched its first phase of the renewable power generation program, with an objective to install 1,000 MW of renewable power capacity over the 2017-2020 periods, where 650 MW of the total capacity is planned to be solar and 350 MW wind. One of the leading Arab country in wind energy, these recent years is Egypt, with its more than 700 megawatt of operational power generation plants and has launched significant projects development in solar energy. Regarding Jordan, the government has taken different steps in this field of energy with a Strategy plan 2007-2020, by implementing a large scale of projects on renewable energy sources, with an objective to cover 10% of the country’s energy supply, from renewable sources by the year 2020. Concerning Lebanon, the country is looking to attain an integration of 12 % by 2020.

  4. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.

    1989-01-01

    Issues of coordinated energy planning are emphasized, with particular reference to interrelationships among the policies adopted in various energy sub-sectors such as electric power (including hydro, nuclear, geothermal, oil and coal sources), petroleum, natural gas, coal, non-conventional (solar, bio-gas, mini-hydro) and traditional fuels (woodfuel, bagasse or vegetable residue). The scope and objectives of integrated national energy planning, the policy tools available, and constraints particular to the developing countries are discussed next. Section 3.0 outlines how energy planning is carried out, while the problems of implementing the resulting policy conclusions are examined in section 4.0. 5 refs, 4 figs

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  6. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developing country industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction of energy-related technological change have long been recognized as critical determinants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived from integrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developing countries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has lagged behind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoral productivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change for several energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, for comparison, the United States. The key findings are substantial heterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of cases of declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certain technical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to the direct comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations. Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to the empirical basis for common modeling assumptions

  7. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  8. Energy demand modelling: pointing out alternative energy sources. The example of industry in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, P.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis studies energy demand and alternative energy sources in OECD countries. In the first part, the principle models usually used for energy demand modelling. In the second part, the author studies the flexible functional forms (translog, generalized Leontief, generalized quadratic, Fourier) to obtain an estimation of the production function. In the third part, several examples are given, chosen in seven countries (Usa, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada). Energy systems analysis in these countries, can help to choose models and gives informations on alternative energies. 246 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  9. Financing the energy sector in developing countries: context and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkerley, Joy.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional 'business as usual' financing methods will no longer be adequate to meet the unprecedented demands for capital to finance energy sector expansion in the developing countries. In recognition, many countries are opening up their power sectors to private investment, initially through the establishment of independent power projects, but in some cases through sector privatization. Project financing has many advantages, but further sectoral reorganization, including tariff reform, will be needed to attract resources on the scale required, especially from domestic investors. In oil and gas, in contrast to power, private capital from the international oil companies has always played a major role in the developing countries. However, sharply increasing investment requirements require a growing role for external finance. There should, in principle, be no shortage of investible funds to finance energy sector expansion in developing countries so long as host countries establish conditions which are attractive to private investors. The augmented role of private finance requires a continuing, if different, role for the public sector in both host countries and official aid agencies. (author)

  10. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  11. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  12. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  13. Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane

    2006-01-01

    While the availability of electricity by itself is not a panacea for the economic and social problems facing Africa, the supply of electricity is nevertheless believed to be a necessary requirement for Africa's economic and social development. This paper tests the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 17 African countries for the period 1971-2001 using a newly developed cointegration test proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and using a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The advantage of using these two approaches is that they both avoid the pre-testing bias associated with conventional unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical evidence shows that there was a long-run relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita for only 9 countries and Granger causality for only 12 countries. For 6 countries there was a positive uni-directional causality running from real GDP per capita to electricity consumption per capita; an opposite causality for 3 countries and bi-directional causality for the remaining 3 countries. The result should, however, be interpreted with care as electricity consumption accounts for less than 4% of total energy consumption in Africa and only grid-supplied electricity is taken into account

  14. Possibilities for Negotiated Agreements on Energy Efficiency in CEE Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This article summarises the results of the four month study of the possibilities for using Negotiated Agreements on Energy Efficiency between Government and Industry as a tool for improving energy efficiency in the CEE industrial sector. Negotiated Agreements are becoming increasingly popular in many countries as a potential means of addressing environmental problems (SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 ) and resource depletion (the use of fossil fuels), without adversely affecting economic development. In the report the use of these instrument in a number of countries is considered and described in view of developing a framework for assessing the possibilities for such agreements in CEE countries. The framework was applied through a case-study of Poland and a quick 'scan' of Belarus, Croatia and Latvia. (author)

  15. Energy and economic development in Lithuania and neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskas, V.; Shtremeikiene, D.

    1995-01-01

    In Lithuania as also in neighbouring countries (Poland, Latvia, Belarus, Russia) economic reforms are going on. All these countries, better or worse, slower or quicker, are restructuring their economies from centrally planned into market based ones. The neighbouring countries also are the main Lithuania's trading partners, and Russia is a sole supplier of crude oil and natural gas. This article deals with the analysis of the latest economic development in Lithuania and in neighbouring countries, as well as with it impact on the development of the Lithuanian energy sector. The analysis is based on the statistical data of the last few years and on some projections of future development. (author). 12 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs

  16. Explaining the Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeiffer, B.; Mulder, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the diffusion of non-hydro renewable energy (NHRE) technologies for electricity generation across 108 developing countries between 1980 and 2010. We use two-stage estimation methods to identify the determinants behind the choice of whether or not to adopt NHRE as well as about

  17. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, combustible renewables and waste. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. (authors). 242 tabs

  18. Detecting emerging trends and country specializations in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, D.; Pandiella Dominique, A.

    2016-07-01

    The sector of Energy Efficiency is key in the development of a country. Energy saving means cost savings and this affects GDP growth and employment. In addition, there are environmental benefits such as savings in the use of natural resources or reducing carbon emissions. If we also take into account the deduction of foreign energy dependence, it is noted that it is a sector of vital economic and strategic importance. Proof of this is that energy efficiency is a priority policy in science and technology agenda of most countries (OECD, 2011). Although it is an area of global concern, the particularities of each context make both the issues and the areas of scientific and technological activity can be considerably different from one country to another. To study these peculiarities, scientific publications in international databases were analyzed. These outputs are a good indicator of the intensity and specialization of scientific and technological activity of countries. Also, the characteristics of energy efficiency sector -such as the crosscutting and interdisciplinarity- make it an attractive object to be approached from a bibliometric perspective. This methodological approach was used because bibliometrics has become one of the central models to analyze measure and evaluate different aspects of the scientific activity (Callon, Courtial, & Penan, 1995). Among its most frequent uses are, the analysis of scientific productivity (researchers, groups, institutions, disciplines or countries), and the study of its impact on the scientific community. However, it has had more innovative applications, as the detection of new research fronts, the study of collaborative networking between different institutional actors and the identification of niche of research. Given these considerations, the aim of this work is to show the results of a study in which we analyze scientific activity in energy efficiency through bibliometric indicators. The bibliometric research, constructed

  19. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  20. Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ► Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ► Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ► Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ► The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries: Japan - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    Declaring climate change and environment as a top priority of the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, host country Japan has demonstrated its commitment to pressing ahead in these domains. Already a world leader in advancing energy technology transfer and environmental policy, the country is determined to further improve its domestic policies, moving it towards a more sustainable and secure energy pathway for the long term. Along with other accomplishments, government support for energy R and D is very strong and policies to enhance the efficiency of appliances - both for domestic consumption and export - are models for other countries. Yet there is still room for progress. Most importantly, a greater reliance on market forces throughout the system could lead customers to choices that enhance security, raise economic efficiency and promote environmental protection. Particularly with respect to climate change goals - Japan is the world's fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter - strengthening the value on greenhouse gas emissions would help give consumers the appropriate signals they need to make the right choices. Enhancing energy savings through efforts aimed at particular sectors (sectoral approaches) could be a part of the overall policy mix, along with ongoing leadership in promoting energy efficiency. The government should continue to work to complement existing voluntary instruments with stronger ones, including ones that rely more on market incentives, and standards and requirements. This review takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Japan today and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.

  3. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  4. Energy content in manufacturing exports: A cross-country analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, João

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the energy content in manufacturing exports in a set of 30 advanced and emerging economies and examines its evolution from 1995 to 2005, combining information from the OECD input–output matrices and international trade data in 17 manufacturing sectors. In addition, the article suggests a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects, presenting results according to technological categories. The article concludes that Brazil, India and, mostly, China, present a high energy content in manufacturing exports, which has increased from 1995 to 2005. Conversely, many advanced economies, notably in Europe and North America, which showed energy contents below the world average in 1995, reinforced their position as exporters with relatively lower energy usage. The contribution of export structure and energy efficiency effects to explain differences in the energy content of exports draws attention to the situation of China. This country increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods. This effect was reinforced by the stronger export specialization in high-tech products and hindered by a comparatively lower specialization in medium-high-tech products. - Highlights: ► We compare the energy content in manufacturing exports in advanced and emerging economies. ► We suggest a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects. ► Large emerging economies present high energy content in manufacturing exports. ► China increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods.

  5. Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punys, P.; Dumbrauskas, A.; Rimkus, Z.; Streimikiene, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

  6. Convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries over the period 1971 to 2011 using the panel KPSS stationarity test and panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test. The results for the panel stationarity and unit root tests with structural breaks find support for energy convergence in ASEAN. - Highlights: • We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among the ASEAN nations. • Univariate conventional unit root tests provide mixed evidence of convergence. • Panel unit root tests with structural breaks support convergence hypothesis

  7. Carbon and energy taxes in a small and open country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solaymani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, as a small and developing country, must reduce carbon emissions because the country is one of the top CO2-emitting countries in the ASEAN region. Therefore, the current study implements two environmental tax policies; carbon and energy taxes, in order to examine the impacts of these policies on the reduction of carbon emission in the whole of the economy by applying a computable general equilibrium model. Since the whole of the government revenue from these tax policies is transferred to all household and labor types through two schemes, a lump sum tax, and a labor tax, respectively, it is assumed that there is revenue neutrality in the model for the government. The findings from simulated scenarios indicate that the carbon tax policy is the more efficient policy for reducing CO2 emission, in both transferring schemes, while its impact on macroeconomic variables is almost lower than the equivalent energy tax. The carbon tax is more effective than the energy tax for Malaysia to achieve 40% carbon reduction target in comparison with its 2005 level. The carbon tax, compared to the energy tax, also leads to more decrease in consumption of fossil fuels. The carbon tax policy, in comparison with the energy tax, due to revenue recycling causes much more increase in the welfare of rural and urban households in Malaysia, especially the welfare of rural (lower income households.

  8. Partner Country Series: Gas Pricing - China's Challenges and IEA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    China will play a positive role in the global development of gas, the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Executive Director, Maria Van der Hoeven has said in Beijing on 11 September, 2012 when launching a new IEA report: Gas Pricing and Regulation, China’s challenges and IEA experiences. In line with its aim to meet growing energy demand while shifting away from coal, China has set an ambitious goal of doubling its use of natural gas from 2011 levels by 2015. Prospects are good for significant new supplies – both domestic and imported, conventional and unconventional – to come online in the medium-term, but notable challenges remain, particularly concerning gas pricing and the institutional and regulatory landscape. While China’s circumstances are, in many respects unique, some current issues are similar to those a number of IEA countries have faced. This report highlights some key challenges China faces in its transition to greater reliance on natural gas, then explores in detail relevant experiences from IEA countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States as well as the European Union (EU). Preliminary suggestions about how lessons learned in other countries could be applied to China’s situation are offered as well. The aim of this report is to provide stakeholders in China with a useful reference as they consider decisions about the evolution of the gas sector in their country.

  9. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2005 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country’s EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO2 emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership.

  10. Energy efficiency and capital-energy substitutability: Evidence from four OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Morakinyo O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis examines energy efficiency gains in selected OPEC countries during 1972–2010. • Capital-energy substitutability is also explored to analyze the impact of policy measures to reduce energy use. • The magnitudes of energy efficiency gains are somewhat small or modest. • Energy and capital are substitutes in some countries, but complements in others. • Climate change policies need to internalize the environmental cost of energy consumption in end-use prices. - Abstract: Rapid economic growth and development in several oil-exporting developing countries have led to increasing energy consumption and the accompanying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Consequently, a good understanding of the nature and structure of energy use in developing economies is required for future energy and climate change policies. To this end, a modified translog cost function is employed in this paper to estimate energy efficiency for selected members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) over the period 1972–2010. This also allows for the estimation of energy-capital substitutability, which arguably reflects the likely ease/disruption to long-term growth arising from policy measures aimed at reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions. The estimated results show that energy efficiency gains range from −14% to 13% for sampled countries. Furthermore, factor substitution elasticities suggest that energy and capital are substitutes in Algeria and Saudi Arabia, but are found to be complements in Iran and Venezuela. The insight generated by this study is that, over the last four decades, energy efficiency improvements in selected OPEC countries are modest, possibly reflecting a “subsidy effect” arising from artificially low energy prices. Thus, policy makers should take note that measures aimed at conserving energy need to internalize the environmental cost arising from energy consumption using pricing and fiscal instruments

  11. New world balance and emerging countries - democracy, energy, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The serious economic crisis which rages since 2008 has been the result of a troubled era which started years before and contributed to aggravate the phenomenon. Energy crisis, biodiversity loss, global warming and its effects, markets deregulation have added up to economic recession. We are today the witnesses of a new deal of the cards illustrated by the social revolts of several Arab countries around the Mediterranean Sea. In this changing world, the declining occident cannot impose its economical or political leadership and the main emerging countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa: BRICS) play a more and more important role. With 30% of population increase expected in 2050, the emerging countries represent the driver of the world growth and have become the keys of development questions. In front of this irreversible movement, urgent and worldwide changes have to be done. First of all, huge technological efforts and changes of the existing international institutions (IMF, UNO, WTO) and of their governance are necessary to build up a sustainable economy and energy policy with emerging countries. Such a transformation will be painful for the Occident as it will change its vision of growth based on political domination and search of financial wealth, energy and resources. It is this effort that the author aims to present in this book in a practical and visionary way, where technological progress occupies an important place

  12. Developing countries inclined to nuclear energy. Advent of newcomer countries age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Although a certain degree of braking was applied to the nuclear power development of the world after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, many countries maintain the attitude of promoting nuclear power from the viewpoints of global environmental issues and energy security. This paper overviews the trends of nuclear power generation around the world, and then introduces the nuclear power situation of the nuclear power generation countries such as Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, Argentina, and Taiwan. In Germany, nuclear departure policy since before the Fukushima Daiichi accident was accelerated, and the nuclear phase-out law was passed and put into force in August 2011. This paper also introduces the nuclear development trends in the newly introducing countries of United Arab Emirates (UAE), Belarus, Bangladesh, Turkey, Vietnam, and Saudi Arabia. Iran's first Bushehr No.1 unit began operation in 2013, and in the future United Arab Emirates will join in 2018 and Belarus will join 2019 as the nuclear power generation country. In the 2020s, several more countries are expected to newly join. (A.O.)

  13. What's happening in 'renewable energy developed country: Germany'. Next step our country should learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    What's the next step our country should take? Japan could learn a lot of things such as success or failure examples from renewable energy developed country: Germany. This article reviewed present state of Feed-In Tariffs and renewable energy power in Germany. Share of renewable energy power amounted to 20% including 7.6% of wind power and 6.1% of biomass in 2011. Such trend caused increase of power cost, restructure of power system such as new installation of power transmission against north coast offshore wind power plant, and development of power storage system such as hydrogen production or pumped storage power plant. Efficient introduction of renewable energy should be planned in Japan based on appropriate share target of renewable energy share. As for nuclear power phaseout, Japan should learn German's experiences on decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear power plants, and policies of intermediate storage and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, which needed a long time and a great cost. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Energy use and related risk management problems in CEE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the 'Old Europe'. The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc.. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use. (Authors)

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  16. Energy policies of IEA Countries. The Netherlands 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the IEA's on-going analysis of Member countries' energy policies, this review assess the Netherlands and offers recommendations taking account of major reforms announced by the Dutch Government in December 1995. The prominence of environmental objectives in Dutch energy policy and the widespread use of voluntary long-term agreements with industry provide constructive lessons for other countries. Targets for energy efficiency and renewability are especially ambitious. Moreover, the Dutch Government has made an important contribution to environmental policy by striving for a combination of market liberalization and a sustainable energy economy. The review recommends that market reforms be further developed, if necessary in the context of developments in European energy market policy. Gas pricing and a tendency for over-capacity to develop in the electricity sector are particular areas of discussion in the report. The review also draws attention to potentially high economic costs which may arise form energy-environment policies and affect the competitiveness of Dutch industry. (author). 18 figs., 13 tabs

  17. A New Method for Local Energy Planning in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beeck, N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy planning is an essential tool in the economic development of industrialized as well as developing countries. Energy planning in this paper is restricted to the selection of new energy systems for the production of proper energy forms in order to meet increased energy demand. This demand is actually the desire for certain energy services, which are the starting point of the new decision support method for local energy planning presented in this paper. In the decision making process concerning energy planning at the local level it is important to include context-related issues because the context determines for a large part the viability of the technologies or systems used. The context, in turn, is represented by the aims of the relevant actors, which are translated into measurable indicators to compare the different options. The impact assessment must allow for inclusion of all the indicators, either quantitative or qualitative in order to find the most appropriate technology for a region rather than the technically best or economically most optimal one. Appropriateness is defined by the context and is thus case specific, but the framework described in this paper is generally applicable within the given limitations. Note that the new method described in this paper is a decision support tool, implying that it does not decide for the energy planner which actions to take. The ultimate decision must be made by the planners themselves

  18. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W; Schmitz-Borchert, H P [eds.

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  19. Our Energy For The Country Project Started Our Via Bona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Slovenske Elektrarne received the main Via Bona award for its complex and extraordinary approach to responsible business. Non-profit fund Pontis has been granting this award since 1998 to companies voluntarily contributing to the mitigation of negative trends and the improvement of positive business aspects beyond legislative requirements. We won with our Energy for the Country programme. The award was given to Paolo Ruzzini, SE CEO and Chairman of the Board of Directors by Andrej Kiska, the new Slovak President.

  20. Energy balances of OECD countries 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, combustible renewables and waste. The figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. (authors). 93 figs., 162 tabs

  1. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil gas and electricity. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Production is shown for 'other solid fuels' such as wood and waste, as well as for heat. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. (author)

  2. Energy balances of OECD countries 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of solid fuels, oil, gas, electricity and heat. The figures are expressed in million metric tons of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to metric tons of oil equivalent. (author)

  3. Energy balances of OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewable combustible and waste presented in energy balances. The figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. (authors). figs., tabs

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-23

    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.

  6. Energy taxation and the environment: A developing country perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Economists prefer to monitor environmental protection and sustainable development through the use o economic instruments rather than with 'command and control' mechanisms. Energy, taxes and subsidies have emerged as a standard prescription for internalizing externalities. Yet existing energy tax policies, both in developed and developing countries, show, considerable contradictions in terms of environmental considerations. The question needs to be asked why this is so. Moreover, the suitability of fiscal measures for internalizing negative externalities in developing countries needs to be questioned. The objective of this article is to reveal the inherent contradictions and ambiguities in the application of taxes or subsidies to satisfy multiple objectives. It is argued that economic theory does not provide any ready-made solution to the problem and often sociopolitical considerations determine the outcome. Similarly, certain characteristics of developing countries, such as the existence of an important informal sector and the extensive use of traditional energies, violate certain basic assumptions a the underlying theory and require special attention in the application of pricing mechanism for internalizing externalities. (author)

  7. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass energy is emerging as a real option for satisfying power needs in developing countries. Experience has shown improvements in GDP are directly linked to increased consumption of energy. Biomass energy can also be environmentally and developmentally beneficial where it will be both grown and used. Biomass production can offset deforestation, reduce soil erosion, increase rural employment, and stimulate development. Moreover, when biomass is grown renewably there is no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries are discussed. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, supportive of rural development, and environmentally beneficial, adapted to local conditions; takes advantage of by- and co-products and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in Southwest China indicates that biomass could be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than alternatives and yield an internal rate of return of about 15%. The IRR based on a social and environmental benefits are substantial and investment in the facility is well-justified. However, assessing biomass energy systems is exceedingly complex. Considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementation requires considerations of energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. The conclusion that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Denmark 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-18

    Denmark has had a very pro-active energy policy in both energy efficiency and renewable energy while at the same time opening its gas and power markets to competition. The share of renewable energy has increased dramatically, going from 3% of all electricity generation in 1990 to 25% in 2004. At the same time, the government's renewable support policies up to the early 2000s came with a high cost for consumers and taxpayers. However, the current government is very attentive to cost-effectiveness and inclined to market-based approaches. Greater use of cost-benefit analysis, including for offshore wind plants, is crucial in shaping future policies. The review indicates that energy efficiency programmes have historically been more cost-effective than renewable energy programmes in lowering emissions and enhancing energy security. Denmark's energy intensity is 35% below the IEA average, due in substantial part to the government's efforts to improve efficiency. This policy provides an excellent example for other countries, although the review notes that more should be done for transport efficiency.

