WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy self-reliance net-energy

  1. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  2. Community energy self-reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Goals of a workshop/conference on community renewable energy systems are: (1) to encourage decentralization in attacking energy problems, (2) to show how renewable energy can meet community goals, (3) to present examples of successful projects, (4) to discuss the planning and management of renewable energy systems, (5) to identify sources of financial support, (6) to share legal strategies, and (7) to examine utility roles.

  3. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  4. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  5. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  6. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  7. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  8. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.; Rotty, R.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Non-fission energy inputs to nuclear fuel cycles were calculated for four types of power reactors and for two grades of uranium ore. Inputs included all requirements for process operations, materials, and facility construction. Process stages are mining, milling, uranium conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal, reactor construction and operation, and all transportation. Principal inputs were analyzed explicitly; small contributions and facility construction were obtained from input-output tables. For major facilities, the latter approach was based on disaggregated descriptions. Enrichment energy was that of U.S. diffusion plants, with uranium tails assay retained as a variable parameter. Supplemental electrical requirements, as a percentage of lifetime electrical output, are 5-6% for LWRs (0.3 - 0.2% tails assay) using ores with 0.2% uranium and without recycle. Recycle of uranium and plutonium reduces the electrical requirements 30%. Chattanooga Shales (0.006% U) require one-third more electricity. Thermal energy requirements are about 5% of electrical output with conventional ores; shales raise this to about 14%, with 0.2% enrichment tails and full recycle. About one-tenth of the electrical supplements and about a third of the thermal energy supplements are required prior to operation. A typical LWR will repay its energy loan within 15 months, allowing for low initial load factors. Enrichment requiring only 10% as much separative work as gaseous diffusion would reduce electrical requirements about 80%, but have little effect on thermal energy inputs. HTGRs require slightly less supplemental energy than LWRs. HWRs (with natural uranium) require about one-third as much supplemental electricity, but half again as much thermal energy, largely for heavy water production. The paper presents detailed data for several combinations of reactor type, ore grade and tails assay and compares them with conventional power plants. It also exhibits

  9. Geothermal energy development - a boon to Philippine energy self-reliance efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, A.P.; Ogena, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Philippine success story in geothermal energy development is the first of the nation's intensified search for locally available alternative energy sources to oil. Due to its favorable location in the Pacific belt of fire, together with the presence of the right geologic conditions for the formation of geothermal (earth heat) reservoirs, the country has been able to develop commercially six geothermal fields. These are the Makiling-Banahaw area, just south of Manila, Tiwi in Albay, Bacon-Manito in Sorsogon, Tongonan in Leyte, Palinpinon in Southern Negros, and the Mt. Apo region of Mindanao. Together these six geothermal fields have a combined installed generation capacity of 1,448 Mwe, which the Philippines second largest user geothermal energy in the world today. Since 1977 to mid-1997, a total of 88,475 gigawatt-hours have been generated equivalent to 152.54 million barrels of oil. Based on the average yearly price of oil for the period, this translates into a savings of $3,122 billion for the country that otherwise would have gone for oil importations. It is planned that by the year 2000, geothermal shall be accounting for 28.4% of the 42,000 gigawatt-hours of the energy needed for that year, coal-based plants will contribute 24.6% and hydropower 18.6%. This will reduce oil-based contribution to just 28.4%. Geothermal energy as an indigenous energy resource provides the country a sustainable option to other conventional energy sources such as coal, oil and even hydro. Technologies have long been developed to maintain the environmental quality of the geothermal site. It serves to minimize changes in the support systems found on the land, water and air environments. The country has hopped, skipped and jumped towards energy self-reliance anchored on development of its large geothermal resources. And as the Philippines pole-vaults into the 21st century, the nation can look forward to geothermal energy to remain as one of the pillars of its energy self-reliance

  10. A citizens' plan for energy self-reliance. The process report: How it happened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    Results are presented of a project undertaken to demonstrate that local action could meet the energy crisis in Santa Cruz, California, and to demonstrate that a community could cooperatively develop an energy plan for greater energy self reliance. Community participation took several forms: neighborhood outreach; community education and involvement, and media and press coverage of the project. An advisory board was formed and research was undertaken to determine the feasibility of energy ideas generated in the neighborhoods and to answer questions posed by the advisory board. Selection criteria were developed for use in screening individual actions. Thirty programs with more than 120 actions were approved and a list of 16 priorities was established. Actions implemented by the Advisory Board are noted.

  11. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, Charles; Gupta, Smita; Torcellini, Paul; Mchugh, Jon; Liu, Bing; Higgins, Cathy; Iplikci, Jessica; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-06-30

    The submitted Roundtable discussion covers zero net energy (ZNE) buildings and their expansion into the market as a more widely adopted approach for various building types and sizes. However, the market is still small, and this discussion brings together distinguished researchers, designers, policy makers, and program administrations to represent the key factors making ZNE building more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This roundtable was conducted by the ASHRAE Journal with Bing Liu, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Charles Eley, FAIA, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Smita Gupta, Itron; Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Jessica Iplikci, Energy Trust of Oregon; Jon McHugh, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Michael Rosenberg, Member ASHRAE; and Paul Torcellini, Ph.D., P.E., NREL.

  12. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  13. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... be expressed as a function of two parameters representing the energy performance and two parameters representing the geometry of the window. The two energy performance parameters are the net energy gain per area of the glazing unit and the sum of the heat losses through the frame and the assembly per length...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters...

  14. Cherokee self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John

    2002-10-01

    This qualitative study was conducted using ethnography to identify how (a) self-reliance is conceptualized by the Cherokee; (b) the adult male Cherokee perceives, achieves, and demonstrates self-reliance; and (c) nurses can incorporate the Cherokee concept of self-reliance into health care of the Cherokee. The goal of self-reliance was included in the following mission statement of the 1976 Cherokee Nation constitution: "The mission of the government of the Cherokee Nation is to promote and sustain the self-reliance of its members" (Resolution No. 28-85, 1976). The conceptualization and perspective of self-reliance by the Cherokee must be understood to assist effectively in the development and promotion of self-reliance in the Cherokee, especially the male Cherokee. The cultural domain of self-reliance that emerged from the data is a composite of three categories that include being responsible, being disciplined, and being confident. Cutting across all three categories are the two themes of being true to onself and being connected.

  15. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Energy future Santa Cruz: A citizens' plan for energy self-reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    The results of a grassroots energy conservation project which involved more than 3,100 residents of Santa Cruz, California, is discussed. Citizens attended forums and town meetings to suggest ideas for solving the community's energy problems. These ideas were then evaluated by the Energy Future Advisory Board and compiled into the Energy Future Plan. The energy plan covers such topics as new residences, residential retrofit, automobile efficiency, farm efficiency, commercial greenhouses, local food production, commercial efficiency, land use planning, energy education and financing, and solar, wind, and ocean energy. An energy implementation guide and glossary are included.

  17. Energy future Santa Cruz. A citizens plan for energy self-reliance: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    A grassroots energy conservation project which involved more than 3100 residents of Santa Cruz, California, is discussed. Citizens attended forums and town meetings to suggest ideas for solving the community's energy problems. These ideas were then evaluated by the Energy Future Advisory Board and compiled into the Energy Future Plan. The plan covers such topics as new residences, residential retrofit, automobile efficiency, farm efficiency, commercial greenhouses, local food production, commercial efficiency, land use planning, energy eduction and financing, and solar, wind, and ocean energy. If the plan is successfully implemented, the energy that the community is projected to use in 1991 can be lowered by 24 to 35 percent.

  18. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  19. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  20. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  1. Net-energy analysis of nuclear and wind power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, G.T. Sr.

    1985-01-01

    The following question is addressed: can nuclear power and wind power (a form of solar energy) systems yield enough energy to replicate themselves out of their own energy and leave a residual of net energy in order to provide society with its needs and wants. Evidence is provided showing that there is a proportionality between the real monetary cost and energy inputs. The life-cycle, economic cost of the energy-transformation entity is the basis for calculating the amount of energy needed, as inputs, to sustain energy transformation. This study is unique as follows: others were based on preliminary cost and performance estimates. This study takes advantage of updated cost and performance data. Second, most prior studies did not include the energy cost of labor, government, and financial services, transmission and distribution, and overhead in arriving at energy inputs. This study includes all economic costs as a basis for calculating energy-input estimates. Both static (single-entity analysis) and dynamic (total systems over time) analyses were done and the procedures are shown in detail. It was found that the net-energy yield will be very small and most likely negative. System costs must be substantially lowered or efficiencies materially improved before these systems can become sources of enough net energy to drive the United States economic system at even the present level of economic output

  2. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...... for simple and accurate methods to determine and compare the energy performance of different window products. When choosing windows for new buildings or retrofitting a calculation tool that in a simple way determines the net energy gain from the specific windows in the actual building will ease the selection...... of the best window solution. Such a tool combined with a database with window products can make calculations of the heat loss or energy demand corresponding to the requirements in the new building code easier and more correct. In the paper, methods to determine energy performance data and the net energy gain...

  3. Net energy balance of tokamak fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1981-10-01

    The net energy balance for a tokamak fusion power plant was determined by using a PWR power plant as reference system, replacing the fission-specific components by fusion-specific components and adjusting the non-reactor-specific components to altered conditions. For determining the energy input to the fusion plant a method was developed that combines the advantages of the energetic input-output method with those of process chain analysis. A comparison with PWR, HTR, FBR, and coal-fired power plants is made. As a result the net energy balance of the fusion power plant turns out to be more advantageous than that of an LWR, HTR or coal-fired power plant and nearly in the same range as FBR power plants. (orig.)

  4. Net energy analysis in a Ramsey–Hotelling growth model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, Arturo; Matilla-García, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic growth model with energy as an input in the production function. The available stock of energy resources is ordered by a quality parameter based on energy accounting: the “Energy Return on Energy Invested” (EROI). In our knowledge this is the first paper where EROI fits in a neoclassical growth model (with individual utility maximization and market equilibrium), establishing the economic use of “net energy analysis” on a firmer theoretical ground. All necessary concepts to link neoclassical economics and EROI are discussed before their use in the model, and a comparative static analysis of the steady states of a simplified version of the model is presented. - Highlights: • A neoclassical growth model with EROI (“Energy Return on Energy Invested”) is shown • All concepts linking neoclassical economics and net energy analysis are discussed • Any EROI decline can be compensated increasing gross activity in the energy sector. • The economic impact of EROI depends on some non-energy cost in the energy sector. • Comparative steady-state statics for different EROI levels is performed and discussed. • Policy implications are suggested.

  5. Optimising building net energy demand with dynamic BIPV shading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayathissa, P.; Luzzatto, M.; Schmidli, J.; Hofer, J.; Nagy, Z.; Schlueter, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Coupled analysis of PV generation and building energy using adaptive BIPV shading. •20–80% net energy saving compared to an equivalent static system. •The system can in some cases compensate for the entire heating/cooling/lighting load. •High resolution radiation simulation including impacts of module self shading. -- Abstract: The utilisation of a dynamic photovoltaic system for adaptive shading can improve building energy performance by controlling solar heat gains and natural lighting, while simultaneously generating electricity on site. This paper firstly presents an integrated simulation framework to couple photovoltaic electricity generation to building energy savings through adaptive shading. A high-resolution radiance and photovoltaic model calculates the photovoltaic electricity yield while taking into account partial shading between modules. The remaining solar irradiation that penetrates the window is used in a resistance-capacitance building thermal model. A simulation of all possible dynamic configurations is conducted for each hourly time step, of which the most energy efficient configuration is chosen. We then utilise this framework to determine the optimal orientation of the photovoltaic panels to maximise the electricity generation while minimising the building’s heating, lighting and cooling demand. An existing adaptive photovoltaic facade was used as a case study for evaluation. Our results report a 20–80% net energy saving compared to an equivalent static photovoltaic shading system depending on the efficiency of the heating and cooling system. In some cases the Adaptive Solar Facade can almost compensate for the entire energy demand of the office space behind it. The control of photovoltaic production on the facade, simultaneously with the building energy demand, opens up new methods of building management as the facade can control both the production and consumption of electricity.

  6. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...

  7. Net energy balance of tokamak fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1983-01-01

    The net energy balance for a tokamak fusion power plant of present day design is determined by using a PWR power plant as reference system, replacing the fission-specific components by fusion-specific components and adjusting the non-reactor-specific components to altered conditions. For determining the energy input to the fusion plant a method was developed that combines the advantages of the energetic input-output method with those of process chain analysis. A comparison with PWR, HTR, FBR, and coal-fired power plants is made. As a result the energy expenditures of the fusion power plant turn out to be lower than that of an LWR, HTR, or coal-fired power plant of equal net electric power output and nearly in the same range as FBR power plants. (orig.)

  8. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  9. Using net energy output as the base to develop renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Daigee; Hung Mingfeng; Lin Yihao

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase energy security, production of renewable energies has been highly promoted by governments around the world in recent years. The typical base of various policy instruments used for this purpose is gross energy output of renewable energy. However, we show that basing policy instruments on gross energy output will result in problems associated with energy waste, economic inefficiency, and negative environmental effects. We recommend using net energy output as the base to apply price or quantity measures because it is net energy output, not gross energy output, which contributes to energy security. The promotion of gross energy output does not guarantee a positive amount of net energy output. By basing policy instruments on net energy output, energy security can be enhanced and the above mentioned problems can be avoided.

  10. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill

    2010-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

  11. Implications of net energy-return-on-investment for a low-carbon energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lewis C.; van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbon energy transitions aim to stay within a carbon budget that limits potential climate change to 2 °C—or well below—through a substantial growth in renewable energy sources alongside improved energy efficiency and carbon capture and storage. Current scenarios tend to overlook their low net energy returns compared to the existing fossil fuel infrastructure. Correcting from gross to net energy, we show that a low-carbon transition would probably lead to a 24-31% decline in net energy per capita by 2050, which implies a strong reversal of the recent rising trends of 0.5% per annum. Unless vast end-use efficiency savings can be achieved in the coming decades, current lifestyles might be impaired. To maintain the present net energy returns, solar and wind renewable power sources should grow two to three times faster than in other proposals. We suggest a new indicator, `energy return on carbon', to assist in maximizing the net energy from the remaining carbon budget.

  12. LEAP Phase II, Net Energy Gain From Laser Fields in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.D.; Colby, E.R.; Plettner, T.

    2005-01-01

    The current Laser Electron Acceleration Program (LEAP) seeks to modulate the energy of an electron bunch by interaction of the electrons with a copropagating pair of crossed laser beams at 800 nm. We present an optical injector design for a LEAP cell so that it can be used to give net energy gain to an electron bunch. Unique features of the design are discussed which will allow this net energy gain and which will also provide a robust signature for the LEAP interaction

  13. LEAP Phase II, net energy gain from laser fields in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Christopher D.; Colby, Eric R.; Plettner, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    The current Laser Electron Acceleration Program (LEAP) seeks to modulate the energy of an electron bunch by interaction of the electrons with a copropagating pair of crossed laser beams at 800 nm. We present an optical injector design for a LEAP cell so that it can be used to give net energy gain to an electron bunch. Unique features of the design are discussed which will allow this net energy gain and which will also provide a robust signature for the LEAP interaction

  14. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  15. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1...

  16. Utilization of net energy analysis as a method of evaluating energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gi Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Hah, Yung Joon

    1994-01-01

    It can be said that the upturn of Korean nuclear power program started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States since the late 70's. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type in U.S., considering the current U.S. trend of construction on the new plants. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it may be desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a method of comparing two energy systems in terms of energy investment and a brief result from energy economic analysis of nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant to illustrate the methodology. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (lOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, it can be used as a screening process in decision making

  17. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  18. A quantitative assessment of the determinants of the net energy value of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Gauroy, Christine; Treguer, David

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the net energy balance of biofuel products (in terms of savings on fossil fuels) and assessed the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from substituting biofuels for fossil fuel. These studies provide very different results, with net balance ranging from highly positive to negative. Our study analyses a large sample of these studies by retrieving the main parameters used and converting them into units of measurement that are comparable. This information is used to unravel the main determinants of the differences in net energy value across studies. Our approach relies on descriptive statistics and econometric estimates based on a meta-analysis methodology. Our results suggest that the large variability across studies can be explained by the degree to which particular inputs (i.e. nitrogen, farm labor) are controlled for, and the way fossil energy consumption is allocated to the various co-products.

  19. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the energy performance, reduce GHG and acid rain precursor emission, and use of biomass for different outputs based on demand. Finally, a sensitivity analysis and a comparative study ar conducted for expected technological improvements and factors that could increase the energy......, methanol and methane. Circulating fluidized bed gasifier and the gas technology institute (GTI) gasifier technologies are used for this quad-generation process. Two different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1...

  20. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  1. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  2. Experiences of achieving self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving self-reliance can be greatly facilitated by the organizational structures an owner nation utilizes to develop its initial nuclear units and to operate its plants. An important component in the success of Mexico and Japan was to utilize evolving organizational structures that resulted in extensive participation of the owner over the course of the initial project (Mexico) or in successive projects (Japan)

  3. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Emerson A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Jorquera, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Using ethanol in subcritical thermodynamic conditions, without catalysts. • The net energy ratio-NER identifies opportunities for industrial application. • The presence of water and free fatty acids improved the TG conversion. • Transesterification reactions of animal fat, soybean and palm oils. - Abstract: Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values of 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. These results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.

  4. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  5. Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol. The case of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, Dilip; Silveira, Semida

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (-13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries. (author)

  6. Prediction of net energy consumption based on economic indicators (GNP and GDP) in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2007-01-01

    The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product-GNP and gross domestic product-GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R 2 values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections

  7. Experiences of achieving self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Achieving self-reliance can be greatly facilitated by the organizational structures an Owner Nation utilizes to develop its initial nuclear units and to operate its plants. An important component in the success of Mexico and Japan was to utilize evolving organizational structures that resulted in extensive participation of the Owner over the course of the initial project (Mexico) or in successive projects (Japan). (author)

  8. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... (CINE; min/MJ of NE). Furthermore, we studied the forage-to-concentrate substitution rate in this new NEI model. To calibrate the model on a diverse set of situations, we built a database of mean intake from 14 production experiments with a total of 986 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows......, and disturbance, across and within experiments on independent data from 19 experiments including 812 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows of different breeds fed 80 different diets ad libitum. The NEI model predicted NEI with an MSPE of 8% of observed, and across the 19 experiments the error central...

  9. Calculating systems-scale energy efficiency and net energy returns: A bottom-up matrix-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Dale, Michael; Barnhart, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we expand the work of Brandt and Dale (2011) on ERRs (energy return ratios) such as EROI (energy return on investment). This paper describes a “bottom-up” mathematical formulation which uses matrix-based computations adapted from the LCA (life cycle assessment) literature. The framework allows multiple energy pathways and flexible inclusion of non-energy sectors. This framework is then used to define a variety of ERRs that measure the amount of energy supplied by an energy extraction and processing pathway compared to the amount of energy consumed in producing the energy. ERRs that were previously defined in the literature are cast in our framework for calculation and comparison. For illustration, our framework is applied to include oil production and processing and generation of electricity from PV (photovoltaic) systems. Results show that ERR values will decline as system boundaries expand to include more processes. NERs (net energy return ratios) tend to be lower than GERs (gross energy return ratios). External energy return ratios (such as net external energy return, or NEER (net external energy ratio)) tend to be higher than their equivalent total energy return ratios. - Highlights: • An improved bottom-up mathematical method for computing net energy return metrics is developed. • Our methodology allows arbitrary numbers of interacting processes acting as an energy system. • Our methodology allows much more specific and rigorous definition of energy return ratios such as EROI or NER

  10. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  11. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  12. Net Energy Payback and CO2 Emissions from Three Midwestern Wind Farms: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO 2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO 2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data.A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data.The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO 2 emissions, in tonnes of CO 2 per GW e h, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively

  13. Net energy payback and CO2 emissions from three midwestern wind farms: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data. A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data. The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO2 emissions, in tonnes of CO2 per GW eh, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  14. An approach to prospective consequential life cycle assessment and net energy analysis of distributed electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher; Gilbert, Paul; Raugei, Marco; Mander, Sarah; Leccisi, Enrica

    2017-01-01

    Increasing distributed renewable electricity generation is one of a number of technology pathways available to policy makers to meet environmental and other sustainability goals. Determining the efficacy of such a pathway for a national electricity system implies evaluating whole system change in future scenarios. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and net energy analysis (NEA) are two methodologies suitable for prospective and consequential analysis of energy performance and associated impacts. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of prospective and consequential LCA and NEA analysis of distributed generation. It concludes that a combined LCA and NEA approach is a valuable tool for decision makers if a number of recommendations are addressed. Static and dynamic temporal allocation are both needed for a fair comparison of distributed renewables with thermal power stations to account for their different impact profiles over time. The trade-offs between comprehensiveness and uncertainty in consequential analysis should be acknowledged, with system boundary expansion and system simulation models limited to those clearly justified by the research goal. The results of this approach are explorative, rather than for accounting purposes; this interpretive remit, and the assumptions in scenarios and system models on which results are contingent, must be clear to end users. - Highlights: • A common LCA and NEA framework for prospective, consequential analysis is discussed. • Approach to combined LCA and NEA of distributed generation scenarios is proposed. • Static and dynamic temporal allocation needed to assess distributed generation uptake.

  15. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Hirohisa, Aki; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon/CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case

  16. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  17. Towards an agro-ecological village at the Flora Community : reducing greenhouse gas emissions through organic based farming and energy self reliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Mulkins, L. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada); Amongo, L.; Yap, E. [MASIPAG, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Mendoza, T. [Univ. of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). Dept of Agronomy

    2000-07-01

    A former haciendero owned sugarcane plantation in Negros Occidental, Philippines was transformed into a diversified, self-reliant, agro-ecological village, and its transition is documented in this paper. In 1995, through the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, the Philippine Government awarded 87 hectares of land to 76 hacienda workers. Community organizing, farm planning, training in organic farming, and loan support from a number of social welfare agencies were all areas where the community received assistance. The sugarcane production has been reduced at Flora since the land transition, and the community diversified into the growing of organic rice, corn and vegetables. Through its transition into an agro-ecological village, the Flora community has become more self-reliant in the areas of food and energy. Most individual farms and communally farmed areas have adopted organic based farming practices. The main products sold off the farm are sugarcane and high value vegetables. The MASIPAG rice farming system is being adhered to in the production of rice, the community's staple food. Nitrogen fixed during straw decomposition and the use of azolla, a nitrogen-fixing plant, represent some of the sources of nitrogen for the rice production. Other nutrient sources used are the mudpress from sugarcane processing and rice hull ash. To encourage nitrogen fixation and soil carbon accumulation from cane litter, a system of continuous trash farming was implemented for the production of sugarcane. In excess of 140 water buffaloes (carabaos) are employed for tillage and on-farm hauling, which minimizes the requirements for fossil fuels. Liquid propane gas (LPG), kerosene and wood fuel use in home cooking are being minimized by the efficient rice hull cookers. The local environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emissions are minimized, and the Flora community largely meets its requirements in terms of food security, on-farm energy and income. refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  18. Transferring nuclear power technology to foster Chinese self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, J-D.

    1998-01-01

    Being convinced that nuclear energy will play an important role in meeting its huge future energy demands, China considers that the development of a very strong national nuclear industry capable of covering all aspects of a major national power program is of paramount importance.In this context, China has invited its foreign partners to propose contributions to the studies for this development, in view of establishing a suitable cooperation program with the entire Chinese nuclear power industry, including design institutes, equipment manufacturers, construction companies and plant operators.One of the main objectives defined by the Chinese authorities for the further development of their nuclear industry with some international cooperation is the achievement of a very high level of self-reliance by Chinese industry in all of the following areas: project management, design and engineering, construction, equipment design and manufacturing,operation and maintenance. The major key to reaching this target of overall and long term self reliance lies in the implementation of thorough design know how transfer towards all partners of the Chinese nuclear industry, who shall acquire the necessary capabilities so as to completely master nuclear engineering. While this policy might entail fairly high front end investments by the technology receivers, in terms of industrial infrastructure nad engineering capabilities it is expected to pay off over the long term with the development of a substantial nuclear power plant construction program.(DM)

  19. Technical self reliance of digital safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kook Hun [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Gap [POSCON, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This paper summarizes the development results of the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) project sponsored by the Korean government. In this project, Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) architecture, two digital platforms, and several control systems are developed. One platform is a programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for a safety system and another platform is a Distributed Control System (DCS) for a non safety system. With the POSAFE Q PLC, a Reactor Protection System (RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature Component Control System (ESF CCS) are developed. A Power Control System (PCS) is developed based on the DCS. The safety grade platform and the digital safety systems obtained approval for the Topical Report from the Korean regulatory body in February of 2009. Also a Korean utility and a vendor company determined KNICS results to apply them to the planned Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2009. This paper introduces the technical self reliance experiences of the safety grade platform and the digital safety systems developed in the KNICS R and D project.

  20. China and the world: self-reliance or interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, R

    1977-01-01

    China's principle of self-reliance appears to have 4 sources: 1) having known the pain of dependence in the period of the Manchu Dynasty's encounter with the West, the Chinese are determined to be totally independent; 2) self-reliance appears to be related to China's long tradition of cultural self-containment; 3) a key tenet of Marxism to which history and culture pushed Mao is that internal factors are always decisive in a country's affairs; and 4) objective facts of China's great size and agricultural economy have made self-reliance in part the rationalization of necessity. The first 3 of these 4 sources of the principle of self-reliance are not immutable. In fact, self-reliance is being severely modified economically and politically, although not as yet militarily. China's trade with the world increased markedly in value during the 1970s, from U.S. $3.86 billion in 1969 to about U.S. $15 billion in 1975. A certain institutionalization of the country's international economic involvement also seems to be taking place. Behind all these developments is an apparent rejection of strict self-reliance in the sense of buying only what cannot be made and selling only waht is left over in favor of tentative acceptance of the law of comparative advantage in international economic relationships. On the political level a certain acceptance of an interdependent world is evident. The Chinese leadership, however has not been compltely united on these departures from self-reliance. Certain specific natural and socio-political factors that bear on the fate of self-reliance are identified. The 4th source of self-reliance--objective facts of China's size and agricultural character--appears the most persistent and will continue to be the major constraint against any clear-cut abandonment of self-reliance.

  1. Towards a sustainable global energy supply infrastructure: Net energy balance and density considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs a framework of dynamic energy analysis to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical energy balance and dynamic response limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (ability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power, on the other hand, meet both the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. However, due to their substantially different energy densities and load factors, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net excess energy and attain the scale needed for meeting the huge global energy demand. The low power density of renewable energy extraction and the intermittency of renewable flows limit their ability to achieve high rates of indigenous infrastructure growth. A significant global nuclear power deployment, on the other hand, could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. Thus, the transition to a low carbon economy is likely to prove much more challenging than early optimists have claimed. - Highlights: → We model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. → Coal is scalable and abundant but carries a heavy carbon footprint. → Renewables and nuclear meet the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. → The low power density and intermittency of renewables limit their growth potential. → Nuclear power continues to raise concerns about proliferation, safety, and waste.

  2. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies

  3. Investing in self-reliance: IDRC's fourth annual public meeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Investing in self-reliance: IDRC's fourth annual public meeting ... to advance the Government of Canada's priorities in international development, in areas ... Flexible intellectual property rights lead to greater innovation in Africa.

  4. Testing Kohn's self-reliance hypothesis among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1986-01-01

    Melvin Kohn and his associates have established that self-reliance promotes a sense of well-being (lower levels of fatalism) among adults. The present study attempts to test this proposition among adolescents. Instead of the usual job-related activities, however, it incorporates an alternative measure of self-reliance--high school curriculum assignment. Consistent with previous findings among adults, the results of this study show that self-reliance among adolescents also promotes a sense of well-being: students enrolled in tracks where close supervision is kept to a minimum and the exercise of initiative is emphasized tended to exhibit lower levels of fatalism. The implications of this finding for adolescents are discussed.

  5. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 3: Macroeconomic Historical and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I use energy cost share to characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, I use an estimate of monetary expenditures for primary energy on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010 for natural gas, coal, petroleum, and electricity. I show that global energy cost share is significantly correlated to a one-year lag in the change in gross domestic product as well as measures of total factor productivity. Given the historical reduction in the relative cost of energy (including food and fodder for animate power since the start of the Industrial Revolution, combined with a global energy cost share estimate, I conclude that the turn of the 21st Century represents the time period with the cheapest energy in the history of human civilization (to date. This potential historical nadir for energy expenditures around 2000 has important ramifications for strategies to solve future social, economic, and environmental problems such as reducing annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Rapidly decreasing annual GHG emissions while internalizing their costs into the economy might feedback to increase energy expenditures to such a degree as to prevent economic growth during that transition.

  6. Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; X.S. Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process...

  7. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  8. HAWC Analysis of the Crab Nebula Using Neural-Net Energy Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Samuel; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HAWC (High-Altitude Water-Cherenkov) experiment is a TeV γ-ray observatory located 4100 m above sea level on the Sierra Negra mountain in Puebla, Mexico. The detector consists of 300 water-filled tanks, each instrumented with 4 photomuliplier tubes that utilize the water-Cherenkov technique to detect atmospheric air showers produced by cosmic γ rays. Construction of HAWC was completed in March, 2015. The experiment's wide field of view (2 sr) and high duty cycle (> 95 %) make it a powerful survey instrument sensitive to pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and other γ-ray sources. The mechanisms of particle acceleration at these sources can be studied by analyzing their energy spectra. To this end, we have developed an event-by-event energy-reconstruction algorithm employing an artificial neural network to estimate energies of primary γ rays. The Crab Nebula, the brightest source of TeV photons, makes an excellent calibration source for this technique. We will present preliminary results from an analysis of the Crab energy spectrum using this new energy-reconstruction method. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  9. Windows: Win/Win? or when are windows net energy sources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, S.K.; Delsante, A.E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Highett, VIC (Australia). Div. of Building Construction and Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The energy balance of domestic glazing is quantified by using program CHEETAH to examine the effects of orientation, U-value, shading coefficient, overhangs, heating operation (times and temperature), curtain U-value, climate, and building thermal mass. The results are presented graphically, allowing the benefit of increasingly glazing area to be assessed quickly. It is shown that unfavourable combinations of these factors can lead to glazing that is a net loser of energy, even when it is facing north. (author). 1 tab., 17 figs., 6 refs.

  10. A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo Ferreira

    2011-03-18

    A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.

  11. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  12. Well-to-refinery emissions and net-energy analysis of China's crude-oil supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; El-Houjeiri, Hassan M.; Schunack, Dominik; Li, Yunpo; Roberts, Samori O.; Przesmitzki, Steven; Brandt, Adam R.; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Oil is China's second-largest energy source, so it is essential to understand the country's greenhouse gas emissions from crude-oil production. Chinese crude supply is sourced from numerous major global petroleum producers. Here, we use a per-barrel well-to-refinery life-cycle analysis model with data derived from hundreds of public and commercial sources to model the Chinese crude mix and the upstream carbon intensities and energetic productivity of China's crude supply. We generate a carbon-denominated supply curve representing Chinese crude-oil supply from 146 oilfields in 20 countries. The selected fields are estimated to emit between 1.5 and 46.9 g CO2eq MJ-1 of oil, with volume-weighted average emissions of 8.4 g CO2eq MJ-1. These estimates are higher than some existing databases, illustrating the importance of bottom-up models to support life-cycle analysis databases. This study provides quantitative insight into China's energy policy and the economic and environmental implications of China's oil consumption.

  13. Evaluation of the net energy value of glucose (cerelose) and maize starch in diets for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, J W; Atkinson, J L; Slinger, S J

    1987-11-01

    1. Quadruplicate groups of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) (mean body-weight 24.9 g) were reared on six dietary treatments (practical-type diets) in a modified paired-feeding experiment for 12 weeks at 15 degrees to determine the net energy (NE) value of starch and glucose to rainbow trout. 2. Three test diets were prepared to contain (g/kg): 0 supplemented carbohydrate (diet 1), 250 maize starch (diet 2) and 250 glucose (diet 3) and were given ad lib. to the trout with the feeding rate of the glucose- and starch-fed groups being monitored after each feeding. The remaining three treatments involved controlled feeding of the trout with diet 1 at 75% of the feed intake of trout reared on diets 2 and 3, so as to provide the same levels of protein and lipids without carbohydrate, and with diet 2 at 100% of the feed intake of trout reared on diet 3. 3. The difference in the final carcass energy of the ad lib.-fed group and the respective controlled-fed group divided by the amount of dietary glucose or starch energy consumed by the trout is the NE value for that carbohydrate. 4. The determined NE value of glucose was 3.99 kJ/g and starch 2.17 kJ/g, which is 24.6 and 12.6% respectively of the gross energy values of these carbohydrates in rainbow trout. 5. The results indicate that digestible energy and calculated metabolizable energy values for carbohydrates in rainbow trout overestimate the utilizable energy content of the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Net energy value of maize ethanol as a response to different climate and soil conditions in the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Garcia y Garcia, Axel; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, 1109 Experiment Street, The University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223 (United States); Jones, James W. [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Frazier Rogers Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A recent increase in the demand for bio-ethanol has sparked maize production in the USA and other countries across the world. The net energy value (NEV), i.e. the energy output in ethanol and co-products after accounting for energy input requirements in the production chain of ethanol, is a measure of its sustainability. Grain yield of maize, which varies substantially across different climate and soil conditions, greatly impacts the ethanol NEV. The objectives of this study were to determine i) the NEV of ethanol produced from maize grown in four production regions in the southeastern USA and, ii) the specific impact of local soil variability under the same climate conditions within the four regions on the NEV of maize-ethanol. Maize yield was simulated with the Cropping System Model (CSM)-CERES-Maize model for soil and weather conditions, and management practices representing Bulloch, Floyd, Laurens and Mitchell counties, Georgia, USA. The calculation of ethanol NEV took into account the energy inputs and outputs of the entire ethanol production chain, and was based on the crop simulations. There were statistically significant differences in ethanol NEV among the counties, and within counties due to local soil variability. Differences in ethanol NEV among counties were partially due to different transportation distances. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that maize-ethanol NEV can be increased by accounting for the soil and climate factors in the feedstock production and by locating ethanol-processing facilities in regions with soil and climate conditions that are favorable for ethanol-maize production. (author)

  15. Developing sustainability and self-reliance: Challenges and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Many nuclear institutions in the world, especially the developing countries, are heavily dependent on the financing provided by the government for their activities. In August 2000, Malaysia in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), organized a Regional Seminar on Strategies and Approaches towards Self-reliance and Sustainability of National Nuclear Institutions (NNIs). As a result of the forum and deliberation of the seminar, there is now a greater awareness among the member states that there should be a paradigm shift in the thinking of policy and decision makers. The main challenges and limitations faced by these policy and decision makers are firstly, in order that nuclear institutions to stay relevant in the context of mainstream socio-economic development, the NNIs must generate revenue to achieve self-reliance and sustainability. Secondly, the need for the NNIs to fulfil social obligations, i.e., provision of reasonably good and low cost technology to support food and agriculture production; health care system; safe industrial development and clean environment. Thirdly, to improve the image and acceptance of nuclear technology by the consumers and public in the face of proliferation of nuclear-arms race. Malaysia has been successful in addressing these conflicting requirements and challenges, i.e. generating revenue for sustainability and at the same time providing services and consultancy at a reasonable rate. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) is now 30% sustainable in terms of operational costs via provision of services and consultancies to both private and government agencies. Technical services are provided in the areas of Industrial Technology (e.g. ND evaluation); Radiation Processing Services (e.g., medical product sterilization and food and herbal irradiation, and cross-linking of wire and cables); Dosimetry Services for personal and radiation equipment (e.g. personal dosimetry

  16. Self-reliance through regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glubrecht, H.

    1975-01-01

    Article 52 of the Charter of the United Nations is concerned with the usefulness of Regional Arrangements which 'are appropriate for regional action'. Such arrangements need not be considered only with regard to their political aspects but also as organizational structures which can be helpful in the development of science and technology in less developed countries. The definition of a 'Region' can be difficult, but is easier if scientific rather than political co-operation is intended. The International Atomic Energy Agency has undertaken a first step in this direction through its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific and the Far East (RCA) which has been signed by six countries so far. This Agreement leaves it to the Member States to initiate cooperative projects. The IAEA will take steps to establish the project if at least three Member States are willing to participate. The implementation of the project will be defined by negotiations with the Member States and the IAEA will only play the role of a co-ordinator. Annual meetings of representatives of those countries which are parties of the RCA and of others from the region which might be interested in joining the Agreement provide the possibility of a continuing exchange of new ideas. Regional activities are also undertaken by means of 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes', which mostly include some co-operation with LDCs. The RCA has initiated two new ideas, that of carrying out the projects exclusively by the countries of the region and that of taking the step from co-ordination to cooperation by means of continuous and intensive exchange of information as well as of personnel. Its main objective is to aim at a reasonable division of labour between the parties and to use expensive equipment jointly. It is to be hoped that this venture will lead to an increasing degree of self-reliance within the

  17. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  18. Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production; Peltobioenergian tuotanto Suomessa. Potentiaali, energiasuhteet ja nettoenergia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, H.

    2012-11-01

    Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production were studied in this thesis. Special attention was paid to indirect energy inputs and how to treat them in energy analysis. Manufacturing of machines and agrochemicals and production of seeds are examples of indirect energy inputs.The bioenergy potential of the Finnish field crop production could be as large as 12 - 22 TWh, or 3 - 5% of the total energy consumption in Finland in 2008. The major part of this energy would originate from straw and biomass like reed canary grass cultivated for energy use. However, only 0.5 TWh of the potential is utilized. The output/input energy ratios of the studied field crops varied from 3 to 18, being highest (18) for reed canary grass and second highest (7) for sugar beet and grass cultivated for silage. The energy ratio of cereals and oil seed crops varied from 3 to 5 if only the yield of seeds was considered. If the yield of straw and stems was also taken into account the energy ratios would have been almost twofold. The energy ratios for Finnish wheat and barley were as high as those gained in Italian and Spanish conditions, respectively. However, the energy ratios of maize, elephant grass and giant reed were even over 50 in Central and Southern Europe. Plants that use the C4 photosynthesis pathway and produce high biomass yields thrive best in warm and sunny climate conditions. They use nitrogen and water more sparingly than C3 plants typically thriving in the cooler part of the temperate zone. When evaluating energy ratios for field crops it should be kept in mind that the maximal energy potential of the energy crop is the heating value of the dry matter at the field gate. Transportation of the crop and production of liquid fuels and electricity from biomass lowers the energy ratio. A comparison of field energy crops to a reforested field suggested that fast growing trees, as hybrid aspen and silver birch, would yield almost as

  19. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes — Cottle Zero Net Energy Home, San Jose, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder took home the Grand Winner prize in the Custom Builder category in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for its high performance building science approach. The builder used insulated concrete form blocks to create the insulated crawlspace foundation for its first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, the first net zero energy new home certified in the state of California.

  1. Health and self-reliance: the experience of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, E

    1978-01-01

    Since its independence, Tanzania has consistently followed a socialist policy with a strong emphasis on the development of the rural areas and on an equal distribution of goods and services. In the health field, this policy has taken the form of establishing a network of rural health centers, training auxiliaries, and involving the communities through mass mobilization campaigns. Community participation in health care services is hindered by 3 sets of problems related to lack of cohesion, lack of structure, and the autonomous and sometimes paternalist attitude of the health profession. In Tanzania much emphasis is placed on self-reliance. It is in the field of education that policies of self-reliance have been most successfully implemented. Traditional practitioners represent 1 of the health resources that can be tapped. The medical profession cannot claim credit for the major improvements in health, for at times it has even blocked health development. Health standards and quality are important in the 3rd world. Staff must be properly trained to function at a particular level, supplies must be provided regularly, and there must be constant supervision. A health care system that is appropriate to the 3rd world must also emphasize disease prevention. To increase health coverage there must be a program of health service that is within reach of the people, including the rural population. Health cannot be furthered by the health services as tradtionally conceived; an intersectoral approach is essential. It is important that a commitment to an integrated development of the rural areas, with health as a component, be made.

  2. The public's preparedness: self-reliance, flashbulb memories, and conservative values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Dyen, Susannah; Elliott, Stacey

    2013-06-01

    We surveyed how many US residents engaged in 6 preparedness activities and measured the relationship between engagement and personal experience in hazard events, flashbulb memories of major events, self-reliance, and other indicators of a conservative philosophy. We used random digit dialing for national landline (75%) and cell phone (25%) surveys of 1930 US residents from July 6, 2011, to September 9, 2011; 1080 of the sample lived near 6 US Department of Energy nuclear waste management facilities and 850 were a national random sample. The median respondent engaged in 3 of the 6 activities; those who disproportionately engaged in 4 or more had experienced a hazard event, had distressing and strong flashbulb memories of major hazard events, and had strong feelings about the need for greater self-reliance. The results for the national and US Department of Energy site-specific surveys were almost identical. A cadre of US residents are disproportionately engaged in disaster preparedness, and they typically have stronger negative memories of past disasters and tend to be self-reliant. How their efforts can or should be integrated into local preparedness efforts is unclear.

  3. The Public’s Preparedness: Self-Reliance, Flashbulb Memories, and Conservative Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyen, Susannah; Elliott, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed how many US residents engaged in 6 preparedness activities and measured the relationship between engagement and personal experience in hazard events, flashbulb memories of major events, self-reliance, and other indicators of a conservative philosophy. Methods. We used random digit dialing for national landline (75%) and cell phone (25%) surveys of 1930 US residents from July 6, 2011, to September 9, 2011; 1080 of the sample lived near 6 US Department of Energy nuclear waste management facilities and 850 were a national random sample. Results. The median respondent engaged in 3 of the 6 activities; those who disproportionately engaged in 4 or more had experienced a hazard event, had distressing and strong flashbulb memories of major hazard events, and had strong feelings about the need for greater self-reliance. The results for the national and US Department of Energy site–specific surveys were almost identical. Conclusions. A cadre of US residents are disproportionately engaged in disaster preparedness, and they typically have stronger negative memories of past disasters and tend to be self-reliant. How their efforts can or should be integrated into local preparedness efforts is unclear. PMID:23597367

  4. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production: A thermodynamic energy balance of a model system to demonstrate net energy feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babson, David M.; Bellman, Karen; Prakash, Shaurya; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion, organic matter is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, and organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. Generally, ammonia is recycled as a fertilizer or removed via nitrification–denitrification in treatment systems; alternatively it could be recovered and catalytically converted to hydrogen, thus supplying additional fuel. To provide a basis for further investigation, a theoretical energy balance for a model system that incorporates anaerobic digestion, ammonia separation and recovery, and conversion of the ammonia to hydrogen is reported. The model Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system energy demands including heating, pumping, mixing, and ammonia reforming were subtracted from the total energy output from methane and hydrogen to create an overall energy balance. The energy balance was examined for the ADBH system operating with a fixed feedstock loading rate with C:N ratios (gC/gN) ranging from 136 to 3 which imposed corresponding total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations of 20–10,000 mg/L. Normalizing total energy potential to the methane potential alone indicated that at a C:N ratio of 17, the energy output was greater for the ADBH system than from anaerobic digestion generating only methane. Decreasing the C:N ratio increased the methane content of the biogas comprising primarily methane to >80% and increased the ammonia stripping energy demand. The system required 23–34% of the total energy generated as parasitic losses with no energy integration, but when internally produced heat and pressure differentials were recovered, parasitic losses were reduced to between 8 and 17%. -- Highlights: •Modeled an integrated Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system. •Demonstrated positive net energy produced over a range of conditions by ADBH. •Demonstrated significant advantages of dual fuel recovery for energy gain by >20%. •Suggested system design considerations for energy recovery with

  5. Author Correction: Implications of net energy-return-on-investment for a low-carbon energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lewis C.; van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the version of this Analysis originally published, the value of the pessimistic EROI for the geothermal energy source in Table 1 was incorrectly given as 14:1; it should have read 9:1. This has now been corrected in all versions of the Analysis.

  6. Survival of the fittest: implications of self-reliance and coping for leaders and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daus, C S; Joplin, J R

    1999-01-01

    Using a laboratory methodology, the authors sought to establish an association between self-reliance (based on attachment theory) and team performance and satisfaction. Three hypotheses (direct effect, mediator, and moderator) were tested. With a sample of 187 students, the authors compared leader self-reliance characteristics with group member self-reliance characteristics (group n = 50) as predictors of group performance and satisfaction. Only group member counterdependence was predictive of decreased performance. Further, the authors examined the possible mediating and moderating effects of coping on the self-reliance-group effectiveness relationships. Coping did not mediate the relationship but did operate as a significant moderator in some instances.

  7. Methodologies on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and determining the net energy contents of feed ingredients in swine: a review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Liu, Hu; Li, Yakui; Lv, Zhiqian; Liu, Ling; Lai, Changhua; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry. The present review summarizes the NE research works conducted at MAFIC and compares these results with those from other research groups on methodological aspect. These research projects mainly focus on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and its impact on the determination, prediction, and validation of the NE content of several ingredients fed to swine. The estimation of maintenance energy is affected by methodology, growth stage, and previous feeding level. The fasting heat production method and the curvilinear regression method were used in MAFIC to estimate the NE requirement for maintenance. The NE contents of different feedstuffs were determined using indirect calorimetry through standard experimental procedure in MAFIC. Previously generated NE equations can also be used to predict NE in situations where calorimeters are not available. Although popular, the caloric efficiency is not a generally accepted method to validate the energy content of individual feedstuffs. In the future, more accurate and dynamic NE prediction equations aiming at specific ingredients should be established, and more practical validation approaches need to be developed.

  8. Strengthening Teacher's Learning Management for Self-Reliance of Students in Thai Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paso, Chalad; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Tirasiravech, Watanachai

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to 1) study the present conditions, problems, and needs of teachers development in learning management in self-reliance for students in secondary schools, 2) develop a model for teacher development in learning management in self-reliance for students in secondary schools, and 3) evaluate the results of usage from teachers in…

  9. Women Designing a Faculty Career: The Role of Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Self-reliance was an important personal attribute in the completion of a doctoral program and advancement to a faculty position. Self-reliance for the participants included self-motivation, motivated from within to return to school and advance to a faculty role; self-efficacy, believing they could complete their doctoral degree and become faculty;…

  10. Self-reliance in health among village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M L; Chen, P C

    1991-01-01

    A project in a remote region in Sarawak, Malaysia, in which village women were mobilized to plan and implement a kindergarten and child feeding program, illustrates the potential of carefully conceptualized community participation. Permission was obtained from village elders to train 18 mothers (all of whom has at least 4 years of education) to conduct a community needs survey. III health among children emerged as the problem of greatest concern to villagers and a health committee was formed to plan an intervention. Although a team of outside professionals was available for technical support, the emphasis from he onset was on developing self-reliance and community involvement in all decisions. To build confidence and develop leadership, a month-long participatory training course in promotive health care was organized by village health volunteers. Preparation for the project included conversion of an unused hut into a kindergarten and construction of furniture by village men, registration of preschool children, preparation of educational materials, and organization of a kitchen and duty roster for the feeding program. Project funding came from local bake sales and kindergarten subscriptions. Monitoring during the initial phase identified several problems, such as food shortages brought about by drought, some parents' inability to pay for kindergarten services, and a lack of trust in the teacher's abilities. These problems were corrected by the field team, but subsequent supervisory visits focused on teaching problem-solving skills to the local women. An evaluation conducted 1 year after program implementation revealed dramatic increases in the proportion of households producing fruits and vegetables, a higher percentage of breastfeeding mothers, and improvements in weight-for-age among kindergartners.

  11. Self reliance in equipment building for PHWR fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.S.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Keeping in tune with the policy of self-reliance and indigenisation adopted from the very inception of nuclear power programme in India during the mid 1960, Nuclear Fuel Complex, established in the year 1971, developed its own processes, equipment and technologies based on both in-house experience and the expertise available in the indigenous industry. Starting from the basic raw materials, Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) manufactures and supplies finished fuel assemblies, apart from zircaloy core components, to all the nuclear power stations in India. Out of several products manufactured by NFC, 19 and 37 element fuel bundles for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) is vital for operation of several PHWRs being operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL). Starting from the manufacturing of half-charge for RAPS-1, more than 3.8 lakh fuel bundles were made till now. Several process improvements were taken up over the years for improving the quality of the fuel. PHWR fuel bundles manufactured by NFC has adopted an unique feature of joining appendages on zirconium alloy tubes by resistance welding before loading natural uranium dioxide pellets. Graphite coating on the inner surface of the zirconium alloy tube and vacuum baking, use of profiled end caps, use of bio-degradable cleaning agents are some of the processes adopted in the manufacturing of PHWR fuel bundles. With the recent opening up of international nuclear trade for India and the enhanced growth of nuclear power, exciting opportunities and challenges confront NFC. This paper presents salient features of some important special purpose equipment developed in-house at NFC for production of PHWR fuel bundles. It looks ahead to develop many more such special purpose equipment towards meeting the diverse demands now showing up to meet the indigenous as well as international requirements

  12. A people's movement for self-reliance in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyaratne, A T

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development and activities of the Sarvodaya Movement, a grass-roots mutual-aid movement based on traditional Buddhist social values. Started by high school students and teachers in 1947 as a community-service organization the Movement is open to all individuals and has attracted thousands of volunteers in 1200 villages. Sarvodaya Shramadana emphasizes improvement in the standard of living through the development of local resources by the community itself, strengthening of the family and the village unit, discouragement of large-scale industrialization and removal of forms of exploitation, such as caste, race discrimination, large-scale land ownership, and so on. Key to all of the Movement's activities is the concept of self-reliance, self-realization, nondependence at both the individual and the village level. The mutual sharing of labor not only accomplishes the work of the community, creating the physical infrastructure for economic improvement, but serves as a revolutionary technique to awaken people to their own potential. The movement organizes villages into functional groups by age and occupation and trains community workers who are chosen by the villages themselves. In each village, work starts on short-term strategies to relieve debt, provide health care and educate the population and long-term strategies to generate sustained, unified community spirit and sufficient income to avoid use of outside credit. The Movement's specific projects include surveys of nutritional deficiencies, the community kitchen program, preschool program, day care centers, children's library service and community health programs. The Movement is now changing from a centrally-coordinated organization toward decentralized organization based in 52 Extension Centers and run, at the national level, by an Executive Council of 35, a 6-man board and 9 coordinators. The Movement was self-financed by members for the 1st 10 years but has used outside financing in the

  13. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, Atse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375268456; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We

  14. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO 2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  15. Cherokee self-reliance and word-use in stories of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim; Elder, Tribal; Liehr, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Cherokee self-reliance and related values expressed through word-use in stories of stress written by Cherokee adolescents. The overall aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using cultural appropriate measurements for a larger intervention study of substance abuse prevention in Cherokee adolescents. A sample of 50 Cherokee adolescent senior high school students completed the Cherokee Self-Reliance Questionnaire and wrote their story of stress. The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, a word-based computerized text analysis software, was used to report the percentage of words used in the selected word categories in relation to all the words used by a participant. Word-use from the stories of stress were found to correlate with Cherokee self-reliance.

  16. Standing with People in Support, Not Control: Training toward Self-Reliance, Inc. Sacramento, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    This report describes a program designed to increase opportunities for people with developmental disabilities to lead good lives in places of their own, strengthen their communities, and enjoy a genuine sense of self-worth. In addition to offering independent services, the Training Toward Self-Reliance (TTSR) program staff have increased their…

  17. Values-Based Business Education for Empowerment, Self-Reliance and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoru, Titus Amodu

    2013-01-01

    This study centered on values-based business education for empowerment, self-reliance and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study identified 30 critical values business education students need to possess. 192 questionnaire items were constructed after careful review of literature (Njoku, 2007 and Living Values Education, 2013) and administered…

  18. Using a Dialogue Journal to Build Responsibility and Self-Reliance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Cathryn

    2006-01-01

    Using a dialogue journal during a school year helped a 10th-grade student focus on skills that build responsibility and self-reliance. The Expanded Core Curriculum (Hatlen, 1996) addresses disability specific skills that include compensatory and social interaction skills. Providing instruction in organization, time management, and self-advocacy…

  19. The Role of Christian Educational Institutions in Improving Economic Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Constance C.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that Christian educational institutions in Africa can play a major role in improving economic self-reliance within the continent, if those who establish Christian universities there take time to plan the programs and activities in those institutions. Specifically, it argues that with proper planning of quality education--the…

  20. Strategies of business education in job creation and self reliance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the strategies in business education and its role in achieving self reliance, job creation and empowerment for sustainable development. Lecturers in the Business Education Department of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki formed the study population. Data was collected using a suitable structured and ...