  9. Stochastic convergence of renewable energy consumption in OECD countries: a fractional integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko; Al-Mulali, Usama

    2018-04-13

    In this article, we have examined the hypothesis of convergence of renewable energy consumption in 27 OECD countries. However, instead of relying on classical techniques, which are based on the dichotomy between stationarity I(0) and nonstationarity I(1), we consider a more flexible approach based on fractional integration. We employ both parametric and semiparametric techniques. Using parametric methods, evidence of convergence is found in the cases of Mexico, Switzerland and Sweden along with the USA, Portugal, the Czech Republic, South Korea and Spain, and employing semiparametric approaches, we found evidence of convergence in all these eight countries along with Australia, France, Japan, Greece, Italy and Poland. For the remaining 13 countries, even though the orders of integration of the series are smaller than one in all cases except Germany, the confidence intervals are so wide that we cannot reject the hypothesis of unit roots thus not finding support for the hypothesis of convergence.

  10. Energy landscapes for a machine learning application to series data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Andrew J.; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J., E-mail: dw34@cam.ac.uk [University Chemical Laboratories, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    Methods developed to explore and characterise potential energy landscapes are applied to the corresponding landscapes obtained from optimisation of a cost function in machine learning. We consider neural network predictions for the outcome of local geometry optimisation in a triatomic cluster, where four distinct local minima exist. The accuracy of the predictions is compared for fits using data from single and multiple points in the series of atomic configurations resulting from local geometry optimisation and for alternative neural networks. The machine learning solution landscapes are visualised using disconnectivity graphs, and signatures in the effective heat capacity are analysed in terms of distributions of local minima and their properties.

  11. Energy landscapes for a machine learning application to series data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, Andrew J.; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Methods developed to explore and characterise potential energy landscapes are applied to the corresponding landscapes obtained from optimisation of a cost function in machine learning. We consider neural network predictions for the outcome of local geometry optimisation in a triatomic cluster, where four distinct local minima exist. The accuracy of the predictions is compared for fits using data from single and multiple points in the series of atomic configurations resulting from local geometry optimisation and for alternative neural networks. The machine learning solution landscapes are visualised using disconnectivity graphs, and signatures in the effective heat capacity are analysed in terms of distributions of local minima and their properties.

  12. Energy and economic development [Brazil: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Schaeffer, R.

    2006-01-01

    When energy specialists discuss the relationships between energy use and economic development, the focus is usually on how energy supports economic growth, alleviates poverty and increases people's well-being. On rare occasions, though, the effect that a country's choices for promoting economic development have on energy production and use is a matter of concern. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the way Brazil's choices for promoting economic development over time have impacted primary and final energy use in the country. Economic growth has different levels of quality, which lead to different economic development paths. Some paths are more effective than others in creating wealth and in protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations. Quality actually matters as much for economic development as for energy. This chapter is divided into four sections covering energy and economic development relationships, the evolution of final energy use in Brazil, strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in the country and a summary of main issues. In Section 5.1, energy and economic development relationships are discussed, setting the background for the analysis of the impacts on final energy use of some of Brazil's choices for promoting economic development. The section begins by focusing on the basics of energy and economic development relationships. It should be noted that most energy specialists usually discuss only the basics of energy and economic development (the 'energy in support of economic development' theme), but this approach alone is not enough to explain differences in countries' final energy use patterns, or to identify strategies to enhance sustainable energy development. In this sense, the main contribution of this section is to further illuminate the role of social and economic choices in determining the effectiveness of a given country's economic development and that country's primary and final

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  14. Municipalities and energy efficiency in countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezessy, Silvia; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Baruch, Seth

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that many cost-efficient opportunities to employ end-use energy efficiency measures exist in countries in transition (CITs) and that municipal authorities have an essential role to play in capturing these opportunities. The aim of this paper is to review the factors that determine the degree of involvement of local authorities in the market for energy services and energy efficient (EE) equipment in three CITs: Bulgaria, Hungary and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (hereafter: Macedonia). We achieve this aim by examining the current status of local governments as the most powerful determinant of municipal market involvement. Two broad groups of factors are discussed: statutory obligations and powers of local governments, especially energy-related tasks, and finance. We explain how specific features within these two areas may influence the motivation of local authorities to improve energy efficiency and their capacity to do so. We argue that greater decentralization is the first step in augmenting the role of local authorities in the market for energy services and EE equipment. Based on the analysis we give recommendations on how to encourage municipal authorities to use market mechanisms more extensively to deliver energy efficiency

  15. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Akram; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  16. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  18. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  19. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  20. The nexus between energy consumption and financial development: estimating the role of globalization in Next-11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish; Saud, Shah; Baloch, Muhammad Awais; Lodhi, Rab Nawaz

    2018-04-28

    In the modern era of globalization, the economic activities expand with the passage of time. This expansion may increase demand for energy both in developing and developed countries. Therefore, this study assesses the impact of financial development on energy consumption incorporating the role of globalization in Next-11 countries. A group of panel estimation techniques is used to analyze the panel data and time series data for the time 1990-2014. The empirical results of the study suggest that financial development stimulates energy consumption. Also, globalization increases demand for energy consumption, although the single country analysis suggests that the effect of globalization on energy demand is heterogeneous among N-11 countries. Furthermore, feedback hypothesis is confirmed between financial development and energy consumption. Also, bidirectional causality is found between economic growth and energy consumption. The findings urge for the attention of policymaker in emerging countries to develop a strategy to reduce the consequences of energy consumption by controlling resource transfer through globalization to the host country and by adopting energy conversation policies.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Austria - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Since the last review in 2002, Austrian energy policy has seen many positive developments. Today, Austria counts among the IEA member countries with the highest share of renewable energy supply, thus increasing energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. Great progress has also been made in the utilisation of biomass for heat and electricity production. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The climate strategy revision in 2007 is commendably realistic, but uncertainty remains whether it will be sufficient, and whether renewables and energy efficiency are well-balanced within it. While Austria is strongly promoting an increase of renewables production by adopting challenging targets, it is less ambitious in the area of energy efficiency. To achieve the renewables target, their supply will have to double, leading to significant increases in costs. In energy efficiency, while Austria is leading in developing efficient building solutions, there are concerns about implementation, especially about the lack of ambition and divergence in building codes. Overall, energy intensity has increased in recent years, and the government will have to put a strong focus on reversing this development. Despite the early opening of the energy markets, effective competition has failed to emerge. This is partially due to systemic weaknesses such as dominant incumbents, lack of transparency in price formulation and a weak regulatory system with the potential for conflicts of interest. This review thoroughly analyses Austrian energy policy and identifies the key challenges that need to be addressed. With recommendations for improvements, it is an important guide for Austrian policy makers toward a safer and cleaner energy future.

  2. A Parsimonious Bootstrap Method to Model Natural Inflow Energy Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cyrino Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian energy generation and transmission system is quite peculiar in its dimension and characteristics. As such, it can be considered unique in the world. It is a high dimension hydrothermal system with huge participation of hydro plants. Such strong dependency on hydrological regimes implies uncertainties related to the energetic planning, requiring adequate modeling of the hydrological time series. This is carried out via stochastic simulations of monthly inflow series using the family of Periodic Autoregressive models, PAR(p, one for each period (month of the year. In this paper it is shown the problems in fitting these models by the current system, particularly the identification of the autoregressive order “p” and the corresponding parameter estimation. It is followed by a proposal of a new approach to set both the model order and the parameters estimation of the PAR(p models, using a nonparametric computational technique, known as Bootstrap. This technique allows the estimation of reliable confidence intervals for the model parameters. The obtained results using the Parsimonious Bootstrap Method of Moments (PBMOM produced not only more parsimonious model orders but also adherent stochastic scenarios and, in the long range, lead to a better use of water resources in the energy operation planning.

  3. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  4. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey including recommendations by the IEA on future policy developments. Recently, Turkey has taken steps to implement energy market reforms which have resulted in clear and significant benefits. Now, continued action is needed to see the process through to a successful conclusion. It is necessary to restructure the state-owned enterprises to operate in a competitive market, to create independent electricity and gas operators and to remove cross-subsidies from electricity and gas prices. Turkey has been very active in international co-operation in the energy sector. Some important oil and gas pipeline projects are underway or almost completed. This will improve the security of supply in Turkey and maintain its role as an important 'energy corridor' between East and West, while avoiding overuse of the Turkish Straits. Synchronisation of Turkey's electricity networks with the European UCTE grid is planned for 2006. Furthermore, the country already has transposed most EU energy laws and standards into national legislation. Turkey's general approach to energy policy has been highly supply-oriented. However, recent efforts have begun to focus more on energy efficiency and conservation. Nevertheless, stronger energy efficiency policies are needed, particularly in the transport sector. Turkey ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change in February 2004 and is developing its climate change strategy. The government should strive to monitor the cost-effectiveness of its policies, consider defining an emissions target and ensure coordination among the various government bodies. Despite past progress, work remains to be done to achieve further reductions in air pollution. 28 figs., 23 tabs., 3 annexes

  6. Energy Consumption Trends in Energy Scarce and Rich Countries: Comparative Study for Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Uneb

    2017-11-01

    Energy crisis is raising serious concerns throughout the world. There has been constant rise in energy consumption corresponding to the increase in global population. This sector affects the other pillars of national economy including industries and transportation. Because of these reasons, the traditional fossil-based energy sources are depleting rapidly, resulting in high and unstable energy prices. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, although different from each other in terms of their economic stability and political systems, still rely heavily on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents the comparison of these two countries in terms of their energy consumption and factors affecting it. These factors include, but not limited to, economic development, and growth in population and other sectors such as; industries, transportation, etc. The comparison is also made with the regional and global energy consumption trends and these countries. Moreover, regression models were built to predict energy consumption till 2040 and compare the growth in this sector and share in global energy demand. Energy consumption in oil-rich countries (Saudi Arabia) has been driven through its economic development, while for energy insecure country (Pakistan) it is mainly because of population growth. It was also found that in the next two decades the share of Pakistan in the global energy demand will increase. This concludes that population growth will have more impact on energy consumption than economic growth. It could mean that the shift in energy sector would shift towards sustenance instead of using energy for commercial or industrial usage. Conference Track: Policy and Finance and Strategies

  7. Fuel forests: a spreading energy resource in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The fuel potential of forests, particularly in Third World countries, to raise the contribution of fuelwood to global energy resources is receiving positive notice in the incentive programs for forestry projects offered by lending institutions and actions taken by governments to arrest the loss of forest cover. Residential and industrial use of wood must be balanced by rigorous woodland protection and management to increase tree planting. The example of Korea's success in increasing fuelwood supplies illustrates the importance of public understanding and community involvement so that local environmental and cultural factors are considered and local leaders are involved. 56 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  8. Visualization of time series statistical data by shape analysis (GDP ratio changes among Asia countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yukari; Hashimoto, Takako; Fitri Sari, Riri

    2018-03-01

    It has been very significant to visualize time series big data. In the paper we shall discuss a new analysis method called “statistical shape analysis” or “geometry driven statistics” on time series statistical data in economics. In the paper, we analyse the agriculture, value added and industry, value added (percentage of GDP) changes from 2000 to 2010 in Asia. We handle the data as a set of landmarks on a two-dimensional image to see the deformation using the principal components. The point of the analysis method is the principal components of the given formation which are eigenvectors of its bending energy matrix. The local deformation can be expressed as the set of non-Affine transformations. The transformations give us information about the local differences between in 2000 and in 2010. Because the non-Affine transformation can be decomposed into a set of partial warps, we present the partial warps visually. The statistical shape analysis is widely used in biology but, in economics, no application can be found. In the paper, we investigate its potential to analyse the economic data.

  9. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  10. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E., E-mail: eugene-stefanovich@usa.net; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-10-15

    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  11. Promoting low-carbon energies in Mediterranean partner countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energies remain marginal in the European neighbourhood, and their contribution to economic and human development is still largely unexplored. Directive 2009/28 on renewable energies explicitly contemplates green electricity imports from third countries, and the Mediterranean Solar Plan offers an economic and institutional framework for its deployment in the Southern neighbourhood. This Policy Paper addresses the question of whether these initiatives have the potential to become a driver for the development of the Southern neighbourhood or should instead be better considered as an EU-centric project to support European renewable industries and engineering firms. This Policy Paper argues that, in order to become a driver of economic development for the region, those initiatives should consider accompanying measures to foster investment, training, industrial delocalization, and technology transfers

  12. Clean energy, non-clean energy, and economic growth in the MIST countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Li, Yi-Ying; Hsin-Chia Fu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between clean (renewable/nuclear) and non-clean energy consumption and economic growth in emerging economies of the MIST (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey) countries. The panel co-integration tests reveal that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship among GDP, capital formation, labor force, renewable/nuclear, and fossil fuel energy consumption. The panel causality results indicate that (1) there is a positive unidirectional short-run causality from fossil fuel energy consumption to economic growth with a bidirectional long-run causality; (2) there is a unidirectional long-run causality from renewable energy consumption to economic growth with positive bidirectional short-run causality, and a long-run causality from renewable to fossil fuel energy consumption with negative short-run feedback effects; and (3) there is a bidirectional long-run causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth and a long-run causality from fossil fuel energy consumption to nuclear energy consumption with positive short-run feedback effects. These suggest that MIST countries should be energy-dependent economies and that energy conservation policies may depress their economic development. However, developing renewable and nuclear energy is a viable solution for addressing energy security and climate change issues, and creating clean and fossil fuel energy partnerships could enhance a sustainable energy economy. - Highlights: • This novel study can provide more robust bases to strengthen sustainable energy policy settings. • Fossil fuel/nuclear energy use and economic growth is bidirectional causality. • Renewable energy consumption long term causes economic growth. • There is substitutability between renewable and fossil fuel energy. • Clean and non-clean energy partnerships can achieve a sustainable energy economy

  13. Avoid Filling Swiss Cheese with Whipped Cream; Imputation Techniques and Evaluation Procedures for Cross-Country Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Weber; Michaela Denk

    2011-01-01

    International organizations collect data from national authorities to create multivariate cross-sectional time series for their analyses. As data from countries with not yet well-established statistical systems may be incomplete, the bridging of data gaps is a crucial challenge. This paper investigates data structures and missing data patterns in the cross-sectional time series framework, reviews missing value imputation techniques used for micro data in official statistics, and discusses the...

  14. Energy and environment market conditions in Mexico. Business focus series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The report provides: (1) an overview of the Mexican economy and the energy and environmental sectors; (2) specific market assessments of the oil and gas sector, the electric power sector, the industrial air pollution control sector, and the municipal and industrial water pollution control sector; and (3) an analysis of the Mexican business climate and procedures. Each of the sectors is projected to show significant growth over the next several years. The Mexican government has taken many positive steps to improve the country's business climate, including trade and foreign exchange liberalization, foreign investment incentives, and strengthened intellectual property regulation. The North American Free Trade Agreement is expected to further improve the business climate in Mexico

  15. Approximation of the energy acquis communautaire. Review of energy markets and policies of seven accession countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Van Wees, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a compilation of the country reviews conducted by ECN in the framework of the Phare Multi-country programme project 'Approximation of CEEC to EU legislation'. The project was conducted and co-ordinated by DEM (Denmark), with contributions of ERM (UK) and ECN. The project's main objective was to assist the CEECs to approximate their energy legislation with EU energy legislation. A secondary objective was to review the current situation of the energy markets and policies in the thirteen CEECs with respect to their progress in approximation towards the EU energy acquis and policy practices. For this second objective ECN assessed the current situation in seven countries, on the basis of a survey organised by the project co-ordinator DEM and filled in by the counterparts in the seven CEECs. Those seven countries are: the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Poland. These country reviews, which were sent to DEM for inclusion in their final report, are compiled here. In addition, ECN drafted an introduction and formulated a few final comments

  16. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  17. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  18. Paediatric abdominal tuberculosis in developed countries: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Megan; Seguin, Jade; Zeilinski, David; Moore, Dorothy L

    2016-03-01

    To provide an insight into the presentation, diagnosis and management of paediatric abdominal tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries. The records of all children at the Montreal Children's Hospital (MCH) admitted with abdominal TB between 1990 and 2014 were reviewed. An automated and manual literature search from 1946 to 2014 was performed. (1) CASE SERIES: six cases were identified at the MCH. All were male between 5 and 17 years of age. All were from populations known to have high rates of TB (aboriginal, immigrant). Three underwent major surgical interventions and three underwent ultrasound (US) or CT aspiration or biopsy for diagnosis. (2) LITERATURE REVIEW: 29 male (64%) and 16 female subjects (36%) aged between 14 months and 18 years were identified, including the MCH patients. All patients except one were from populations with a high incidence of TB. Most presented with a positive tuberculin skin test (90%), abdominal pain (76%), fever (71%) and weight loss (68%). On imaging, 22 (49%) were classified with gastrointestinal TB with colonic wall irregularity (41%) and 19 (42%) with peritoneal TB with ascites (68%). A positive culture was obtained in 33 (73%) patients. Three cases used CT- or US-guided aspiration or biopsy to obtain tissue samples. A surgical intervention was performed in 34 (76%) children; 13 (38%) of these were for diagnosis. Diagnosis based on clinical features (abdominal pain, fever and weight loss) and CT- or US-guided aspiration or biopsy may encourage physicians to adopt a more conservative approach to abdominal TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  20. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  1. Energy, employment and basic needs. The social implications of energy scarcity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, C

    1980-01-01

    This survey of published work on energy and economic development has three objectives. The first is to determine the extent to which the term 'crisis' can validly be used to describe the energy situation in the medium- and long-term from the point of view of the developing countries. The second objective is to define and discuss the policy choices facing developing countries in the field of energy supply and demand, taking into account their social objectives such as the generation of productive employment opportunities and the eradication of poverty. The modern (industry, energy and transport) and traditional sectors are treated separately. Finally a research agenda is presented, focusing on a few key issues which might usefully be made the subject of data collection and economic analysis.

  2. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  3. Analysis of historical series of industrial demand of energy; Analisi delle serie storiche dei consumi energetici dell`industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moauro, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports a short term analysis of the Italian demand for energy fonts and a check of a statistic model supposing the industrial demand for energy fonts as a function of prices and production, according to neoclassic neoclassic micro economic theory. To this pourpose monthly time series of industrial consumption of main energy fonts in 6 sectors, industrial production indexes in the same sectors and indexes of energy prices (coal, natural gas, oil products, electricity) have been used. The statistic methodology refers to modern analysis of time series and specifically to transfer function models. These ones permit rigorous identification and representation of the most important dynamic relations between dependent variables (production and prices), as relation of an input-output system. The results have shown an important positive correlation between energy consumption with prices. Furthermore, it has been shown the reliability of forecasts and their use as monthly energy indicators.

  4. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2003-01-01

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  5. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  6. Renewable and nuclear energy contribution to the electric systems of developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1994-01-01

    Economically, the nuclear energy is favourable. The investments to realize in the energy field are substantial. The environmental quality implements the renewable energies which must be more efficient. Energy control frames the largest managing margin for the future energy and for the relations between energy and environment. Few countries can control their nuclear surety. Nowadays, in the developing countries, electrical energy needs are very weak, so the interconnection to the network is not necessary and the access price to electricity is very high

  7. Energy at the Frontier: Low Carbon Energy System Transitions and Innovation in Four Prime Mover Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Kathleen M.

    All too often, discussion about the imperative to change national energy pathways revolves around long timescales and least cost economics of near-term energy alternatives. While both elements certainly matter, they don't fully reflect what can drive such development trajectories. This study explores national energy transitions by examining ways in which four prime mover countries of low carbon energy technology shifted away from fossil fuels, following the first global oil crisis of 1973. The research analyzes the role of readiness, sectoral contributions and adaptive policy in the scale-up and innovations of advanced, alternative energy technologies. Cases of Brazilian biofuels, Danish wind power, French nuclear power and Icelandic geothermal energy are analyzed for a period of four decades. Fundamentally, the research finds that significant change can occur in under 15 years; that technology complexity need not necessarily impede change; and that countries of different governance approaches and consumption levels can effectuate such transitions. This research also underscores that low carbon energy technologies may be adopted before they are competitive and then become competitive in the process. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Innovations on nuclear energy - what can a small country contribute?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Cercek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Slovenian energy policy gives priority to the use of renewable energy resources. The energy policy defined in the Resolution on the National Energy Program adopted in 2004 foresees increasing of renewable energy (RES) sources in the primary energy consumption up to 12 % in 2010. The share of electricity from RES in total electricity production in the year 2004 was 29,1%. The share of RES in the primary energy balance in the same year was 10,7 %, with about half of this coming from hydropower. The electricity power produced by co-generation is about 8 % and expected to double by 2010. However, the Krsko nuclear power plant produces about one third of electricity needed within the country. Consequently, Slovenia has long tradition in research pertaining to development and utilisation of nuclear technology. Furthermore, Slovenian scientists have long been collaborating in numerous fusion-related projects. The major equipment available include an ion-beam accelerator with material diagnostics installations, the TRIGA nuclear research reactor, high-temperature furnaces, an advanced, dedicated fully-integrated high-resolution microscope facility for investigations of nano structured materials, computer systems for simulations, structural mechanical analysis and CAD, and much more. The researchers at the Jozef Stefan Institute study the processes that occur on plasma facing materials and in the edge plasma of tokamak reactors and involve neutral hydrogen/deuterium molecules. These molecules are typically vibrationally excited that influences respective reaction cross sections. Therefore, a special experimental technique for vibrational spectroscopy of molecules was developed and an ion beam analytical technique ERDA is used for characterizing hydrogen content on and beneath the material surface. Ion beam analytical methods are also being developed for the studies of plasma wall interaction processes such as erosion, deposition, fuel retention and material migration in

  11. Big Data Mining of Energy Time Series for Behavioral Analytics and Energy Consumption Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Responsible, efficient and environmentally aware energy consumption behavior is becoming a necessity for the reliable modern electricity grid. In this paper, we present an intelligent data mining model to analyze, forecast and visualize energy time series to uncover various temporal energy consumption patterns. These patterns define the appliance usage in terms of association with time such as hour of the day, period of the day, weekday, week, month and season of the year as well as appliance-appliance associations in a household, which are key factors to infer and analyze the impact of consumers’ energy consumption behavior and energy forecasting trend. This is challenging since it is not trivial to determine the multiple relationships among different appliances usage from concurrent streams of data. Also, it is difficult to derive accurate relationships between interval-based events where multiple appliance usages persist for some duration. To overcome these challenges, we propose unsupervised data clustering and frequent pattern mining analysis on energy time series, and Bayesian network prediction for energy usage forecasting. We perform extensive experiments using real-world context-rich smart meter datasets. The accuracy results of identifying appliance usage patterns using the proposed model outperformed Support Vector Machine (SVM and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP at each stage while attaining a combined accuracy of 81.82%, 85.90%, 89.58% for 25%, 50% and 75% of the training data size respectively. Moreover, we achieved energy consumption forecast accuracies of 81.89% for short-term (hourly and 75.88%, 79.23%, 74.74%, and 72.81% for the long-term; i.e., day, week, month, and season respectively.