  1. Developing greater self-reliance in the nuclear sector in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Due to severe cuts and drastic decline in government subvention for the promotion of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in Ghana, a new law has been enacted which empowered Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) to encourage and promote the commercialisation of R and D results through its three institutes and five centres. Therefore, the Commission requested the International Atomic Energy Agency through the African Regional Co-operation Research Agreement (AFRA) for an expert team from NECSA, South Africa, to critically evaluate its R and D activities, core competencies and structures with the aim of refocusing them to be more responsive to end-user and national development needs. Strategic and marketing plans prepared for some related viable facilities were revised and recommendations that were made were implemented. The 30-kW research reactor designed mainly for neutron activation analysis was used to render analytical services to clients from industries and mining companies. In addition to the application of radioisotopes in plant investigations in the petroleum refinery, the reactor group generated US $30,000 in the year 2000, which is about 20% of the annual budget of the centre. In the same year, the 50-kCi gamma irradiation facility utilizing a Co-60 radioactive source generated US $14,250 and the use of non-destructive testing equipment yielded US $7,612. The Radiation Protection Institute through personal monitoring services and radionuclide contamination certification for food items generated an amount of US $60,000, which is 40.5% of the government subvention for personnel emolument and administrative expenses. Exhibiting greater commitment to commercialisation and with efforts made towards harnessing nuclear and biotechnology techniques for socio-economic benefits and self-reliance, GAEC has established a Business Development Unit (BDU). The Unit is to prepare Business Plans for identified demand-driven R and D activities and services, plan

  2. A study on international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance strategies for nuclear development in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Han, Pil Soon; Park, Yun Sik; Song, Ki Dong; Yang, Mang Ho; Oh, Keun Bae; Jang, Hong Lae; Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Han Suk

    1993-12-01

    This study deals with international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance for nuclear development in other countries. This study also analyses the international and domestic nuclear environment such as NPT, nuclear export control, gloval environmental issues, and public acceptance. Finally, a suggestion is made for the future direction of strategy for nuclear technology self-reliance in Korea. (Author)

  3. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  4. On the way to a self-reliance of 90 %. The new construction of the Monte Rosa Lodge in the Swiss Canton Wallis; Auf dem Weg zu 90% Autarkie. Der Neubau der Monte Rosa-Huette im Wallis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinn, Ruediger

    2010-07-01

    The new Monte Rosa Lodge in the Swiss Canton Wallis was established not only as a passive house, but also achieves a degree of self-reliance of 90 % due to a thought-out energy management. This is how the future of the alpine construction might look.

  5. Self-reliance and innovation of Qinshan phase II NPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qizhen; Yang Lanhe

    2007-01-01

    This article mainly describes the self-reliance and innovation of Qinshan nuclear power project of phase II, in-between it contains new reactor core design, as well as related experimental and calculation analysis, especially for new reactor design produced fluid-induced vibration model test, theoretical analysis and testing in-built reactor; aiming at two-loop NSSS a series improvement made for safety systems and related safety analysis to enhance their reliability and redundancy; according to specialty of two-loop NSSS an optimization made for NPP parameters and design of related equipments, for the purpose to make the output of NPP maximal; design of main reactor building and T-G building also improved according to characteristics of two-loop NSSS and site conditions. CRDM and refueling machine are researched and manufactured on base of self-reliance, their performance are better than design requirements, large portion of key equipments are localized through different way. In construction first time realized the integrated erection of containment dome. During the commissioning non-nuclear steam driving of T-G set, as well as 500 kV high voltage rising using emergent diesel generator, etc. are carried out.In period of operation still continuous innovation and improvement are made, so that to keep the good record of operation. (authors)

  6. Giving wellness a spiritual workout. Two model programs emphasize the development of self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1989-04-01

    Many hospitals, corporations, and communities have developed wellness programs to help people maintain a healthy life-style. Today's wellness doctrine reflects modern medical thinking that, to achieve optimal human potential, a person must enjoy physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Most wellness programs, however, concentrate on the physical; few take into account spiritual well-being. Wellness programs developed by the Boulder County YMCA, Longmont, CO, and the University of Maryland, College Park, were based on an interpretation of a model suggested by Carl Jung that defines spirituality as the development of self-reliance. According to Jung, the constituents of self-reliance include awareness, inner faith, self-worth, humility, patience, acceptance, and self-confidence. He suggested that the absence of any one of these could cause a breakdown in a person's belief system and lead to a spiritual crisis. These programs trained participants to recognize the importance of their spiritual well-being and to find practical ways to improve it. Key components were a stress management course; workshops in confidence building and values clarification; and classes, lectures, and workshops that emphasize the integration of spiritual and physical well-being.

  7. Energy balance of algal biomass production in a 1-ha “Green Wall Panel” plant: How to produce algal biomass in a closed reactor achieving a high Net Energy Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tredici, M.R.; Bassi, N.; Prussi, M.; Biondi, N.; Rodolfi, L.; Chini Zittelli, G.; Sampietro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetraselmis suecica production in a 1-ha GWP plant in Tuscany (Italy) has a NER < 1. • Major energy costs are embodied energy of GWP and mixing. • In a suitable location (North Africa) the NER increases by 40%. • Integration of photovoltaic in the GWP allows to achieve a NER of 1.7. • T. suecica cultivated in a GWP plant can yield up to 30 t of protein ha −1 year −1 . - Abstract: The annual productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a 1-ha Green Wall Panel-II (GWP-II) plant in Tuscany (Italy) is 36 t (dry weight) ha −1 year −1 , which corresponds to an energy output of 799 GJ ha −1 year −1 . The energy inputs necessary to attain that productivity amount to 1362 GJ ha −1 year −1 , mainly given by the embodied energy of the reactor (about 30%), mixing (about 40%), fertilizers (11%) and harvesting (10%). The Net Energy Ratio (NER) of T. suecica production is thus 0.6. In a more suitable location (North Africa) productivity nearly doubles, reaching 66 t ha −1 year −1 , but the NER increases only by 40% and the gain (difference between output and inputs) remains negative. In a GWP-II integrated with photovoltaics (PV), the NER becomes 1.7 and the gain surpasses 600 GJ ha −1 year −1 . Marine microalgae cultivation in a GWP plant, in a suitable location, can attain high biomass productivities and protein yields 30 times higher than those achievable with traditional crops (soya). When the GWP reactor is integrated with PV, the process attains a positive energy balance, which substantially enhances its sustainability

  8. Stories after disaster survival: Preparing, heeding warnings, and self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Timothy S; Moon, Zola K; McNeill, Charleen C; Person-Michener, Joanna; Garrison, M E Betsy

    The purpose of the study was to examine the content of stories told by people personally impacted by disasters. Semistructured, qualitative interviews. Northwest part of a mid-south state. Fourteen disaster survivors who were recruited through their attendance at an emergency preparedness-related fair. Interview schedule based on previous research using the family resilience framework. Three themes emerged: prior emergency preparation, heeding warnings of impending disaster, and rural self-reliance. Participants had made prior emergency preparedness plans, but their personal experiences led to them adjusting their plans, or making more relevant plans for future disasters. Participants expressed the importance of sharing their experiences with family and community members, expressing hope that others would learn, vicariously rather than first-hand, from their experiences.

  9. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of Jatropha biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing Jatropha. Our results show that: (1 Jatropha biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during Jatropha tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of Jatropha biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during Jatropha plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of Jatropha and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase Jatropha production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for Jatropha plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for Jatropha biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  10. Net-Energy Analysis of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Systems Exemplified by a Model of a Self-Sufficient System of Dairy Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Østergård, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic) agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  11. Net-Energy Analysis of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Systems Exemplified by a Model of a Self-Sufficient System of Dairy Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, Mads Ville [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pugesgaard, Siri [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Østergård, Hanne, E-mail: haqs@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-11-25

    Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic) agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  12. Níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina para leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico Net energy and ractopamine levels for finishing gilts under thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina em dietas para leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico. Foram utilizadas 40 leitoas com peso inicial de 67,4 ± 3,4 kg, distribuídas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 × 4, composto de dois níveis de ractopamina, 0 e 20 ppm, em combinação aos níveis de energia líquida de 2.300; 2.424; 2.548 e 2.668 kcal/kg de ração, com cinco repetições, considerando cada animal uma unidade experimental. O período experimental teve duração de 28 dias. A temperatura do ar, a umidade relativa, a temperatura de globo negro e o índice de temperatura de globo e umidade foram de 21,5 ± 2,8ºC, 91,7 ± 6,8%, 21,7 ± 2,9ºC e 70,1 ± 3,7, respectivamente. Houve interação entre níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina, uma vez que a inclusão de 20 ppm de ractopamina em dietas contendo 2.668 kcal de energia líquida/kg de ração ocasionou redução da espessura de toucinho e aumento da porcentagem de carne magra e do índice de bonificação de carcaças. A inclusão de 20 ppm de ractopamina proporcionou aumento do ganho diário de peso e melhora na conversão alimentar, proporcionando maior peso de carcaça quente e aumentando a quantidade de carne magra nas carcaças. Dietas suplementadas com 20 ppm de ractopamina melhoram o desempenho e aumentam a produção de carne em leitoas em terminação. A ractopamina é ineficiente em reduzir a deposição de gordura e aumentar o percentual de carne magra na carcaça de leitoas alimentadas com dietas contendo baixa concentração de energia. O nível de 2.300 kcal de energia líquida/kg de ração atende à exigência nutricional de leitoas em terminação sob conforto térmico.This research was conducted to evaluate the net energy and ractopamine levels in the diet of finishing gilts kept under thermal comfort conditions. Forty gilts were used, with initial weight of 67.4 ± 3.4 kg, distributed in a

  13. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  14. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficinet system of dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system......Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable...... of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evalu - ated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from...

  15. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  16. An architect’s investigation into the self-reliance of a Sub-Saharan African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Smits

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how externally initiated development projects and the role of the architect may influence the self-reliance of a local community. The development aid for rural communities aims to improve the living quality, but often does not persist in the long run.

  17. Relationship Between University Degree Programmes And Self-Employment And Self-Reliance A Survey Of Kenyan Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Mwebia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising cases of unemployment in many countries are a worrying trend. In Kenya despite the rising levels of education many graduates remain unemployed. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between university degree programmes and self-employment. The selection of private and public universities to participate was done by purposive sampling. Stratified sampling was used to select degree programmes under investigation. Simple random sampling was used to pick the participants. Data was collected through administration of self administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics frequencies percentages and presented in tables. This study found that most universities have degree programmes aimed at ensuring self reliance and self employment among its graduates. However there are dismally low efforts by most universities in holding workshops on self employment and self reliance every semester establishment and support of many mentorship programmes for students by successful entrepreneurs and mainstreaming of self employment and self reliance in the curriculum. This study recommends that the university programmes offered in the country should be monitored to ensure that they instill skills for self employment self reliance and self direction on the part of the learners. This would compel the learning institutions to offer programmes that are more relevant and reduce the menace of unemployment.

  18. Tenacious self-reliance in health maintenance may jeopardize late life survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jeremy M; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Parker, Patti C; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2017-11-01

    Although an active pursuit of health goals is typically adaptive, there may be circumstances in very late life when it is not. Our 10-year study of community-dwelling individuals (n = 220, 79-98 years-old) examined whether investing substantial effort into personal health (high selective primary control) in the absence of help-seeking strategies (low compensatory primary control) jeopardized survival for very old adults who varied in functional independence (low, high). Cox proportional hazard models showed selective primary control (SPC) predicted 10-year mortality risk for only those with low compensatory primary control (CPC) and high initial functional independence. For these individuals, each standard deviation increase in SPC predicted a 101% higher risk of death. Results are consistent with the lines-of-defense model (Heckhausen et al., 2013) and suggest that, for very old adults with little previous need for help-seeking strategies, tenacious self-reliance (high SPC, low CPC) may have life-shortening consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The Net Energy Values of Corn, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Wheat Bran for Laying Hens Using Indirect Calorimetry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS and wheat bran (WB for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm. The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05 when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p0.05. The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096. In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  20. Dhruva: a symbol of self reliance in Indian nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, Kunal; Karhadkar, C.G.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2017-01-01

    During the early seventies, a strong need was felt for building a research reactor with higher neutron flux to meet the growing demand of radio-isotope production and advanced research in basic sciences and engineering. This led to the setting up of the fifth research reactor R-5 at BARC, which was later named 'Dhruva' by Shri Giani Zail Singh, the then President of India. The construction of Dhruva was an important milestone towards development and implementation of indigenous nuclear reactor technology in India. Dhruva is an example of a viable system, engineered within the limited means available in the country at that time, catering to production of radio-isotopes of high specific activity as well as diverse requirements of a broad-based multidisciplinary user community

  1. Interview with Mechai Viravaidya: "We have to strive for self-reliance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, S J

    1990-04-01

    checkups. There are limited resources; therefore, PDA will work to get larger funding sources involved. PDA will concentrate on pioneering and innovative activities, he said. Contraceptive users will be able to buy contraceptives from the market. Therefore, PDA will not go on with its community-based family planning activities. The pay training courses conducted by the PDAs Asian Center will be strengthened. Training courses are being held for workers from developing countries. The Asian Center has a 2-year South-to-South Global Innovations Small Grant for Community-Based Self-Reliance Projects programs.

  2. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Carruth, Althea; Windsor, Carol; Clark, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream

  3. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea Page-Carruth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. Methods: The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. Results: The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. Conclusions: The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STANDARD SAMPLE FOR ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF NET ENERGY FOR LACTATION IN FEEDS ON THE BASIS OF GAS PRODUCED DURING THE INCUBATION OF SAMPLES WITH RUMEN LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T ŽNIDARŠIČ

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the necessity of using the standard sample at the Hohenheim gas test. During a three year period, 24 runs of forage samples were incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Beside the forage samples also the standard hay sample provided by the Hohenheim University (HFT-99 was included in the experiment. Half of the runs were incubated with rumen liquor of cattle and half with the rumen liquor of sheep. Gas produced during the 24 h incubation of standard sample was measured and compared to a declared value of sample HFT-99. Beside HFT-99, 25 test samples with known digestibility coefficients determined in vivo were included in the experiment. Based on the gas production of HFT-99, it was found that donor animal (cattle or sheep did not significantly affect the activity of rumen liquor (41.4 vs. 42.2 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1. Neither differences between years (41.9, 41.2 and 42.3 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1 were significant. However, a variability of about 10% (from 38.9 to 43.7 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter was observed between runs. In the present experiment, the gas production in HFT-99 was about 6% lower than the value obtained by the Hohenheim University (41.8 vs. 44.43 ml per 200 mg dry matter. This indicates a systematic error between the laboratories. In the case of twenty-five test samples, correction on the basis of the standard sample reduced the average difference of the in vitro estimates of net energy for lactation (NEL from the in vivo determined values. It was concluded that, due to variation between runs and systematical differences in rumen liquor activity between two laboratories, the results of Hohenheim gas test have to be corrected on the basis of standard sample.

  5. A study on the international nuclear Co-operation and the nuclear technology self-reliance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa Sup

    1993-02-01

    To setup a basement for the national nuclear technology strategy, the reorganization of the world structure and the environmental issues are analyzed. And with regards to the self-reliance of nuclear technology, the method for the settlement of the national nuclear infrastructure and the method to strengthen our role in international nuclear community through the co-operation with IAEA is suggested. Also the status and strategy of major nuclear pushing countries are investigated. And followed by this, national nuclear technology status and strategy are analyzed. (Author)

  6. Using Self-Reliance Factors to Decide How to Share Control Between Human Powered Wheelchair Drivers and Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David A

    2017-08-01

    A shared-control scheme for a powered wheelchair is presented. The wheelchair can be operated by a wheelchair driver using a joystick, or directed by a sensor system, or control can be combined between them. The wheelchair system can modify direction depending on the local environment. Sharing the control allows a disabled wheelchair driver to drive safely and efficiently. The controller automatically establishes the control gains for the sensor system and the human driver by calculating a self-reliance factor for the wheelchair driver. The sensor system can influence the motion of the wheelchair to compensate for some deficiency in a disabled driver. Practical tests validate the proposed techniques and designs.

  7. Promoting group empowerment and self-reliance through participatory research: a case study of people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R; Bhagwanjee, A

    1999-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the empowerment construct among social scientists, relatively few empowerment studies involving groupwork with people with physical disabilities exist. This article accordingly describes and analyses the organic development of the empowerment process within a spinal cord injury self-help group, set against the backdrop of policy imperatives for disability in post-apartheid South Africa. The treatise on the group empowerment process is located within the context of a group evaluation conducted within a participatory research framework. Key variables informing the research approach included: quality of participation, control over resources and decision-making, shift in critical consciousness and understanding, malleability of roles within the group and role of the health professional. Group members assumed ownership of group management and decision-making and shifted from a professionally-led to a peer-led self-help group. Group objectives changed from providing mutual support to community education and outreach activities. The role of the health professional shifted from group facilitator to invited consultant. This case study demonstrates how group participation, promoted by a critically informed therapeutic and research praxis, can unlock the inherent potential for self-reliance and empowerment of socially marginalized collectives. It offers important insights with regard to group process, participatory research and the role of the health professional in creating opportunities for empowerment and self-reliance of people with disability.

  8. Determinants of attitudes towards professional mental health care, informal help and self-reliance in people with subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoonen, Kim; Kleiboer, Annet; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Penninx, Brenda; Verhaak, Peter; Beekman, Aartjan

    2016-02-01

    Although little is known about which people with subclinical depression should receive care to prevent the onset of depression, it is clear that remediating symptoms of depression is important. However, depending on the beliefs people hold about help, some people will seek professional help, while others seek informal help or solve problems on their own. This study examined associations between attitudes about help and socio-demographic variables, mastery, severity of depressive symptoms, accessibility to care, and health care utilization at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Data were derived from a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). A total of 235 respondents with subclinical depression completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Attitude was assessed using a short version of the 'Trust in mental health care' questionnaire. Positive attitude towards professional care was associated with being male, younger age, higher mastery and easy accessibility to care. Positive attitude towards informal help was associated with higher mastery and unemployment. Older age, less accessibility to care and lower mastery were associated with positive attitude towards self-reliance. A change in care utilization was associated with positive attitudes towards professional care at follow-up. People differ in the way they cope with symptoms which may influence their preferred care. Higher levels of mastery were positively associated with professional and informal care, but negatively associated with self-reliance. Both age and mastery showed relatively large effect sizes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  10. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  11. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  12. Young men's health: a balance between self-reliance and vulnerability in the light of hegemonic masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Regina; Sandén, Inger

    2008-06-01

    Masculinity, in its hegemonic form, can have the effect that men avoid talking about health problems and do not consult health care, even when help is needed. This study had two aims: firstly to describe how young men relate to health, ill health, masculinity and their bodies, and secondly to investigate their abilities of self-care. Interviews with eleven men were conducted using a semi-structured approach. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interviews. The findings revealed five main themes; 'body awareness', 'the creation of self-reliance', 'feelings of freedom', 'the process of self-care awareness' and, finally, 'feelings of vulnerability'. Hegemonic masculinity impacted greatly on the men in this study and could be traced in expressions of dependency, vulnerability, loss of freedom and an altered body image. These were viewed as health disadvantages due to the threat to hegemonic masculinity.

  13. How are perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance related to treatment-seeking? A three-path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kristen S; Cheung, Janelle H; Britt, Thomas W; Goguen, Kandice N; Jeffirs, Stephanie M; Peasley, Allison L; Lee, Abigail C

    2015-06-01

    Many college students may experience mental health problems but do not seek treatment from mental health professionals. The present study examined how perceived stigma and self-stigma toward seeking mental health treatment, as well as perceptions of self-reliance for coping with mental health problems, relate to college student treatment-seeking. In total, 246 students completed a self-report survey that included measures of perceived stigma and self-stigma for treatment-seeking, self-reliance for addressing mental health concerns, self-reported mental health problems, symptoms of depression and alcohol-related problems, attitudes toward treatment-seeking, and treatment-seeking behavior. Regression analyses revealed that higher perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance were all related to a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking. In a 3-path mediation model, bootstrapping results indicated an indirect effect where perceived stigma was related to attitude toward treatment-seeking and treatment-seeking behaviors through self-stigma and self-reliance. Specifically, higher perceived stigma was related to higher self-stigma, higher self-stigma was related to higher self-reliance, and higher self-reliance was associated with a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking in the overall sample, and a decreased probability of having sought treatment among those who screened positive for a mental health problem. Perceived stigma may influence whether or not college students seek treatment for mental health problems by potentially increasing stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and increasing preferences for handling problems on their own. Researchers and practitioners are recommended to seek a better understanding of the complex treatment barriers to reduce stigma and facilitate treatment-seeking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Frech experience in achieving nuclear power self-reliance and possible benefits for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The success of France's nuclear power program can be attributed to two main factor. Firstly, the necessity for France to increase its energy independence. Nuclear energy was the only viable choice, but French industry had to master all the phases of such a program. Secondly, a will to pursue the objectives set, which has remained steadfast for over 20 years. Today, two-thirds of French electricity comes from unclear power, and the French program is continuing its regular progression. Several times already, in particular in this pacific basin region, French industry has cooperated in nuclear power projects abroad. It is convinced that even greater international cooperation can only be beneficial for all, and is ready , for its part, to bring to bear on this effort all of its experience and resources. (author)

  15. The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools as a Tool for Self-Reliance and Re-Branding Process in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, Tali D.; Caleb, Mbwas .L.; Stephen, Abe A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics teaching is an interaction between the teacher and the learners that leads to acquisition of desirable mathematical knowledge, ideas and skills necessary for applicability in our everyday life. This paper therefore looks at the concept of self-reliance, the concept of mathematics teaching, problems and prospects of mathematics teaching…

  16. Rural Villagers’ Quality of Life Improvement by Economic Self-Reliance Practices and Trust in the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyapong Janmaimool

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of economic self-reliance, widely known by Thai people as the philosophy of sufficiency economy, has been widely promoted in rural Thai societies. By practicing this philosophy, it is expected that the citizens’ quality of life and local environments could be sustainably improved. This study aims to explore the contribution of the community practices of the sufficiency economy philosophy to rural villagers’ quality of life improvement, and to investigate potential factors that determine the trust of villagers in the philosophy. With the purpose to propose strategies which could enhance trust and promote villagers’ practices of the philosophy, the study investigated influences of three relevant factors on trust towards the philosophy. Those factors included factors related to cognitive-based trust, factors related to emotional-based trust, and factors related to demographic characteristics. Questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews with community leaders and local villagers were conducted in the Ban Jamrung community, in Thailand’s Rayong Province. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that the residents who applied the sufficiency economy philosophy in their daily lives experienced a relatively better quality of life. Additionally, it was found that trust in the philosophy could be predicted more by rational factors than by emotional factors. These findings could be utilized to develop strategies to maintain and enhance the trust of the people in the philosophy of sufficiency economy.

  17. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    . The DE, ME, and NE of wheat bran determined using the difference procedure were 2,168, 2,117, and 896 kcal/kg, respectively, and these values were within the 95% confidence interval of the DE (2,285 kcal/kg), ME (2,217 kcal/kg), and NE (961 kcal/kg) estimated by linear regression. In conclusion, increasing the inclusion of wheat bran in a corn-soybean meal based diet reduced energy and nutrient digestibility and heat production as well as DE, ME, and NE of diets, but values for DE, ME, and NE for wheat bran determined using the difference procedure were not different from values determined using linear regression.

  18. Lay beliefs about the efficacy of self-reliance, seeking help and external control as strategies for overcoming obesity, drug addiction, marital problems, stuttering and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; McDermott, Mark R

    1994-07-01

    This study was concerned with peoples' beliefs about the importance of twenty-four different contributors towards overcoming five relatively common personal health problems, namely: obesity, drug addiction, marital difficulties, stuttering and insomnia. One hundred and twenty-two subjects completed a five-page questionnaire indicating how effective each of these contributors were to overcoming the problems as specified. Factor analysis revealed an interpretable structure similar to previous studies (Luk and Bond, 1992): the emerging three factors were labelled ' self-reliance", "seeking help" and "external control". Multiple regression showed that few individual difference variables as measured were related to perceived relevance of the different contributors. The results were discussed in terms of subjects' beliefs concerning the value of self-reliance as opposed to seeking help, and in relation to the importance of understanding lay beliefs about the efficacy of different forms of intervention.

  19. Composição corporal e exigências de energia de mantença em bovinos Nelore, puros mestiços, em confinamento Body composition and net energy requirements for maintenance of feedlot purebred and crossbred Nellore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio de Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar a composição corporal de gordura e proteína e as exigências de energia de mantença em bovinos Nelore puros e mestiços. Foram utilizados 72 bovinos machos (18 Nelore, 18 F1 Nelore x Angus, 18 F1 Nelore x Pardo- Suíço e 18 F1 Nelore x Simental não-castrados, com 10 a 11 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 286, 309, 333 e 310 kg, respectivamente. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro grupos genéticos, submetidos a quatro níveis de concentrado na ração (30, 40, 60 e 70%. No início do experimento, três animais de cada grupo genético foram alocados no grupo de alimentação restrita e três foram abatidos no grupo de abate inicial. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença (ELm foram obtidas pela regressão da produção de calor (kcal/kg0,75/dia em função do consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM - Mcal/kg0,75/dia, extrapolando-se para o nível zero de ingestão de EM. Não houve diferenças nas exigências de energia líquida de mantença (ELm entre os grupos genéticos. Verificou-se elevação de 260,2; 92,6 e 67,8% nos conteúdos corporais de gordura e proteína e na concentração de gordura (g/kg de peso corporal vazio - PCV, com elevação de 250 para 550 kg no peso vivo, ao passo que a concentração de proteína corporal reduziu em 10,9%. O teste de identidade de modelos não-lineares indicou não haver diferenças entre os grupos genéticos para a composição corporal de gordura, proteína e energia e nas ELm. Desse modo, o valor da ELm foi estimado em 79 kcal/kg0,75/dia.The objectives of this trial were to estimate the body composition of fat and protein and the net energy requirements for maintenance of purebred and crossbred Nellore. Seventy-two young bulls averaging 10 to 11 months of age from four genetic groups were used: 18 Nellore, 18 F1 Nellore x Angus, 18 F1 Nellore x Brown Swiss and 18 F1 Nellore x Simental with initial average weights of 286, 309

  20. Physical health, self-reliance, and emotional control as moderators of the relationship between locus of control and mental health among men treated for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shaun Michael; Mahalik, James R

    2006-12-01

    This investigation examined the moderating effects of physical health and scripts for masculinity (i.e., self-reliance and emotional control) on the relationship between powerful other people locus of control and mental health for 230 men treated for prostate cancer. Regression analyses indicated that physical health and masculine gender scripts moderated the association between powerful other people locus of control and mental health. Specifically, men with poor physical health evinced negative mental health when they endorsed masculine gender scripts and believed powerful other people (i.e., family, friends, or peers) were influential in controlling their cancer. By comparison, men reporting poor physical health, strong beliefs that powerful other people controlled their cancer, and less adherence to masculine scripts experienced positive mental health. The authors discuss future research directions and potential mental health implications for men treated for prostate cancer.

  1. Self-Reliance and Sustainability of Nuclear Analytical Laboratories in Small States of Central Europe: The Slovenian Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Jožef Stefan Institute is the largest research institution in Slovenia devoted to research in many fields of science and technology. Within the Institute several nuclear analytical laboratories operate, making it the largest nuclear research institution in Slovenia. The Laboratory for Radiation Measuring Systems and Radioactivity Measurements belongs to the Department for Medium and Low Energy Physics, which is engaged mainly in nuclear physics, interactions of radiation with matter and its applications, and in providing a service in radiation measurements and dosimetry. The laboratory was founded almost thirty years ago, when the three accelerators, which formed the basis of the research infrastructure of the department, came to the end of their working lives. The personnel took the opportunity to participate in the programme of radioactivity monitoring of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, which at that time went into operation. The equipment, i.e., the detectors, electronics and computers, was available, but the expertise was limited to the techniques of measurement and analysis in gamma-ray spectrometry. The absence of the expertise in radiochemistry was a serious drawback, therefore new methods in detector calibration had to be developed. In the following years the laboratory participated not only in the monitoring programme of the nuclear power plant but also in other radioactivity monitoring programmes in Slovenia. Since its foundation the laboratory did not receive any financial support either from the state or from the department. Support in equipment and expertise was received from the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the United States and the United Nations Development Programme. The laboratory is engaged mainly in gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of samples from the natural, living and working environments. The main customers are the Krško Nuclear Power Plant and governmental organizations and agencies. The work for these

  2. Knee pain and future self-reliance in older adults: evidence from a community-based 3-year cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Yuji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamada, Mutsuko; Eto, Norihito; Takebayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Although knee pain is common in older persons and can cause ambulatory limitation, its impact on self-reliance has rarely been examined in Japan, particularly in a community setting. The aim of this 3-year cohort study was to investigate the association of knee pain with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. In 2005, presence of knee pain was assessed by a home visit survey of 1391 older adults aged 65 years or older (participation proportion = 97.3%). A total of 1265 participants who were ADL-independent at baseline were followed for 3 years, and information on outcomes, namely death and dependence in ADL, was collected. Participants who always had knee pain were more likely to become dependent in ADL than those who reported no knee pain (multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.03-3.83); however, always having knee pain was not associated with mortality or a composite outcome of ADL dependence and death. Further analyses of each component of ADL dependence revealed that knee pain was associated with a need for assistance at home (long-term care eligibility, bathing, dressing, and transferring), but not with institutionalization. The participants were highly representative of the target population and the rate of follow-up was almost perfect (99.4%). The results suggest that knee pain is associated with future dependence in ADL, particularly a need for assistance at home.

  3. Ties between Center and Periphery in the Scientific World-System: Accumulation of Rewards, Dominance and Self-Reliance in the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study accounts for the organization of scientific research in networks of socio-intellectual tices that bind scientists into a community cultivating the scientific tradition. During the twentieth century the scientific community has become incrcasingly global both in the sense that its membership has spread world-widely and in the sense that its long-distance ties have intensified. The globalization of the community and its ties has been promoted by widely institutionalized arrangements, especially through the world's adoption of and belief in several scientific tenets: the universal validity of scientific knowledge, the ownership principle that knowledge should be the common property of humankind, and the political principle of granting autonomy to scientists for forming ties. The community and its network of ties form a hierarchy with centers attracting ties from peripheries. During the twentieth century the main center has shifted from Western Europe to North America while Eastern Europe has become less central, East Asia has become a bit central, and other regions have remained peripheral. A center attracts students from around the world for education, attracts scientists for conferences and visits, attracts deference from scientists throughout the world, exerts pervasive influence, is widely emulated, and is a desired source of recognition . In the global networks of ties, specifically of deference, influence, emulation and desire for recognition, there is an accumulation in the center of ties, both from within the center as an enhanced self-reliance and from the periphery as an enhanced centrality, exceeding the research performance at the center.

  4. Composição do ganho e exigências de energia e proteína para ganho de peso em bovinos Nelore puros e mestiços Gain composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Nellore and crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio de Freitas

    2006-06-01

    the four genetic groups were fed diets containing: 30, 40, 60 and 70% of concentrate. Three animals from each genetic group were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial and used as reference for initial body composition. The net protein and energy requirements for gain of 1 kg of empty body weight (EBW were estimated by the equation Y' = a. b. X (b-1, where a and b are the parameters of the regression equations and X is the EBW of the animals. The identity test of the models indicated no significant differences among genetic groups for the net energy and protein requirements for weight gain. It was observed a decrease of 10.6% and an increase of 37.8%, respectively, in the protein and energy requirements for body weight gain between 250 and 550 kg. These changes are result of the increase in the content of fat and reduction in that of protein as EBW increased. The net requirements of protein and energy for body weight gain were estimated as 143.5 g and 4.7 Mcal, respectively, for a body weight of 450 kg.

  5. Regaining a sense of agency and shared self-reliance: the experience of advanced disease cancer patients participating in a multidimensional exercise intervention while undergoing chemotherapy--analysis of patient diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stelter, Reinhard; Rørth, Mikael; Adamsen, Lis

    2007-04-01

    Evidence is emerging that exercise can reduce psychological distress in cancer patients undergoing treatment. The present study aimed to (qualitatively) explore the experiences of advanced disease cancer patients participating in a 6-week, 9-hours weekly, structured, group-based multidimensional exercise intervention while undergoing chemotherapy. Unstructured diaries from a purposive sample of three females and two males (28-52 years old) who participated in the program served as the database. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological, narrative method. The analysis yielded three themes: shifting position, self-surveillance, and negotiated strength. The intervention highlighted situations making it possible for the participants to negate psychological and physical constraints. The concept of structured exercise contains viable psychotherapeutic potentials by allowing the development of alternative bodily and mental realities complying with cancer patients' demands and abilities to regain autonomy and commitment to discover and adopt a sense of agency and shared self-reliance.

  6. Self-reliance through FP program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The Yogyakarta Chapter of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA), having been successful in bringing about a realization by the local community of the importance of family planning, has broadened its activities in an effort to further promote family welfare. Since 1980, the organization has begun a number of projects designed to increase the income of its client population. Given the fact that family planning acceptors of IPPA's Yogyakarta Chapter range from government officials' wives to farmers and school dropouts, its family income increase projects have been varied. Skills in such areas as bee breeding and hairdressing have been taught, and credit cooperatives have been established. These projects have been integrated with the group's family planning activities and have been paid for entirely with local funds. An integrated family planning/income increase project currently being operated by the Yogyakarta Chapter of IPPA is known as KBP2K. Along with the attempt to increase family income, the project aims to expand the acceptance of family planning and to retain existing acceptors in the family planning program. As of the 3rd quarter of 1987, 235 people had participated in the project and 59 new acceptors had been acquired. Family planning education was provided and classes were taught in various handicraft industries. Studies have revealed that the income levels of program participants significantly increased.

  7. Chinese IP expands with self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    In 1999, program officers from JOICFP visited five of 10 projects where JOICFP has provided direct assistance during 1993-95 to enhance health education in China's integrated family planning, maternal-child health programs. The JOICFP team and three members of the Chinese National Steering Committee of the Integrated Projects visited project areas in remote and mountainous areas that are characterized by underdevelopment, low income rates, low rates of hospital deliveries, and high rates of parasitic infection. The monitoring team found that all project areas continued the projects after completion of the 3-year period and even expanded efforts to cover other areas. By 1998, more than a million people had been served, which is quadruple the initial target number. The team found that the program could benefit from additional assistance in training new staff to interact with the public and to use IEC (information, education, communication) materials appropriately. One project area, Shaowu City, opened a new Family Health Service Center in August 1998 with a grant from the Japanese Grant Assistance for Grassroots Projects and assistance from its provincial and local government. This Center serves women and children and adolescents on a fee-charged basis and hopes to expand its service area.

  8. Harvesting fertilized rye cover crop: simulated revenue, net energy, and drainage Nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and biofuel production along with global N use are expected to increase over the next few decades, which complicates the goal of reducing N loss to the environment. Including winter rye as a cover crop in corn-soybean rotations reduces N loss to drainage. A few studies suggest that harvesting r...

  9. Energy Profile and Perspectives on Northeast Asian Energy Co-operation of North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Energy policy of North Korea is basically based on the 'Principle of Self-reliance'. Throughout the active development of domestic energy sources, North Korea try to maximize the energy self-reliance as well as to minimize the outflow of currency for the import of energy. But, the 'Principle of Self-reliance' of energy sector brought about the excess dependency on coal and hydro, and eventually causes the contraction of oil and natural gas consumption. This kind of adverse reaction of the 'Principle of Self-reliance' is the major reason of overall weakness of national-wide economic system. It is not known actually what kinds of perspectives North Korea has on the Northeast Asian energy cooperation. But, it can be said that Northeast Asian energy cooperation can be the best chance for North Korea to solve current energy crisis and to transfer the economic system to capitalism for the recovery of national economy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG e...

  11. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  12. On Energy Balance and Production Costs in Tubular and Flat Panel Photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norsker, N.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing mixing in both flat panel and tubular photobioreactors can result in a positive net energy balance with state-of-the-art technology and Dutch weather conditions. In the tubular photobioreactor, the net energy balance becomes positive at velocities <0.3 ms-1, at which point the biomass

  13. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    intervention makes it easy to see why there is less commitment to ... funding for countries where crisis' stretch government ability to respond ... National agencies such as DfID (UK), Norad (Norway), USAID (USA) and GIZ .... This case study uses a qualitative research design consistent with DiCicco- ..... Swedish International.

  14. Students Perception of Entrepreneurship as a Self-Reliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... TVE students from 12 Universities in Southern Nigeria. The findings revealed that creating awareness, stimulating interest and participation in entrepreneurship by TVE students/graduates is a sure way to reducing the ever increasing unemployment of school graduates through self-employment and enhancement.

  15. S. Korea nuclear: a cautious path to self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The South Korean nuclear power industry is described in this article. By comparing policy on nuclear technology in North and South Korea, differing political allegiances are highlighted. South Korea, rather than pursuing nuclear weapons capability like North Korea, has worked hard to produce a rapidly expanding nuclear powered electricity supply industry, which is described. Government targets which aim to meet predicted increases in demand for electricity are noted, but the problems of waste management and reprocessing have yet to be solved. (UK)

  16. Urban food self-reliance: significance and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, L J

    1993-10-01

    This news account provides coverage of the satisfaction of urban food needs when retail costs are prohibitively high in developing countries. This account reports that 50-80% of average income is spent on food in nearly 50% of developing country's largest cities. Surveys conducted during the late 1980s confirm a range of 60-80% of income for expenditures on food. Surveys reveal that urban food costs are 10-30% higher than costs for rural dwellers. Urban household food production is a practice that has been around since the times of the Aztecs, the Incas, and Mayan cities. Reports survive of the Javanese and city dwellers along the Tigris and Euphrates producing their own food. Asian policy makers promote urban food production as critical to urban survival. Other factors influence urban food production. These factors include rapid urbanization, ineffective agricultural policies, inadequate food distribution systems, withdrawal of subsidies, reduction of wages, inflation, unemployment, lax urban regulations, civil strife, and drought. Government agencies are sometimes obstacles in outlawing the practice. Recent support for urban agriculture includes ten Asian, six African, and six Latin American countries. The number of urban farm workers is reported as 200 million worldwide. 700 million receive the benefits of urban agriculture. 25% of urban households in the US were engaged in urban food production during the 1980s. Better information, such as in comparative and longitudinal studies, is needed on urban poverty and the links between nutrition, income, employment, waste, and environmental issues. If cost-benefit analysis research finds a positive impact, then urban planners may need to incorporate city farming into conventional land use. The value of city farming needs to be assessed. Street food vending is an important source of income, particularly for women. Urban farming requires efficiency of space and knowledge of advances in technology and planning.

  17. Improved self-reliance shearing interferometric technique for collimation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingshan; Li, Guohua; Wang, Zhaobing; Jing, Yaling; Li, Yi

    1995-06-01

    Self-reference single plate shearing interferometric technique used for collimation testing of light beams are briefly reviewed. Two improved configurations of this self-reference interferometry with an inclined screen and matched half-field interferograms are described in detail. Sensitivity of these configurations is analyzed and compared with that of the existing ones.

  18. Assisting developing countries toward food self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt, R W

    1998-03-03

    Per capita food availability in the developing world has increased by 20% since the early 1960s, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, and today the world has twice as many people but 150 million fewer hungry people than in 1960. The world agricultural system has not done too bad a job over the past 35 years. It is likely that global agricultural production will continue to at least match growth in food demand over the next decade, assuming no major weather anomalies. Continued support of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research and programs involving U.S. universities is important to sharing knowledge about agriculture with colleagues in the developing world. This paper explores the reasons for providing agricultural development assistance, the benefits to the United States that come from doing so, and the special challenges facing the world over the next few decades.

  19. Warning citizens; influencing self-reliance in emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important part of the response to an emergency is making sure that people are able to take themselves and others to a place of safety. To make people aware that there is an emergency, there are three steps that have to be taken: there has to be a warning that something is going on, people have to

  20. Socioeconomic status and livelihoods of refugees in a self- reliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    land, ownership of livestock, and ownership of durable goods, for measuring ... used by individual households and those employed by humanitarian agencies, and ..... goods and services, wage labour and self-employment in small firms, ...

  1. Revitalization of education for self-reliance in education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Data were collected by voice recording and note taking while thematic method was used for data analysis. Majority of ... Voices of stakeholders favour rethinking of ESR and therefore appropriate strategies should be considered in the process of revitalising ESR taking into ...

  2. Self-Reliance and Community Development: Intention-Outcome Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    A case study among residents in the area of a water distribution project in the Philippines found that most respondents were willing in theory but reluctant in practice to contribute either funds of volunteered labor to self-help projects, and that they expected others (i.e. the government) to be responsible for project upkeep. (MF)

  3. Security Force Assistance Logistics: The Key to Self-Reliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ranks. In 1901 Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener incorporated these “armed native troops” into “scouting missions for his flying columns” and also used...advice; the result: a French military mission.”189 General Pierre Boyer and fourteen French officers arrived in 1824 with the mission to complete the

  4. The national policy on education and self-reliance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The policy on education in any society ought to be laid on the above foundation; otherwise such society is bound to exist under the dictates of foreign human and material resources. The paper takes a histo-philosophical study of policies consciously or unconsciously made in Nigeria from pre-colonial era to the present time ...

  5. A strategic plan of Korea for developing fusion energy beyond ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, M.; Na, Y.S.; Han, J.H.; Cho, S.Y.; Seo, H.T. [National Fusion Research Center, Daejeon (Korea); Hong, B.G.; Kim, Y.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea); Park, S.R. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea)

    2007-07-01

    Since Korea joined ITER as they were developing a fully super-conducting tokamak, KSTAR, the national agenda for developing fusion energy was renewed and focused on the clear mission - developing a self-reliance program for a fusion demonstration device. A new technical roadmap was developed toward self-reliance of technologies for constructing a fusion power plant in the similar time window as in EU, Japan and US. This looks tough and formidable but Korea would take advantage of their well-established nuclear technologies in power plant design, construction and operation. The Government and the Legislature recognized importance of this effort by establishing a special law for supporting it practically and for giving it a high priority in their R and D agenda. Under this favorable environment, various scenarios for finding the most effective and efficient path to achieve the goal were reviewed. Some of the features of the results of this review are presented. (orig.)

  6. Energy for a sustainable world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Reddy, A.K.N.; Williams, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The book is devoted to the problem of energy planning for a sustainable world. The principal objective of the conventional approach to energy problem is economic growth and consequently the primary goal of conventional energy planning is to make energy supply expansion possible. This conventional approach is aggravating societal inequalities, environmental and security problems, and eroding self-reliance. On the other hand societal goals in energy planning should be equity, economic efficiency, environmental harmony, long-term viability, self-reliance and peace. These goals are relevant to both developing and industrialised countries. These goals should, therefore, be incorporated in a normative approach to energy planning. This can be done by focussing on end-uses of energy and the services which energy performs. In the first chapter, the relation of global energy problem with other major global problems such as North-South disparities, environmental degradation, climate change, population explosion and nuclear weapons is brought out. The energy strategies for industrialized countries and for developing countries are examined in chapters 2 and 3 respectively. The focus in both chapters is on end-uses of enegy, management of energy demand and exploitation of synergisms. In chapter 4, rough estimates of global energy demand are given and an illustrative energy scenario compatible with societal goals is described. In chapter 5, the policies necessary to implement end-use-oriented energy strategies are outlined. These policies relate to market mechanisms, administrative allocation of energy carriers, regulation and taxes. In the concluding chapter 6, the political feasibility of implementing the kind of energy future envisaged is discussed. The main finding of the authors is that it is possible to formulate energy strategies compatible with the solution of major global problems referred to in chapter 1 with about the same level of global energy use as today. (M.G.B.)

  7. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  8. Dynamic energy analysis and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.

    1974-01-01

    An initial inquiry (intended for the layman) into how the net energy balance of exponential programmes of energy conversion facilities varies in time; what are the energy inputs and outputs of commercial nuclear reactors, both singly and in such programmes; what are the possible errors and omissions in this analysis; and what are the policy and research implications of the results. (author)

  9. Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.Q.; Mirjat, M.S.; Amjad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

  10. On-farm energy flow in grape orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Karimi; Hossein Moghaddam

    2018-01-01

    Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 317...

  11. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  12. Framework for Energy Neutral Treatment for the 21st Century Through Energy Efficient Aeration (WERF Report INFR2R12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeration is commonly identified as the most significant energy use in the treatment of wastewater and therefore garners significant focus in reducing energy use in the ultimate aspirational goal of achieving net energy neutrality for water resource recovery. This research establi...

  13. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  14. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  15. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Other Energy Return Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Adam R. Brandt; Michael Dale

    2011-01-01

    The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs) such as the net energy ratio (NER) or energy return on investment (EROI). A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy ...

  16. Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Zakia [Planning and Development, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission - BAEC, Paramanu Bhaban, E 12/A, Agargoan, 01207 Shere Banglanagar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-07-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country's nuclear research programmes and thus helping to achieve the cherished goal of self-reliance through national efforts and international co-operation. Being firmly committed to the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, programmes have been undertaken in Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospitals, agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some major constrains, presently BAEC's activities have increased many folds and keeping in view of the overall power crisis of the country efforts have also been given to establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country. (author)

  17. Energy use in citrus production of Mazandaran province in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total energy requirement under citrus farming was 17,112.2 MJ ha-1, whereas 36.3 and 33.62% was consumed due to fertilisers and pesticides, respectively. Renewable energy was about 12% of total energy input. The energy ratio, productivities, specific and net energy gain were 1.71, 0.905, 1.104 and 12,251.4 MJ ...

  18. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapouri, Hosein [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Duffield, James A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate.

  19. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    . The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...

  20. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  1. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    system Energy Return on energy Invested 4.4, total system Exergy Return on exergy Invested 3.5, Net Energy Output 78 GJ/ha/year, Net Exergy Output 50 GJ/ha/year, Net carbon sequestration 0.8 ton CO2-eq/ha/year, Total product value 2030 euro/ha/year and Net Dry Matter Removal 90%....

  2. Capacity Development - The Pathway to Self-Reliance for Host Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    benefits : ■ Conditions are improved for people in the host nation. ■ The host nation is better able to manage its affairs without relying on external... benefit un- der any conditions, from stable peace to general war. Whole-of-Government Approach President Obama signed the Presidential Policy Di...ANA)—of Peru and the World Bank, held a four-day workshop in Arequipa, Peru, with Chili River basin stakeholders focusing on building the ca

  3. Self-reliance and innovation to improve the localization ability of nuclear power construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chongming

    2008-01-01

    Construction is a crucial link in the course of design, site selection, construction and operation for a nuclear power plant. The quality during construction directly affects the nuclear safety. And the construction quality involves various aspects including quality culture, feasibility of construction technique, quality assurance, and quality control. Through technical management innovation, great achievements have been made in the civil construction of Unit 3 of Qinshan II Extension Project. As a result, the construction period was shortened and the concrete quality reached the fairfaced concrete standard. (authors)

  4. Reviving self-reliance: Community-driven development in Chernobyl regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchenko, O.

    2005-01-01

    This case presents community driven development activities among the Victim of the Chernobyl accidents in solving local economic problems. In this case the community designed projects on their immediate needs and mobilised resources for its implementation

  5. Parasitoid-host endocrine relations: self-reliance or co-optation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Beckage, N E; Tan, F F; Srinivasan, A; Ramaswamy, S B

    2002-12-01

    High titers of juvenile hormone (JH) maintain developmental arrest in Manduca sexta larvae parasitized by Cotesia congregata. Parasitized hosts exhibit up to 9.5 times greater amounts of total hemolymph JH (from 0.6+/-0.09 to 2.51+/-0.43ng/ml) compared to non-parasitized controls. Elevated titers are observed throughout the fifth instar, even beyond egression of the parasitoids on day 5. GC-MS analysis revealed that in hemolymph of unparasitized control larvae, JH I is the major homolog and levels of JH III are negligible; in parasitized individuals the amounts of JH I, II, and III rise, and JH III predominates. Neck ligation ensured separation of M. sexta's corpora allata from the posterior section, which contained most of the parasitoids in the infected insects. When the posterior region was sampled, JHs were not detected in the non-parasitzed larvae, but in those parasitized, JH III was found (1.98+/-0.29ng/ml, 24 h post-ligation). JH III was the only homolog produced and secreted by the parasitoid in in vitro culture. This is the first report stating that a parasitoid secretes JH III and may contribute, at least in part, to the circulating titer in the host hemocoel, concurrently promoting host production of JH I and II.

  6. Emptying the Nest: Launching Your Young Adult toward Success and Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Brad E.

    2010-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world and challenging economy, young adults increasingly find themselves at a crossroads between financial and emotional dependence and autonomy. Drawing on Dr. Sachs' extensive clinical experience and his illuminating discussion of the latest psychological research, "Emptying the Nest" will support parents in their…

  7. A Journey of Empowering a Community for Self Reliance: Endogenous Tourism Project in Sualkuchi, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanta Kalita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Environment Education (CEE is partnering the Union Ministry of Tourism (MoT, India, and UNDP India in implementing an endogenous tourism project (ETP at Sualkuchi. Situated in Assam province, Sualkuchi is the largest village in the Brahmaputra basin and is famous for silk weaving. The project experimented with tourism as an engine of rural development under Indian conditions. Tourist sites entirely managed by local communities were used for the first time under the ETP.Project activities involved rural infrastructure development and capacity enhancement of local communities through institution building, exposure, training and networking for rural tourism management. The project at Sualkuchi faced initial obstacles as the concept was new in this part of the globe. Initially a cross section of the community was reluctant because of their unawareness, lack of skill, poor infrastructure, conservative social system and lack of faith in the socio-political system. Vested interest groups, including local influential persons and decision makers, were opposed to the idea of handing over the project management to the inexperienced community committee. The project, apart from developing tourism, also tried to make it a learning experience for sustainable development. Empowerment of women, promotion of self help groups (SHGs, health camps, sanitation drives, and vocational trainings were the peripheral activities of the project. Out of the total of thirty six ETP sites, fifteen sites are now open for visitors, and approximately 14,000 individuals are involved in these sites. The total income of these sites in 2008 was slightly over INR 48.7 million. In the Sualkuchi site, the income level of at least 80 families has increased by 40%. Today, the local cultural groups are performing at national platforms, the cuisine of Sualkuchi is recognized as one of the best among all the ETP sites in the country, and the villagers are now confident enough to receive tourists from all over the globe.En partenariat avec le ministère du Tourisme de l’Union indienne et le PNUD Inde, le Centre for Environment Education (CEE a mis en œuvre un projet de tourisme endogène à Sualkuchi. Situé dans la province d’Assam, Sualkuchi est le plus grand village du bassin du Brahmapoutre. Il est renommé pour le tissage de la soie. Ce projet a expérimenté le tourisme comme moteur du développement rural dans des conditions indiennes. Dans le cadre de ce projet, des sites touristiques ont été pour la première fois entièrement gérés par des communautés locales.Les activités du projet comprenaient le développement d’infrastructures rurales et l’amélioration des capacités des communautés locales par la création d’institutions, et par la diffusion, la formation et la mise en réseau pour la gestion du tourisme rural. Au départ, le projet s’est heurté à plusieurs obstacles car le concept, dans cette partie du globe, était nouveau. Une partie de la population s’est montrée réticente du fait de sa méconnaissance, de son manque de compétences et d’infrastructures, d’un système social conventionnel et d’un manque de confiance dans le système sociopolitique. En outre, des groupes d’intérêt comprenant des personnalités locales influentes et des décisionnaires se sont opposés à l’idée de confier la gestion du projet à un comité local inexpérimenté. Outre le fait de développer le tourisme, le projet visait également à créer une expérience de développement durable enrichissante. L’autonomisation des femmes, la promotion des groupes d’entraide, des camps de santé, des mesures d’assainissement et de la formation professionnelle figuraient parmi les activités périphériques du projet. Sur trente-six sites de projets de tourisme endogène, quinze sites sont à présent ouverts aux visiteurs, et environ 14 000 personnes sont impliquées dans ces sites. En 2008, le revenu total de ces sites s’élevait à un peu plus de 48,7 millions de roupies indiennes. Sur le site de Sualkuchi, le niveau de revenu d’au moins 80 familles a augmenté de 40 %. Aujourd’hui, des groupes culturels locaux se produisent dans tout le pays, la cuisine de Sualkuchi est reconnue comme l’une des meilleures parmi tous les sites de projets de tourisme endogène du pays et les villageois sont à présent suffisamment confiants pour recevoir des touristes du monde entier.El Centro para la Educación Ambiental (CEA está colaborando con el Ministerio de Turismo (MT de la India, y el PDNU para la India para poner en marcha un proyecto de turismo endógeno (PTE en Sualkuchi. Situada en la provincia de Assam, Sualkuchi es la aldea más grande de la cuenca de Brahmaputra y es famosa por sus tejidos de seda. El proyecto experimentó con el turismo como motor del desarrollo rural bajo condiciones propias de la India. Por primera vez, bajo el PTE, se utilizaron centros de turismo gestionados únicamente por comunidades locales. Las actividades del proyecto implicaron el desarrollo de infraestructuras rurales y la ampliación de la capacidad de las comunidades locales mediante la formación, exposición, fortalecimiento institucional y el establecimiento de redes de contactos para la gestión del turismo rural. El proyecto en Sualkuchi se enfrentó a obstáculos iniciales ya que el concepto era nuevo en esta parte del globo. Inicialmente, parte de la comunidad fue reacia debido a su desconocimiento, falta de capacidad, malas infraestructuras, sistema social conservador y falta de confianza en el sistema sociopolítico. Los grupos con intereses creados, incluyendo a personas influyentes locales y responsables de la toma de decisiones, se opusieron a la idea de transferir la gestión del proyecto al comité de la comunidad sin experiencia. El proyecto, además de desarrollar el turismo, también trató de convertirlo en una experiencia de aprendizaje para el desarrollo sostenible. La participación de la mujer en la sociedad, la promoción de grupos de autoayuda (GAA, campamentos de salud, campañas de salubridad, y formaciones vocacionales fueron las actividades periféricas del proyecto. Del total de treinta seis centros del PTE, ahora hay abiertos quince para visitantes, y aproximadamente 14.000 personas participan en estos centros. Los ingresos totales de estos centros en 2008 estuvieron ligeramente por encima de los 48,7 millones de rupias indias. En el centro de Sualkuchi, el nivel de ingresos de por lo menos 80 familias ha aumentado en un 40%. Hoy, los grupos culturales locales están trabajando en plataformas nacionales, la cocina de Sualkuchi es reconocida como una de las mejores de los centros del PTE del país, y los aldeanos están ahora lo suficientemente seguros de sí mismos para recibir a turistas de todas partes del mundo.