  12. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the January 2010 Country Report Summary is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the previous meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) held in September 2009. This paper is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. In all of the country reports received, there is evidence of significant energy efficiency policy action. The most significant observations from these country reports cover three areas. The first is that the spending focus on energy efficiency seen in the previous two country reports (31 March and 15 September 2009) appears largely unchanged, and is still concentrated in the building sector. Second, countries are actively undertaking analysis and public consultation to plan for future projects. Third, many countries reported activity taking place in the area of fiscal policy, from amendments to new fiscal measures.

  13. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  14. CO2 emissions and economic activity: Heterogeneity across countries and non-stationary series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piaggio, Matías; Padilla, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between CO 2 emissions and economic activity for 31 countries (28 OECD, Brazil, China, and India) during the period 1950 to 2006 using cointegration analysis. Single country long run relationships are estimated, and equality in the functional form, the parameters, and the turning point, when appropriate, are rejected. This confirms the relevance of considering the differences among countries in the relationship between air pollution and economic activity to avoid wrong estimations and conclusions. - Highlights: ► Path and parameters homogeneity in CO 2 -economic activity relationship is analyzed. ► Longer period than previous studies allows greater overlap between countries' paths. ► We also test turning point homogeneity, which imposes a weaker restriction. ► Functional form, parameters and turning point homogeneity is rejected. ► Individual functional form for the long term relation is determined for each country.

  15. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m 2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m 2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  16. Scalable Prediction of Energy Consumption using Incremental Time Series Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Noor, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-09

    Time series datasets are a canonical form of high velocity Big Data, and often generated by pervasive sensors, such as found in smart infrastructure. Performing predictive analytics on time series data can be computationally complex, and requires approximation techniques. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We propose an incremental clustering technique, along with a novel affinity score for determining cluster similarity, which help reduce the prediction error for cumulative time series within a cluster. We evaluate this technique, along with optimizations, using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~700,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our techniques in improving the prediction error of time series data within polynomial time.

  17. The PHARE Multi-country Energy Program an efficient tool for European integration of the partner countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votruba, J.; Milev, N.; Kostrzewa, J.; Binig, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper intends to demonstrate the financial, geographical and qualitative dimensions of the PHARE transfer of know-how in the energy field. Also it emphasizes the efforts made to improve the international cooperation, to ensure the realization of certain objectives of continental interest and for the harmonization of the national interests in a common European policy in the energy sector. Since its inception the efforts of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Program (MEP) aimed at three strategic targets: development of energy supply, improvement of energy efficiency and environment protection. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs

  18. Energy Balance of the Santa Catarina State - Series 1980 -1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: economic aspects; supply and demand of energy by source 1980-1996; energy consumption by sector 1980/1996; energy interchange; and balance of the transformation centers 1980/1996

  19. Climate change mitigation in the energy sector of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. (EG)

  20. Causality between trade openness and energy consumption: What causes what in high, middle and low income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Nasreen, Samia; Ling, Chong Hui; Sbia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between trade openness and energy consumption using data of 91 high, middle and low income countries. The study covers the period of 1980–2010. We have applied panel cointegration to examine long run relationship between the variables. The direction of causal relationship between trade openness is investigated by applying Homogenous non-causality, Homogenous causality and Heterogeneous causality tests. Our variables are integrated at I(1) confirmed by time series and panel unit root tests and cointegration is found between trade openness and energy consumption. The relationship between trade openness and energy consumption is inverted U-shaped in high income countries but U-shaped in middle and low income countries. The homogenous and non-homogenous causality analysis reveals the bidirectional causality between trade openness and energy consumption. This paper opens up new insights for policy makers to design a comprehensive economic, trade and policies for sustainable economic growth in long run following heterogeneous causality findings. - Highlights: • Trade openness and energy consumption are cointegrated for long run. • The feedback effect exists between trade openness and energy consumption. • The inverted U-shaped relationship is found between both variables in high income countries

  1. Energy balance from Bahia state 2011 - series: 1994-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The present Energy Balance is constituted of six chapters, as follows: the chapter 1 approaches the profile of the energy system, showing the structure of the Bahia state energy matrix i n the year of 2010, and the modifications occurred during the period of 1994-2010; the chapter 2 analyses the evolution during the period of 1994-2010 of the energy offer with aspects of production, exports, imports and consumption; the chapter 3 comprised the evolution of energy consumption by sources and social-economic sectors; chapter 4 focus the evolution of state energy self-sufficiency, confronting the primary energy production with the energy total demand; the chapter 5 contains the balance of the energy transformation centers of the Bahia state; and the chapter 6 contains the consolidated matrixes expressed in the period of 1980, 1985 and 1990-2010

  2. Energy consumption, economic growth and prices: A reassessment using panel VECM for developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Renuka; Asafu-Adjaye, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reinvestigates the energy consumption-GDP growth nexus in a panel error correction model using data on 20 net energy importers and exporters from 1971 to 2002. Among the energy exporters, there was bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy consumption in the developed countries in both the short and long run, while in the developing countries energy consumption stimulates growth only in the short run. The former result is also found for energy importers and the latter result exists only for the developed countries within this category. In addition, compared to the developing countries, the developed countries' elasticity response in terms of economic growth from an increase in energy consumption is larger although its income elasticity is lower and less than unitary. Lastly, the implications for energy policy calling for a more holistic approach are discussed

  3. Ensuring energy security in ASEAN countries: Current trends and major challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderov, Sergey; Vorobev, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of formation of future challenges to energy security of the ASEAN countries in the period up to 2035. The article gives examples of strategic threats to the energy security of Russia. The opportunities to meet future demand for primary energy for individual countries of ASEAN and the whole region are discussed.

  4. IAEA: 17 countries are candidates for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In january 2011 IAEA announced that 17 countries had officially expressed their willingness to home nuclear power plants, they have filed applications for the construction of nuclear power plants. Among the countries concerned we find: Poland, Kuwait, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, Chile and Uruguay

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  7. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume III. Country data, LY-PO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. III, are Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Portugal. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  8. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  9. Energy statistics and balances of non-OECD countries 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy production and consumption statistics for 85 non-OECD countries and regions, including developing countries, Central and Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union. Data are expressed in original units and in common units for coal, oil, gas, electricity and heat. Historical tables for both individual countries and regions summarize data on coal, gas and electricity production and consumption since 1971. Similar data for OECD are available in the IEA publications Energy Statistics and Energy Balances of OECD Countries

  10. Insurance market penetration and economic growth in Eurozone countries: Time series evidence on causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Dash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between insurance market penetration and per capita economic growth in 19 Eurozone countries for the period 1980–2014. We use three different indicators of insurance market penetration (IMP, namely life insurance penetration, non-life insurance penetration, and total (both life and non-life insurance penetration. We particularly emphasize on whether Granger causality exists between these variables both ways, one way, or not at all. Our empirical results perceive both unidirectional and bidirectional causality between IMP and per capita economic growth. However, these results are mostly non-uniform across the Eurozone countries during this selected period. The policy implication is that the economic policies should recognize the differences in the insurance market and per capita economic growth in order to maintain sustainable growth in the Eurozone. Keywords: IMP, Per capita economic growth, Granger causality, Eurozone countries, JEL codes: L96, O32, O33, O43

  11. The growth of income and energy consumption in six developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2007-01-01

    This paper reexamines the inter-temporal link between energy consumption and income in six developing countries with diverse economic backgrounds and energy statistics, in a production function framework. We employ the generalized variance decompositions and generalized impulse response techniques to see if the growth of income and energy consumption contains considerable information to predict each other. In all countries, energy appears as an essential factor of production. Results indicate that energy may be a relatively more important input than labor and/or capital in some countries. Hence, neutrality of energy does not seem to hold

  12. Proceedings of the Eighth Forum: Croatian Energy Day Energy markets and energy efficiency in transition economy countries'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is the sum total of various influential factors resulting from the technical, technological, economic, financial, legislative and organisational conditions that exist in each of the transition countries. It is not possible to achieve an efficient usage of energy as in the Western European countries unless the total efficiency of managing all other resources equals the same level. Therefore, in the preceding period only the most successful companies managed to take considerable steps as regards the enhancement of energy efficiency, i.e. companies present at the European market and equalling the criteria of the their competitors. The problem of energy efficiency can be explained with the help pf a number of factors influencing decision making of a company's management or a citizen. Those factors create a framework of events, i.w. an appropriate or an inappropriate atmosphere for the implementation of the measures to increase energy efficiency. Attitudes for and against certain activities develop in an atmosphere according to which individuals have to make decisions. Non-economic prices, non-existence of tariff systems or systems with socially influenced prices or tariffs, have a demotivating effect on all the activities in the field of energy efficiency. The existing legislation of the transition countries often enough neglects the problem of energy management, relating to either building planning and construction, or network systems, renewable sources or consumption standards at the market. The financial situation is also an important element when dealing with energy efficiency projects; high interest rates and major problems with the insurance of necessary financial funds impede their realisation. The support of expert and consulting institutions is a precondition for a successful choice of measures, and the educational system should take over its extremely important role at each of the education levels. Energy efficiency programmes cannot be

  13. Cape Verde. A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Joseph A.

    This report provides information on the education system of Cape Verde, and is designed to assist college admissions officers and registrars in the United States with the admission and placement of students from that country. The report contains general information on the geography, history, and people of Cape Verde, as well as more specific…

  14. Energy balance from Bahia state 2013 - series 1996-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Energy Balance from Bahia, Brazil, presents six chapters, as follows: the chapter 1 approaches the profile of the energy system, showing the structure of the Bahia state energy matrix in the year of 2012, and the modifications occurred during the period of 1996-2012. Then the consolidated information are presented, from production to final consumption, for the set of primary and secondary sources, as well as comparative tables of states x national production of major energy production; the chapter 2 analyses the development, during the period of 1996-2012, in energy supply according to the Primary and Secondary sources; the chapter 3 comprised the evolution of energy consumption by sources and according the social-economic sectors; chapter 4 focus, within a broader view, the evolution of self-sufficiency energy state, confronting the production of primary energy to the total energy demand; in chapter 5 is given the status of the Energy Transformation Centers of the state, highlighting the balances of the Refinery Landulpho Alves (RLAM) and the Power Plants of Public Service and Self-Producer and the chapter 6 contains the consolidated matrixes expressed in the years of 1980, 1985 and 1990-2012

  15. Energy statistics and balances of non-OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption statistics for more than 100 non-OECD countries and regions, including developing countries Central and Eastern European countries and the former USSR. Data are expressed in original units and in common units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat and combustible renewable and waste. Historical tables for both individual countries and regions summarize data on coal, oil, gas and electricity production, trade and consumption as well as main energy and economic indicators since 1971. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and notes on the individual countries as well as conversion factors from original units to common energy units. Similar data for OECD are available in the IEA Energy Statistics and Energy Balances of OECD Countries. (author)

  16. Three essays in energy consumption: Time series analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Bai

    1997-10-01

    Firstly, this dissertation investigates that which demand specification is an appropriate model for long-run energy demand between the conventional demand specification and the limited demand specification. In order to determine the components of a stable long-run demand for different sectors of the energy industry, I perform cointegration tests by using the Johansen test procedure. First, I test the conventional demand specification including prices and income as components. Second, I test a limited demand specification only income as a component. The reason for performing these tests is that we can determine that which demand specification is a good long-run predictor of energy consumption between the two demand specifications by using the cointegration tests. Secondly, for the purpose of planning and forecasting energy demand in case of cointegrated system, long-run elasticities are of particular interest. To retrieve the optimal level of energy demand in case of price shock, we need long-run elasticities rather than short-run elasticities. The energy demand study provides valuable information to the energy policy makers who are concerned about the long-run impact of taxes and tariffs. A long-run price elasticity is a primary barometer of the substitution effect between energy and non-energy inputs and long-run income elasticity is an important factor since we can measure the energy demand growing slowly or fast than in the past depending on the magnitude of long-run elasticity. The one other problem in estimating the total energy demand is that there exists an aggregation bias stemming from the process of summation in four different energy types for the total aggregation prices and total aggregation energy consumption. In order to measure the aggregation bias between the Btu aggregation method and the Divisia Index method, i.e., which methodology has less aggregation bias in the long-run, I compare the two estimation results with calculated results estimated on

  17. Household direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Household direct energy consumption is often regarded as a given and determined using a top-down approach. Furthermore, research regarding household energy consumption tends to focus on western countries. This research uses a bottom-up approach t

  18. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party: October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries submited to the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) from March to September 2011.

  19. Sacrificed country sides. How the energy revolution degrades the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etscheit, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The volume covers a variety of contributions on the consequences for the environment due to the energy revolution in Germany, including challenges and pitfalls. A realistic survey on the development of the energy revolution is requested in relation to the effectiveness of environmental protection and the legal protection of cultivated landscapes. Architectural aspects concerning wind energy and solar energy plants are discussed in the view of the population.

  20. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  1. PROTECTION OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  2. Prospects of the use of new visualization methods in developing countries (WHO technical report series 723)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Narkevich, K.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    To substantiate the expediency of choosing either vizualization method, a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of roentgen computerized tomography (CT) and ultrasonic investigation (UI) has been performed. Conditions of using CT and UI in developing countries emphasising on organizational and technical and esepecially clinical-diagnostic aspects of this problem have been analysed as well. A manual on clinical indications and correct CT and UI use from the point of view of methodology has been compiled

  3. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  4. Technical efficiency of economic systems of EU-15 countries based on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampatsou, Christina; Papadopoulos, Savas; Zervas, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the Technical Efficiency index of EU-15 countries from 1980 to 2008, using cross-country comparison. Technical Efficiency index represents the capacity of an economy to produce a higher level of Gross Domestic Product for a given level of total energy input. The level of the Technical Efficiency index is determined from the energy mix (fossil fuels, non-fossil fuels, nuclear energy) of each country and depends on the maximization level of the production of the Gross Domestic Product of the economic system, without waste of energy resources. The current study is applied in the case of the EU15 countries. Its scope is to highlight the differentiations of country classifications before and after the integration of nuclear energy in the energy mix of each country. The main result is that the integration of nuclear energy as an additional input in the energy mixture affects negatively the Technical Efficiency of countries. Also, when an economy achieves a decrease of the energy consumption produced from fossil fuels, and a better exploitation of renewable energy sources, clearly improves its capacity to produce more output with the given levels of inputs. - Highlights: ► Technical efficiency index of EU-15 countries is determined through the DEA method. ► Level of the TE index is determined from the energy mix used in each country. ► TE level depends on the maximization level of GDP without waste of energy resources. ► Capacity of an economy to produce more GDP for a given energy input is determined. ► TE differentiation before and after the integration of nuclear energy is performed

  5. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) held in March 2011. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries.

  6. Clean Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Case Study for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fotourehchi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the long-run causality relationship between renewable/clean energy consumption and economic growth during the period 1990-2012 for 42 developing countries, under the Canning and Pedroni (2008) long-run causality test, which indicates that there is long-run positive causality running from renewable energy to real GDP. This means that for developing countries where renewable energy consumption has a positive long-run causal effect on real GDP, renewable energy dependen...

  7. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal; Ismene Rosales; Janaina Camile Pasqual; Gricelda Herrera; Sandra Mejia; Mariel Álvarez Cancino

    2014-01-01

    The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute ...

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries. France 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of France, including recommendations on how policies could be improved. The report acknowledges the considerable progress made since the first oil crisis towards meeting stated energy policy goals-energy security, competitiveness and environmental protection - but argues the case for some reorientation of policy. Key issues highlighted in the report include restructuring and liberalization of the electricity and gas sectors, distortions to inter-fuel competition and the need for a more rational system of energy taxation, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote energy efficiency. (authors). 13 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Developing countries` energy requirements; Besoins energetiques des pays en developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arques, P. [Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise, 69 - Ecully (France)

    1995-03-01

    The amount of electric power and bacteriologically clean water produced in developing countries today is insufficient for the people`s needs. In order to develop successfully, these countries must necessarily achieve a threshold which, for the whole planet, will come to 1 000 000 MW of electricity. One way this can be done is by building several hundred power plants, with all the concomitant pollution problems. Another solution is Stirling motors, which use the power of sunlight to pump and pasteurize water and to generate electricity for one or more families, or for developmental home industries. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  12. World trends in wind energy. A focus per country. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Mamadou

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles highlights and comments various trends related to the development of wind energy in 2015. More specifically, the articles outline that 2015 has been a record year for wind energy in the World (an increase of 63.900 MW in installed power), that wind energy covers 11.4 per cent of energy demand in Europe, that the wind energy sector is still in a very good health in the USA (more megawatts have been installed during the last quarter of 2015 than during the whole 2014 year and perspectives seem promising in terms of installed power, share of energy, costs and prices), that Denmark holds the world record of wind energy consumption in 2015 (42.1 per cent of its energy consumption in 2015), that Mauritania could be the engine of the wind energy sector in western Africa (a first important wind farm has been installed in 2012, followed by others with a higher production, and a 100 MW project), that Scotland awarded a 53 MW project to Siemens (using the Siemens G2 platform), and that Kenya signed a partnership with a Chinese company for a 102 MW project. The last article outlines that renewable energies appear to be resilient in front of the oil crisis

  13. Has the accuracy of energy projections in OECD countries improved since the 1970s?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Linderoth, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970s, almost all OECD countries have published projections or forecasts of future energy consumption. By now, three decades later, the actual values of energy consumption are available for the same number of countries and thus a considerable amount of empirical data is available...

  14. Problems associated with nuclear energy utilization in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, N.

    1975-01-01

    The special problems of integrating nuclear power into the overall national power system of a developing country are reviewed. Topics such as optimal size selection, policy for nuclear fuel cycle, and choice of reactor type are examined. The results of these analyses as applied to Turkey are presented. The impact of safety and regulatory matters are discussed

  15. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCourt, D. C.

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.

  16. EXAMINING A SERIES RESONANT INVERTER CIRCUIT TO USE IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÇETİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available As we know, solar energy is the energy source which is environment friendly, renewable, and can be found easily. Particularly, in the recent years, interest on producing electrical energy by alternative energy sources increased because of the fact that underground sources are not enough to produce energy in the future and also these sources cause enviromental pollution. The solar energy is one of the most popular one among the alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic systems produce the electrical energy from the sunlight. In this study, a series resonant inverter circuit which is used in the photovoltaic energy conversion systems has been examined.Effects of the series resonant inverter circuit on the photovoltaic energy conversion system have been investigated and examined

  17. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  18. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  19. European energy crops overview. Country report for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statens Planteavlsforsoeg, Tjele Denmark; Statens Jordbrugstekniske Forsoeg, Horsens Denmark

    1996-06-01

    Biomass constitutes a significant contribution to the Danish energy production and is a major tool in increasing the contribution from renewables. So far the focus has been on utilizing existing biomass residues like straw and forest residues and not energy crops. The government has agreed to carry out a demonstration and development programme on energy crops in order to analyse aspects of economy, energy, environment, nature conservancy and comerciality. Several plant species have been investigated for their potential as energy crops and overview information in presented on buchina, sunflower, knotweed, Jerusalem artichoke, false flax, reed Canary grass and corn cockle. More detailed descriptions are given on willow, Miscanthus, energy grain (grain whole crop) and rape which have been most intensively investigated. Rape has been the energy crop grown on the largest scale (40-50,000 ha) but the oil has not been used for energy purposes in Denmark. A research programme on the development of a low input production system for non-food rape is currently conducted. The perennial crops willow and Miscanthus are grown with low input of fertilizer and pesticides and are considered environmentally friendly. Willow-SRC is used as fuel at district heating plants, both commercially and for feasibility studies. Full-scale tests have been carried out on Miscanthus combustion in farm heating plant constructed for straw firing, and on co-combustion with coal at power stations. Grain whole crop (energy grain) has been combusted at a district heating plant, a CHP-plant and a power station. Co-combustion with coal was carried out at a CFB-boiler. Concerning ethanol based on energy crops, only a few activities are in progress. (EG) 89 refs.