  8. Strategy to Improve Naval Shipbuilding Industry Self-Reliance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    47 B. BUILD RECOMMENDATIONS USING R&D AND LEARNING CURVE THEORY ............................................................50 1. Building Naval...Ships by Strengthening R&D ...........................52 2. Learning Curve Theory ...............................................................53...motivation (higher threat level), economic motivation Naval shipbuilding capacity - High capacity - Public company shipbuilder, less incentive to

  9. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  10. How to Transform, with a Capacitor, Thermal Energy into Usable Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is taken into account to study the energy change in a capacitor that follows a cycle between a cold and a hot thermal reservoir. There is a net energy gain in the process that, in principle, can be transformed into usable work. The paper is simple enough as to be used with keen…

  11. Feed intake and energy utilization in dairy cows of different breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the biological efficiency) or as the

  12. An energy-efficient metro speed profiles for energy savings: application to the Valencia metro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba Sanchis, I.; Salvador Zuriaga, P.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays one of the main priorities for metro line operators is the reduction of energy consumption, due to the environmental impact and economic cost. In order to achieve this objective different strategies can be applied, normally focused into rolling stock, infrastructure and/or operation. Considering short-term measures and related to the traffic operation strategies, different approaches are being researched. One of the most effective strategy which reduce net energy consumption is the use of efficient driving techniques. These techniques produces a speed profile between two stations that requires the minimum net energy consumption, without degrading commercial running times or passenger comfort. In this paper, a computer model for calculating the metro vehicles speed profiles minimizing the energy consumption was developed. The equations considered in the model represent the behavior of a single vehicle operated under manual driving, subject to different constraints such as the headway, cycle time, distances and acceleration limits. The proposed model calculates different commands to be systematically executed by the driver. The resulting simulator has been tuned by means of on board measurements of speed, accelerations and energy consumption obtained along different lines in Metro de Valencia network. For this purpose, different scenarios are analyzed to assess the achievable energy savings. In general terms and comparing with the actual energy consumption, the solutions proposed can reduce the net energy consumption around 19%. (Author)

  13. The use of secondary energy for the drying of forest industry sludges - instead of destroying sludges to produce net energy; Jaetelaempoejen kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuslietteiden kuivauksessa - lietteiden haevittaemisestae nettoenergian tuottamiseen - KLY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The amount of waste water sludges in chemical forest industry was in 1995/1996 about 400 000 t dry solid matter and 70 % of these substances were incinerated mainly in the bark boilers. The rest were landfilled. Bio-, primary- and DlP-sludges and concentrate from debarking plant were dried with two laboratory scale layer dryers and pilot scale drum dryer. Bark, saw dust and peat were used as reference materials. Saw dust dried fastest and primary sludge slowest but the differences in the drying time between the dried materials were not large. The final moisture content could be 50 % and for example flue gases could be used as drying medium. Typical surface area of layer dryer needed to dry 40 000 t sludge from the moisture of 75 % to the moisture of 50 % could be 150 m{sup 2} and the value of investment could be 3-4 million FIM. Next step could be drying of sludges in pilot scale using some factories as references to get an idea of the real drying costs. (orig.)

  14. The use of secondary energy for the drying of forest industry sludges - instead of destroying sludges to produce net energy; Jaetelaempoejen kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuslietteiden kuivauksessa - lietteiden haevittaemisestae nettoenergian tuottamiseen - KLY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The amount of waste water sludges in chemical forest industry was in 1995/1996 about 400 000 t dry solid matter and 70 % of these substances were incinerated mainly in the bark boilers. The rest were landfilled. Bio-, primary- and DlP-sludges and concentrate from debarking plant were dried with two laboratory scale layer dryers and pilot scale drum dryer. Bark, saw dust and peat were used as reference materials. Saw dust dried fastest and primary sludge slowest but the differences in the drying time between the dried materials were not large. The final moisture content could be 50 % and for example flue gases could be used as drying medium. Typical surface area of layer dryer needed to dry 40 000 t sludge from the moisture of 75 % to the moisture of 50 % could be 150 m{sup 2} and the value of investment could be 3-4 million FIM. Next step could be drying of sludges in pilot scale using some factories as references to get an idea of the real drying costs. (orig.)

  15. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  16. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, K.; Alamsyah, R.; Ichwana; Sholihati; Tou, S. B.; Siregar, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis, and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactor were 900 mm and 1000 mm respectively. The method used here were the design the Detailed Engineering Design (DED), assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 hours with performance engine of 84% and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kWh-electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2eq/MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about Rp.1.500,/kWh which is cheaper than Solar Power Generation which is about of Rp. 3.300,-/kWh.

  17. Renewable energy in Pakistan: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.A.; Khalil, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the countries around the world have realized that the key to attaining and maintaining prosperity and sovereignty is having independence and self-reliance in access to and subsequent use of energy. To address the global challenges, the energy system needs to undergo a transformation from fossil-fuels to renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. Pakistan has a huge potential for harnessing renewable energy and its share in the electricity mix has to be increased to achieve energy security. Security issues and circular debt in the country are the key challenges that need to be addressed to promote on-grid renewable energy through private sector. Around 38 % of the total Pakistani population remains without access to electricity. Fifty four per cent of the rural population currently has no access to electricity, forcing them to live a sub-standard life of poverty and social inequity. Microfinance and other innovative financial tools need to be evolved to promote rural electrification through renewable energies. (author)

  18. Sovereignty, Robustness, and Short-Term Energy Security Levels. The Catalonia Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Casals, Martí, E-mail: rosas@mmt.upc.edu [Sustainability Measurement and Modelling Lab, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Marzo, Mariano [Geomodels Institute, Department of Stratigraphy, Paleontology and Marine Geosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Salas-Prat, Pep [Sustainability Measurement and Modelling Lab, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech, Barcelona (Spain); SmartGrid.cat, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-12

    Energy-related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance, and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a) construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b) generation of growing levels of social, economic, and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature) but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper, we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions, which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterizes energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  19. Sovereignty, Robustness, and Short-Term Energy Security Levels. The Catalonia Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Casals, Martí; Marzo, Mariano; Salas-Prat, Pep

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance, and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a) construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b) generation of growing levels of social, economic, and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature) but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper, we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions, which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterizes energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  20. Sovereignty, robustness and short-term energy security levels. The Catalonia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marti eRosas-Casals

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b generation of growing levels of social, economic and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterize energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  1. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  2. Energy use in apple production in the Esfahan province of Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total energy requirement under apple farming was 36,135.16 MJ ha-1, whereas 46.2, 25 and 15.8% was consumed due to chemicals, fuel and manure fertiliser, respectively. Renewable energy was 23.6% of total energy input. The input-output ratio, productivities, specific and net energy gain were 1.17, 0.49 kg MJ-1, ...

  3. Possible applications of a hybrid thermonuclear energy source based on a DPF device in modern energy complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Tyagunov, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    A source of thermonuclear energy based on the dense plasma focus (DPF) device in a hybrid fusion-fission version is proposed. In its initial operating phase such a facility would be a net energy consumer and would breed fissile material; as the fissile content in the blanket increases, the installation would become a net energy producer. Under the proposed scheme of blanket operation, up to 50% of the uranium could be burned while maintaining electrical output and without refabrication of fuel elements. If desired, operation could continue after the fuel is almost completely exhausted to burn the nuclear waste. It is thought that the new source could become both technologically and economically feasible in the near future. Smooth control should present no problem and the speed at which the device could be brought up to full load should greatly improve the flexibility of the overall electrical supply system

  4. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  5. Energy efficiency analysis of styrene production by adiabatic ethylbenzene dehydrogenation using exergy analysis and heat integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene is a valuable commodity for polymer industries. The main route for producing styrene by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene consumes a substantial amount of energy because of the use of high-temperature steam. In this work, the process energy requirements and recovery are studied using Exergy analysis and Heat Integration (HI based on Pinch design method. The amount of steam plays a key role in the trade-off between Styrene yield and energy savings. Therefore, optimizing the operating conditions for energy reduction is infeasible. Heat integration indicated an insignificant reduction in the net energy demand and exergy losses, but 24% and 34% saving in external heating and cooling duties, respectively. When the required steam is generated by recovering the heat of the hot reactor effluent, a considerable saving in the net energy demand, as well as the heating and cooling utilities, can be achieved. Moreover, around 68% reduction in the exergy destruction is observed.

  6. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  7. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  8. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine by Developing Wet Tar Scrubbers and Gas Filter to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siregar Kiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactorwere 900 mm and 1 000 mm respectively. The method used here werethe design the Detailed Engineering Design, assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 h with performance engine of 84 % and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kW h electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2 eq per MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about IDR 1 500 per kW h which is cheaper than solar power generation which is about of IDR 3 300 per kW h.

  9. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  10. Energy sensitivity and variability analysis of Populus hybrid short-rotation plantations in northeastern United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowersox, T.W.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1979-10-24

    Production of biomass by corn-like plantations has been demonstrated by a number of researchers. These forest analogs of agronomic cropping systems have the potential to yield substantially more biomass per unit area than traditional forests. Care is needed in choosing the appropriate sites, species, spacing, and harvesting strategies. Opportunities for increased yields have been suggested for fertilization and irrigation. Utilization of the biomass from these dense plantations for energy was the focus of this study. Although the amount of energy potential of the biomass is important, the energy output must be greater than the energy input for biomass to have a positive benefit to society. Further, in order to completely evaluate the net energy of the system it is necessary to examine the energy out-to-in ratios on the basis of usable energy (for example, usable heat, process steam and electricity), as well as all of the energies expended in producing, harvesting, transporting and processing the biomass. The objective of this study is to establish and analyze the energy inputs for selected management strategies in order to evaluate the sensitivity and variability of the energy inputs in the net energy analysis, and based on the net energy analysis to recommend a management strategy that minimizes energy inputs while maximizing biomass yield for short-rotation systems of Populus spp. in the northeastern United States.

  11. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  12. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  14. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  15. Building concepts for a transition towards energy neutrality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, B.J.; Paauw, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper building concepts for the near future are described which enable the transition towards a net energy neutral building sector in the Netherlands by the year 2050. With 'net energy neutrality' is meant that, on a yearly basis, the total energy consumption in the built environment is compensated by local renewable energy production e.g. by using solar thermal (T), photovoltaic (PV), PVT and/or wind. A study concerning the feasibility of a 'net energy neutral built environment by 2050' set the energetic ambitions for the building concepts to be developed. This resulted in different concepts for residential buildings and for office-buildings. The building concepts are based on passive house technology to minimise the heating and cooling demand, and make optimal use of active and passive solar energy. Concepts for new to build domestic buildings are in fact energy producing to compensate for the remaining energy demand of existing, renovated dwellings. In all concepts the 'trias energetica' or 'energy pyramid' served as a general guideline, striving for minimisation of energy demand, maximal usage of renewable energy and usage of fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Different full roof integrated options for using solar energy (PV, T or PVT) with variable storage options have been compared by making simulations with a dynamic simulation programme, to gain insight on their impact on energy, building engineering and economic impact. Also different possibilities for installations to fulfil the heating demand for the space heating and DHW demand are compared. For each concept, the resulting primary energy profiles for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity consumption for lighting, ventilation and household appliances are given.

  16. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report. [ODSP-3 code; OTEC Steady-State Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The following appendices are included; Dynamic Simulation Program (ODSP-3); sample results of dynamic simulation; trip report - NH/sub 3/ safety precautions/accident records; trip report - US Coast Guard Headquarters; OTEC power system development, preliminary design test program report; medium turbine generator inspection point program; net energy analysis; bus bar cost of electricity; OTEC technical specifications; and engineer drawings. (WHK)

  17. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  18. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  19. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  20. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  1. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. EFISIENSI ENERGI PRODUKSI BIOGAS AIR LIMBAH PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT PADA SUHU TERMOFILIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiqih Pertiwi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent treatment using anaerobic pond system was not effective because it needs large area and causes greenhouse gas emission. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion system can make hydraulic retention time of palm oil mill effluent becomes shorter. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimum temperature, net energy balance of the utilization from palm oil mill effluent at thermophilic temperature, and study the possibility of its application on palm oil mill.  Palm oil mill effluent and sludge characterization were determined by analyzing pH and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, then 40 L palm oil mill effluent and 10 L sludge were fermented in the bioreactor stirred at temperature 45oC and 55oC.  The data were presented in tables and graphs then analyzed descriptively. The Results showed that for 50 L palm oil mill effluent at 45oC needed 113,906 J/57 days and produced net energy value 22,078 MJ/57 days, while at 55oC needed 113,934 J/43 days and produced net energy value 23,622 MJ/43 days.  Based on the calculation palm oil mill with capacity of 60 tonnes FFB/hour, will produce electrical energy equivalent to 1,654 MW and produce extra energy value 13.699,32 MJ/hour in the processing of FFB into CPO. Keywords : Energy efficiency, thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

  3. How can we improve the energy balance of ethanol production from wheat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Murphy; Niamh M. Power [University College Cork, Cork (Ireland). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The gross energy in ethanol using wheat as a feedstock in Ireland is 66 GJ/ha/a. The net energy production is 25 GJ/ha/a. A model is proposed, whereby the ethanol production process is combined with combustion of straw, and digestion of stillage, resulting in two transport fuels; ethanol and biomethane. In the proposed system stillage is not dried, reducing the thermal demand by 35%. A quarter of the straw associated with the wheat grain is sufficient, when combusted, to satisfy the reduced thermal demands. Stillage is digested wet; the biogas is scrubbed, compressed and utilised as a transport fuel. The net energy now is 72 GJ/ha/a. The production cost of biomethane is two thirds that of ethanol. 37 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  4. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  5. 'Industry, perseverance, self-reliance, and integrity'. Alfred A. Walton and mid-Victorian working-class radicalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, Detlev

    2018-01-01

    Biography of one of the lesser-known Victorian working-class radicals, who was active in political (Chartism, electoral reform), social (O'Brienism, co-operation, trade unionism) and international (International Working Men's Association) movements in the mid-Victorian era. He also was a prolific author of pamphlets and newspaper contributions on political and social questions, esp. land reform, co-operation and working-class representation.

  6. Evaluating International Curriculum Development: Cooperation and Self-Reliance in the Social Studies of Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Douglas

    Educational evaluation is ideally much broader than the examination of students' work at stipulated intervals. It addresses the selection of objectives, the methodology, the capability of management, the adequacy of data sources, the resources required, and even the alternative educational purposes that could be served. This study evaluates the…

  7. Behaviors of Sighted Individuals Perceived by Blind Persons as Hindrances to Self-Reliance in Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickelman, Bonnie L.; Blaylock, Jerry N.

    1983-01-01

    Situations in which sighted people behaved inappropiately toward blind individuals were recalled by 60 blind subjects, who described their reactions and feelings and offered suggestions for sighted people. A lack of knowledge and understanding of the skills, abilities, and feelings of visually impaired individuals were revealed. (SEW)

  8. Educating a Nation towards Self-Reliance: Tanzania's Journey in Search for an Education That Is Meaningful to Its People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabike, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since independence in 1961, Tanzania's political ideology (known as Ujamaa-familyhood) has gone hand in hand with the country's education philosophy. The most important feature of this combination is that people should be educated to fit in Tanzania's environment and culture. Education should emancipate man from mental slavery inherited from…

  9. Cold chain food distribution from the Driftless Area : keys to attaining self-reliance in the circle city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, small- to mid-scale farms have increasingly emphasized the importance of branding and establishing : the appropriate identity to enter the value-added market. Farms in the Driftless Area (mostly Southwest Wisconsin) are : slowly deve...

  10. Bottom-up approach for decentralised energy planning. Case study of Tumkur district in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiremath, Rahul B. [Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur 413006 (India); Kumar, Bimlesh [Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Balachandra, P. [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ravindranath, N.H. [CST, IISc, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Decentralized Energy Planning (DEP) is one of the options to meet the rural and small-scale energy needs in a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable way. The main aspect of the energy planning at decentralized level would be to prepare an area-based DEP to meet energy needs and development of alternate energy sources at least-cost to the economy and environment. Present work uses goal-programming method in order to analyze the DEP through bottom-up approach. This approach includes planning from the lowest scale of Tumkur district in India. The scale of analysis included village level - Ungra, panchayat level (local council) - Yedavani, block level - Kunigal and district level - Tumkur. The approach adopted was bottom-up (village to district) to allow a detailed description of energy services and the resulting demand for energy forms and supply technologies. Different scenarios are considered at four decentralized scales for the year 2005 and are developed and analyzed for the year 2020. Decentralized bioenergy system for producing biogas and electricity, using local biomass resources, are shown to promote development compared to other renewables. This is because, apart from meeting energy needs, multiple goals could be achieved such as self-reliance, local employment, and land reclamation apart from CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. (author)

  11. Bottom-up approach for decentralised energy planning: Case study of Tumkur district in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiremath, Rahul B., E-mail: rahulhiremath@gmail.co [Walchand Institute of Technology Solapur 413006 (India); Kumar, Bimlesh, E-mail: bimk@iitg.ernet.i [Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: balachandra_patil@hks.harvard.ed [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ravindranath, N.H., E-mail: ravi@ces.iisc.ernet.i [CST, IISc, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Decentralized Energy Planning (DEP) is one of the options to meet the rural and small-scale energy needs in a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable way. The main aspect of the energy planning at decentralized level would be to prepare an area-based DEP to meet energy needs and development of alternate energy sources at least-cost to the economy and environment. Present work uses goal-programming method in order to analyze the DEP through bottom-up approach. This approach includes planning from the lowest scale of Tumkur district in India. The scale of analysis included village level-Ungra, panchayat level (local council)-Yedavani, block level-Kunigal and district level-Tumkur. The approach adopted was bottom-up (village to district) to allow a detailed description of energy services and the resulting demand for energy forms and supply technologies. Different scenarios are considered at four decentralized scales for the year 2005 and are developed and analyzed for the year 2020. Decentralized bioenergy system for producing biogas and electricity, using local biomass resources, are shown to promote development compared to other renewables. This is because, apart from meeting energy needs, multiple goals could be achieved such as self-reliance, local employment, and land reclamation apart from CO{sub 2} emissions reduction.

  12. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  13. Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha -1 . Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha -1 yr -1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  15. The Arab Spring and South China Sea Tensions: Analyzing China's Drive to Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Henelito A.

    2015-01-01

    The Arab Spring has brought significant changes to the political landscape in many Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries since early 2011. It has also affected the geo strategic and economic interests of powerful emerging Asian states, especially China and other net-energy consuming countries. One immediate result of the Arab Spring is its highly disrupted impact (a ' Black Swan') on the production and supply of crude oil to the economies in Asia due to their high degree...

  16. Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Feitau [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernal Heredia, Willy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.

  17. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  18. Analysis of economic and energy utilization aspects for waste heat aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.; Wilson, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    A waste heat aquaculture system using extensive culture techniques to produce fin and shellfish is currently under investigation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system uses nutrients in waste water streams to grow algae and zooplankton which are fed to fish and clams. A tilapia polyculture association and the freshwater clam Corbicula are the animals cultured in the system. The investigations were performed to determine the economic feasibility of the system and examine energy utilization in the system. A net energy analysis was performed to identify the energy saving potential for the system. This analysis includes all energy costs (both direct and indirect) associated with building and operating the system. The results of the economic study indicated that fish production costs of $0.55/kg ($0.25/lb) were possible. This cost, however, depends upon the fish production rate and food conversion efficiency and could rise to as much as $1.65/kg ($0.75/lb). Clam production costs were found to be in the neighborhood of $0.37/kg of clam meat ($1.24/bushel). The energy utilization study results indicated that, when all energy costs are included, fish from the aquaculture system may require only 35% of the net energy now required for fish products from the ocean. However, the energy requirements also depend on system parameters and could be as large as the energy required for ocean caught products. Clams can be produced in the aquaculture system using only about 25% of the net energy required by traditional means. The results of the analysis indicate that the system appears to be economically feasible. They also indicate that significant energy savings are possible if waste heat aquaculture products replace ocean caught products.

  19. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  20. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  1. The Energy Efficiency Potential of Cloud-Based Software: A U.S. Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liang, Jiaqi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, XiaoHui [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hendrix, Valerie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Benjamin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Mantha, Pradeep [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-03

    The energy use of data centers is a topic that has received much attention, given that data centers currently account for 1-2% of global electricity use. However, cloud computing holds great potential to reduce data center energy demand moving forward, due to both large reductions in total servers through consolidation and large increases in facility efficiencies compared to traditional local data centers. However, analyzing the net energy implications of shifts to the cloud can be very difficult, because data center services can affect many different components of society’s economic and energy systems.

  2. Spatial mapping of renewable energy potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Energy Research Group, CES RNO 215, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Shruthi, B.V. [Energy Research Group, CES RNO 215, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2007-09-15

    An energy resource that is renewed by nature and whose supply is not affected by the rate of consumption is often termed as renewable energy. The need to search for renewable, alternate and non-polluting sources of energy assumes top priority for self-reliance in the regional energy supply. This demands an estimation of available energy resources spatially to evolve better management strategies for ensuring sustainability of resources. The spatial mapping of availability and demand of energy resources would help in the integrated regional energy planning through an appropriate energy supply-demand matching. This paper discusses the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to map the renewable energy potential talukwise in Karnataka State, India. Taluk is an administrative division in the federal set-up in India to implement developmental programmes like dissemination of biogas, improved stoves, etc. Hence, this paper focuses talukwise mapping of renewable energy (solar, wind, bioenergy and small hydroenergy) potential for Karnataka using GIS. GIS helps in spatial and temporal analyses of the resources and demand and also aids as Decision Support System while implementing location-specific renewable energy technologies. Regions suitable for tapping solar energy are mapped based on global solar radiation data, which provides a picture of the potential. Coastal taluks in Uttara Kannada have higher global solar radiation during summer (6.31 kWh/m{sup 2}), monsoon (4.16 kWh/m{sup 2}) and winter (5.48 kWh/m{sup 2}). Mapping of regions suitable for tapping wind energy has been done based on wind velocity data, and it shows that Chikkodi taluk, Belgaum district, has higher potential during summer (6.06 m/s), monsoon (8.27 m/s) and winter (5.19 m/s). Mysore district has the maximum number of small hydropower plants with a capacity of 36 MW. Talukwise computation of bioenergy availability from agricultural residue, forest, horticulture, plantation and livestock

  3. Spent grain as energy source for breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, P; Meyer-Pittroff, R [Technical Univ. of Munich, Freising (West Germany)

    1990-01-01

    About 1.7 million tons of spent grain are produced from brewing operations each year in the Federal Republic of Germany. Because there is more spent grain than can be sold as cattle fodder, other uses for this product are being sought. These include composting, methane generation, and direct combustion. Researchers are using anaerobic fermentation as a means of producing biogas and using waste energy from the brewery to heat the fermenter. Combustion of spent grain can give a net energy of 12.8 MJ per kg dry grain. With biogas production, about 15-20% of the whole primary energy or 50% of the primary energy used in the boiling house could be substituted by the biogas.