  20. Trade-facilitated technology spillovers in energy productivity convergence processes across EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jun; Baylis, Kathy; Mulder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This empirical paper tests for trade-facilitated spillovers in the convergence of energy productivity across 16 European Union (EU) countries from 1995 to 2005. One might anticipate that by inducing specialization, trade limits the potential for convergence in energy productivity. Conversely, by inducing competition and knowledge diffusion, trade may spur sectors to greater energy productivity. Unlike most previous work on convergence, we explain productivity dynamics from cross-country interactions at a detailed sector level and apply a spatial panel data approach to explicitly account for trade-flow related spatial effects in the convergence analysis. Our study confirms the existence of convergence in manufacturing energy productivity, caused by efficiency improvements in lagging countries, while undermined by increasing international differences in sector structure. Further, we find that trade flows explain 30 to 40% of the unobserved variation in energy productivity. Trade continues to explain the unobserved variation in energy productivity even after accounting for geographic proximity. Last, we find that those countries and sectors with higher dependence on trade both have higher energy productivity growth and a higher rate of convergence, further implying that trade can enhance energy productivity. Thus, unlike concerns that trade may spur a ‘race to the bottom’, we find that promoting trade may help stimulate energy efficiency improvements across countries. - Highlights: • We test for trade-facilitated spillovers in cross-country energy productivity convergence. • We use a spatial panel-data approach and data for 16 European Union countries. • Efficiency improvements in lagging countries cause energy productivity convergence. • Trade flows explain 30 to 40% of unobserved variation in energy productivity. • Higher dependence on trade means higher rates of energy productivity growth

  1. Smart Grid Educational Series | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , 2016. Download Presentation PDF Role of Software Defined Networking and WAN Virtualization in Securing (ISO), hosted a webinar on April 27, 2016, on the role of software defined networking and WAN presentation PDF IoT/PowerMatcher Transactive Energy for Smart Cities William J. Miller, President of MaCT USA

  2. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  3. How much energy in energy policy? The media on energy problems in developing countries (with the example of Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Świątkiewicz-Mośny, Maria; Wagner, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the media discussion of the energy crisis with a focus on presentation of energy policy in Poland. The results of the research presented in the paper illustrate how the media in developing countries legitimate energy policy and the activities of politicians and other decision makers in the energy sector. The topic of environmental impact or renewable resources is hardly presented in the analysed media coverage, and information about national energy pricing is spread widely. At the same time, the nationwide mass media do not refer to the domestic sector presenting energy problems at an abstract macro social level. Instead of shaping social knowledge, and conscious of such issues as energy supply and efficiency potential in households, the media construct self-referential communication in each of the fields (politics, technology, the economy). Based on Habermas’s distinction between the system and lifeworld, and the assumption that the media both construct and reproduce knowledge about the world, we have attempted to reconstruct the media discourse in the chosen area. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Polish press allowed us to reconstruct the narrative on the subject of the energy crisis. The results could be the basis for critical revision of communication strategies in the energy sector, especially questioning the problem of its efficiency and mutual understanding between different actors. - Highlights: ► We present the results of media discourse analyses on energy crisis in Poland. ► We find supremacy of political and economical perspectives.► Nationwide mass media present energy problem on abstractive macro- social level. ► There are no reference to domestic sector and renewable energy topic is hardly presented. ► Self- referential discourse generates risk of mutual misunderstanding between different actors of social life.

  4. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute to the country´s energy security and represent significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of current energy scenarios of six Latin American countries (Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile in order to evaluate the policies, programs and strategies implemented in the search for greater participation of renewable energy. Considering the importance of the water-energy nexus that could serve to promote renewables under conditions of water scarcity, a qualitative data comparison was accomplished, considering energy consumption, CO2 emissions, GDP and water withdrawals per country. The authors conclude that, despite technological and financial constraints, all the involved countries are moving towards the substitution of a fossil fuel based matrix to a renewable one. This process could be seen as a result of clear policies and strategies that have been set, which include (but are not limited to price regulations setting, preferential prices to electricity generated through renewable energy technologies and incentives formulated to encourage the production of biofuels.

  5. Issues surrounding biomass energy use in non-OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouf, M. Mines and Industry.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of energy-supply of Senegal is described by the Minister of Energy of Senegal. The destruction and degradation of forests in Senegal is a major risk because of the high demographic growth, the extensive agriculture and poverty. New policies are required that guarantee a sustainable energy supply to populations, and conserve the fragile environment. The biomass issue is to be incorporated into an overall development policy that effectively combines strategies relating to forestry, agriculture, rearing and resource management but also to population, poverty elimination, urban development and decentralization. (K.A.)

  6. Energy-Based Wavelet De-Noising of Hydrologic Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yan-Fang; Liu, Changming; Wang, Zhonggen; Wen, Jun; Shang, Lunyu

    2014-01-01

    De-noising is a substantial issue in hydrologic time series analysis, but it is a difficult task due to the defect of methods. In this paper an energy-based wavelet de-noising method was proposed. It is to remove noise by comparing energy distribution of series with the background energy distribution, which is established from Monte-Carlo test. Differing from wavelet threshold de-noising (WTD) method with the basis of wavelet coefficient thresholding, the proposed method is based on energy distribution of series. It can distinguish noise from deterministic components in series, and uncertainty of de-noising result can be quantitatively estimated using proper confidence interval, but WTD method cannot do this. Analysis of both synthetic and observed series verified the comparable power of the proposed method and WTD, but de-noising process by the former is more easily operable. The results also indicate the influences of three key factors (wavelet choice, decomposition level choice and noise content) on wavelet de-noising. Wavelet should be carefully chosen when using the proposed method. The suitable decomposition level for wavelet de-noising should correspond to series' deterministic sub-signal which has the smallest temporal scale. If too much noise is included in a series, accurate de-noising result cannot be obtained by the proposed method or WTD, but the series would show pure random but not autocorrelation characters, so de-noising is no longer needed. PMID:25360533

  7. The Demand for Oil and Energy in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolf, Jr., Charles; Relles, Daniel A; Navarro, Jaime

    1980-01-01

    ...? How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs? In this report, the authors try to develop some reasonable forecasts of the range of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years...

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  9. An integrated framework for energy pricing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the paper the importance of coordinated energy planning and pricing is emphasized with particular reference to the interrelationships among the pricing polices adopted in various energy subsectors such as electric power, petroleum, natural gas, coal and traditional fuels. Nonconventional sources can also be fitted into this framework. The chief investment issues are also touched to the extent that they strongly influence pricing policy. 15 refs, 7 figs

  10. Innovation in the energy sector: Lessons learnt from R and D expenditures and patents in selected IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bointner, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Long time series of the IEA and international patent offices offer a huge potential for scientific investigations of the energy innovation process. Thus, this paper deals with a broad literature review on innovation drivers and barriers, and an analysis of the knowledge induced by public research and development expenditures (R and D) and patents in the energy sector. The cumulative knowledge stock induced by public R and D expenditures in 14 investigated IEA-countries is 102.3 bn EUR in 2013. Nuclear energy has the largest share of 43.9 bn EUR, followed by energy efficiency accounting for 14.9 bn EUR, fossil fuels with 13.5 bn EUR, and renewable energy with 12.1 bn EUR. A regression analysis indicates a linear relation between the GDP and the cumulative knowledge, with each billion EUR of GDP leading to an additional knowledge of 3.1 mil EUR. However, linearity is not given for single energy technologies. Further, the results show that appropriate public R and D funding for research and development associated with a subsequent promotion of the market diffusion of a niche technology may lead to a breakthrough of the respective technology. - Highlights: • The cumulative energy knowledge stock in 14 IEA-countries is 102.3 bn EUR in 2013. • Each billion EUR of GDP lead to an additional knowledge of 3.1 mil EUR. • Medium IEA-countries may compete with large ones by promoting a niche strategy. • Patent knowledge grew 5.9 times in medium and 5.6 in large IEA-countries since 1990

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  12. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  13. Selecting Tools for Renewable Energy Analysis in Developing Countries: An Expanded Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irsyad, M. Indra al [School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta (Indonesia); Halog, Anthony Basco, E-mail: a.halog@uq.edu.au [School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Nepal, Rabindra [Massey Business School, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Koesrindartoto, Deddy P. [School of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2017-12-20

    Renewable energy planners in developing countries should be cautious in using analytical tools formulated in developed countries. Traditional energy consumption, economic and demography transitions, high-income inequality, and informal economy are some characteristics of developing countries that may contradict the assumptions of mainstream, widely used analytical tools. In this study, we synthesize the debate in previous review studies on energy models for developing countries and then extend the scope of the previous studies by highlighting emerging methods of system thinking, life cycle thinking, and decision support analysis. We then discuss how these tools have been used for renewable energy analysis in developing countries and found out that not all studies are aware of the emerging critical issues in developing countries. We offer here a guidance to select the most appropriate analytical tool, mainly when dealing with energy modeling and analysis for developing countries. We also suggest potential future improvements to the analytical tool for renewable energy modeling and analysis in the developing countries.

  14. Selecting Tools for Renewable Energy Analysis in Developing Countries: An Expanded Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irsyad, M. Indra al; Halog, Anthony Basco; Nepal, Rabindra; Koesrindartoto, Deddy P.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy planners in developing countries should be cautious in using analytical tools formulated in developed countries. Traditional energy consumption, economic and demography transitions, high-income inequality, and informal economy are some characteristics of developing countries that may contradict the assumptions of mainstream, widely used analytical tools. In this study, we synthesize the debate in previous review studies on energy models for developing countries and then extend the scope of the previous studies by highlighting emerging methods of system thinking, life cycle thinking, and decision support analysis. We then discuss how these tools have been used for renewable energy analysis in developing countries and found out that not all studies are aware of the emerging critical issues in developing countries. We offer here a guidance to select the most appropriate analytical tool, mainly when dealing with energy modeling and analysis for developing countries. We also suggest potential future improvements to the analytical tool for renewable energy modeling and analysis in the developing countries.

  15. Comparison of approximate electrical energy generating costs in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Bertel, E.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of power generating in nuclear power plants have been predicted taking into account all factors connected with investment, maintenance, exploitation and decommissioning, basing on last OECD report. The costs have been compared with alternative solutions. In majority of OECD countries the direct costs of electricity generation are very close for nuclear fossil-fuel and gas power plants. All indirect costs such as environmental impact, public health hazard, waste management, accident risk and also public acceptance for nuclear power have been discussed. 13 refs, 5 tabs

  16. Experience of managing complicated diverticulitis of colon: a retrospective case series from south asian country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, T.; Alvi, A.R.; Sheikh, G.M.; Habib, H.Y.; Ghafoor, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the morbidity and mortality associated with complicated diverticulitis in Pakistan. Methods: The retrospective case series was conducted at an urban tertiary care university hospital of Karachi, Pakistan, comprising data from December 1989 to November 2010. International Classification of Diseases codes for diverticular disease and diverticulitis with abscess, fistula, stricture, bowel obstruction and perforation were obtained from the medical record department. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 60 (1.9%) cases with complicated diverticulitis were located from among 3170 records reviewed. Mean age was 62.7+-13 years with male-to-female ratio being 36:24. In 37 (62%) patients, the diagnosis was established on computed tomography scan of the abdomen, followed by barium enema in 12 (20%) and colonoscopy in 11 (18%). Post-operative morbidity was observed in 24 (40%) and 7 (16%) expired within 28 days of surgery. Post-operative intra-abdominal sepsis, wound dehiscence and incisional hernia were significantly associated with generalised peritonitis (p <0.05), while admission to intensive care unit was associated with age over 60 years and faecal peritonitis. Post-operative mortality was significantly associated with high American Society of Anaesthesiologists-score III and IV and age above 60 years. Conclusion: Complicated diverticulitis carries significant morbidity and mortality in Pakistani population. Since the trend is on the rise, therefore we propose a prospective multi-centre cohort study to understand the spectrum of disease, management and identification of risk factors to achieve the best possible outcomes in patients with complicated diverticulitis. (author)

  17. Energy problems of developing countries and the development co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K; Sahrman, K

    1984-12-15

    The technology, economy and problems of energy sector in developing countries are presented as well as the possibilities of solving energy problems, with special emphasis on how to adapt Finnish energy know-how to the conditions existing in the developing countries. The population in the developing countries has grown explosively. The worst energy problem due to this growth is the shortage of firewood. The fact that wood is used for burning is one reason for the formation of deserts. Today already about one hundred million people in developing countries suffer from shortage of energy. In the following 20-30 years it will threaten already about one billion people. Poverty in the developing countries prevents the use of fossil fuels like oil. It is likely that the developing countries already in the coming decades will have to start to use new and renewable sources of energy, like these are solar and wind energy as well as hydroelectric power. The efficiency of burning fire wood should rapidly be improved. On the other hand reforestration should be increased. Also fossil fuels are needed before new sources of energy can be used. All over the world there has been interest in the energy problems of the developing countries. The World Bank and other financing bodies are increasing their financial aid for different kinds of energy projects. The Finnish development aid is primarily bilateral and concentrated in certain countries. In the 1980's the energy sector will be one of the main fields in our development aid, at the same time as the portion of our development aid from gross national income is increasing.

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  19. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J W [Joint Institute for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Perlack, R D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  20. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries. Spain 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The energy sector in Spain is at the end of a transition period from public to private ownership and from monopoly to competition. In keeping with the 1994 law calling for more competition in the electricity sector and planning an independent system, this review recommends that more concrete measures be taken to increase competition. The report examines Spanish policy on increasing natural gas consumption with the construction of the Maghreb pipeline from Algeria. It looks closely at the organization of the oil industry and the restructuring of the coal industry. It also examines the new measures to increase energy efficiency. (authors). 13 figs., 23 tabs

  3. Decoupling Economic Growth and Energy Use. An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis for 10 Manufacturing Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.

  4. Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrara, Mohsen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 1997 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report highlights the rapid increase in Turkey`s energy consumption and the large investments needed to meet the demand growth. Turkey has sought to attract private inward investment in the energy sector, in particular in electricity, through build-own-operate and build-operate-transfer schemes and transfers of operating rights. Turkey needs to set up a stable legal framework to continue this policy. It needs to push forward with market reforms, as well as to create a level playing field for competition, with energy prices reflecting the true costs of various fuels. Natural gas consumption is also expected to continue to increase. The new regulatory framework should be designed to encourage more rapid increase in the use of gas and more corresponding investments. Turkey is situated near the Caspian Sea, where natural gas and oil production are expected to increase substantially. The report describes projects for oil and natural gas pipelines. 33 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps.

  9. Energy mix in Central European countries of the V4 group: The quest for stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicek, Frantisek; Smitkova, Miroslava; Kubica, Juraj

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the development of the energy mix in the countries of the V4 region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). Trends over the past two decades are summarised and critically examined but mainly possible energy scenarios by 2030 are presented. Based on existing scenarios for the V4 countries, the impacts are assessed of potential developments for various ratios between domestic and imported fossil fuels, nuclear sources and RES. The analysis spans the development in energy intensity of the national economies, structural changes in energy consumption in various areas in view of the liberalisation of energy markets.

  10. Energy-GDP relationship revisited: An example from GCC countries using panel causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the causality relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and energy consumption in the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Recently developed panel cointegration and causality techniques are used to uncover the direction of energy-GDP causality in the GCC. Empirical results indicate a unidirectional causality running from GDP to energy consumption. Evidence shows no support for the hypothesis that energy consumption is the source of GDP growth in the GCC countries. Such results suggest that energy conservation policies may be adopted without much concern about their adverse effects on the growth of GCC economies

  11. Energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. Directory 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This is the fifth directory of research, development and demonstration projects in the Nordic countries within the field of energy. The directory includes projects running in 1987. 2378 projects are described, all of them financed through special public funds (i.e. external funding). The energy research organisation in each Nordic country is briefly reviewed in the appendixes, and a list of relevant newsletters are given. The directory is published at the request of the Nordic Council of Ministers and a special Energy Research Committee set up by the Nordic energy ministers in order to coordinate and promote Nordic information sharing in the energy field. (author)

  12. Energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. Directory 1986. Energiforskningsprojekter i Norden. Katalog 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth directory of research, development and demonstration projects in the Nordic countries within the field of energy. The 1986 directory includes projects running in 1986. 2172 projects are described and all of them are financed through special public funds (i.e. external funding). The energy research organisation in each Nordic country is briefly reviewed in the appendixes, and a list of relevant newsletters are given. The directory is published at the request if the Nordic Council of Ministers and a special Energy Reseach Committee set up by the Nordic energy ministers in order to coordinate and promote Nordic information sharing in the energy field. (author)

  13. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  14. Present state of research and development of atomic energy in five Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The survey group for Asian atomic energy cooperation was dispatched by the Japanese government, and toured Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh from September 7 to 19, 1980. The present state of atomic energy development and the energy situation in respective countries were surveyed through the exchange of opinion and the inspection of related facilities. The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology was concluded in June, 1972, and 12 countries have participated in it. It was impressive that respective countries have the peculiar energy policies corresponding to their objective conditions. They regard atomic energy as the important substitute energy for petroleum, but the fear about the safety of atomic energy and the movement against nuclear power generation have been growing considerably. The research and development on atomic energy are carried out very actively in respective countries, and the construction of large-scale research centers was commenced in Indonesia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Research reactors have been operated in Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand since about 20 years ago, and the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation has been studied. The cooperation of Japan with these countries is far behind that of other advanced countries.

  15. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  16. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market: Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries)-aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemon or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU.

  17. India's contribution in fulfilling the energy needs of third countries: present as well as future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, R. C.

    1980-03-15

    A combiation of skilled manpower, infrastructural development, and a sound industrial base puts India into a position for meeting not only the energy needs of developing countries, but for assiting them in their all-around development. This paper is confined to energy: petroleum, noncommercial energy sources, hydroelectric, electrical equipment, etc. (DLC)

  18. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth-thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem.

  19. Monthly electric energy demand forecasting with neural networks and Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romera, E.; Jaramillo-Moran, M.A.; Carmona-Fernandez, D.

    2008-01-01

    Medium-term electric energy demand forecasting is a useful tool for grid maintenance planning and market research of electric energy companies. Several methods, such as ARIMA, regression or artificial intelligence, have been usually used to carry out those predictions. Some approaches include weather or economic variables, which strongly influence electric energy demand. Economic variables usually influence the general series trend, while weather provides a periodic behavior because of its seasonal nature. This work investigates the periodic behavior of the Spanish monthly electric demand series, obtained by rejecting the trend from the consumption series. A novel hybrid approach is proposed: the periodic behavior is forecasted with a Fourier series while the trend is predicted with a neural network. Satisfactory results have been obtained, with a lower than 2% MAPE, which improve those reached when only neural networks or ARIMA were used for the same purpose. (author)

  20. Developing common information elements for renewable energy systems: summary and proceedings of the SERI/AID workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the activities, conclusions, and recommendations of the Workshop on Evaluation Systems for Renewable Energy Systems sponsored by the Agency for International Development and SERI, held 20-22 February 1980 in Golden, Colorado. The primary objectives of the workshop was to explore whether it was possible to establish common information elements that would describe the operation and impact of renewable energy projects in developing countries. The workshop provided a forum for development program managers to discuss the information they would like to receive about renewable energy projects and to determine whether common data could be agreed on to facilitate information exchange among development organizations. Such information could be shared among institutions and used to make informed judyments on the economic, technical, and social feasibility of the technologies. Because developing countries and foreign assistance agencies will be financing an increasing number of renewable energy projects, these organizations need information on the field experience of renewable energy technologies. The report describes the substance of the workshop discussions and includes the papers presented on information systems and technology evaluation and provides lists of important information elements generated by both the plenary sessions and the small working groups.

  1. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries.

  2. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C. [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries. (author)

  3. O. Nuclear energy in a food exporting country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report attempts to estimate the affect on agricultural exports from New Zealand which might result from the operation of nuclear power. By far the most serious of these would result from an accidental release of radioactive material, and the likely affects of such releases are considered both in the first year after an accident and in the future. Previous assessments of this type have concentrated attention on property damage and on the health hazards which might result to consumers of contaminated food in the first year or two after a release. In this report the emphasis is on exported foods to which different criteria might apply, and some very approximate estimates are made of long-term implications. To a large extent these can be described only as speculations, but they have some value as a guide. No analgous report has been found in the open literature from other countries, and this particularly includes Denmark which has much in common with New Zealand in this regard. The possible effect of routine operation of nuclear power on food exports is also briefly considered

  4. The Energy Partnership between Russia and the Countries of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M. Nikonorov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tries to answer the most fundamental question of energy cooperation between Russia and the countries of Northeast Asia, "Do we really need a model of cooperation in the energy sector?". This question is important for understanding the aspects of energy cooperation in the region, because the idea of creating this cooperation is based on the assumption that there is complementarity and interdependence between the structures of supply and demand of these countries offer. To find the answer to this question, we analyzed the sectors of demand, consumption, and Russian proposals and the countries of Northeast Asia oil and gas, as the current dominant energy sources, and renewable energy sectors considered (renewable energy sources, as a potential future sources.