  4. Energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of dryland camelina as influenced by tillage and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz-Afshar, Reza; Mohammed, Yesuf Assen; Chen, Chengci

    2015-01-01

    Despite the great potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) as a promising biofuel feedstock, in-farm energy flow of the crop and its associated environmental impacts has not received sufficient attention from researchers. In order to assess net energy gain and to identify energy saving and environmental friendly production operations, a two year study was conducted at central Montana. We investigated the effects of tillage method (CT (conventional tillage) vs. NT (no-tillage)) and N (nitrogen) fertilizer rate (0, 45, 90 kg N ha −1 ) on energy balance and GHG (greenhouse gas emission) of dryland camelina production. Results indicated that energy input and GHG emission were 5 and 8% lower in NT than in CT. Application of 45 and 90 kg N ha −1 increased camelina energy input by 186 and 365%, while increased energy output by only 21 and 64%, respectively. There was no significant difference in net energy gain in response to N fertilization, but lower energy efficiency in response to higher N inputs. Averaged across tillage systems, the GHG emission was 32.0 kg C eq ha −1 with 0 N applied, and the GHG emission increased by 206 and 389% when 45 and 90 kg N ha −1 was applied. Overall, N fertilizer had the biggest share in total energy input. Averaged over all experimental treatments, 14,945 MJ ha −1 net energy was obtained from camelina crop in this study which shows the potential of this crop as a bioenergy feedstock. Our result showed that implementation of NT is strongly recommendable for camelina production in this region. Moreover, improvement of N use efficiency has the highest priority to improve energy performance and reduce GHG emissions in camelina production. - Highlights: • Camelina produced 14,945 MJ ha −1 of net energy in this study. • No tillage operation reduced 5% energy input and 8% greenhouse gas emission. • Nitrogen fertilizer was the most energy-intensive input in camelina production.

  5. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  6. Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Pal

    2006-01-01

    Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20-40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40-80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution

  7. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  8. Characterization of dietary energy in Swine feed and feed ingredients: a review of recent research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  9. System analysis for effective use of palm oil waste as energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiew, Yoon Lin; Iwata, Tomoko; Shimada, Sohei

    2011-01-01

    Biomass refers to renewable energy sources and comes from biological materials such as trees, plants, manure as well as municipal solid wastes. Effective utilization of biomass as an energy resource requires the use of an optimization model to take into account biomass availability, transportation distances, and the scales and locations of power facilities within a region. In this study, we develop a new analytical tool that integrates cost, energy savings, greenhouse gas considerations, scenario analysis, and a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide a comprehensive analysis of alternative systems for optimizing biomass energy production. The goal is to find a system that optimizes the use of biomass waste by analyzing the cost, net avoided CO 2 emission, and net energy savings with the objective of profit maximization. In this paper, we describe an application of the modeling tool described above to one of the fastest growing agriculture industries in Asia, the palm oil industry, for the case of Malaysia. Five scenarios utilizing palm oil waste as energy resources are discussed. The scenario of installing of new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants in the region yielded a number of benefits in terms of net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. The results also demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. The choice of a suitable CHP plant scale, management strategies for biomass seasonal availability, and market price of biomass are also important factors for effective use of the biomass in a region. -- Highlights: → We develop an optimization model for energy production from agricultural biomass. → We model 5 scenarios to optimize plant size, plant location and biomass distribution. → We evaluate the net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. → We demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. → We determine additional factors which may impact

  10. Energy economics of nuclear and coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Hae Yoon

    1995-01-01

    The upturn of Korean nuclear power program can be considered to have started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type, considering the current trend of construction on the new plants in the United States. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it is desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a comparison between two systems, nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant in terms of energy investment. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (IOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. NEA is conducted for power plants in U.S. because the availability of necessary data are limited in Korea. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, this method can work as a screening process in decision making. When considering energy systems, results from such analysis can be used as a general guideline. 2 figs., 12 tabs., 5 refs. (Author)

  11. Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.

  12. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  13. Energy requirement of some energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.F.; Hemming, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The energy requirements for the sources of energy under examination are expressed as the fraction of total energy consumed in the production of a unit of gross output. Clearly there are vast differences between the energy requirements of these sources of fuels. Using energy analysis it is possible to indicate points of futility where no net energy is produced (i.e. Xsub(f) = 1). For North Sea oil fields using current technology, this appears to occur at a field size of 100,000-200,000 tons of recoverable reserves of oil. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting, the outer limit is at a grade of about 5 gal/ton. For uranium ores used to fuel a burner reactor, the cut-off grade was found to be of the order of 20 ppm. However, it should be remembered that at Xsub(f) = 1, there is no net output and the price of the fuel would be infinite. Because of payments to labour and capital, the upper limit of economic viability may well occur at values of Xsub(f) from 0.1 to 0.2. Thus uranium ores of a grade of 100 ppm U 3 O 8 or less may not be ecomically viable using current burner reactors and this in turn implies an upper bound for the total thermal reactor capacity. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting and room-and-pillar mining 15-20 gal/ton shale may represent the upper limit of economic viability, depending on the efficiency that can be achieved in a commercial-scale retort

  14. Energy balance of the lavender oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÖKDOĞAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the energy input-output analysis of lavender oil production. Data from agricultural farms in Isparta province was used. Energy input was calculated as 1993.89 MJ and energy output was calculated as 2925.51 MJ. Wood energy, fresh stalked lavender flower energy, equipment energy, human labour energy, electricity energy, and water energy inputs were 54.22 %, 41.86 %, 3.40 %, 0.23 %, 0.18 %, and 0.10 % of energy inputs, respectively. In this production, it is noteworthy that wood was used as fuel in the lavender oil production distillation process as the highest input. In the energy outputs, an average of 3.10 kg lavender oil and 130 kg lavender water were extracted by processing 234 kg fresh stalked lavender flower. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, and net energy for lavender oil production were calculated as 1.47, 643.19 MJ kg-1, 0.002 kg MJ-1 and 931.62 MJ, respectively.

  15. Rare earths and energy critical elements: a roadmap and strategy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Balasubramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to summarise and update the report 'Rare Earths (RE) and Energy Critical Elements (ECE): A Roadmap and Strategy for India' released in July 2012. The background to the report is as follows. The Ministry of Mines (MoM), Government of India constituted a steering committee in August 2011 to develop a strategy paper on status and availability of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and Energy Critical Elements (ECE). The race to find alternatives to RE by the use of supercomputers and genetic algorithms will be described. Many of the ECE eg. gallium, germanium, indium, selenium and tellurium are by-products of main metals: aluminium, copper, zinc and tin. Their production is restricted by that of main metals. Saline brine and subsoil bitterns are sources of lithium. Uranium, and niobium alloying with zirconium are critical to nuclear energy. Exploration, applications, recycling and recovery of these elements will be discussed. Our report and presentation lay stress on novel routes that emphasise self-reliance and not merely economic viability and also provide short, medium and long term options along with proposals for specific policy and legislative interventions

  16. Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity....... Single-mode and multimode operations are studied, and dispersion relations are computed for different waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative, and zero dispersion an possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....

  17. Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)

  18. Energy plus standard in buildings constructed by housing associations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutterecker, Werner; Blümel, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve national, European and international energy goals, energy efficiency strategies in the building sector have to be implemented. The passive house standard and low energy standards are already successfully established in single dwelling houses. These high performance standards are starting to penetrate into the sector of housing associations. A case study about an apartment building constructed by a housing association is presented here. It describes the monitoring concept and the results of the 1st year of monitoring. Depending on the definition of the zero energy building standard (extent of loads included in the balancing), the building could be classified as an energy plus building or as a building, which uses more energy, than is supplied by on-site generation. If the building's total energy use (including user specific loads) is defined as load, only 34.5% of these loads were provided by the net energy output of the PV system. If only the heating energy demand is defined as load, the PV system even yielded a surplus of 45.6% of the energy load. -- Highlights: ► Energy monitoring of an apartment building constructed by a housing association. ► Planned as a Passive House with a semi-central ventilation system with decentralized heat pump technology. ► Total end energy demand of the building was 43 kWh/(m² a). ► Total net energy generation by the PV system was 15 kWh/(m² a). ► Apartment no. 1: 52% of the energy demand were used for heating and ventilation.

  19. Windows with an improved energy balance of 30%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    means that both energy losses and transmittance of solar radiation is considered.The final goal of the project was to improve the energy balance of a window with at least 30%. As reference is chosen a common low energy glazing mounted in a wooden frame construction measuring 1188 × 1188 mm2...... the main emphasis has been put on improvement of the frame construction and the interaction between frame and glazing. Several theoretical analyses have been carried out and a prototype construction has been made, that meets the goal of a 30% improvement of the energy balance.The prototype has been tested....... A 30% improvement of the energy balance then corresponds to an reduction in net energy loss of 17 kWh/m2 window area.The frame costruction and the joint between glazing and frame is the thermally weak part of modern windows compared to centre values of the new super insulating glazings. As a result...

  20. The prospects and trends of nuclear energy technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengjie

    1989-09-01

    Assurance of reliable and economic energy supply under conditions acceptable to the environment and transportation is one of the major prerequisites for achieving the ultimate goal of quadrupling the national gross annual value of industry and agriculture by the end of this century in China. The statistical data on energy and electricity usage and socioeconomic development in China show clearly the necessity for developing nuclear power station in this century, and for developing advanced nuclear energy technology in the next century, this paper gives a summary description of the nuclear power development plan by 2000, as well as the trends of nuclear energy technology in the future of China. Before the year 2000 there will be approximately 10 nuclear power reactors with a total net capacity of 6700 MWe connected into the grid and 5 nuclear power reactors with net capacity of 5000 MWe under construction. From now on, great attention is being paid to developing advanced nuclear reactor systems, and there are several types of reactors to be taken into account: High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, Fast Breeder Reactor and Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. At all stages of nuclear power development particular emphasis is being given for enhancing reactor safety and measuring operational reliability. Supply of nuclear fuels based on self-reliance is our inherent policy. China is undertaking to set up a fully integrated advanced nuclear fuel cycle, adapted to the nuclear power development. With the decommissioning of some nuclear facilities set up during the 1960's, the R and D program is being considered on the following topics: decommissioning safety assessment, robotic remote handling, decommissioning waste treatment environment evaluation methodology and cost analysis. 2 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Organization of science and technology and the atomic energy program in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innas, M.; Islam, N.

    1977-01-01

    Bangladesh has developed an indigenous scientific community and a scientific and technological infrastructure. She is now making earnest endeavors to develop her scientific and technological capabilities to permit her to assimilate, adopt, and put to better social use the science of the advanced countries and, at the same time, establish a base for local production of science and technology geared to her own necessities with the ultimate object of achieving self-reliance. The National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) is the policy making and planning organ, which is attached to the Head of the State. The charters, functions, and mode of operation of these organs are discussed briefly. The Government established the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in May 1973 and entrusted it with the task of promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy in Bangladesh. Bangladesh stands on the Non-Proliferation Treaty and we will discuss the IAEA's safeguards system. In this context, the country's views on a Regional Fuel Cycle Center are also discussed. The paper finally reviews international, regional, and multilateral cooperation in the nuclear field

  2. Nuclear Power Introduction in Indonesia : Securing the National Energy Supply for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana; Sudi Ariyanto; Arnold Y Soetrisnanto

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power construction planning study has already done by BATAN. The studies that cover various aspects have also done related to this preparation. The research centers in BATAN that have activities in energy application are directed to this preparation. This paper will generally describe the activities and result of the preparation study, especially related to technology aspect, site aspect, and social-economic impact. The preparation study has taken into account of some aspects, but still need updated and some more complementary study. The choice of technology will determine the ability for technology transfer. Industrial infrastructure and the design and engineering capability are the key role for self reliance in nuclear power technology. But the technology transfer will not succeed without government support. Muria Peninsula, precisely in Ujung Lemahabang has become the first candidate site, while Ujung Grenggengan and Ujung Watu as a second and third candidate sites. Though site could accommodate 7.000 MWe installed capacity, but are need to consider stability and capacity of transmission line to channeling the nuclear power out put in Jawa-Madura-Bali grid interconnection. From the economic impact aspect, nuclear power is competitive among other power plant system in order the role of nuclear power to give a solution in energy optimum mix policy and will reduce oil fuel consumption. (author)

  3. The energy efficiency of oil sands extraction: Energy return ratios from 1970 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Englander, Jacob; Bharadwaj, Sharad

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the oil sands industry is not energy efficient: comparatively large energy inputs are required per unit of energy output from oil sands operations. Unfortunately, quantitative work to date in this area has suffered from poor data availability and uncertain methods. We apply a new methodology and new dataset to compute ERRs (energy return ratios) for the oil sands industry. We collected monthly oil sands energy consumption and output data from 1970 to 2010. Current oil sands operations have mine mouth NERs (net energy returns) of about 6 GJ output per GJ of energy consumed and point of use energy returns of about 3 GJ/GJ. Long-term trends show oil sands operations becoming significantly more efficient: point of use NER increased from about 1 GJ/GJ in 1970 to 3 GJ/GJ in 2010. These energy returns are lower than those observed in historical conventional oil operations, but low energy returns are not likely to hinder development of oil sands operations due to the large resource in place and the ability for largely self-fueled pathways to return significant amounts of energy to society for every unit of external energy supplied. - Highlights: • Oil sands operations have become significantly more energy efficient over the history of the industry. • Oil sands production is largely fueled with energy from the bitumen resource itself, making external energy returns high. • Oil sands production is still significantly less efficient than conventional oil production

  4. Preliminary design studies for a 100 MW Energy Amplifier prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Abánades, A

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Amplifier (EA) is a new concept of fission system based on a subcritical assembly sustained with the neutrons generated by proton beam impact on a heavy element (spallation). This concept, proposed by the Nobel Laureate C. Rubbia (Rubbia, 1995), has remarkable capabilities in the nuclear energy field. First, it can be used to transmute radioactive wastes with a high efficiency alleviating the requirements of the geological repositories, and, second, it provides a massive energy source with the intrinsic safety derived from the use of a subcritical system and an almost null production of long-lived radioactive wastes. EA concept principles have been successfully tested by two experiments at CERN: FEAT (Andriamonge, 1995), that proved there is a net energy gain, by comparing the energy needed by the accelerator with the generated one by fission in the subcritical system. The second experiment, TARC (Abanades, 1997; Arnould, 1999) demonstrated the capability to transmute radioactive elements. The next...

  5. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluvione, Francesco; Moretti, Barbara; Sacco, Dario; Grignani, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg -1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg -1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg -1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: → We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. → Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. → Energy flows were compared using indicators. → Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. → Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  6. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, Henrik B.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  7. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Energy payback and CO2 gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES)

  9. Deriving an Improved Dynamic EROI to Provide Better Information for Energy Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kessides

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The two most frequently quantified metrics of net energy analysis–the energy return on (energy investment and the energy payback period–do not capture the growth rate potential of an energy supply infrastructure. This is because the analysis underlying these metrics is essentially static–all energy inputs and outputs are treated the same, regardless of where they occur in the life cycle of the infrastructure. We develop a dynamic energy analysis framework to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. An additional figure of merit, the infrastructure doubling time, is introduced. This metric highlights the critical importance of the time phasing of the initial energy investment for emplacing a given infrastructure, as opposed to the ongoing O&M energy expenditures, for the infrastructure’s growth potential. The doubling time metric also captures the influence of capacity factor, licensing and construction time lags.

  10. Energy policies and the adaptations to the new economic framework: The case of twelve countries during the 1973-1983 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, B.; Criqui, P.; Percebois, J.

    1986-10-01

    Based upon case studies on twelve energy importing countries in 1973 (United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Brazil, Argentina, Ivory Coast, India, South Korea and Thailand), this paper is an attempt to illustrate the diversity of national energy policies and industrial strategies which have been set up to adjust to the transformation of the world economy in the field of energy and international trade since 1973. Analysing some simple indicators such as the share of oil imports in total energy imports, the rate of national self-reliance for energy and the energy intensity of GDP, we show that the energy policies implemented in industrialised countries lead to quite homogeneous global results, whereas the responses of developing countries as regards oil shocks were more heterogeneous. Some countries have emphasized the decrease in the energy content of GDP whereas others have stressed the development of the national supply or the diversification of energy imports. The consequences of these choices will differ according to the future energy context (if there are sharp cuts in oil prices in particular). In all cases the influence of the socio-political and institutional context on energy options can be clearly observed. In a second part, we study the respective weight of energy and manufactured goods exchanges in the evolution of the balance of trade, using the following indicators: share of the energy and of the manufactured goods balance in total GDP and the ratio of the energy balance to the manufactured goods balance. Then very diverse situations can be observed. However four countries (Japan, FRG, Italy and South Korea) show rather similar features: a large manufactured goods surplus, which far exceeds the energy deficit. In other words some countries have chosen to compensate for their energy vulnerability by an aggressive commercial policy on external markets; on the contrary others have deliberately oriented

  11. Which way to go. Observations based on discussion on global perspectives and energy strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassin, W; Lovins, A; Meadows, D; Penczynski, P

    1977-09-01

    One of the most controversial topics of the present time seems to be the world's future energy supply and demand. To establish a balanced view, the IIASA Energy Systems Program has sought periodically to compare its own work with that of other groups researching similar areas. At the beginning of 1977, Dennis Meadows, co-author of the Club-of-Rome study ''Limits to Growth'', and Amory Lovins of ''Friends of the Earth'' joined IIASA for a limited time. Both of them favor a ''soft technology'' path for the world's future energy system. Their stay at IIASA was an opportunity to check whether or not their results provide for a deeper understanding of a complex global future. This short note summarizes some conclusions that emerged from discussions of D. Meadows, A. Lovins, and members of the Energy Systems Program. In searching for the sources of opposing conclusions with respect to nuclear, large-scale solar, coal, renewable sources in a local or regional context (like wind, wave power, biomass utilization, and small-scale solar heat) and energy conservation measures such as better insulation or the co-generation of electricity and process heat, it turned out to be helpful to address the following questions: (1) Which long-term fundamental problems other than energy questions have to be faced by mankind within the coming 50 years. (2) Is the appropriate scale for analyzing these problems global, regional, or local. (3) In which subsectors should the economy be disaggregated in order to tackle the problem of self-reliance and resilience. (4) How can one define a technological solution for the energy supply with respect to the anticipated state of affairs in terms of do's and not in terms of don'ts. (5) How can one specify an energy strategy leading from today's situation into a long-term future when the goals to be achieved vary with time and in principle are subject to revision. (MCW)

  12. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: 1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads; 2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes; 3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating; and 4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  13. Full chain energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-08-15

    An analysis of energy performance and supply potential was performed to evaluate molasses utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 1.925 million litres a day of sugar-based ethanol. The molasses-based ethanol (MoE) system involves three main segments: sugar cane cultivation, molasses generation, and ethanol conversion. Negative net energy value found for MoE is a consequence of not utilizing system co-products (e.g. stillage and cane trash) for energy. Taking into account only fossil fuel or petroleum inputs in the production cycle, the energy analysis provides results in favour of ethanol. A positive net energy of 5.95 MJ/L which corresponds to 39% energy gain shows that MoE is efficient as far as its potential to replace fossil fuels is concerned. Another encouraging result is that each MJ of petroleum inputs can produce 6.12 MJ of ethanol fuel. Regarding supply potential, if only the surplus molasses is utilized for ethanol, a shift of 8-10% sugar cane produce to fuel ethanol from its current use in sugar industry could be a probable solution. (author)

  14. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportation in which the primary energy consumption was considered. The Net Energy Balance (NEB and Net Energy Ratio (NER of 25.68 MJ/L and 3.98, respectively, indicated that bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia was energy efficient. From the environmental perspective, the GHG balance results revealed that the production and distribution of 1 L of Cassava Fuel Ethanol (CFE could reduce GHG emissions by 73.2%. Although found promising in the present study, Sri Kanji 1 cassava as bioethanol feedstock should be further investigated by constructing an actual ethanol plant to obtain real life data.

  15. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleanjai, Somporn; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    Biodiesel from palm oil has been considered for partial substitution of diesel fuel for transportation in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 8.5 million liters per day of palm oil-based biodiesel by 2011. The aim of this study is to investigate the energy consumption of palm methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand using a life cycle approach compared to other possible oil crops for biodiesel production including jatropha and coconut. The main contributors to the energy use are cultivation, oil production, transesterification and transportation. Taking into account only fossil fuel or petroleum inputs in the production cycle, the energy analysis provides results in favour of PME in Thailand. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) of PME and co-products are 100.84 GJ/ha and 3.58, respectively. The NER of PME without co-products is 2.42, which is still higher than one indicating a favourable result. The results are important in selecting an appropriate feedstock for biodiesel production and this study will support policy makers in the energy sector to make informed decisions vis-a-vis promotion of oil palm plantation for biodiesel. This will also support the Thai government in its policy to promote the use of indigenous and renewable sources for transportation fuels. (author)

  16. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papong, Seksan; Chom-In, Tassaneewan; Noksa-nga, Soottiwan

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production. A net energy value and net energy ratio (NER) of 24.0 MJ/FU and 2.5, respectively, revealed that the PME system was quite energy efficient. In addition, if all the by-products from the CPO production (such as empty fruit branches, palm kernel shells, and biogas) were considered in terms of energy sources, the NER would be more than 3.0. The PME can be a viable substitute for diesel and can decrease the need for oil imports. Based on B100 demand in 2008, PME can be substituted for 478 million liters of diesel. Moreover, with palm oil output potential and B5 implementation, it can be substituted for 1134 million liters of diesel. (author)

  17. Energy consumption, economic growth and prices: A reassessment using panel VECM for developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Renuka; Asafu-Adjaye, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reinvestigates the energy consumption-GDP growth nexus in a panel error correction model using data on 20 net energy importers and exporters from 1971 to 2002. Among the energy exporters, there was bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy consumption in the developed countries in both the short and long run, while in the developing countries energy consumption stimulates growth only in the short run. The former result is also found for energy importers and the latter result exists only for the developed countries within this category. In addition, compared to the developing countries, the developed countries' elasticity response in terms of economic growth from an increase in energy consumption is larger although its income elasticity is lower and less than unitary. Lastly, the implications for energy policy calling for a more holistic approach are discussed

  18. Planning Oil Prices In The World Market And Preventive Policies In Energy Sector Of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raees Dana, Fariborz

    1999-01-01

    The planning of oil prices in the world can not be analyzed by means of the market-competition theory or the game theory. The current prices seem to be influenced greatly by large energy consuming industries of developed countries, oil producing corporations and cartels, and oil productions outside of OPEC. There is a lack of necessary long term policies and planning so that drastic changes in market prices can be avoided. The goal of this paper is to suggest new policies by means of discussing in following issues: 1.Initiating some form of a financial support for OPEC with the necessary follow up. 2. Utilization of oil income in sectors organized to have the least susceptibility against income loss and the lowest impact on other sectors. 3. Reducing of oil production level in the local and global framework and starting in industrialization process. 4. Replacement of oil with natural gas at a faster rate. 5. improving the oil industry infrastructure for lowering production costs and increasing variety in products in light of country economic policies and occupational strategies. 6. Imposing self-reliance on development of oil-production technology

  19. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  20. Oil and natural gas energy plan for Canada, 1977--1985: Appendix D to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Governments in Canada have made a number of changes in oil and gas policies and fiscal treatments recently. There remains a considerable question, however, whether Canada will have sufficient volumes of these two energy fuels available securely and economically in the years ahead. This report examines the position that oil and gas will occupy in Canada's energy future, and assesses the contribution that domestic supplies could provide. It was concluded that, under current and proposed royalty, taxation, and regulatory systems, the flow of investments into exploration and development will be insufficient to increase the domestic supply base to provide an acceptable level of future self-reliance. Additionally, because of jurisdictional factors, reinvestments from current production are not being directed to the areas of greatest resource potential in Canada. In order to illustrate the types and degrees of further policy and fiscal changes that are required, an investment program that could lead to a minimum acceptable level of production from Canadian sources was formulated. Recommendations for changes in fiscal regimes lead to a ''formula'' that directs 35 percent of net production revenue from current production to the exploration and development of new supplies; mobilizes new investment; and directs a greater portion of both these sources of funds to the development of potential supplies from remote and technologically difficult, high-risk areas. The implementation of this formula will require concessions by both the producing provinces and the Federal government together with commitments from producers.

  1. Energy, EROI and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Jessica G.; Hall, Charles A.S.; Balogh, Stephen; Gupta, Ajay; Arnold, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The near- and long-term societal effects of declining EROI are uncertain, but probably adverse. A major obstacle to examining social implications of declining EROI is that we do not have adequate empirical understanding of how EROI is linked, directly or indirectly, to an average citizen′s ability to achieve well-being. To evaluate the possible linkages between societal well-being and net energy availability, we compare these preliminary estimates of energy availability: (1) EROI at a societal level, (2) energy use per capita, (3) multiple regression analyses and (4) a new composite energy index (Lambert Energy Index), to select indicators of quality of life (HDI, percent children under weight, health expenditures, Gender Inequality Index, literacy rate and access to improved water). Our results suggest that energy indices are highly correlated with a higher standard of living. We also find a saturation point at which increases in per capita energy availability (greater than 150 GJ) or EROI (above 20:1) are not associated with further improvement to society. - Highlights: • Large quantities of high quality energy appears to contribute to social well-being. • LEI examines the quantity, efficiency and distribution of energy within the system. • EROI SOC of SOC of 20–30:1, 100–200 GJ/capita and LEI 0.2–0.4. • Improvement in well-being levels off at: EROI SOC >30:1, >200 GJ/capita and LEI>0.4

  2. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  3. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark–gluon plasma with fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong

    2016-01-01

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark–gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark–gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  4. Assessment of the biomass energy potentials and environmental benefits of Jatropha curcas L. in Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhuang, Dafang; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) is believed to be the most promising tree species used to produce biodiesel in China. Due to its abundant marginal land resource and good meteorological conditions, Southwest China is the major region to develop JCL. With Southwest China being taken as the study area in this paper, multi-factor comprehensive analysis is used to identify marginal land resources suitable to JCL plantation and make suitability assessment, thus obtaining their spatial distribution, suitability degree and total amount. With life cycle analysis (LCA), the life cycle net energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction capacity of marginal land resources with different suitability degrees used to produce biodiesel are investigated. Based on the research results, the life cycle model is expanded to obtain the potentiality of total net energy production and greenhouse gas emission reduction of large-scale plantation of JCL in southwest China. The results show that the area of land resources suitable and moderately suitable for JCL plantation is 1.99 × 10 6 ha and 5.57 × 10 6 ha, respectively. If all of these land resources are put into use, the maximum net production potential of biodiesel from JCL would be 1.51 × 10 8 GJ/a, and the total greenhouse gas emission reduction capacity 1.59 × 10 7 t/a in Southwest China. -- Highlights: •A LCA based approach for assessing net energy potential of Jatropha curcas L. was presented. •The net production potential of biodiesel from JCL is 1.51 × 10 8 GJ/a in Southwest China. •The total GHG emission reduction capacity from JCL is 1.59 × 10 7 t/a in Southwest China

  5. A comparative study on energy use and cost analysis of potato production under different farming technologies in Hamadan province of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangeneh, Morteza; Omid, Mahmoud; Akram, Asadollah [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of input-output energy used in potato production and to make an economic analysis of potato production in Hamadan province, Iran. Data for the production of potatoes were collected from 100 producers by using a face to face questionnaire method. The population investigated was divided into two groups. Group I was consisted of 68 farmers (owner of machinery and high level of farming technology) and Group II of 32 farmers (non-owner of machinery and low level of farming technology). The results revealed that 153071.40 MJ ha{sup -1} energy consumed by Group I and 157151.12 MJ ha{sup -1} energy consumed by Group II. The energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and energy intensiveness were calculated. The net energy of potato production in Group I and Group II was 4110.95 MJ ha{sup -1} and -21744.67 MJ ha{sup -1}, respectively. Cost analysis showed that total cost of potato production in Groups I and II were 4784.68 and 4172.64 $ ha{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding, benefit to cost ratio from potato production in the surveyed groups were 1.09 and 0.96, respectively. It was concluded that extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in potato production. (author)

  6. On the energy economics of air lubrication drag reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo A. Mäkiharju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air lubrication techniques for frictional drag reduction on ships have been proposed by numerous researchers since the 19th century. However, these techniques have not been widely adopted as questions persist about their drag reduction performance beyond the laboratory, as well as energy and economic cost-benefit. This paper draws on data from the literature to consider the suitability of air lubrication for large ocean going and U.S. Great Lakes ships, by establishing the basic energy economic calculations and presenting results for a hypothetical air lubricated ship. All the assumptions made in the course of the analysis are clearly stated so that they can be refined when considering application of air lubrication to a specific ship. The analysis suggests that, if successfully implemented, both air layer and partial cavity drag reduction could lead to net energy savings of 10 to 20%, with corresponding reductions in emissions.