  5. Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, M.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

  6. An Integrated Approach for Estimating the Energy Efficiency of Seventeen Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased energy efficiency is one of the most effective ways to achieve climate change mitigation. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency of seventeen countries. The evaluation is based on an integrated method that combines the super slack-based (super SBM model and the Malmquist productivity index (MPI to investigate the energy efficiency of seventeen countries during the period of 2010–2015. The results in this study are that the United States, Columbia, Japan, China, and Saudi Arabia perform the best in energy efficiency, whereas Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, and India perform the worst during the entire sample period. The energy efficiency of these countries arrived mainly from technological improvement. The study provides suggestions for the seventeen countries’ government to control the energy consumption and contribute to environmental protection.

  7. Opportunities for a forest energy industry in a developing country: an example from Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalie Gulca; Robert Deal

    2010-01-01

    Developing sustainable energy from forest biomass presents both opportunities and challenges for the future generations of Moldova. Located in the southeastern part of Europe between Ukraine and Romania, Moldova is a relatively poor country with limited natural resources compared with other developing European countries such as Albania or Bosnia. This lack of fossil...

  8. The practical problems and issues pertaining to nuclear energy in less-developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled; introduction; role of the International Atomic Energy Agency; infrastructure and training; fuel cycle supply; safety and safeguards; developing countries in the nuclear future; a role for Australia; some national programmes; nuclear power costs in developing countries; specialized technologies; conclusions -ethical and societal considerations. (U.K.)

  9. Considerations in promoting markets for sustainable energy technologies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radka, Mark; Kamel, Sami

    2003-01-01

    The growth in demand for energy in both developed and developing countries is expected to continue an upward trend for many years, with a large portion of the increase projected to occur in developing countries. As these countries undertake various economic development initiatives and programmes it is important from a global environmental perspective that they increase the proportion of efficient, low carbon emitting energy in the energy mix. This paper identifies a number of ways of improving markets that foster increased adoption of clean energy technologies in developing countries. The paper concludes that a holistic approach is needed if new technology promotion efforts are to succeed. Ensuring the appropriateness of the technology, and hence its sustainability, requires proper attention to social, economic and political criteria as well as the fundamental technical characteristics. (au)

  10. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Sharma, Susan; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands.

  11. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  12. Considerations in promoting markets for sustainable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radka, Mark [United Nations Environment Programme, Div. of Technology, Industry and Economics (France); Kamel, Sami [Risoe National Lab., UNEP Risoe Centre for Energy, Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The growth in demand for energy in both developed and developing countries is expected to continue an upward trend for many years, with a large portion of the increase projected to occur in developing countries. As these countries undertake various economic development initiatives and programmes it is important from a global environmental perspective that they increase the proportion of efficient, low carbon emitting energy in the energy mix. This paper identifies a number of ways of improving markets that foster increased adoption of clean energy technologies in developing countries. The paper concludes that a holistic approach is needed if new technology promotion efforts are to succeed. Ensuring the appropriateness of the technology, and hence its sustainability, requires proper attention to social, economic and political criteria as well as the fundamental technical characteristics. (au)

  13. Country profiles: Lithuania [Analysis of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania is a very dependent country in terms of energy resources. In 2000 only about 13.8% of the primary energy requirement was covered by domestic resources. The remaining primary fuel requirement is imported from neighbouring countries, mainly from Russia - all crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported from this country. There is a concern about the political and economic consequences of this dependence. There is a good interconnection with neighbouring countries for both electrical grid and gas pipelines. The supply of crude oil is also available via pipeline from Russia and two existing oil terminals from other countries, including orimulsion from Venezuela. Coal can be supplied by railway from both Russia and Poland

  14. Contribution to energy management of a series hybrid vehicle; Contribution a la gestion de l'energie d'un vehicule hybride serie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diop, D.

    2004-06-01

    This work presents the energy management of a series hybrid vehicle. It is a platform equipped with three sources of energy, two thermal engines involving each one an alternator-rectifier, and a battery. The objective is to provide energy necessary for the operation of the traction motors and the auxiliaries. The study was undertaken by a hierarchical step. The first chapter models the sources of energy while starting with the battery. The estimate of its state of charge is obtained by parametric identification. Then a look-up table model of the thermal engine is developed. Two alternators - converters are modelled and associated to diesel engines.The chapter 2 treats the optimal sharing of power between the two power generating units of which one is at fixed speed and the other at variable speed. The solved problem is an optimization with like constraint the minimization of the fuel consumption. The results obtained show the interest of the group at variable speed at low power. The last part of the report is devoted to simulation and the implementation in real time of the system. This chapter studies the management of the instructions of injection for the thermal engines and the development of the instructions for control of current through the DC side of the rectifiers. The interconnection of the models of the sources to the signals of the calculator or HEART of the system made it possible to simulate the behaviour of the sources of energy of the vehicle. Finally the diagram of implementation in real time is presented, the models being replaced by the real subsets of the bench. It appears, through this study, the undeniable interest of the series hybrid vehicle to answer the insufficiencies of the electric vehicle limited by its autonomy. The first tests showed the direct impact of the laws of energy management and their performance on the use of series hybrid electric vehicle. (author)

  15. Testing the transport energy-environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the EU27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Romero, M.P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport activities are essential for economic and social development. Nevertheless, the transport sector has also shown the fastest growth in energy consumption in the European Union and its contribution to increasing greenhouse gas emissions merits the thorough attention of academics and policy makers. In this paper we analyze the relationship of economic growth and transport activities with transport final energy consumption. Energy Kuznets curves are estimated for a panel data set covering the EU27 countries in the period 1995–2009 for total transport energy use, household transport energy use, and productive transport energy use (all three in absolute and per capita energy use terms). The productive transport energy use and gross value added relationship are further considered as per hour worked. Finally, the control variables of energy prices and differences in the economic structures are tested. Empirical results show that the elasticity of transport energy use with respect to gross value added in per capita terms decreases from a threshold for the three transport energy consumption variables, but the turning point of improved environmental quality is not reached in any instance. - Highlights: • Transport EKCs are estimated for the EU countries in the 1995–2009 period. • Total, household and production activity transport energy uses are analyzed. • Data support a concave shape, but the turning point is not reached. • Richer countries have more limited potential for energy efficiency policies. • EKCs elasticity values are considered to support policy interpretations.

  16. Poliovirus excretion among persons with primary immune deficiency disorders: summary of a seven-country study series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ivanova, Olga; Driss, Nadia; Tiongco-Recto, Marysia; da Silva, Rajiva; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Mach, Ondrej; Kahn, Anna-Lea; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Persons with primary immune deficiency disorders (PID), especially those disorders affecting the B-cell system, are at substantially increased risk of paralytic poliomyelitis and can excrete poliovirus chronically. However, the risk of prolonged or chronic excretion is not well characterized in developing countries. We present a summary of a country study series on poliovirus excretion among PID cases. Cases with PID from participating institutions were enrolled during the first year and after obtaining informed consent were tested for polioviruses in stool samples. Those cases excreting poliovirus were followed on a monthly basis during the second year until 2 negative stool samples were obtained. A total of 562 cases were enrolled in Bangladesh, China, Iran, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia during 2008-2013. Of these, 17 (3%) shed poliovirus, including 2 cases with immunodeficient vaccine-derived poliovirus. Poliovirus was detected in a single sample from 5/17 (29%) cases. One case excreted for more than 6 months. None of the cases developed paralysis during the study period. Chronic polioviruses excretion remains a rare event even among individuals with PID. Nevertheless, because these individuals were not paralyzed they would have been missed by current surveillance; therefore, surveillance for polioviruses among PID should be established. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations between mortality and factors amenable to public health. These amenable factors included addictive and nutritional lifestyle, air quality, public health spending, healthcare coverage, and immunizations. Methods We used a pooled cross-sectional, time series analysis with corrected fixed effects regression models in an ecological design involving eighteen member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development during the period 1970 to 1999. Results Alcohol, tobacco, and fat consumption, and sometimes, air pollution were significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality and premature death. Immunizations, health care coverage, fruit/vegetable and protein consumption, and collective health expenditure had negative effects on mortality and premature death, even after controlling for the elderly, density of practicing physicians, doctor visits and per capita GDP. However, tobacco, air pollution, and fruit/vegetable intake were sometimes sensitive to adjustments. Conclusion Mortality and premature deaths could be improved by focusing on factors that are amenable to public health policies. Tackling these issues should be reflected in the ongoing assessments of health system performance.

  18. Evaluating the efficiency of nuclear energy policies: an empirical examination for 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Demir, Ender

    2017-08-01

    The decarbonization of the global economy is an urgent concern. As a potential solution, it can be important to understand the efficiency of nuclear energy policies. For this purpose, the paper analyzes whether there is a unit root in nuclear energy consumption in 26 countries and it uses the unit root tests with two endogenous (unknown) structural breaks. The paper finds that nuclear energy consumption is stationary around a level and the time trend in 25 of 26 countries and nuclear energy consumption contains a unit root only in France. The paper also discusses the potential implications of the findings.

  19. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  20. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-05-31

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty-which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home-the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  1. Optimization of performance and energy efficiency for series hybrid commuter-car; Series hybrid hoshiki no commuter car ni okeru doryoku seino to energy koritsu ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Burcu; Ari, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  3. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Burcu [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Economics; Ari, Ayse [Nigde Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Economics

    2016-01-15

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  4. Energy efficiency in developing countries: policy options and the poverty dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, R K [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    1990-10-01

    Much of the rural population of the developing countries is poor and depends on agriculture for its living. One means of improving the standard of living of such poor peoples is through the introduction of modern, more intensive and therefore more productive agricultural methods. Such methods will require energy intensification. The resulting increase in energy demand, particularly electrical energy, will be very large, specially because the rural areas are least able to benefit from energy saving technologies. 7 figs., 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Baek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR. Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

  6. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  7. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell; Sharma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  8. Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Perspectives for Emerging Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwonghi Bizawu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the study of sustainable development in the use of renewable resources by emerging countries. It is noted that the financing of projects and policies related to renewable energy is moving from developed countries to emerging nations. Studies indicate that it will take more targeted investments to fuel production area and power generation, which can set a problem for developing countries, since they do not have sufficient resources to diversify and expand their energy matrixes. The deductive method was adopted based on exploratory research.

  9. Data on examining the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt) and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview) which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.

  10. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  11. The causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in G-11 countries revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores whether energy conservation policies can be implemented in countries with the same level of development. That is, is restraining energy consumption without compromising economic growth feasible in all industrialized countries? A new Granger non-causality testing procedure developed by Toda and Yamamoto [1995, Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] is applied to re-investigate the relationship, if any, between energy consumption and income in 11 major industrialized countries. The results clearly do not support the view that energy consumption and income are neutral with respect to each other, except in the case of the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden where a neutral relationship is found. Bi-directional causality in the United States and uni-directional running from energy consumption to GDP in Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland are found. This indicates that energy conservation may hinder economic growth in the latter five countries. Further, the causality relationship appears to be uni-directional but reversed for France, Italy and Japan which implies that, in these three countries, energy conservation may be viable without being detrimental to economic growth

  12. Energy demands in the 21st century: the role of biofuels in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaye, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    In most developing countries more than 25% of total energy use comes from biofuels. In Ghana, the figure is between 70-80%. Bioenergy is mainly used for cooking and heating, and is also important in rural or cottage industries. As a developing country, Ghana's economic growth remains coupled to the availability and supply of energy. About 29% of this energy is obtained through hydropower and imported petroleum. The two hydropower installations generate about 1102 MW annually mainly for domestic and industrial uses. At the current 3.0% average annual population growth rate, a population of about 35 million is expected by 2025. Coupled with the country's efforts to promote industrialization, future energy demand is expected to increase several fold. This paper provides an overview of Ghana's current energy situation and discusses the role of bioenergy in the future energy demand of the country. The paper concludes with a recommendation for a major shift in energy policy to accommodate the conversion of biofuels into versatile energy carriers in a decentralised system to meet the energy requirements of the people and to provide a basis for rural development and employment. (Author)

  13. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph A.; Piras, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: → We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. → These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. → The two successful on-going programs share three common features. → These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. → The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  14. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  15. Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Ilhan; Aslan, Alper; Kalyoncu, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: i) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. ii) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. iii) The estimated cointegration factor, β, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research.

  16. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Tsai, Chung-Ming [Department of Management Science, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines dynamic causal relationships between pollutant emissions, energy consumption and output for a panel of BRIC countries over the period 1971-2005, except for Russia (1990-2005). In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions, while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with the threshold income of 5.393 (in logarithms). In the short term, changes in emissions are driven mostly by the error correction term and short term energy consumption shocks, as opposed to short term output shocks for each country. Short-term deviations from the long term equilibrium take from 0.770 years (Russia) to 5.848 years (Brazil) to correct. The panel causality results indicate there are energy consumption-emissions bidirectional strong causality and energy consumption-output bidirectional long-run causality, along with unidirectional both strong and short-run causalities from emissions and energy consumption, respectively, to output. Overall, in order to reduce emissions and not to adversely affect economic growth, increasing both energy supply investment and energy efficiency, and stepping up energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage of energy can be initiated for energy-dependent BRIC countries. (author)

  17. Economical assumption for formation of independent energy policy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamonis, M.; Kveselis, V; Klevas

    1996-01-01

    This study concerning the power production and consumption problems in developing countries analyses the following aspects: energy efficiency, fuel prices, technological advances, management of energy demand and environment policy. To obtain background data for state support power programs economical, legal and socio-psychological conditions are considered. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  19. Petroleum situation at the end of 2004. The US energy policy. Chinese situation and energy policy. Energies: which energy relations between the European Union and its bordering countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, J.; Bellet, R.; Lorec, Ph.; Bertin, M.; Avergne, R.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Energies et Matieres Premieres newsletter comprises 4 articles dealing with: the petroleum situation at the end of the year 2004 (strong rise of oil prices since the beginning of the year, strained balance between supply and demand at the end of the year, lack of market flexibility in front of an increasing demand, persistence of high prices in relation with low US stocks, high petroleum prices expected for 2005); the US energy situation and policy (growing up disequilibrium between the energy supply and demand, the security of supplies in the center of the US energy policy, R and D actions in the energy domain, towards a mastery of energy demand); the Chinese energy situation and policy (increasing hydrocarbons demand and second world petroleum consumer, increase of gas imports expected for the coming years, strong coal dependence, China is looking for energy self-sufficiency and a better power generation); the foreign energy policy of the European Union with its neighboring countries (50% of energy imports in 2004 and 70% expected for 2030, need for huge trans-European and foreign energy networks, 3 priority area of cooperation (Russia, Euro-Mediterranean area, South-East Europe) and 3 area of common interest (Baltic sea countries, Caspian sea basin, Ukraine), conclusions of the 19. world energy congress (Sydney, Australia, 5-9 september 2004)). A brief summary of the evolution of the world energy indicators (consumption, production, energy bill, prices, sectoral consumption) between January 2002 and October 2004 is presented in the form of graphics at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  20. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, H.-T.; Tsai, C.-M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic causal relationships between pollutant emissions, energy consumption and output for a panel of BRIC countries over the period 1971-2005, except for Russia (1990-2005). In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions, while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with the threshold income of 5.393 (in logarithms). In the short term, changes in emissions are driven mostly by the error correction term and short term energy consumption shocks, as opposed to short term output shocks for each country. Short-term deviations from the long term equilibrium take from 0.770 years (Russia) to 5.848 years (Brazil) to correct. The panel causality results indicate there are energy consumption-emissions bidirectional strong causality and energy consumption-output bidirectional long-run causality, along with unidirectional both strong and short-run causalities from emissions and energy consumption, respectively, to output. Overall, in order to reduce emissions and not to adversely affect economic growth, increasing both energy supply investment and energy efficiency, and stepping up energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage of energy can be initiated for energy-dependent BRIC countries. - Research highlights: →Energy has a positive impact on emissions, while output supports EKC hypothesis. →Changes in emissions are driven mostly by the ECT and short term energy shocks. →Short-term deviations from the long-term equilibrium take 0.77-5.85 years to correct. →There are energy-emissions and energy-output bidirectional long-run causalities. →There are unidirectional strong causalities from emissions and energy to output.

  1. Rural energy transitions in developing countries: a case of the Uttam Urja initiative in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Kar, Abhishek; Raven, Rob; Singh, Dilip; Tiwari, Jitendra; Jha, Rakesh; Sinha, Pramod Kumar; Mirza, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In most developing countries, at the household level, traditional burning of biomass or use of inefficient technologies for domestic applications like lighting is common, triggering concerns related to fuel or technology switching. The paper focuses on opportunities to promote cleaner energy options through development of value chains delivering improved energy efficiency and access in developing countries. We discuss the example of Uttam Urja, a field project involving the dissemination of photovoltaic lighting technologies in rural areas of India. We focus on the challenges of introducing radical innovations into the residential energy sector in developing countries. For the purpose of this paper the Uttam Urja project is conceptualized as an 'experiment' and analysed using the Strategic Niche Management (SNM) framework. The paper emphasizes that to effect socio-technical transitions to clean energy options on the ground, it is desirable to focus on technology customization and innovative financing to cater to the needs and concerns of end users.

  2. Energy Mix in Central European Countries of the V4 Group: The Quest for Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, F.; Smitkova, M.; Kubica, J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the development of the energy mix in the countries of the V4 region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). Trends over the past two decades are summarised and critically examined but mainly possible energy scenarios by 2030 are presented and assessed. Based on existing scenarios for the V4 countries, the impacts are assessed of potential developments for various ratios between domestic and imported fossil fuels, nuclear sources and large and decentralised RES. The analysis spans the development in energy intensity of the national economies, structural changes in energy consumption in various areas such as the industry and households, tightening of environmental criteria and a reevaluation of the dependency on imports of primary energy sources with an outline of possible future development directions in power engineering in view of the liberalisation of energy markets.(author).

  3. The contribution of energy efficiency to sustainable development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Meyers, S.

    1992-01-01

    The demand for energy services is growing rapidly in developing countries. Low levels of energy efficiency in electric power supply and in energy use mean that the energy sector threatens to absorb an intolerably high share of available financial resources. Energy inefficiency also contributes to local and global environmental problems. A strategy of vigorously improving energy efficiency is thus a key element of a sustainable development path. Results reported in this paper show that there is considerable room for efficiency improvement in both existing and new capital stocks, but a much larger effort than presently underway is essential if the potential is to be realized. Assistance from the industrialized countries can play a major role in such an effort. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  4. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  5. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO 2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO 2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO 2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO 2 emissions

  6. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  7. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on energy conservation in chief industries in ASEAN countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With objectives to understand ASEAN countries for their current situation in energy consumption in the typical factories and businesses in their chief industries, prepare appropriate advices on energy saving methods, and establish energy inspection means, surveys were carried out working with experts in the ASEAN countries. In the workshop held in Singapore in November 2000, the textile factory, Arab-Malaysia Development Berhad was selected for Malaysia, on which the survey was performed from January 15 through 19, 2001. Energy saving proposals were submitted based on the survey results. For Indonesia, the paper and pulp mill, P.T. Kertas Leces (Persoro) Pulp Paper Mill was selected, on which the survey was performed from January 22 through 26, 2001. Based on the survey results, the energy saving means and their effects, necessary investment amount, and amortization period were prepared. For Brunei, the cement factory, Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD was surveyed, whereas improvements of the facilities were proposed. (NEDO)

  8. The renewable energy and economic growth nexus in Black Sea and Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koçak, Emrah; Şarkgüneşi, Aykut

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth within the framework of traditional production function for the period of 1990–2012 in 9 Black Sea and Balkan countries. For this purpose, we use panel cointegration, co-integration estimate methods and heterogeneous panel causality estimation techniques. The study has concluded that there is a long term balance relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth and renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth. Heterogeneous panel causality analysis results support growth hypothesis in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine; feedback hypothesis in Albania, Georgia and Romania; neutrality hypothesis in Turkey and according to the panel data set including all nine countries the results support feedback hypothesis. With the findings, it was concluded that there is a significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Balkan and Black Sea Countries. - Highlights: • Explores the impact of renewable energy on economic growth in Black Sea and Balkan countries. • Employs panel cointegration and heterogeneous causality analyses. • Finds significant effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth. • Finds bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for the whole panel.

  9. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  10. Using the Financial Instruments for Electric Energy Industry Modernization: the Experience of European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the financial instruments used in the European countries to modernize the electric energy industry has been undertaken. A review of the European practices indicates that financial support for the electric energy industry modernization projects is financed by such instruments, mechanisms and incentives as «green» tariff, «green» certificates and «quota obligations», «green» bonds, auctions, concessional lending, grants, investment subsidies. Venture capital investment is a common form of financing for electric energy industry modernization in the European countries. It has been determined that «green» bonds are an effective instrument that allows to accumulate significant amounts of funds and direct them to the renewable energy industry. Nowadays a significant number of renewable energy industry projects in the EU countries have already been implemented at the expense of the funds obtained from the «green» bonds issue. «Green» bonds are a pivotal promising financial instrument for the modernization of electric energy industry in the European countries. Formation of the mechanism for their issue in Ukraine, taking account of the foreign practice of creating a market of «green bonds», will allow to accumulate the financial resources that are necessary for development of the renewable energy industry.