  7. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedditch, John, E-mail: john.hedditch@sydney.edu.au; Bowden-Reid, Richard, E-mail: rbow3948@physics.usyd.edu.au; Khachan, Joe, E-mail: joe.khachan@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Whales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  8. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Power system development. Preliminary design report, final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The preliminary design of the 10 MWe OTEC power module and the 200 kWe test articles is given in detail. System operation and performance; power system cost estimates; 10 MWe heat exchangers; 200 kWe heat exchanger articles; biofouling control;ammonia leak detection, and leak repair; rotating machinery; support subsystem; instrumentation and control; electrical subsystem; installation approach; net energy and resource analysis; and operability, maintainability, and safety are discussed. The conceptual design of the 40 MWe electrical power system includes four or five 10 MWe modules as designed for the 10 MWe pilot plant. (WHK)

  9. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  10. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  11. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  12. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  13. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy......This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity...

  14. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  15. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. V. Bompadre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW and 23±5 d of age using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake. A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age. Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG, and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate

  16. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  17. Building America Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center, Denver, Colorado (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a 'Power of Zero Energy Center' linked to its model home in the Stapleton community of Denver. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. The case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center - Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a "Power of Zero Energy Center" linked to its model home in the Stapleton community. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. This case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  19. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshton, Bilha; Katima, Jamidu H.Y.; Kituyi, Evans

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates GHG emissions and energy balances (i.e. net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and net energy ratio (NER)) of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 tonne (t) of combusted jatropha biodiesel. The findings of the study prove wrong the notion that biofuels are carbon neutral, thus can mitigate climate change. A net GHG equivalent emission of about 848 kg t −1 was observed. The processes which account significantly to GHG emissions are the end use of biodiesel (about 82%) followed by farming of jatropha for about 13%. Sensitivity analysis indicates that replacing diesel with biodiesel in irrigation of jatropha farms decreases the net GHG emissions by 7.7% while avoiding irrigation may reduce net GHG emissions by 12%. About 22.0 GJ of energy is consumed to produce 1 t of biodiesel. Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process (about 64.7%) followed by jatropha farming for about 30.4% of total energy. The NEV is 19.2 GJ t −1 , indicating significant energy gain of jatropha biodiesel. The NREV is 23.1 GJ t −1 while NER is 2.3; the two values indicate that large amount of fossil energy is used to produce biodiesel. The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the bioenergy sector. -- Highlights: • Production and use of jatropha biodiesel in Tanzania result into positive net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. • The net GHG emission is highly influenced by end use of biodiesel in a diesel engine followed by soil N 2 O emissions during farming of Jatropha. • Jatropha biodiesel results into significant net energy gain; however its production requires large quantity of fossil energy input. • Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process followed by jatropha farming. • The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the

  1. Energy balance, carbon emissions, and costs of sortyard debris disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC), with funding from Natural Resources Canada, conducted this study to determine the main environmental and energy use issues regarding the landfilling, burning or processing of dryland sortyard debris accumulated in the wood products industry. The wood residues that are generated when logs are processed, sorted and remanufactured, have traditionally been burned or landfilled. This is no longer appropriate. Converting the large woody debris into usable products such as hog fuel or compost requires grinding, smashing or chipping into small pieces to facilitate transportation. In order to make smart decisions about alternative methods of handling sortyard debris, information is needed about the comparative amount of fuel used and carbon dioxide produced. This study compared the treatment alternatives with respect to fuel consumption, net energy balance, carbon dioxide emissions and environmental impact. Recommendations were then presented for the treatment of debris from the point of view of net energy balance and environmental impact. Life cycle techniques were used to determine the environmental impact of alternatives for managing sortyard debris. It was determined that wood wastes are valuable as hog fuel for power generation. Burning hog fuel to recover its energy offsets the need to supply energy from other sources such as natural gas. This reduces the total carbon emissions by the amount of debris that would have been burned as waste. Annual carbon emissions can be reduced by nearly half by switching from a maximize burn strategy to a maximize hog strategy that combines composting of fine materials. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  2. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  3. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  4. The Impact of Threat Perception Disparities on ROK-U.S. Alliance Cohesion: Shifts Between Self-Reliance and Troop Dispatches in the Park and Roh Administrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    while enemies’ military capabilities are an objective risk, the remaining factors are subjective risks based on emotional and psychological...caused partnership tension with the US, the alliance has developed into a more equal and mature relationship through these conflicts.45 However, Koo’s...threat.”135 Roh Moo Hyun’s tenure was a period during which antagonistic emotion against North Korea considerably weakened, influenced by the

  5. "I Wish to Be Self-Reliant": Aspiration for Self-Reliance, Need and Life Satisfaction, and Exit Dilemma of Welfare Recipients in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chack-Kie; Lou, Vivian Wei-Qun

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the welfare recipients' experiences of and attitudes toward the welfare benefit system in Hong Kong. A sample of 19 welfare recipients from six main recipient groups was interviewed, some twice. This study finds that the recipients have strong aspirations to exit the welfare benefit system. The welfare application…

  6. Formulating a capability approach based model to sustain rural Sub-Saharan African inhabitant's self-reliance towards their built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate conditions and depleting resources are becoming more important on the global agenda, the paradigm shifting to understand which means (resources) are necessary to generate future well-being. Unfortunately, the formal built environment remains the most polluting global industry and

  7. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  8. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI and Other Energy Return Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs such as the net energy ratio (NER or energy return on investment (EROI. A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy extraction and conversion pathways. A bottom-up (process model formulation is developed for an n-stage energy harvesting and conversion pathway with various system boundaries. Formations with the broadest system boundaries use insights from life cycle analysis to suggest a hybrid process model/economic input output based framework. These models include indirect energy consumption due to external energy inputs and embodied energy in materials. Illustrative example results are given for simple energy extraction and conversion pathways. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of this approach and the intersection of this methodology with “top-down” economic approaches.

  9. Energy quality and energy surplus in the extraction of fossil fuels in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of net energy analysis is to assess the amount of useful energy delivered by an energy system, net of the energy costs of delivery. The standard technique of aggregating energy inputs and outputs by their thermal equivalents diminish the ability of energy analysis to achieve the goal because different types of energy have different abilities to do work per heat equivalent. This paper describes physical and economic methods of calculating energy quality, and incorporate economic estimates of quality in the analysis of the energy return on investment (EROI) for the extraction of coal and petroleum resources in the US from 1954 to 1987. EROI is the ratio of energy delivered to energy used in the delivery process. The quality- adjusted EROI is used to answer the following questions: (1) are coal and petroleum resources becoming more scarce in the US? (2) is society's capability of doing useful economic work changing? and (3) is society's allocation of energy between the extraction of coal and petroleum optimal? The results indicate that petroleum and coal become more scarce in the 1970s, although the degree of scarcity depends on the type of quality factor used. The quality-adjusted EROI shed light on the coal-petroleum paradox: when energy inputs and outputs are measured in thermal equivalents, coal extraction has a much larger EROI than petroleum. The adjustment for energy quality reduces substantially the difference between the two fuels. The results also suggest that when corrections are made for energy quality, society's allocation of energy between coal and petroleum extraction meets the efficiency criteria described by neoclassical and biophysical economists. 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs

  10. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  11. Nuclear Energy in France: Taking The Long View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, J.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear energy has come of age industrially. It offers numerous advantages over other sources of energy, not least among them energy independence, economic competitiveness, environmental protection and safety. And when we speak of safety, we mean safety as it is defined in free market economies, which bears no comparison to safety as it is practiced in the former USSR and other eastern block countries. The high-level radioactive waste generated by our program is, fortunately, low in volume - about 2m 3 per year per reactor - and we have demonstrated precise and responsible management of such waste. Those of you who have visited the La Hague plant were able to walk on top of the vitrified waste interim storage vaults, where the waste is stored pending final disposal. Korea, for its part, has embarked upon a nuclear power program of comparable proportions more recently, with, of course, the corresponding benefits of lower electric power costs and lesser atmospheric pollution. Both the safety and the availability of its reactors are excellent. In his last year opening address, MR. Ah Bong-Wh stated Korea's 'future may have to embrace such facets as the assurance of nuclear safety, technical self-reliance, regional cooperation, persistent enforcement of public relations campaign'. Nuclear power is a viable and necessary alternative for industrialized nations which seek a reliable supply of electricity to support economic development, yet which are not themselves rich in natural energy resources. This is the case for both France and Korea. France, like Korea, has no indigenous sources of fossil fuels -- no oil, little coal -- and we have already fully developed our hydro-electric capability. Yet demand for electricity continues to grow: although at a slower pace than the pre-1973 oil crisis high of nearly 10% per year, demand increased by an astounding 16% in 1992 alone, as MR. John K. Chang indicated in his recants comments to the Nuclear Energy Agency. Nuclear power

  12. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  13. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  14. An energy analysis of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock. Corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The shift from fossil resources to renewables for energy and materials production has been the driving force for research on energy analysis and environmental impact assessment of bio-based production. This study presents a detailed energy analysis of corn stover based ethanol production using advanced cellulosic technologies. The method used differs from that in LCA and from major studies on the subject as published in Science in two respects. First, it accounts for all the co-products together and so mainly avoids the allocation problems which plague all LCA studies explicitly and other studies implicitly. Second, the system boundaries only involve the content of the energy products used in the system but not the production processes of these energy products, like refining and electricity production. We normalized the six Science studies to this unified method. The resulting values of the total energy product use in both agricultural production and biomass conversion to ethanol are lower than these literature values. LCA-type of values including energy conversion would systematically be higher, in our case study around 45%. The net energy value of cellulosic ethanol production is substantially higher than the ones of the corn-based technologies, and it is similar to incineration and gasification for electricity production. The detailed analysis of energy inputs indicates opportunities to optimize the system. This form of energy analysis helps establishing models for the analysis of more complex systems such as biorefineries. (author)

  15. Energy Supply and Demand Planning Aspects in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, M.; Urbancic, A.; Al Mansour, F.; Merse, S.

    1997-01-01

    Slovenia can be considered a sufficiently homogenous region, even though specific climatic conditions exist in some parts of the country. Urban regions with high energy consumptions density differ in logistic aspects and in the potential of renewable energy sources. The difference in household energy demand is not significant. The planning study is based on the ''Integrated Resource Planning'' approach. A novel energy planning tool, the MESAP-PlaNet energy system model, supplemented by auxiliary models of technology penetration, electricity demand analysis and optimal expansion planning (the WASP package) has been used. The following segments has been treated in detail: industry, households and both central and local supply systems. Three intensities of energy efficiency strategies are compared: Reference, Moderate and Intensive. The intensity of demand side management programs influence the level and dynamics of activation of conservation potentials. Energy tax is considered in the Moderate and Intensive strategies. On the supply side the issue of domestic coal use is discussed. Reduction in the use of coal is linked to energy efficiency strategies. It has been found that energy efficiency strategies consistently improve economic efficiency, security of supply and protection of health and environment. The only conflicting area is social acceptability, due to both the energy tax reform and the loss of mining jobs. (author)

  16. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  17. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model—GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  18. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  19. The relationship between house size and life cycle energy demand: Implications for energy efficiency regulations for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, André; Crawford, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    House size has significantly increased over the recent decades in many countries. Larger houses often have a higher life cycle energy demand due to their increased use of materials and larger area to heat, cool and light. Yet, most energy efficiency regulations for buildings fail to adequately include requirements for addressing the energy demand associated with house size. This study quantifies the effect of house size on life cycle energy demand in order to inform future regulations. It uses a parametric model of a typical detached house in Melbourne, Australia and varies its floor area from 100 to 392 m"2 for four different household sizes. Both initial and recurrent embodied energy requirements are quantified using input-output-based hybrid analysis and operational energy is calculated in primary energy terms over 50 years. Results show that the life cycle energy demand increases at a slower rate compared to house size. Expressing energy efficiency per m"2 therefore favours large houses while these require more energy. Also, embodied energy represents 26–50% across all variations. Building energy efficiency regulations should incorporate embodied energy, correct energy intensity thresholds for house size and use multiple functional units to measure efficiency. These measures may help achieve greater net energy reductions. - Highlights: • The life cycle energy demand (LCE) is calculated for 90 house sizes and 4 household sizes. • The LCE is sublinearly correlated with house size. • Larger houses appear to be more energy efficient per m"2 while they use more energy overall. • Embodied energy (EE) represents up to 52% of the LCE over 50 years. • Building energy efficiency regulations need to consider house size and EE.

  20. Do home energy management systems make sense? Assessing their overall lifecycle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, S.S. van; Bakker, C.A.; Buiter, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    An ever-increasing body of research explores the effectiveness of Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) in achieving energy savings in households. To date, however, the overall life cycle impact of the HEMS itself has not been taken into account. Thus, no assessment has been made whether the amount of energy saved (e saved ) outweighs the energy needed for production, use and disposal (e invested ). Therefore, an eco-cost and a Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) method were used to analyze three distinct types of HEMS. Based on the literature, six scenarios were developed in order to find the break-even point, where e invested =e saved . The results show that the overall impact is dependent on the type of HEMS, and that if the duration of use is short and the achieved savings are small, the benefits do not always outweigh the environmental costs. Care should be taken not to develop HEMS with unnecessarily elaborate parts or functionalities and that their own electricity consumption is minimized. The paper concludes by discussing the implication for polices concerning the implementation of smart meters and HEMS and their design. - Highlights: • We conducted a lifecycle assessment of three Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). • We developed six scenarios to find the breakeven point where e invested =e saved . • All three HEMS can achieve net energy savings over the course of five years. • Within the scenarios, it can take up to two years to achieve net energy savings. • No HEMS achieve a positive return on investment within five years in all scenarios

  1. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  2. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  3. France's 2014 energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Delamare, Karine; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lauverjat, Jean; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Louati, Sami; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Misak, Evelyne; Reynaud, Didier; Rouquette, Celine; Wong, Florine; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Mordant, Guillaume; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    2014 was the warmest year since 1900 in France and in the rest of the world. In particular, the mild winter led to heating needs 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) lower than the needs in an average year. Real primary energy consumption fell below the symbolic 250 Mtoe level, a low it had not reached since 1995. Although energy demand decreased, national primary energy production increased for the second year running, reaching 139 Mtoe, a little over 1 Mtoe higher than in 2013. This rise in production is explained by nuclear generated electricity. The 2014 physical trade deficit for energy therefore decreased significantly, by 10 Mtoe, to below 114 Mtoe. Such a low level had not been observed since 1988. The level of energy self-sufficiency rose sharply in 2014, to 55.8%, a level not hitherto reached. The decrease in net energy imports was accompanied by a drop in quoted prices for energy products on the European and international markets. As a result, France's energy bill was 17% lower than in 2013. At around euro 55 billion, it fell to a level close to that of the early 1980s. Even excluding the effects of the higher temperatures in 2014, thereby adjusting for climate variations, primary energy went from 275 Mtoe - its maximum, reached in 2005 - to 257 Mtoe, with an average annual decrease of -2 Mtoe, confirming the downward trend initiated in the mid-2000's. Final energy consumption was 150 Mtoe in 2014, the lowest level since 1996. It decreased by a little more than 1% in relation to 2013, with reductions in all sectors except for transport, where consumption remained stable

  4. Material and energy balances of an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system and their implications for its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Huang, Yu-Jung; Chen, Jhen-Wei; Lin, Hung-Chun; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chu, Hsin; Lo, Young-Chong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    The materials and energy in an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system involving hydrolysis, dark fermentation, photo fermentation, CO2 fixation and anaerobic digestion are balanced by integrating the results from multiple experiments, simulations and the literature. The findings are two fold. First, using 1000 kg rice straw as a substrate, 19.8 kg H2 and 138.0 kg CH4 are obtained. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) are -738.4 kWh and 77.8%, respectively, both of which imply an unfavorable energy production system. Opportunities to improve the performance particularly lie in the photo fermentation process. Second, greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated for various options. The results were comparable with the emission inventory of electricity generated from fossil fuels. NEB and NER under a zero-carbon-emission constraint were discussed in detail to clarify completely the implications of the energy and material balances on greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  6. The turning black tide : energy prices and the Canadian dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, R.; Lafrance, R.; Murray, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between energy prices and the Canadian-United States dollar real exchange rate. The researchers evaluated the standard Amano-van Norden (AvN) equation formulated to demonstrate that higher real energy prices lead to a depreciation of the Canadian dollar. Major developments in the Canadian energy market were discussed, as well as policy initiatives designed to address Canada's trade balance by increasing energy exports. The study examined the AvN equation using Monte Carlo experiments to determine the parameter stability of the equation. Results indicated that the co-integrating relationship in the standard AvN equation were no longer supported. Structural break tests were used to demonstrate that major changes in Canada's energy policies and cross-border trade and investment strategies have led to an increase in the Canadian dollar's value when energy prices are high. The study presented a new equation designed to account for Canadian dollar's appreciation since 2003. It was concluded that net energy exports in the 1990s outweighed the negatives associated with Canada's energy-intensive production processes. 39 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Energy Performance Indicators in the Swedish Building Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2. Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy; and (ii to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  8. The turning black tide : energy prices and the Canadian dollar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, R.; Lafrance, R.; Murray, J. [Bank of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    This paper examined the relationship between energy prices and the Canadian-United States dollar real exchange rate. The researchers evaluated the standard Amano-van Norden (AvN) equation formulated to demonstrate that higher real energy prices lead to a depreciation of the Canadian dollar. Major developments in the Canadian energy market were discussed, as well as policy initiatives designed to address Canada's trade balance by increasing energy exports. The study examined the AvN equation using Monte Carlo experiments to determine the parameter stability of the equation. Results indicated that the co-integrating relationship in the standard AvN equation were no longer supported. Structural break tests were used to demonstrate that major changes in Canada's energy policies and cross-border trade and investment strategies have led to an increase in the Canadian dollar's value when energy prices are high. The study presented a new equation designed to account for Canadian dollar's appreciation since 2003. It was concluded that net energy exports in the 1990s outweighed the negatives associated with Canada's energy-intensive production processes. 39 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Is nuclear energy safe for workers and the public. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Dr. McKenzie says a national energy policy does exist, being based on synthetic fuels from coal and nuclear energy to meet future demands, and based on a complete lack of attention to conservation. In meeting energy demands for the future, he feels the opportunity still exists to create the scenario that will require meaningful jobs in the process, jobs requiring less capital and less energy. On the risks of nuclear energy, Dr. McKenzie discusses the funding, research, and results of the Atomic Energy Commission's safety program. He airs his views on WASH-1400, the study by Professor Norman Rasmussen, dealing with the possibilities of reactor core meltdowns. He thinks a worse problem resulting from nuclear power plants is that of waste disposal and cites AEC's poor record of managing these wastes in Kansas and elsewhere. In concluding, Dr. McKenzie says: (1) nuclear power may not be the best thing in the world, maybe we should look at other alternatives; (2) conservation is most important, and creates jobs at the same time if handled correctly; (3) AFL-C10 should sponsor a study on energy systems investigating its employment potential, net energy, economic factors, and capital requirements; and (4) construction of nuclear and coal plants will create jobs, but building solar plants will create jobs with fewer restraints on the environment. A panel discussion follows this, the third paper, on nuclear safety for workers and the public

  10. A ‘Carbon Saving Multiplier’ as an alternative to rebound in considering reduced energy supply chain requirements from energy efficiency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen; Katris, Antonios

    2017-01-01

    A growing area of research into rebound effects from increased energy efficiency involves application of demand-driven input-output models to consider indirect energy consumption effects associated with re-spending decisions by households with reduced energy spending requirements. However, there is often a lack of clarity in applied studies as to how indirect effects involving energy use and/or carbon emissions in supply chains of both energy and non-energy goods and services have been calculated. We propose that more transparency for policymakers may be introduced by replacing consideration of what are often referred to as ‘indirect rebound’ effects with a simple Carbon Saving Multiplier metric. We illustrate using results from a demand-driven input-output model that tracks supply chain activity at national and/or global level. We argue that this captures and conveys the same information on quantity adjustments in energy used in supply chain activity but does so in a manner that is more positive, transparent, understandable and useful for a policy audience. This is achieved by focusing (here via carbon emissions) on the net benefits of changes in different types of energy use at both household and supply chain levels when energy efficiency improves in households. - Highlights: • Considers energy supply adjustments when household energy efficiency improves. • Focuses on energy supply chain impacts that may offset direct rebound effects. • Carbon Saving Multiplier proposed as a useful indicator of net energy use benefits.

  11. Comparison of energy sources in terms of their full-energy-chain emission factors of greenhouse gases. Proceedings of an IAEA advisory group meeting/workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Sustainable and therefore climate benign energy planning is becoming a cornerstone of national energy policies in many countries that ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The ratification implies a commitment to lowering greenhouse gas emissions by the so-called Annex I countries, i.e. the developed countries. Sustainable energy planning requires comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources. Such comparison cannot be done objectively without accounting for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) - not only CO{sub 2} - from the whole energy chain, from ``cradle to grave``. The greenhouse gas emissions upstream and downstream of the energy conversion step are inherently associated with the production of any energy carrier, such as electricity. Therefore, analysis of the emissions of all greenhouse gases from the full energy chain FENCH is considered to be the only fair approach in comparing energy sources for climate benign energy planning. This publication reports on the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Analysis of Net Energy Balance and Full-Energy-Chain Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Nuclear and Other Energy Systems, held in Beijing, China, 4-7 October 1994. Refs., figs., tabs.

  12. Comparison of energy sources in terms of their full-energy-chain emission factors of greenhouse gases. Proceedings of an IAEA advisory group meeting/workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Sustainable and therefore climate benign energy planning is becoming a cornerstone of national energy policies in many countries that ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The ratification implies a commitment to lowering greenhouse gas emissions by the so-called Annex I countries, i.e. the developed countries. Sustainable energy planning requires comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources. Such comparison cannot be done objectively without accounting for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) - not only CO 2 - from the whole energy chain, from ''cradle to grave''. The greenhouse gas emissions upstream and downstream of the energy conversion step are inherently associated with the production of any energy carrier, such as electricity. Therefore, analysis of the emissions of all greenhouse gases from the full energy chain FENCH is considered to be the only fair approach in comparing energy sources for climate benign energy planning. This publication reports on the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Analysis of Net Energy Balance and Full-Energy-Chain Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Nuclear and Other Energy Systems, held in Beijing, China, 4-7 October 1994. Refs., figs., tabs

  13. Importance of energy balance in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    inputs) ones. Energy outputs (EO) are considered as the calorific value of the harvested biomass (main products and sub-products), calculated from the total production (kg/ha) and its corresponding energy coefficient (strongly correlated to the biochemical composition of the products). Based on energy inputs and outputs, energy efficiency can be expressed as (i) net energy produced (NE) (also known as energy gain or energy balance, calculated as EI-EO and expressed as MJ/ha), (ii) the energy output/input ratio (also known as energy efficiency and calculated as EO/EI), and (iii) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI, expressed as kg/MJ). Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  14. Energy accounting as a policy analysis tool. Prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, second session by the Environment and Natural Resources Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Energy accounting or energy analysis is often cited as a basis for support of or objection to policy alternatives when legislation is being considered. This project describes the essential elements of energy accounting, traces its development over the past several years as an analytical technique, and measures its potential utility in policy analysis against its utility as demonstrated to date. Energy accounting is developing on three broad fronts--methodology, energy flow data, and contemporary analyses. It is concluded that energy accounting is worth following, but at present it appears to be of very limited value for current use. Forty articles are presented in appendices in six sections--Spreading Awareness; Critics Begin to Surface; Analytical Methodology; The Nuclear Power Debate; Net Energy Yield of New Energy Supply Systems; and Applications of Energy Analysis to National Economies and to Economic Sectors. (MCW)

  15. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  16. Long-term evaluation of biomass production and quality of two cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) cultivars for energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agroecosistema, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi, 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Bonari, Enrico [Scuola Sant' Anna, Piazza Martiri della Liberta, 33, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is an herbaceous species indicated as one of the most suitable energy crop for southern European countries. The aim of this work was to outline the productivity of two cardoon cultivars, Bianco Avorio (BA) and Gigante di Romagna (GR), over 11 years of cultivation in rain fed field conditions in the temperate climate of Central Italy. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of its biomass (calorific value, ultimate and proximate analyses, ash composition) as well as its energy balance (energy efficiency, net energy yield) have been determined. Crop dry yield was not different between the two cultivars and it was rather stable with a mean value (averaged from year 3 to 11) of 14 and 13 t ha{sup -1} for GR and BA respectively. Furthermore the biomass dry matter content was higher in BA than GR (51% vs 42%). The chemical analysis of cardoon biomass showed a similar composition in both cultivars with good calorific value (15 MJ kg{sup -1}) but with an ash content (13.9% d.w.) higher than other herbaceous energy crops. The total energy input was higher in the establishing than in the following years, however from the planting year onward, both cardoon crops were characterised by a positive energy balance. Even if its mean net energy is lower than other perennial energy crops (182 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}), cardoon can be easily propagated by seed with important advantages for crop management and production costs. The results confirmed cardoon's good biomass yield and favourable energy balance even in cultivation systems characterised by limited water input. Moreover future works are necessary in order to improve cardoon biomass quality and to evaluate the possibility of using it in blends with other biomass sources. (author)

  17. Long-term evaluation of biomass production and quality of two cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) cultivars for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Bonari, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is an herbaceous species indicated as one of the most suitable energy crop for southern European countries. The aim of this work was to outline the productivity of two cardoon cultivars, Bianco Avorio (BA) and Gigante di Romagna (GR), over 11 years of cultivation in rain fed field conditions in the temperate climate of Central Italy. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of its biomass (calorific value, ultimate and proximate analyses, ash composition) as well as its energy balance (energy efficiency, net energy yield) have been determined. Crop dry yield was not different between the two cultivars and it was rather stable with a mean value (averaged from year 3 to 11) of 14 and 13 t ha -1 for GR and BA respectively. Furthermore the biomass dry matter content was higher in BA than GR (51% vs 42%). The chemical analysis of cardoon biomass showed a similar composition in both cultivars with good calorific value (15 MJ kg -1 ) but with an ash content (13.9% d.w.) higher than other herbaceous energy crops. The total energy input was higher in the establishing than in the following years, however from the planting year onward, both cardoon crops were characterised by a positive energy balance. Even if its mean net energy is lower than other perennial energy crops (182 GJ ha -1 year -1 ), cardoon can be easily propagated by seed with important advantages for crop management and production costs. The results confirmed cardoon's good biomass yield and favourable energy balance even in cultivation systems characterised by limited water input. Moreover future works are necessary in order to improve cardoon biomass quality and to evaluate the possibility of using it in blends with other biomass sources.