  11. The changing trend and influencing factors of energy efficiency: The case of nine countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Qiang; Kuang, Hai-bo; Wu, Chun-you; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Energy shortage is exacerbated by energy wastage and low efficiency, so energy efficiency has become a popular research topic. However, in most studies, the inputs and outputs of energy efficiency are selected through qualitative analysis and literature review, the rationality is not convincing. In this paper, the inputs and outputs of energy efficiency are calculated by EVA (Economic Value Added method). Number of employees in energy industry, energy consumption amount and energy services amount are chosen as the inputs while CO 2 emissions per capita and industrial profit amount are chosen as the outputs. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and Malmquist index are applied to calculate the energy efficiencies of nine countries during 2008–2012. Each country has different reasons to explain the change of energy efficiency index and more flexible energy development plans should be implemented according to the changing reasons. Then the important influencing factors of energy efficiency are analyzed by Panel Regression Model. The results indicate that technology indices and management indices are the main factors of energy efficiency. Management indices' effect on energy efficiency index is occurred mainly through pure technical efficiency change index. Technology indices' effect on energy efficiency index is occurred mainly through technical progress change index. - Highlights: • The inputs and outputs of energy efficiency are calculated by Economic Value Added method. • Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist index are used to calculate energy efficiency. • Panel Regression Model is used to identify the important influencing factors of energy efficiency. • Most important task is to upgrade energy technology and enhance management

  12. Design strategy for improving the energy efficiency in series hydraulic/electric synergy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Battery is a vital subsystem in an electric vehicle with regenerative braking system. The energy efficiency of an electric vehicle is improved by storing the regenerated energy in an electric battery, during braking, and reusing it during subsequent acceleration. Battery possesses a relatively poor power density and slow charging of regenerated energy, when compared to hydro-pneumatic accumulators. A series hydraulic/electric synergy system – an energy efficient mechatronics system is proposed to overcome the drawbacks in the conventional electric vehicle with regenerative braking. Even though, electric battery provides higher energy density than the accumulator system, optimal sizing of the hydro-pneumatic accumulator and other process parameters in the system to provide better energy density and efficiency. However, a trade-off prevails between the system energy delivered and energy consumed. This gives rise to a multiple objective problem. The proposed multi-objective design optimization procedure based on an evolutionary strategy algorithm maximizes the energy efficiency of the system. The system simulation results after optimization show that, the optimal system parameters increase the energy efficiency by 3% and hydraulic regeneration efficiency by 17.3%. The suggested design methodology provides a basis for the design of a series hydraulic/electric synergy system as energy efficient and zero emission system. - Highlights: • Dynamic analysis of SHESS to investigate energy efficiency. • Optimization of system parameters based on multi-objective design strategy. • Evaluation of improvements in system energy efficiency and hydraulic regeneration energy. • Identification of conditions at which hydraulic regenerative efficiency is maximized for minimum energy consumption. • Results confirm advantages of using SHESS

  13. Does energy efficiency improve technological change and economic growth in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Calì, Massimiliano; Velde, Dirk Willem te

    2016-01-01

    Does a trade-off exist between energy efficiency and economic growth? This question underlies some of the tensions between economic and environmental policies, especially in developing countries that often need to expand their industrial base to grow. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing the relationship between energy efficiency and economic performance at the micro- (total factor productivity) and macro-level (countries' economic growth). It uses data on a large sample of manufacturing firms across 29 developing countries to find that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with higher total factor productivity for the majority of these countries. The results are robust to a variety of checks. Suggestive cross-country evidence points towards the same relation measured at the macro-level as well. - Highlights: •Total factor productivity is an accurate proxy of technological change. •Energy efficiency triggers total factor productivity especially in manufacturing. •Technological change via energy efficiency in manufacturing is an engine of growth.

  14. The relevance of global energy governance for Arab countries: The case of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, Kerstin; Zejli, Driss; Taenzler, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Global climate and energy governance have led to the creation of a wide range of international and regional institutions, initiatives and financial mechanisms dedicated to fostering renewable energies. Furthermore, a low-carbon economy has evolved in recent years. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential benefits and merits of these institutions, initiatives and mechanisms from the perspective of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The central questions are if and how these organizations, initiatives and finance mechanisms could support a country from MENA in its efforts to implement large-scale capacities for renewable energy production. For this purpose, Morocco was chosen as a case study. The findings in this paper indicate that the existing institutions and financial mechanisms do not sum up to a coordinated governance approach, although the main needs of a country or region appear to be addressed. The existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries, especially those taking the lead in renewable energy implementation. - Research highlights: → A coordinated governance approach is missing for the encouragement of renewable energy application. → Existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries. → Front runner countries, such as Morocco, may not find all of their needs adequately addressed.

  15. Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Aye, Goodness C.; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Gupta, Rangan; Wanke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency assessment of selected OECD countries using a Slacks Based Model with undesirable or bad outputs (SBM-Undesirable). In this research, SBM-Undesirable is used first in a two-stage approach to assess the relative efficiency of OECD countries using the most frequent indicators adopted by the literature on energy efficiency. Besides, in the second stage, GLMM–MCMC methods are combined with SBM-Undesirable results as part of an attempt to produce a model for energy performance with effective predictive ability. The results reveal different impacts of contextual variables, such as economic blocks and capital–labor ratio, on energy efficiency levels. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency of selected OECD countries. • SBM-Undesirable and MCMC–GLMM are combined for this purpose. • Find that efficiency levels are high but declining over time. • Analysis with contextual variables shows varying efficiency levels across groups. • Capital-intensive countries are more energy efficient than labor-intensive countries.

  16. Scenarios of socio-economic and energy development of the country up to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    The scenarios description is given as the first stage of a procedure of an energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the formulation and the analysis of the development variants. The scenarios reflect quantitatively the policies and the international conditions for the socio-economic, energy demand and energy supply developments of the country. Two economic development scenarios ('high' - official macroeconomic views and 'low' - economic restructuring and decrease of energy intensity) hierarchically preside over the two corresponding energy demand scenarios of different technological evolutions ('traditional' and 'energy efficiency' oriented one) in the industry, the transport and the domestic and services sectors. Four energy supply system scenarios follow, corresponding to different approaches in the development of the energy conversion technologies and energy carriers, thus constituting a scenario tree of the studies. 16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tab., 1 ann. (R.Ts.)

  17. Renewable energy technologies and policies - experience in other countries and possibilities for Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, F. P.

    2000-01-01

    As Croatia begins the task of restructuring its energy sector, it has the opportunity to design programs and policies which will create the framework for a viable renewable energy contribution to overall energy supply. Croatia has many of the resources required for renewable energy, including good solar insolation, wind resources, small hydro and biomass. Implementing renewable energy projects is still a challenging prospect, mainly because of competition from fossil fuel sources of energy and because of the small scale and intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. However, there are many benefits, the most important of which are sustainability and reduced or zero air emission. in the most cases these benefits are not quantified or internalized into the project costs. As a result, most renewable energy projects are more costly than conventional projects on a purely financial basis. Overcoming the barriers to implementing renewable energy has been focus of many environmental groups as well as governments, especially in the last decade. Several countries, notably Denmark, have aggressively targeted increase use of renewable energy in the energy mix of the countries, and have implemented policies and regulations to encourage private and public sector use of renewables. policies in place include fiscal incentives, such as tax breaks, regulations such as guaranteed market share and pricing, or more market-based approaches such as green pricing, where consumers decide the premium they will pay for energy. Some of these policies have been quite successful in providing the right incentives to developers and utilities in adding more renewable energy to the national generation mix. Additionally, the area of emissions trading can be thought of as a policy initiative for a market-based approach to promoting increased renewable energy use. While the uncertainties of climate change and the politics of climate change make this a difficult area to count on, it should be

  18. Financing energy efficiency in developing countries-lessons learned and remaining challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ashok; Singh, Jas

    2010-01-01

    Although energy efficiency implementation is increasingly being recognized by policymakers worldwide as one of the most effective means to mitigating rising energy prices, tackling potential environmental risks, and enhancing energy security, mainstreaming its financing in developing country markets continues to be a challenge. Experience shows that converting cost-effective energy savings potential, particularly the demand-side improvement opportunities across sectors, into investments face many barriers and unforeseen transaction costs. This paper draws upon selected experiences with financing energy efficiency in developing countries to explore the key factors of various programmatic approaches and financing instruments that have been applied successfully for delivering energy efficiency solutions. Through case studies, a diverse range of institutional issues are examined related to the identification, packaging, designing, and monitoring approaches that have been used to catalyze traditional and innovative financing of energy efficiency projects. With adequate liquidity in major developing country markets and availability of modern energy savings technologies, it is often the institutional issues that become a key challenge to address in order to finance and implement robust programs. As further operational experience is gained, increased knowledge sharing can lead to scaling-up of such energy efficiency investments. The paper concludes with some ideas for accelerating implementation.

  19. Financing energy efficiency in developing countries. Lessons learned and remaining challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Ashok [Energy Unit, Energy, Transport and Water Department, World Bank (United States); Singh, Jas [Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), Energy, Transport and Water Department, World Bank (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Although energy efficiency implementation is increasingly being recognized by policymakers worldwide as one of the most effective means to mitigating rising energy prices, tackling potential environmental risks, and enhancing energy security, mainstreaming its financing in developing country markets continues to be a challenge. Experience shows that converting cost-effective energy savings potential, particularly the demand-side improvement opportunities across sectors, into investments face many barriers and unforeseen transaction costs. This paper draws upon selected experiences with financing energy efficiency in developing countries to explore the key factors of various programmatic approaches and financing instruments that have been applied successfully for delivering energy efficiency solutions. Through case studies, a diverse range of institutional issues are examined related to the identification, packaging, designing, and monitoring approaches that have been used to catalyze traditional and innovative financing of energy efficiency projects. With adequate liquidity in major developing country markets and availability of modern energy savings technologies, it is often the institutional issues that become a key challenge to address in order to finance and implement robust programs. As further operational experience is gained, increased knowledge sharing can lead to scaling-up of such energy efficiency investments. The paper concludes with some ideas for accelerating implementation. (author)

  20. Financing energy efficiency in developing countries-lessons learned and remaining challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Ashok, E-mail: asarkar@worldbank.or [Energy Unit, Energy, Transport and Water Department, World Bank (United States); Singh, Jas, E-mail: jsingh3@worldbank.or [Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), Energy, Transport and Water Department, World Bank (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Although energy efficiency implementation is increasingly being recognized by policymakers worldwide as one of the most effective means to mitigating rising energy prices, tackling potential environmental risks, and enhancing energy security, mainstreaming its financing in developing country markets continues to be a challenge. Experience shows that converting cost-effective energy savings potential, particularly the demand-side improvement opportunities across sectors, into investments face many barriers and unforeseen transaction costs. This paper draws upon selected experiences with financing energy efficiency in developing countries to explore the key factors of various programmatic approaches and financing instruments that have been applied successfully for delivering energy efficiency solutions. Through case studies, a diverse range of institutional issues are examined related to the identification, packaging, designing, and monitoring approaches that have been used to catalyze traditional and innovative financing of energy efficiency projects. With adequate liquidity in major developing country markets and availability of modern energy savings technologies, it is often the institutional issues that become a key challenge to address in order to finance and implement robust programs. As further operational experience is gained, increased knowledge sharing can lead to scaling-up of such energy efficiency investments. The paper concludes with some ideas for accelerating implementation.

  1. Problems on acceptance of nuclear energy - roots, development, and varieties in different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1988-01-01

    The social situation, the economic conditions, the resources and the political facts have to be analyzed specificly and taken into consideration by improving acceptance for new technologies and especially acceptance for nuclear energy. So it was more the intention of this report to show some deciding factors for direct activities, the elements which have to be recognized, the methods which can be used, and to show how other people, especially students, behave in industrialized and in developing countries. Without a better knowledge it can not be decided precisely which of the presented countries, Japan, the Philippines of the Latin American countries are representative for the situation in Indonesia. Therefore this presentation might be the analytical background for future actions specifically focussed on the Indonesian people which enables it to make a profit of nuclear power as a vigorous energy source for further development and for the industrialization of the country. (orig./DG)

  2. Use of synthetic series of monthly flows in calculating the marginal cost of energy of the national interconnected power system of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarango J, D.; Velasquez B, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this research it was determined the feasibility of using synthetic series of monthly average flow for the determination of the average marginal cost of energy in the National Interconnected Electric System of Peru, SEIN, taking as a case study of implementing bar tariff setting in 2004, where it was used the PERSEO model for planning, simulation and optimization of the hydrothermal system in Peru. The model is currently used by the Deputy Manager of tariff regulation (GART) of the Agency for Supervision of Investment in Energy and Mining - OSINERGMIN. The model use as hydrological information the average monthly flow series of tributaries to the historical attractions of the 23 river basins of the SEIN, one of the main is the basin of the Junin Lake, whose water is used by the Mantaro and Restitution hydroelectric, generating almost 20% of the power of our country. With the HEC-4 program, developed by the Hydrological Engineering Center of the USA, from the time series of monthly historical flows tributary to the Junin Lake, 50 series were generated synthetic monthly flow, determined from them a dry series, a average series and a wet series, information that was used in the PERSEO model to calculate the average marginal cost of energy of SEIN for each case. The results obtained from the average marginal cost of energy with the use of synthetic series of monthly flows, for the dry case, average case and wet case, with the PERSEO model, compared to the historical event, are lower in order of 1.14, 1.55 and 0.87 US $/MWh, the results will determine a decline in energy prices for end users, such as the domestic, commercial, industrial and mining users. (author).

  3. Energy of the amplitude mode in the bicubic antiferromagnet: Series expansion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oitmaa, J.

    2018-05-01

    Series expansion methods are used to study the quantum critical behavior of the bicubic spin-1/2 antiferromagnet. Excitation energies are computed throughout the Brillouin zone, for both the Néel and dimer phases. We compute the energy of the amplitude/Higgs mode and show that it becomes degenerate with the magnon modes at the quantum critical point, as expected on general symmetry grounds.

  4. CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Renewable Energy and Tourism: Evidence from Panel of the Most-Visited Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eyüp Doğan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on the energy-environment-growth literature overlook the investigation of the most-visited countries. Since these countries do not only belong to the largest economies and the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters in the world but are also listed in renewable energy country attractiveness index, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the level of CO2 emissions for the top 10 mostvisited countries. Applying several panel econometri...

  5. Optimal energy management for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Weiwei; Zhang Yong; Yin Chengliang

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present a new type of series-parallel hybrid electric bus and its energy management strategy. This hybrid bus is a post-transmission coupled system employing a novel transmission as the series-parallel configuration switcher. In this paper, the vehicle architecture, transmission scheme and numerical models are presented. The energy management system governs the mode switching between the series mode and the parallel mode as well as the instantaneous power distribution. In this work, two separated controllers using fuzzy logic called Mode Decision and Parallel-driving Energy Management are employed to fulfill these two tasks. The energy management strategy and the applications of fuzzy logic are described. The strategy is validated by a forward-facing simulation program based on the software Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the energy management strategy is effective to control the engine operating in a high-efficiency region as well as to sustain the battery charge state while satisfy the drive ability. The energy consumption is theoretically reduced by 30.3% to that of the conventional bus under transit bus driving cycle. In addition, works need future study are also presented.

  6. European Energy Integration in East European Countries: Real Necessity to Assure Fair Market prices for Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin IGNATOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure energy, and therefore, economic stability of East European States (hereafter EES there should be undertaken visible steps towards deeper energetic integration of the region under the coordination of EU. In such a way there will be considerably strengthened the regional economic security through creating functional mechanisms of solving current and potential energy issues including diversification of supplies and fairer market prices. Moreover, it will be possible to develop and implement more effectively energy infrastructure projects. Deeper and more functional energy integration in EES will create favorable preconditions of fostering the states’ economic development. Also, there will be considerably reduced the macroeconomic risks which could possible occur as a result of the struggle of interests of importing and supplying countries. The current paper is intended to underline the most important weaknesses in terms of energy security of EES and exemplify how efficient these problems could be tackled by cumulating common countries’ efforts in the sector. Also, it highlights the shortcomings of EU energy policy in EES and how these affect the economic prospective of the countries. Finally, it is remarked that EES need a common energy market in order to strengthen their negotiation positions in relation with supplying countries.

  7. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP)1 held in January 2010. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. At the request of the EEWP, this issue of the country report summary focuses primarily on transport. Countries reported a wide range of energy efficiency policy activity. Compared with past reports, energy efficiency policy planning seems to be giving way to programme implementation in the buildings, lighting and appliances sectors. Planning and implementation is underway in the transport sector. Measures in the transport sector are diverse and include financial support for electric vehicle R&D and pilot projects, fiscal policies to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles, eco-drive programmes and vehicle labelling. Measures of note outside the transport sector include the promotion of smart metering.

  8. Business models for model businesses: Lessons from renewable energy entrepreneurs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Cle-Anne; Kirkwood, Jodyanne

    2016-01-01

    Against the background of mounting research suggesting entrepreneurship as a means of increasing the uptake of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries, this paper presents the findings of an exploratory investigation into the business models used by renewable energy entrepreneurs in such countries. Forty-three entrepreneurs were interviewed in 28 developing countries and secondary information about country and regional conditions was analysed. We chose the Business Model Canvas as an analytical tool and the findings shed new light on established renewable energy business types. Three different types of businesses were identified – Consultants, Distributors, and Integrators; yet, there is also some overlap between these types. These business types appeared to parallel the life cycle progression of the business, but this requires further research. A key component of the study was to assess whether the types of businesses were related to country-level conditions to assess the impact of regional differences. These comparisons revealed consistencies between country-level characteristics and the entrepreneurs’ choice of business model. Conclusions suggest that different regions may support certain business models more than others due to differing levels of government interest in renewables, governance and policy support and the relative ease of doing business. - Highlights: •Business model canvas used to analyse renewable energy entrepreneurs’ businesses. •Consultants, distributors and integrators are the main business models used. •Business model characteristics are related to country and regional conditions. •Entrepreneurs in least favourable policy environments likely to be Consultants. •Energy entrepreneurship policy should focus on promoting specific business models.

  9. Net modelling of energy mix among European Countries: A proposal for ruling new scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.

    2012-01-01

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and secure supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted an energy policy for Europe, which was supported by several documents on different aspects of energy and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and contemporary view of energy interchanges between states was not available. In a previous work of the same authors, energy import/export interchanges between European States were used to develop a geographic overview at one-glance. In this paper, the enhanced Interchange Energy Network (IEN) is investigated from a modelling point of view, as a Small-World Net, by supposing that connections can exist between States with a probability depending also on economic/political relations between countries. -- Highlights: ► Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. ► Panel data from 1996 to 2008 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. ► The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small-World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. ► Interesting behavioural features as outcome derived, as shown for the case example of the Germany.

  10. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  11. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Guillaume, E-mail: gfontaine@flacso.org.e [Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO), Research Laboratory on Governance, Quito (Ecuador)

    2011-05-15

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  12. Can renewable energies be turned to a source of advantage by developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional industrial development pathways, that did not take into explicit consideration the issue of energy technologies to be utilized, now imperil development prospects around the world. As oil supplies approach their peak globally, and energy security becomes a major issue, so developing countries have everything to lose by simply following fossil fuel based industrialization, and everything to gain by recasting their development strategies around the prospects for renewable energies and biofuels. This is now a feasible prospect, as shown dramatically by the Brazilian experience, now being replicated in many developing countries, including most notably in India and China. This paper argues that the time is therefore ripe for developing countries, and development agencies such as the World Bank, to re-evaluate their stance on biofuels. Developing countries, particularly in the tropics, have an abundance of land, water and sunshine that give them a competitive advantage in biofuels, and for the development of a new industry ergo-culture that will stand alongside traditional agriculture. The paper argues that a swing behind biofuels can unlock a chain reaction of favorable developmental processes provided developing countries seize the initiative and set in place renewable energy industry creation projects before the developed world has managed to shake itself out of its fossil fuel dependence. In doing so, they will do a great service to themselves and to everyone concerned with the disastrous prospects of global climate change. (author)

  13. Panel estimation for CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif Hossain, Md.

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: → Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. → Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. → Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. → But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. → NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO 2 emissions.

  14. Development tendencies in the energy industries of the EU accession candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.

    2000-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European Countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1999 and outline the changes in their economic situation. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country of the Central and Eastern European countries taken separately. (author)

  15. An energy management for series hybrid electric vehicle using improved dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Yang, Yaoquan; Liu, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), management for two energy sources, engine and battery, is more and more important to achieve the minimum fuel consumption. This paper introduces several working modes of series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) firstly and then describes the mathematical model of main relative components in SHEV. On the foundation of this model, dynamic programming is applied to distribute energy of engine and battery on the platform of matlab and acquires less fuel consumption compared with traditional control strategy. Besides, control rule recovering energy in brake profiles is added into dynamic programming, so shorter computing time is realized by improved dynamic programming and optimization on algorithm.

  16. We keep on truckin': Trends in freight energy use and carbon emissions in 11 IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Jiyong; Schipper, Lee; Thompson, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Based on detailed national and international data on freight transportation, we analyze trends in freight CO 2 emissions in 11 IEA countries from the earliest year of data availability to 2007–2010. The cross-country comparison of the freight transportation sector indicates that per capita CO 2 emissions span a wide range and are mostly determined by local needs without full knowledge or coordination with policies and practices in other countries. Over the last several decades, while many developed countries have experienced decreased coupling between total freight activity (measured in tonne-km) and income, no major indication of decreased coupling between trucking and income was found. Rather, the coupling has been strengthened in many countries due to a continued increase in the share of trucking in total freight activity. The energy intensity of trucking has exhibited very large variation among the countries, and its recent international trends are mixed, providing greater challenges to reduce freight CO 2 emissions. Modal shift toward rail away from truck presents a sizeable opportunity to reduce freight CO 2 emissions, although the potential gain varies widely among the countries. - Highlights: ► We analyze trends in freight CO 2 emissions in 11 IEA countries. ► Many of them experienced decreased coupling between freight and income. ► No major indication of decoupling was found between trucking and income. ► The energy intensity of trucking exhibited very large variation. ► The trends of trucking energy intensity are mixed. ► There is a huge opportunity of reducing emissions by shifting toward rail.

  17. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  18. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  19. The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chor Foon; Abosedra, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Using panel data of 24 countries in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region from 2001 to 2009, the purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth within the neoclassical growth framework. To address the objective of this study, we utilise both the static panel data approach as well as the dynamic generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to examine the impact of candidate variables. Our results show that energy consumption and tourism significantly contribute to the economic growth of countries in the MENA region. Hence, our study lends some support to the existence of the tourism-led growth and energy-led growth hypotheses in the region. In line with our expectation, our estimation results also reveal that political instability impedes the process of economic growth and development in the MENA region. Therefore, macroeconomic policies to promote expansion in tourism and energy consumption will directly stimulate economic growth. Additionally, efforts to help the region overcome its history of political instability would attract more international tourist arrivals and further invigorate economic growth. - Highlights: • Tourism and energy consumption have positive impacts on GDP growth. • GDP reacts negatively to political instability. • Energy-led growth and tourism-led growth hypotheses are validated in MENA countries. • Supporting tourism, energy use and political stability will enhance economic growth

  20. Multi-country comparisons of energy performance: The index decomposition analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Xu, X.Y.; Su, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Index decomposition analysis (IDA) is a popular tool for studying changes in energy consumption over time in a country or region. This specific application of IDA, which may be called temporal decomposition analysis, has been extended by researchers and analysts to study variations in energy consumption or energy efficiency between countries or regions, i.e. spatial decomposition analysis. In spatial decomposition analysis, the main objective is often to understand the relative contributions of overall activity level, activity structure, and energy intensity in explaining differences in total energy consumption between two countries or regions. We review the literature of spatial decomposition analysis, investigate the methodological issues, and propose a spatial decomposition analysis framework for multi-region comparisons. A key feature of the proposed framework is that it passes the circularity test and provides consistent results for multi-region comparisons. A case study in which 30 regions in China are compared and ranked based on their performance in energy consumption is presented. - Highlights: • We conducted cross-regional comparisons of energy consumption using IDA. • We proposed two criteria for IDA method selection in spatial decomposition analysis. • We proposed a new model for regional comparison that passes the circularity test. • Features of the new model are illustrated using the data of 30 regions in China

  1. Energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. Directory 1985. Energiforskningsprojekter i Norden. Katalog 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third directory of research, development and demonstration projects in the Nordic countries within the field of energy. The 1985 directory includes projects running in 1985. 1757 projects are described and all of them are financed through special public funds (i.e. external funding). The directory is published at the request of the Nordic Council of Ministers and a special Energy Research Committee set up by the Nordic energy ministers in order to coordinate and promote Nordic information sharing in the energy field. (author)

  2. Energy efficiency in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries - Overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyevre, Nicolas; Salama, Anna Maria; Agrebi, Hassen; Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Taussat, Thibaut

    2012-04-01

    A development of the Mediterranean region solely based on fossil fuels is unsustainable: 582 million inhabitants in 2030 will consume 40% more energy than today, from 80% of fossil fuels, 10% of nuclear and 10% of renewable energy. These figures are based on OME trend scenario considering that economic growth will follow on the same pattern that has prevailed so far. This increase in demand will come mainly from the South and East Mediterranean Countries (SEMC), whose energy intensity is constantly growing: energy consumption is, in fact, growing faster than the economy measured by the gross domestic product. There is also a great potential for energy savings in different consuming sectors (industry, building, transport, agriculture..). Such a trend scenario has adverse consequences on different plans: energy, economic, social or environmental. It is, therefore, necessary to lower these trends. Exploiting the tremendous potential of energy efficiency of the region seems to be a key element in energy strategy, as targeted by the Mediterranean Solar Plan along with its goal of an installed capacity of renewable electricity of 20 GW for 2020. The scope of work to be done has already led to the development of energy efficiency policies at the national level both in North and South: laws, regulations, institutional arrangements, training and awareness campaigns, decision aids, investment financial incentives, etc. All these mechanisms are integral parts of an energy policy that applies to both the system of production, transmission and distribution of energy- supply- and to all social and economic activities that constitute energy demand which are treated in this work. An overall perspective of policies is presented, especially implemented energy efficiency measures in the SEMCs. This overview reflects the diversity of available policy actions and strategic choices of different countries, focusing on the most innovative and significant measures. The feedback of

  3. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  4. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  5. Economic development, energy demand and electricity necessities in some emergent and industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos A, L.

    2009-01-01

    The electricity has become a strategic support for the operation of the societies in its group, because it is being used intensively in the production, transport, communication, administration, science, education and the daily life through the personal computer, for what we can affirm that the electricity is in full expansion. Nevertheless, at the present time more of half of petroleum consumed in the world it is used for the terrestrial, air and marine transport. Many texts have been published in energy that they remind that the success of an industrial society, the growth of their economy, the quality of their inhabitants life and their impact in other societies and in the environment they are largely determined by the quantity and class of energy sources that it exploits and for the effectiveness of their systems to transform the potential energy into work and heat. In this work we observe tendencies in the energy consumption of 21 countries with complete conscience that the energy situation of each one of them depends, in first place, of the availability of its energy resources and its costs, besides its energy politicians, its laws and its maneuver margins. This way, the effect of the interrelations that here are analyzed for the period 1980-2004, is illustrated by means of a comparison of the energy consumption per capita in each one of those 21 countries. The work is very illustrative not alone regarding the inequality in the energy consumption in the world, moreover it mentions that countries are those that have the control of the world energy resources and it detects others that are participating actively in that battle by means of the use of new technologies and equipment s that seek to look for a bigger energy efficiency and to impel low economies in carbon and not based on fossil fuels. (Author)

  6. Exchange of researchers of oil substituting energies in EU countries; EU shokoku no sekiyu daitai energy kenkyusha koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to further promote smoother introduction of oil substituting energies and development of new energies and energy saving technologies, it was intended to exchange and acquire items of information effective to learn the current state and policy trends on research and development of new energies and energy conservation in the EU countries who are the industrialized countries like Japan and enthusiastic in developing oil substituting energies. Therefore, exchange of researchers was carried out with an objective to contribute to research and development of oil substituting energies by deepening mutual understanding on the development efforts and forming efficient cooperative relationship. The researchers who visited Japan are Dr. Robert Durand (France) and Prof. and Dr. Bruno Scrosati (Italy). Dr. Durand has a great knowledge about fuel cells and storage batteries, and Dr. Scrosati about electrolytes and lithium batteries. Both gentlemen have visited the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, NEDO, Toshiba, Sony, Sanyo Electric, Japan Storage Battery, Matsushita Battery Industry, the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Osaka, and Kansai Electric Power Company. Views and information were exchanged and a number of good results were rewarded.

  7. Climate change and energy scenarios in Asia-Pacific developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.; Foell, W.K.; Hills, P.; Nagao, Taiji

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide increases in energy use are the largest source of rising emissions of CO 2 . In the past, Europe and North America were the regions with the largest emissions. The rapid rate of industrialization, combined with population growth, has led to substantial increases in energy use in the developing countries of Asia and the Pacific. If present trends continue, the region will become the largest emitter of CO 2 from the use of fossil fuels within the next two or three decades. In this paper, we examine some alternate energy scenarios for the individual countries of the region and the potential for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy use to the year 2010. (author)

  8. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  9. Energy Innovations-GHG Emissions Nexus: Fresh Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Herránz, Agustín; Balsalobre, Daniel; Cantos, José María; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of improvements in energy research development (ERD) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for 28 OECD countries over the period of 1990–2014. In doing so, we have employed a panel data where public budget in energy research development and demonstration (ERD&D) has transformed into a finite inverted V-lag distribution model developed by De Leeuw (1962). This model considers that energy innovation accumulates in time and presents empirical evidence, how energy innovation contributes in reducing energy intensity and environmental pollution as well. Our results indicate that energy innovation measures require lapses of time to reach their full effect i.e. innovation applied to measures for environmental correction does not reach its whole effect immediately, requiring instead a certain amount of time to pass. Innovation policies have recommended for improving environmental quality. - Highlights: • This study analyses the impact of public budget in energy RD&D for 28 OECD countries on environmental quality. • Energy innovation contributes positively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • Advances in energy technology seem to be the key of improved environmental quality.

  10. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO 2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO 2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO 2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  11. Tariffs and subsidy policy for wind energy in the Netherlands and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zuylen, E.J.; Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    In the European countries different methods are used to stimulate renewable energy, in particular wind energy. In the Netherlands use is made of investment subsidies to install wind turbines on a large scale. In other countries (in this report Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and a few other countries) mainly use is made of the sellback method: electricity, generated by the wind turbines, is supplied to the grid. Also a combination of investment subsidies and sellback is applied. An overview is given of the financial incentive regulations in the above-mentioned countries. Also attention is paid to the underlying motivation and argumentation for the subsidies, the relation between wind energy subsidies and subsidies for other decentralized power generating options, and the impact of the European Union regulations in this matter. Finally an indication is given of how the regulations are financed: out of the general fund, out of environmental levies or directly from the electric companies. Most of the data presented in this report are the results of interviews with representatives of the different countries. 8 tabs

  12. Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyashev Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regional gas infrastructure development this paper considers the issue of energy security of the countries of East Baltic, which depend heavily on a single energy supplier — Russia. In recent years, the countries of the region have announced several LNG terminal construction projects. The European Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with OAO Gazprom. Different scenarios and prospects for individual LNG terminal projects and associated pipeline infrastructure are evaluated. It is shown that the inability of countries to find a political compromise on this issue and the terms of existing contracts for Russian gas, as well as low domestic demand for gas hamper the implementation of a regional LNG terminal project even in the long term.

  13. Harmonisation of Excise Duties on Energy Products and Electricity in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?cu Simona; Burlacu Valentin; Cojocaru Diana

    2013-01-01

    The field of excise duty taxes focuses on the use of these economic instruments designed by the European law in the context of protecting the environment and public health and to establish a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources. Focusing mainly on deriving and explaining economic impacts of the minimum energy taxes rates corresponding to the EU Directive (2003/96/EC) in CEE countries, this article outlines the degree of harmonisation of excise duty on energy products among th...

  14. The relationship between energy intensity and income levels: Forecasting long term energy demand in Asian emerging countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, R.; Univ. della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes long-term trends in energy intensity for ten Asian emerging countries to test for a non-monotonic relationship between energy intensity and income in the author's sample. Energy demand functions are estimated during 1973--1990 using a quadratic function of log income. The long-run coefficient on squared income is found to be negative and significant, indicating a change in trend of energy intensity. The estimates are then used to evaluate a medium-term forecast of energy demand in the Asian countries, using both a log-linear and a quadratic model. It is found that in medium to high income countries the quadratic model performs better than the log-linear, with an average error of 9% against 43% in 1995. For the region as a whole, the quadratic model appears more adequate with a forecast error of 16% against 28% in 1995. These results are consistent with a process of dematerialization, which occurs as a result of a reduction of resource use per unit of GDP once an economy passes some threshold level of GDP per capita

  15. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)

  16. Analysis of hohlraum energetics of the SG series and the NIF experiments with energy balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic energy balance model is applied to analyze the hohlraum energetics data from the Shenguang (SG series laser facilities and the National Ignition Facility (NIF experiments published in the past few years. The analysis shows that the overall hohlraum energetics data are in agreement with the energy balance model within 20% deviation. The 20% deviation might be caused by the diversity in hohlraum parameters, such as material, laser pulse, gas filling density, etc. In addition, the NIF's ignition target designs and our ignition target designs given by simulations are also in accordance with the energy balance model. This work confirms the value of the energy balance model for ignition target design and experimental data assessment, and demonstrates that the NIF energy is enough to achieve ignition if a 1D spherical radiation drive could be created, meanwhile both the laser plasma instabilities and hydrodynamic instabilities could be suppressed.

  17. Review on the integration of photovoltaic renewable energy in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, J.; Mbayed, R.; Salloum, George

    2016-01-01

    . Comparisons of developing countries׳ achievements and goals each according to their economical, political and social considerations are conducted. Projects ranging from small scale standalone systems such as microgrids and minigrids to large scale energy production stations will be presented by dividing...

  18. International cooperation for establishment and use of nuclear energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendieck, K.

    1982-01-01

    Possibilities of nuclear technology transfer in view of the establishment of nuclear energy systems in developing countries are discussed on the basis of two examples: (I) The theoretical approach (not yet applied) to systemize the decision process and (II) the practical approach exemplified in the case of Brazil. (orig.)

  19. Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

  20. Basic survey for promoting energy efficiency in developing countries. Database development project directory of energy conservation technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    In order to promote energy conservation in developing countries, the gist of Japanese energy saving technologies was edited into a database. The Asian territory is expected of remarkable economic development and increased energy consumption including that for fossil fuels. Therefore, this project of structuring a database has urgent importance for the Asian countries. New and wide-area discussions were given to revise the 1995 edition. The committee was composed of members from high energy consuming areas such as iron and steel, paper and pulp, chemical, oil refining, cement, electric power, machinery, electric devices, and industrial machinery industries. Technical literatures and reports were referred to, and opinions were heard from specialists and committee members representing the respective areas. In order to reflect the current status and particular conditions in specific industrial areas, additions were given under the assistance and guidance from the specialists. The energy saving technologies recorded in the database may be called small to medium scale technologies, with the target placed on saving energy by 10% or more. Small-scale energy saving technologies were omitted. Flow charts for manufacturing processes were also added. (NEDO)

  1. Polices for increasing energy efficiency: Thirty years of experience in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, Howard; Harrington, Philip; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Tanishima, Satoshi; Unander, Fridtjof

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvement was an important phenomenon in the global energy balance over the past 30 years. Without energy efficiency improvements, the OECD nations would have used approximately 49% more energy than was actually consumed as of 1998. This paper first reviews energy intensity trends for the major OECD nations since 1973, considering how much of the overall reduction in E/GDP was due to energy efficiency improvement and how much was due to structural change. The bulk of the paper examines the energy efficiency policies and programs adopted in Japan, United States, and Western Europe, commenting on their effectiveness and energy savings impacts where possible. The paper also reviews the energy efficiency policies and programs adopted in California. This experience shows that well-designed policies can result in substantial energy savings, as demonstrated in the United States where nine specific policies and programs reduced primary energy use in 2002 by approximately 11%. Substantial energy savings also occurred in Japan, some European countries, and in the electricity sector in California

  2. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutaif, N.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Palazzo, R. Jr [Departamento de Telemática, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gontijo, J.A.R. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-17

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  3. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutaif, N.A.; Palazzo, R. Jr; Gontijo, J.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile

  4. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond; Aabrekk, Synnøve; Svendsen, Svend; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Paiho, Satu; Ala-Juusela, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the Nordic countries there is significant primary energy saving potential in single-family houses from 1970s. ► There are several behavioral, economical and market related hindrances to adoption of energy efficiency measures. ► One-stop-shop business models to offer full service energy renovation packages are slowly emerging. ► Marketing strategies and policy measures are required to promote full service energy renovation of single-family house. - Abstract: In Nordic countries significant primary energy saving potential exists in houses built before 1980. These old houses need to be renovated, which provides an opportunity for implementation of energy efficiency measures. However, there are several economic and market hindrances and the renovation markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses are discussed

  5. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Romania Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Energy efficiency improvements in the various end-use sectors constitute a very substantial saving potential, which presently is insufficiently addressed in Central and Eastern Europe. For that reason the SCORE concept has been initiated. SCORE stands for 'Supporting the Cooperative Organisation of Rational Energy Use'. SCORE is a Netherlands society to society programme, aiming at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries through projects and actions aiming at improvements in environmental protection and energy end-use sectors. SCORE is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in partnership with local agencies in Central and Eastern Europe. The SCORE Country Document is based on: Survey on the existing policies and measures for energy efficiency, identified barriers, and the priorities for energy efficiency improvement in the country. The survey was carried out among some of the most important actors in this area by interviews, supported by filling in a questionnaire in a common format. Review of the existing strategic and regulatory documents and policy papers, different information sources like studies, reports, Internet sites. In chapter 2 the qualitative and quantitative situation in the field of energy supply and consumption is presented. In chapter 3 several topics will be addressed to provide insight into the national energy efficiency and climate change policy, a review, of the actors, with their tasks and responsibilities, the domestic programmes and initiatives as well as the foreign assistance programmes and initiatives. Chapter 4 includes the bottlenecks and problems identified to improve the energy efficiency situation in Romania. In chapter 5 some remarks are made on the criteria for SCORE projects

  6. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... as regards their inadequacy for assessing energy projects in rural areas.An alternative practical and PC-based approach will be presented in which emphasis is placed on the problem formulation phase, including the socio-economic, cultural and political aspects of the problem. This approach has been prepared...

  7. Energy and the transport sector. [For countries with no fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, P E

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the current energy situation from both the global viewpoint and the viewpoint of countries with no indigenous sources of fossil fuels. The lack of fossil fuels necessitates a substitution with indigenous sources of energy, where feasible. Long-distance railway transport is a self-evident element in the expanding transport sector. In view of the proven high energy efficiency of electric railway systems, there is every incentive for a more active investment policy in railway electrification. This applies to both medium-distance transportation of freight and passengers and different electric mass transit systems.

  8. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  9. Independent component analysis: A new possibility for analysing series of electron energy loss spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Nogl; Nuzillard, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    A complementary approach is proposed for analysing series of electron energy-loss spectra that can be recorded with the spectrum-line technique, across an interface for instance. This approach, called blind source separation (BSS) or independent component analysis (ICA), complements two existing methods: the spatial difference approach and multivariate statistical analysis. The principle of the technique is presented and illustrations are given through one simulated example and one real example

  10. Workshop on energy data of developing countries. Volume II. Basic energy statistics and energy balances of developing countries, 1967 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Extensive data on energy sources and balances are presented for Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, and Venezuela. Domestic consumption, final consumption, and energy end uses by the various sectors of consumer transactions are indicated. Data are compiled on imports and exports, production, and flows of fuels (processes to provide another energy commodity).

  11. Energy consumption and energy saving : their evolution in Spain and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Martinez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The article shows the development of energy consumption since the seventies in three main energy consuming sectors: industry, residential services and transport. While the energy intensity and consumption in the industrial sector have considerably decreased- taking 100 as index in 1973, this was 68 in 1988-in the other sectors, the increase of comfort in houses and business offices, as well as the number or automobiles, have made consumption in these sectors increase despite the efforts made in the improvement of return of installations and reduction of cars consumption. In the industry, large energy savings coincide with remarkable technological innovations and for the future, the achieved savings and future trends, as well as conditions for the energy saving, are analyzed for the rest of the sectors. (Author)

  12. Experience in Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE: Country Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Member States have recognized the increasing need to model future nuclear power scenarios in order to develop strategies for sustainable nuclear energy systems. The IAEA model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts (MESSAGE) code is a tool that supports energy analysis and planning in Member States. This publication documents the experience gained on modelling and scenario analysis of nuclear energy systems (NES) using the MESSAGE code through various case studies performed by the participating Member States on evaluation and planning for nuclear energy sustainability at the regional or national level. The publication also elaborates on experience gained in modelling of global nuclear energy systems with a focus on specific aspects of collaboration among technology holder and technology user countries and the introduction of innovative nuclear technologies. It presents country case studies covering a variety of nuclear energy systems based on a once-through fuel cycle and a closed fuel cycle for thermal reactors, fast reactors and advanced systems. The feedback from case studies proves the analytical capabilities of the MESSAGE model and highlight the path forward for further advancements in the MESSAGE code and NES modelling.

  13. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Optimal policy of energy innovation in developing countries: Development of solar PV in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Ehsan; Saboohi, Yadollah; Ghofrani, Mohammad B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply managerial economics and methods of decision analysis to study the optimal pattern of innovation activities for development of new energy technologies in developing countries. For this purpose, a model of energy research and development (R and D) planning is developed and it is then linked to a bottom-up energy-systems model. The set of interlinked models provide a comprehensive analytical tool for assessment of energy technologies and innovation planning taking into account the specific conditions of developing countries. An energy-system model is used as a tool for the assessment and prioritization of new energy technologies. Based on the results of the technology assessment model, the optimal R and D resources allocation for new energy technologies is estimated with the help of the R and D planning model. The R and D planning model is based on maximization of the total net present value of resulting R and D benefits taking into account the dynamics of technological progress, knowledge and experience spillovers from advanced economies, technology adoption and R and D constraints. Application of the set of interlinked models is explained through the analysis of the development of solar PV in Iranian electricity supply system and then some important policy insights are concluded

  15. Measuring the efficiency of energy-intensive industries across European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makridou, Georgia; Andriosopoulos, Kostas; Doumpos, Michael; Zopounidis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the energy efficiency trends of five energy-intensive industries in 23 European Union (EU) countries over the period 2000–2009. In particular, the performance of the construction, electricity, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and transport sectors is examined. The analysis is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) combined with the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), which allows for distinctions between efficiency and technology changes over time. At the second stage of the analysis, cross-classified multilevel modelling is applied to analyse the main drivers behind efficiency performance using a number of sector and country characteristics. Based on DEA results, an overall improvement in efficiency is observed in all sectors over the period. The decomposition of the MPI indicates that technology change is primarily responsible for the improvements achieved in most sectors. The results obtained by the cross-classified model show, among other things, that the high electricity prices, energy taxes, and market share of the largest generator in the electricity market have a negative effect on industrial energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Analysis of energy efficiency and trends of industrial sectors in EU. • Combination of non-parametric frontier models and multilevel explanatory analysis. • Examination of the drivers of energy efficiency. • Industrial energy efficiency performance is mainly driven by technological improvement.

  16. Rural and urban energy scenario of the developing countries and related health assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of energy use in India is considered in order to assess the impact on health of rural and urban energy sources in the developing countries. The health impact of the 'non-commercial' sources of energy used in India is discussed, with particular reference to the use of firewood and farm wastes for domestic cooking. The commercial energy sources considered include coal, oil and electricity. The generation of electricity from coal, hydro sources and nuclear fuels is discussed with regard to their health impact. The production and use of biogas instead of dried animal dung for domestic cooking in the rural areas of India is proposed in order to reduce the health detriment. On the basis of the past trend in the use of commercial and non-commercial energy in India, projections are made for the future, taking into consideration health detriment and evironmental damage associated with different sources. Finally, bases for changing the energy-use pattern in the developing countries are discussed, with particular emphasis on renewable sources and nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Seeing the light : adapting to climate change with decentralized renewable energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, H.D.; Cisse, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to climate change with particular reference to decentralized renewable energy (DRE) projects. It presents the experience of developing DRE projects in five developing countries, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Senegal and Zimbabwe. The conditions under which these countries can support DRE through the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism were also examined. Some policy recommendations were proposed for more dynamic DRE support for the Kyoto era. The Clean Development Mechanism was examined as a key financial tool for supporting DRE. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that the least developed countries are the least equipped with adaptive capacity, and therefore most vulnerable to climate change. The IPCC claims that climate adaptation and sustainable development can be compatible if policies are made to lessen resource pressure, improve environmental risk management and improve the prosperity of the poorest members of society. This book presents a framework for introducing modern energy services through DRE that can stabilize the socio-economics of a developing country. The main implications of rural energy deprivation include deforestation and ecosystem degradation, chronic rural poverty and high vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  19. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms

  20. FY 2000 report on the survey of policies on cooperation in new energy/energy conservation for developing countries by developed countries/international organizations. Survey of collection/analysis of information on effective energy utilization, etc.; 2000 nendo senshinkoku kokusai kikan no tai tojokoku shin energy sho energy kyoryoku seisaku ni kakawaru chosa hokokusho. Energy yuko riyo nado joho shushu bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for measures for cooperation in effective energy conservation for developing countries, the paper arranged characteristics of the policies, systems and organizations in relation to energy conservation/new energy policies in developed countries and international organizations excluding Japan. Concretely, survey was made of the following 5 fields: 1) new energy cooperation (project) for developing countries by developed countries and international organizations excluding Japan; 2) outline of activities by aid giving organizations; 3) energy conservation policies of developing countries and cooperation of developed countries and international organizations; 4) policies of new energy introduction in developed countries; 5) study to reinforce cooperation for helping developing countries by Japan and developed countries/international organizations excluding Japan. In 1), survey is composed of case study of the main project and study of the outline of activities by aid giving organizations. The activities by the following aid giving organizations were surveyed: the World Bank group, International Finance Corporation (IFC), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the European Committee and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). (NEDO)

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: the Republic of Korea 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Through analysis of its existing policies and comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, this book provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. Covering not only traditional energy sectors, but also energy efficiency, renewables and the environment, the IEA report serves as a guide to understanding - and addressing - the energy challenges that face the modern Republic of Korea. The great strides that the Republic of Korea has made over the last three decades are not confined to its economy. Its energy industry has similarly leapt forward in terms of infrastructure and security. Though it has no links to nearby countries that would allow it to rely on electricity imports or piped natural gas, the country has rapidly electrified, built a diverse portfolio of electricity supply, developed a robust nuclear energy industry and become one of the pioneers in the liquefied natural gas trade. As the most recent member of the International Energy Agency (IEA), this progress is remarkable and its enhancement of its policy goals - adding economic efficiency and environmental sustainability to energy security - is commendable. Building on the liberalisation of its economy, the Republic of Korea set out an ambitious plan for reform of its state-controlled natural gas and electricity industries. However, the plans have been stalled and there is currently little vision for effective reform going forward. As the economy makes the transition to one with less phenomenal, more sustainable and less predictable growth, the IEA encourages the Republic of Korea to press forward with liberalisation in order to underpin a more flexible and efficient energy sector. 22 figs., 33 tabs., 3 apps.

  2. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  3. Energy efficiency in Germany. Analysis based on the ODYSSEE database from the SAVE project 'Cross-country comparison on energy efficiency indicators'. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Mannsbart, W.; Schlomann, B.

    1998-03-01

    The most important change in the German data situation compared to the last national report in October 1995 was the adjustment of the national statistical system to the unified Germany including eastern Germany (in the following referred to as Germany). Therefore, the existing time series for western Germany (in the following referred to as ex-FRG) had not only to be updated, but German data had to be included in the ODYSSEE database, too. It is intended to improve in the future the quality of the data further and to extend the data through reasonable estimates as far as justified (improvement of the data for the ex-FRG up to 1994, completion and verification of the data for Germany in 1990/1991). It is clear that the re-unification (in combination with the change in 1995 of the national industrial energy consumption statistics to a classification which is compatible with the European NACE Rev. 1 classification) poses considerable difficulties for the Energy Efficiency Indicators (EEI) approach, in which longer time series improve the reliability of the results. The German reunification shows therefore the limitations of the approach which encounters difficulties in periods of rapid changes. It is, however, not a principle argument against the methodology. The difficulty stems rather from the fact that in periods of radical changes, statistical systems simply may break down for some time, and cannot be reconstructed afterwards. Fortunately, the German re-unification is exceptional within the European Union. However, in the case of the inclusion of Eastern European accession countries (PHARE countries) in the EEI approach, the same type of difficulties will occur, though to a lesser degree, because the changes were less radical, and because there was not a complete break in statistics. (orig.)

  4. A new tailored scheme for the support of renewable energies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moner-Girona, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Historically the promotion of renewable energy technologies in isolated areas has involved international donors or governments subsidising the initial capital investment. This paper proposes an alternative support mechanism for remote villages based on the generation of renewable electricity. This communication presents an evaluation of the Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme, a locally adapted variation of the Feed-in Tariff tailored for decentralised grids of developing countries. The RPT scheme stimulates the deployment of renewable energy technologies by paying for renewable electricity generated. A good-quality performance is secured since the support is given based on the electricity produced by renewables, not for the initial capital investment. The mechanism has been designed to provide a cost-effective scheme for the introduction of renewable energy technologies to remote villages, to provide sustainable and affordable electricity to local users, to make renewable energy projects attractive to policy-makers, and concurrently decrease financial risk to attract private sector investment. (author)

  5. Motivations driving renewable energy in European countries: A panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.; Pires Manso, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of literature available on renewable energy, the empirical analysis about drivers promoting renewables remains scarce. We have analyzed those drivers for European Countries. Over an extended period of time (1990-2006) we used panel data techniques, namely the fixed effects vector decomposition. The results suggest that both the lobby of the traditional energy sources (oil, coal, and natural gas) and CO 2 emissions restrain renewable deployment. The objective of reducing energy dependency appears to stimulate renewable energy use. Our results robustly support the EU decision to create a directive promoting the use of renewable sources (Directive 2001/77/EC). We also offer suggestions with regards to the design of appropriate policies towards renewable energy deployment.

  6. Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2009-01-01

    Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO 2 per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

  7. Renewable energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Economic and societal issues related to energy security and global warming is placing greater emphasis on the consumption of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates an empirical model of renewable energy consumption for the G7 countries. Panel cointegration estimates show that in the long term, increases in real GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} per capita are found to be major drivers behind per capita renewable energy consumption. These results are robust across two different panel cointegration estimators. Oil price increases have a smaller although negative impact on renewable energy consumption. Deviations from equilibrium are driven mostly by the error correction term as opposed to short term shocks. Short term deviations from the long term equilibrium take anywhere from between 1.3 years (France) and 7.3 years (Japan) to correct. (author)

  8. Internalising externalities of energy use through price mechanism: a developing country perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    As concern grows about the environmental aspect of energy use, it is increasingly suggested in recent years that energy pricing should take negative externalities of energy use into account. A large body of literature, both theoretical and applied, has grown up over the years proposing a variety of options and methods for internalising environmental costs. However, most of these theories and methods, developed in the industrialised countries, have hitherto neglected two aspects of developing economies: the existence of informal sector in the economy and widespread use of traditional energies. This paper discusses the issues related to internalising environmental costs through price mechanism when these two aspects are included. It also calls for a more careful analysis of energy and environmental policies. (author)

  9. The relationship between pollutant emissions, renewable energy, nuclear energy and GDP: empirical evidence from 18 developed and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mbarek, Mounir; Saidi, Kais; Amamri, Mounira

    2018-07-01

    This document investigates the causal relationship between nuclear energy (NE), pollutant emissions (CO2 emissions), gross domestic product (GDP) and renewable energy (RE) using dynamic panel data models for a global panel consisting of 18 countries (developed and developing) covering the 1990-2013 period. Our results indicate that there is a co-integration between variables. The unit root test suggests that all the variables are stationary in first differences. The paper further examines the link using the Granger causality analysis of vector error correction model, which indicates a unidirectional relationship running from GDP per capita to pollutant emissions for the developed and developing countries. However, there is a unidirectional causality from GDP per capita to RE in the short and long run. This finding confirms the conservation hypothesis. Similarly, there is no causality between NE and GDP per capita.

  10. Energy situation and energy-related environment issues of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwatibau, Suliana

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Islands have experienced low economic growth during the 1980s, and face significant energy problems. Petroleum products are imported at very high prices and biofuel use often leads to resource over-exploitation. However, perhaps the most basic energy-environment concern is the potential for sea level rise. Some Pacific Island nations would vanish altogether, while others would lose their most productive areas. (author)

  11. Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in

  12. Benefits of creating a cross-country data framework for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex [SEAD Energy Efficiency Data Access Project, Enervee (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Pantano, Stephen [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product’s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  13. The Benefits of Creating a Cross-Country Data Framework for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, Alex; McNeil, Michael; Pantano, Stephen

    2013-09-11

    As manufacturers now sell a similar range of consumer electronics and home appliances to major markets around the world, the task of identifying a product?s energy efficiency rating has usually been the responsibility of each country and its respective government agency. This has led to a multitude of energy efficiency testing procedures, ratings, and certifications, resulting in disparate data being captured on identical products. Furthermore, lack of consistent product identification criteria means product energy performance is not easily connected to relevant information about the product such as market availability, price or real world energy consumption. This paper presents a new data standard for reporting energy performance and related product information that can be adopted internationally. To inform the development of this standard, we explore the existing energy efficiency market data for the two example products of TVs and Room Air Conditioners. This paper discusses current/future use cases of appliance level energy efficiency data across all stakeholders, including consumers, retailers/manufacturers, global standards organizations, third party service providers, and regulatory agencies. It also explains the key benefits of moving to a common international data framework for energy efficiency, such as: 1) a centralized product information repository for comparing energy use, ratings/certifications, and pricing data 2) improved access to relevant consumer electronics and appliance data to facilitate new policy development and harmonization across markets 3) enablement of retailers and other third parties to embed actionable energy efficiency information as part of the consumer experience.

  14. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  15. The impact of biomass energy consumption on pollution: evidence from 80 developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Al-Mulali, Usama; Gan, Gerald Goh Guan; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2018-05-30

    The aim of this research is to explore the effect of biomass energy consumption on CO 2 emissions in 80 developed and developing countries. To achieve robustness, the system generalised method of moment was used and several control variables were incorporated into the model including real GDP, fossil fuel consumption, hydroelectricity production, urbanisation, population, foreign direct investment, financial development, institutional quality and the Kyoto protocol. Relying on the classification of the World Bank, the countries were categorised to developed and developing countries. We also used a dynamic common correlated effects estimator. The results consistently show that biomass energy as well as fossil fuel consumption generate more CO 2 emissions. A closer look at the results show that a 100% increase in biomass consumption (tonnes per capita) will increase CO 2 emissions (metric tons per capita) within the range of 2 to 47%. An increase of biomass energy intensity (biomass consumption in tonnes divided by real gross domestic product) of 100% will increase CO 2 emissions (metric tons per capita) within the range of 4 to 47%. An increase of fossil fuel consumption (tonnes of oil equivalent per capita) by 100% will increase CO 2 emissions (metric tons per capita) within the range of 35 to 55%. The results further show that real GDP urbanisation and population increase CO 2 emissions. However, hydroelectricity and institutional quality decrease CO 2 emissions. It is further observed that financial development, foreign direct investment and openness decrease CO 2 emissions in the developed countries, but the opposite results are found for the developing nations. The results also show that the Kyoto Protocol reduces emission and that Environmental Kuznets Curve exists. Among the policy implications of the foregoing results is the necessity of substituting fossil fuels with other types of renewable energy (such as hydropower) rather than biomass energy for

  16. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  17. A time-series analysis of energy-related carbon emissions in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki-Hong Choi; Ang, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions and their relationships with energy consumption and GNP in Korea are studied from 1961 to 1998. The ratio of carbon emissions to GNP is expressed as the product of the aggregate carbon factor and the energy intensity. Changes in the aggregate carbon factor are decomposed into the impacts associated with the fuel carbon factor and the fuel mix, using the Divisia index approach. The analysis is carried out using two sets of data, with and without wood consumption as an energy source, and very different results are obtained. This shows that carbon emission studies for developing countries based on commercial energy consumption only may have to be interpreted with caution. Our analysis also reveals that the impact of the energy intensity on carbon emissions is greater than that of the aggregate carbon factor. This finding supports the assertion made in earlier studies that the energy intensity is a more meaningful indicator than the aggregate carbon factor in the study of climate change resulting from energy-related emissions. (author)

  18. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Ismail, Siti Fatimah [Faculty of Entrepeneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Bandar, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Khairum [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya,76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Halim, Bushra Abdul [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak (Malaysia); Kun, Sek Siok [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  19. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and Co 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted for China, India, Indonesia and South Korea in Asia

  20. Metropolises in emerging countries: actors in energy transitions? Lessons from Cape Town (South Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaglin, Sylvy

    2017-01-01

    The role of cities, as places and drivers of the energy transition is increasingly recognized. The research project Termos tested the robustness of this assumption in four cities of emerging countries by asking two questions: to what extent do urban local actors really drive an urban energy transition and of what kind? To what extent are their actions supporting an urban territorialisation of energy systems? The paper first presents the findings of this comparative research, which he then extends with the case study of Cape Town. It analyzes why, despite their energy and environmental voluntarism, the municipality have little room of manoeuvre, while the changes observed seem to strengthen the stranglehold of the 'central sphere' in the energy system. Analyzing this as the expression of a conflict between a strong national electricity sector and an alternative approach to energy issues carried by urban actors, it highlights the resulting tensions and their impact on the municipal actions, both limited by resistance but also 'swallowed up' by actors from the central sphere. The paper finally draws lessons from this example to enrich the general analysis of dynamics observed in other cities of emerging countries

  1. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America

  2. Leveling the Playing Field: Giving Girls An Equal Chance for Basic Education--Three Countries' Efforts. EDI Learning Resources Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly; Murphy, Paud

    This booklet examines the efforts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malawi to increase the enrollment of girls in their schools. Each country has severe problems of access to education for girls; the gender gap in the gross enrollment rate at the primary school level is at least 10 percentage points in each country. What is noteworthy about these three…

  3. Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Education Working Paper Series, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends, underlying factors and implications of the trade in higher education services. The term "trade in higher education" refers to the purchase of higher education services from a foreign country using domestic resources. The objectives of this paper are to provide policy makers in developing countries, World Bank staff,…

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Analysis of an array of piezoelectric energy harvesters connected in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H C; Wu, P H; Lien, I C; Shu, Y C

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the electrical response of a series connection of piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) attached to various interface electronics, including standard and parallel-/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits. In contrast to the case of parallel connection of multiple oscillators, the system response is determined by the matrix formulation of charging on a capacitance. In addition, the adoption of an equivalent impedance approach shows that the capacitance matrix can be explicitly expressed in terms of the relevant load impedance. A model problem is proposed for performance evaluation of harvested power under different choices of interface circuits. The result demonstrates that the parallel-SSHI array system exhibits higher power output with moderate bandwidth improvement, while the series-SSHI system delivers a pronounced wideband at the cost of peak harvested power. The standard array system shows a mild ability in power harvesting between these two SSHI systems. Finally, comparisons between the series and parallel connection of oscillators are made, showing the striking contrast of these two cases. (paper)

  7. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  8. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  9. Economic impacts of hydrogen as an energy carrier in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wietschel, Martin; Seydel, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to identify possible sectoral shifts and employment effects due to the application of hydrogen in the energy system for selected European countries till 2030. This is based on assumptions about the market penetration of hydrogen as an energy carrier, an analysis of the competitiveness of EU countries in this technology field and input-output model calculations. The analysis showed that the introduction of hydrogen leads to significant shifts between economic sectors and, as a policy recommendation, it is concluded that the required workforce skills in hydrogen technologies should be available in time in order to be properly prepared for this. Some employment gains are possible for the EU Member States analysed if the introduction of hydrogen does not result in significant changes in export/import flows. However, the lead market analysis also showed that the competitiveness of EU countries varies significantly and that, viewed as a whole, Europe is in danger of falling behind its main competitors. This may lead to job losses because the industry branches affected - automotive and plant manufacturers - represent key sectors for the EU. One policy goal, therefore, especially for countries with a large share of automobile and plant manufacturing, is to aim to be a lead market for hydrogen and fuel cells. (author)

  10. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard; Zingerle, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: →Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. →Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. →Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. →Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  11. Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang Tsangyao

    2012-01-01

    This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ► Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ► Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ► Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

  12. Technical cooperation on government base with developing countries in the field of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabe, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    Since the summer of the last year, the problems in the relation with developing countries have been actively discussed in the Atomic Energy Commission, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. As the background of this tendency, it is pointed out that Japanese nuclear industry has grown up to the level comparable with European and American counterparts and capable of advancing into the world market as the exporter of nuclear facilities, on the other hand, that Asian countries expect Japanese technical and economical power also in the field of atomic energy. In this report, the technical cooperation of the IAEA on funds, the dispatch of specialists, the supply of materials and training, the technical cooperation of Japanese International Cooperation Agency on the acceptance of trainees, the dispatch of specialists and others, and the fundamental way of thinking about the technical cooperation on government base are reported. It is very important to grasp the true needs of a partner country when a project is selected. In the cooperation, the effort of self-help by a developing country must be the major premise. (Kako, I.)

  13. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  14. The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy in OECD Countries: aggregate indicators and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes different methods to aggregate heterogeneous policies for renewable energy. We compare time-varying indicators built using principal component analysis with average-based indicators. The main goal of the paper is to account for the evolution of both types of policy indicators with a set of common variables. Our empirical results are consistent with predictions of political-economy models of environmental policies as lobbying, income and, to a less extent, inequality have expected effects on policy. The brown lobbying power, proxied by entry barriers in the energy sector, has negative influence on the policy indicators even when taking into account endogeneity in its effect. The results are also robust to dynamic panel specifications and to the exclusion of groups of countries. Interestingly, too, corruption has only an indirect effect on policy mediated by entry barriers, while the negative effect of inequality is much stronger for the richer countries. (authors)

  15. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  16. Parameter Design for the Energy Regeneration System of Series Hydraulic Hybrid Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yunpu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper simplifies the energy recovery process in the series hydraulic hybrid bus’ energy regeneration system into a process in which the main axle’s moment of inertia d