  18. Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Amanda; Powers, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns surrounding the continued, un-checked use of petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector, the search for more sustainable, renewable alternatives, and the constraints of the existing supply infrastructure in the United States have placed a spotlight on biomass-derived fuels. The central question of the ethanol debate has changed from 'Should we make ethanol?' to 'From what should we make ethanol?' emphasizing the importance of understanding the differences between specific biomass supply systems for fuel ethanol. When presented with numerous options, the priorities of an individual decision maker will define which feedstock alternative is the most appropriate choice for development from their perspective. This paper demonstrates how energy data can be successfully used to quantify assessment metrics beyond a standard net energy value calculation, thus quantifying the relative 'value' of ethanol supply systems. This value is defined based on decision-maker priorities that were adopted from national energy policy priorities: increased national energy security and increased conservation of energy resources. Nine energy assessment metrics that quantify detailed system energy data are calculated and a straightforward comparative assessment is performed between corn and corn stover feedstocks produced under the same farm scenario. Corn stover is shown to be more compatible with the national energy policy priorities and it is recommended that additional research be performed on utilizing this feedstock from the corn farm

  19. Energy requirements for maintenance and growth of male saanen goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A N; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A; Araújo, M J; Yáñez, E A; Ferreira, A C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg(0.75) of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats.

  20. Energy productivity and efficiency of the ‘gher’ (prawn-fish-rice) farming system in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Barmon, Basanta K.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Gher’ farming is a unique system that incorporates the joint operation of three enterprises: freshwater prawn, fish and HYV rice, and is expanding rapidly in the coastal regions of Bangladesh because of its proven high income earning potential. In this paper, the sustainability of this system is evaluated by analysing its performance in terms of energy use by applying a stochastic distance function approach which revealed interesting and unexpected results. The prawn enterprise which is the key income earning component is found to be technically inefficient while the rice enterprise is found to be efficient. The net energy balance and the energy use efficiency of the ‘gher’ farming system is estimated at 18,510 MJ ha −1 and 1.72 respectively. The ‘gher’ farmers are operating at a very high level of technical (energy) efficiency (92%). Diversification amongst enterprises is associated with technical (energy) inefficiency. However, larger operation size enhances efficiency. The key policy implication is that the ‘gher’ farming system can be sustained in the long run provided that productivity from the rice enterprise remains high. Also, policies to support the expansion of ‘gher’ farm sizes will improve efficiency. -- Highlights: ► Sustainability of gher farming system is evaluated in terms of energy use. ► The prawn enterprise is technically inefficient while rice enterprise is efficient. ► The net energy balance is 18,510 MJ ha -1 and energy use efficiency is 1.72. ► The overall technical (energy) efficiency is very high (92%). ► The gher farming system can be sustained if rice productivity remains high.

  1. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  2. Energy Research - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  3. Modeling GHG emission and energy consumption in selected greenhouses in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, SH.; Khoshnevisan, B. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    It is crucial to determine energy efficiency and environmental effects of greenhouse productions. Such study can be a viable solution in probing challenges and existing defects. The aims of this study were to analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for pepper production using biological method inside greenhouses which used natural gas (NG) heating system in Esfahan province. Data were collected from 22 greenhouse holders using a face to face questionnaire method, in 2010-2011. Also, functional area was selected 1000 m2. Total energy input, total energy output, energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and total GHG emissions were calculated as 297799.9 MJ area-1, 3851.84 MJ area-1, 0.013, 0.016 kg MJ-1, 61.85 MJ kg-1, -293948 MJ area-1 and 14390.85 kg CO2 equivalent area-1, respectively. Result revealed that replacing diesel fuel with NG will not be an effective way of reducing energy consumption for greenhouse production. However, it is crucial to focus on energy management in order to enhance the energy and environmental indices. One way to supply adequate input energy and a reduction in GHG emissions is the utilization of renewable and clean energy sources instead of NG and diesel fuel. Also, it is suggested to adopt solar greenhouses in the region and to supply electricity from non-fossil sources seriously.

  4. Effects of cross-border power trade between Laos and Thailand: Energy security and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of hydropower development in Laos and power trade between Laos and Thailand on economy wide, energy resource mix, power generation capacity mix, energy system cost, environment, as well as, energy security. A MARKAL-based model for an integrated energy system of Laos and Thailand was developed to assess the effects of energy resource development and trade to meet the national energy demands of the two countries. Two national MARKAL-based energy system models of Laos and Thailand were formulated for the study. The results show that 80% exploitation of water resource in Laos would induce power trade between the countries. The integrated energy system cost is found to decrease marginally but it would mitigate the CO 2 emission by 2% when compared with the base case. Thailand is expected to gain benefit from the increased level of power imported from Laos in terms of the lower energy system cost, better environmental quality and, greater diversification of energy sources. As compared to the base case, Laos would become the net energy exporter, earn significant export revenue, and improve the increase in revenue of energy export per increase in total energy system cost from the maximum exploitation of hydropower resource.

  5. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  6. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  7. Airplane energy use and conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilati, D.A.

    1974-05-01

    Domestic commercial airplane fuel use is examined as a function of stage length. A fuel use model is developed using the eight most popular airplanes. Short flights are very fuel inefficient; a 100-mile flight consumes 2.5 times as much fuel per passenger-mile than a 1,000-mile flight. Half of today's flights are for distances under 260 miles. Fuel consumption for purposes other than flying directly between airports is examined. Over 10% of total fuel use is for those portions of the flight in which no enroute distance is achieved. Delays account for at least 4.2% of the fuel consumption and auxiliary power units use over 1%. Fuel requirements for attempting to recover lost time and for fuel ferrying are also discussed. Airplane fuel efficiency can be increased in the short term by operational changes, particularly by increasing the load factor. A load factor increase from 50 to 60% would reduce airplane fuel use by 16% for the same traffic. Other options include reducing cruise speeds, increasing cruise altitudes, and changing ground operations. Each of these strategies offer savings of 1 to 3%. Total transportation energy use can be reduced by shifting air passengers to ground modes, especially for the inefficient short-stage traffic. Net energy savings for diverting half the flights under 200 miles to buses or trains is equivalent to 6% of the fleet fuel use. (6 tables, 6 fig., 36 references)

  8. A systematic multi-step screening of numerous salt hydrates for low temperature thermochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N’Tsoukpoe, Kokouvi Edem; Schmidt, Thomas; Rammelberg, Holger Urs; Watts, Beatriz Amanda; Ruck, Wolfgang K.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report an evaluation of the potential of salt hydrates for thermochemical storage. • Both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements using TGA/DSC are used. • Salt hydrates offer very low potential for thermochemical heat storage. • The efficiency of classical processes using salt hydrates is very low: typically 25%. • New processes are needed for the use of salt hydrates in thermochemical heat storage. - Abstract: In this paper, the potential energy storage density and the storage efficiency of salt hydrates as thermochemical storage materials for the storage of heat generated by a micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) have been assessed. Because salt hydrates used in various thermochemical heat storage processes fail to meet the expectations, a systematic evaluation of the suitability of 125 salt hydrates has been performed in a three-step approach. In the first step general issues such as toxicity and risk of explosion have been considered. In the second and third steps, the authors implement a combined approach consisting of theoretical calculations and experimental measurements using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Thus, application-oriented comparison criteria, among which the net energy storage density of the material and the thermal efficiency, have been used to evaluate the potential of 45 preselected salt hydrates for a low temperature thermochemical heat storage application. For an application that requires a discharging temperature above 60 °C, SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O and LaCl 3 ·7H 2 O appear to be the most promising, only from thermodynamic point of view. However, the maximum net energy storage density including the water in the water storage tank that they offer (respectively 133 kW h m −3 and 89 kW h m −3 ) for a classical thermochemical heat storage process are not attractive for the intended application. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency that would result from the storage process based on salt hydrates

  9. Energy expenditure, economic growth, and the minimum EROI of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fizaine, Florian; Court, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We estimate energy expenditure for the US and world economies from 1850 to 2012. Periods of high energy expenditure relative to GDP (from 1850 to 1945), or spikes (1973–74 and 1978–79) are associated with low economic growth rates, and periods of low or falling energy expenditure are associated with high and rising economic growth rates (e.g. 1945–1973). Over the period 1960–2010 for which we have continuous year-to-year data for control variables (capital formation, population, and unemployment rate) we estimate that, statistically, in order to enjoy positive growth, the US economy cannot afford to spend more than 11% of its GDP on energy. Given the current energy intensity of the US economy, this translates in a minimum societal EROI of approximately 11:1 (or a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level). Granger tests consistently reveal a one way causality running from the level of energy expenditure (as a fraction of GDP) to economic growth in the US between 1960 and 2010. A coherent economic policy should be founded on improving net energy efficiency. This would yield a “double dividend”: increased societal EROI (through decreased energy intensity of capital investment), and decreased sensitivity to energy price volatility. - Highlights: •We estimate energy expenditures as a fraction of GDP for the US, the world (1850–2012), and the UK (1300–2008). •Statistically speaking, the US economy cannot afford to allocate more than 11% of its GDP to energy expenditures in order to have a positive growth rate. •This corresponds to a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level. •In the same way, US growth is only possible if its primary energy system has at least a minimum EROI of approximately 11:1.

  10. Optimization model of peach production relevant to input energies – Yield function in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Rahim; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin Badry, Ahmad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of input–output energy used in peach production and to develop an optimal model of production in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. Data were collected from 100 producers by administering a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Farms were selected based on random sampling method. Results revealed that the total energy of production is 47,951.52 MJ/ha and the highest share of energy consumption belongs to chemical fertilizers (35.37%). Consumption of direct energy was 47.4% while indirect energy was 52.6%. Also, Total energy consumption was divided into two groups; renewable and non-renewable (19.2% and 80.8% respectively). Energy use efficiency, Energy productivity, Specific energy and Net energy were calculated as 0.433, 0.228 (kg/MJ), 4.38 (MJ/kg) and −27,161.722 (MJ/ha), respectively. According to the negative sign for Net energy, if special strategy is used, energy dismiss will decrease and negative effect of some parameters could be omitted. In the present case the amount is indicating decimate of production energy. In addition, energy efficiency was not high enough. Some of the input energies were applied to machinery, chemical fertilizer, water irrigation and electricity which had significant effect on increasing production and MPP (marginal physical productivity) was determined for variables. This parameter was positive for energy groups namely; machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer, water irrigation and electricity while it was negative for other kind of energy such as chemical pesticides and human labor. Finally, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy-efficient practices to establish sustainable production systems without disrupting the natural resources. In addition, extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to sustain the natural resources. - Highlights: • Replacing non-renewable energy with renewable

  11. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2015-09-15

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  12. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH), which is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual percent savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  13. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo O. Fiems

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW. They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10. Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001, although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  14. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-02-13

    Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW(0.75)/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  15. Energetic and exergetic aspects of cotton stalk production in establishing energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif; Utlu, Zafer; Akdeniz, R. Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    Exergy analysis is important for energy resource utilization, because exergy, which is a way to a sustainable future, is a part of the energy analysis. Exergy analysis starts to play a role in several countries in developing energy policy. This paper deals with the exergetic assessment of the cotton stalk (CS) production. In this regard, Turkey, which is one of the eight countries producing 85% of the world's cotton, is given as an application country first. Energy and exergy relations used in the analysis are then presented. Finally, the Turkish CS production in 2003 is evaluated using energy and exergy analyses method, while the results obtained are discussed. The values for the net energy and exergy gained are obtained to be about 49,146 and 59,395 MJ/ha, respectively. Turkey's total energy and exergy are estimated to be 75.45 and 81.87 PJ. It may be concluded that this amount of energy is equal to 7.77% and 2.38% of Turkey's primary energy production and consumption in the same year, respectively. The overall mean energy and exergy efficiencies of the cotton production in the year studied are found to be 33.06% and 33.12%, respectively. It is also expected that the results of this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies

  16. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  17. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Bonari, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha -1 , 100-100-100 kg N, P 2 O 5 , K 2 O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 vs 28.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha -1 (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs

  18. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agroecosistema, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Bonari, Enrico [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Piazza Martiri della Liberta, 33, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha{sup -1}, 100-100-100 kg N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}vs 28.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha{sup -1} (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs. (author)

  19. Review of energy use in New Zealand agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D J; McChesney, I G

    1979-01-01

    New Zealand's agricultural system shows a net return of energy at the farm gate, but the ratio of food energy returned to auxiliary energy invested is so small that there is a need to be seriously concerned on two counts. First, the rest of the food production system, comprising processing, distribution and preparation, consumes sufficient additional energy that the overall energy ratio is less than 1:1. Counter to the trend towards increased energy consumption in agriculture will be those savings that may result from the development of animal breeds, crop varieties, and cultural practices that make more efficient use of the solar and auxiliary energy inputs. In all production systems involving the harvesting of biological materials, several critical parameters (energy ratio, energy intensity, energy productivity, and net energy yield) describe energy use. The consideration of these parameters along with socio-economic criteria should be incorporated into planning for the future development of such production systems. The changes which would most favorably alter the food-production system as a whole, i.e., alteration of diet, changes in product mix in favor of grains and pulses, and increased emphasis on genetic research, are unfortunately those least likely to receive attention. Dietary patterns change only slowly, farmers are reluctant to modify traditional methods of farming and to grow new crops, and the development of new breeds of animals and varieties of crops is time-consuming and costly. Nevertheless, such changes will have to be made if the food-production system is to adapt effectively to the challenges ahead.

  20. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  1. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  2. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  3. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery

  4. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2011-01-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction...... to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation...... requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed...

  5. Using the Moist Static Energy Budget to Understand Storm Track Shifts across a Range of Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barpanda, P.; Shaw, T.

    2017-12-01

    Storm tracks shift meridionally in response to forcing across a range of time scales. Here we formulate a moist static energy (MSE) framework for storm track position and use it to understand storm track shifts in response to seasonal insolation, El Niño minus La Niña conditions, and direct (increased CO2 over land) and indirect (increased sea surface temperature) effects of increased CO2. Two methods (linearized Taylor series and imposed MSE flux divergence) are developed to quantify storm track shifts and decompose them into contributions from net energy (MSE input to the atmosphere minus atmospheric storage) and MSE flux divergence by the mean meridional circulation and stationary eddies. Net energy is not a dominant contribution across the time scales considered. The stationary eddy contribution dominates the storm-track shift in response to seasonal insolation, El Niño minus La Niña conditions, and CO2 direct effect in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas the mean meridional circulation contribution dominates the shift in response to CO2 indirect effect during northern winter and in the Southern Hemisphere during May and October. Overall, the MSE framework shows the seasonal storm-track shift in the Northern Hemisphere is connected to the stationary eddy MSE flux evolution. Furthermore, the equatorward storm-track shift during northern winter in response to El Niño minus La Niña conditions involves a different regime than the poleward shift in response to increased CO2 even though the tropical upper troposphere warms in both cases.

  6. Investigation of energy inputs for peach production using sensitivity analysis in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royan, Mahsa; Khojastehpour, Mehdi; Emadi, Bagher; Mobtaker, Hassan Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy use and inputs–output relationship in peach production. ► Total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 . ► Diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. ► Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 0.55 and 0.29 kg MJ −1 . ► The machinery energy was the most significant input affecting the output level. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the energy balance between the energy inputs and yield in peach production in Golestan province of Iran as a case study. The results showed that total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 where the diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. The direct energy shared about (50.98%) whereas the indirect energy did (49.02%). Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were 0.55, 0.29 kg MJ −1 , 3.41 MJ kg −1 and −16642.03 MJ ha −1 , respectively. Econometric assessment results revealed that the energy inputs of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure had significant influence on the yield. The impact of human labor energy (1.36) was found as the highest among the other input parameters. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the MPP value of energy inputs was between −2.8 and 11.31. Also the MPP value of human labor was the highest, followed by diesel fuel and farm yard manure energy inputs, respectively.

  7. State planning for winter energy emergencies: workshop materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Workshops were conducted in 5 cities to improve communications between the states and the Federal government so that both might be better prepared to avoid or mitigate the impacts of energy emergencies during the winter; to provide a forum for the exchange of technical information regarding selected energy demand restraint measures which could be implemented by individual states or regions in an energy emergency; and to promote the concept of pre-crisis contingency planning and strategy development, with particuliar emphasis on the need for interstate coordination of emergency plans. The major topics addressed by the discussion guide involved net energy use impact, implementation procedures and problems, and social and economic effects. The Task Force performed extensive research into the technical considerations and prior experience in implementing each of the demand restraint measures selected for discussion. Results and conclusions are summarized for reduction of thermostat setting for space conditioning and water heating; reduction in hours of operation and lighting in commercial establishments; reduction in hours of operation in school, and industrial fuel substitution. (MCW)

  8. Getting to zero - Experiences of designing and monitoring a zero-energy-building: The Science House in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbock, Jason; McDougall, Tom; Eijadi, David; Weier, Jeff [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The challenge of the Science House at the Science Museum of Minnesota was to create habitable, cold climate architecture that would result in a zero net energy building. The team used science to exert an authoritative influence to resolve design conflicts-at the intersections of functionality, aesthetics and performance. The team needed to significantly reduce annual energy consumption beginning with expectations of use and architectural form. Ultimately, renewable generation would be needed. The defining question became 'how much building and power generation can we build with the given budget?' The resulting building utilizes passive solar design, daylighting, ground source heat pumps and photovoltaic (PV) panels as the major design strategies. This poster documents the predicted energy use and actual monitored performance. It shows the extent of load reduction achieved with passive solar design. A challenge for getting to 'real zero' is the difference between expected performance and actual building performance. This poster illustrates how measured data is used to trace the causes to unexpected equipment performance, heat pump behaviour and off-line PV panels. Assumptions regarding occupancy and building use during the design phase often differ from their actual use; this makes operating a building for zero energy an additional challenge above and beyond designing one. Overall, the actual building is exceeding the design team's goals, using on average 59 kWh/m{sup 2} annually and generating 80 kWh/m{sup 2} to exceed even the zero net energy goals.

  9. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  10. Energy Return on Investment (EROI of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. O’Connor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two methods of processing synthetic crude from organic marlstone in demonstration or small-scale commercial status in the U.S. are in situ extraction and surface retorting. The considerable uncertainty surrounding the technological characterization, resource characterization, and choice of the system boundary for oil shale operations indicate that oil shale is only a minor net energy producer if one includes internal energy (energy in the shale that is used during the process as an energy cost. The energy return on investment (EROI for either of these methods is roughly 1.5:1 for the final fuel product. The inclusions or omission of internal energy is a critical question. If only external energy (energy diverted from the economy to produce the fuel is considered, EROI appears to be much higher. In comparison, fuels produced from conventional petroleum show overall EROI of approximately 4.5:1. “At the wellhead” EROI is approximately 2:1 for shale oil (again, considering internal energy and 20:1 for petroleum. The low EROI for oil shale leads to a significant release of greenhouse gases. The large quantities of energy needed to process oil shale, combined with the thermochemistry of the retorting process, produce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Oil shale unambiguously emits more greenhouse gases than conventional liquid fuels from crude oil feedstocks by a factor of 1.2 to 1.75. Much of the discussion regarding the EROI for oil shale should be regarded as preliminary or speculative due to the very small number of operating facilities that can be assessed.

  11. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M. Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha −1 ; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically addresses the three evaluation categories (heat exchangers, rotating machinery, and power system configuration and performance) is an integral part of the Phase II plans (proposal) which describe the technical approach to delivering test articles to OTEC-1. In addition, there is a section which addresses power system cost and net energy analysis and another which discusses the results of stainless steel feasibility studies. Supporting documentation is contained in two appendix volumes.

  13. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    using a moldboard plow and secondary tillage operation was done using a disk harrow and land leveler. Seed bed was prepared in the reduced tillage method using a tine and disc cultivator which was able to complete the primary and secondary tillage operations simultaneously. Wheat seed was directly planted using direct planter without any seed bed preparation in the zero tillage method. Surface irrigation method was used to irrigate the plots and 11970 m3/ha water was consumed in each treatment. Input energies including direct energy (diesel and electricity and indirect energy (water, labor, seed, fertilizer, chemicals, and machinery were measured and calculated. Output energies (energy of grain and straw were measured in each treatment and the share of each input energy, energy ratio, net energy gain, and energy productivity were determined and compared. Collected data were analyzed using SAS software and Duncan’s multiple range tests was used to compare the treatments means. Results and Discussion: Results showed that tillage and planting methods had a significant effect on fuel and machinery energies; while, the total input energy, crop grain yield, and crop biologic yield were not affected by the tillage and planting methods (Table 4. Fertilizers and chemicals had the highest contribution in input energy of all treatments. Results also indicated that reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder had the highest energy ratio (1.46 and the lowest energy ratio (1.40 was related to the conventional tillage methods (Fig.1. The highest net energy gain (47653 MJ was obtained from the reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder; while, the lowest amount of net energy gain (41388 MJ was related to the conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (Fig.3. Results also showed that the reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder had the highest energy productivity (0.115 kg MJ-1 and the conventional tillage treatments had the lowest energy productivity

  14. Analysis of energy consumption in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chee Wan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient energy is needed in the right form and at the right time for adequate crop production. One way to optimize energy consumption in agriculture is to determine the efficiency of methods and techniques used. With the current increase in world population, energy consumption needs effective planning. That is, the input elements need to be identified in order to prescribe the most efficient methods for controlling them. This study was undertaken in order to determine the direct and indirect energy consumption of field operations in a lowland rice production system of Malaysia. Field time, fuel and other energy requirements were measured for the tillage, planting, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting operations performed. Energy analysis carried out revealed the highest average operational energy consumption was for tillage (1747.33 MJ ha-1 which accounted for about 48.6% of the total operational energy consumption (3595.87 MJ ha-1, followed by harvesting (1171.44 MJ ha-1, 32.6% and planting (562.91 MJ ha-1, 15.7%. Fertilizing and pesticide spraying did not make any significant contributions to the operational energy consumption. Based on energy sources, fuel was the main consumer of direct energy with 2717.82 MJha-1 (22.2%, and fertilizer recording the highest indirect energy consumption of 7721.03 MJha-1 (63.2%. Human labour, pesticides, seeds and indirect energy for machinery use had marginal importance, contributing only 0.2%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 6.9%, respectively to the total energy consumption (12225.97 MJha-1. Average grain yield was 6470.8 kg ha-1, representing energy output of 108321.75 MJha-1, that is, 96095.78 MJ net energy gain or 8.86 MJ output per MJ input. Energy input per kilogram grain yield was 1.89 MJkg-1. The results of the study indicate energy gain in the lowland rice production system of Malaysia.

  15. Energy upcycle in anaerobic treatment: Ammonium, methane, and carbon dioxide reformation through a hybrid electrodeionization–solid oxide fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linji; Dong, Feifei; Zhuang, Huichuan; He, Wei; Ni, Meng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Lee, Po-Heng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • EDI-SOFC integrated with AD is introduced for energy extraction from C and N pollutants. • NH_4"+ dissociation to NH_3 and H_2 in EDI avoids C deposition in SOFC. • EDI exhibits nutrient and heavy metal recovery. • SOFCs display its adaptability with NH_3, H_2, and biogas. • Energy balance ratio boosts from 1.11 to 1.75 by EDI-SOFC in a HK landfill plant. - Abstract: To create possibilities for a more sustainable wastewater management, a novel system consisting of electrodeionization (EDI) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is proposed in this study. This system is integrated with anaerobic digestion/landfills to capture energy from carbonaceous and nitrogenous pollutants. Both EDI and SOFCs showed good performances. EDI removed 95% and 76% ammonium-nitrogen (NH_4"+-N) from diluted (0.025 M) to concentrated (0.5 M) synthetic ammonium wastewaters, respectively, accompanied by hydrogen production. SOFCs converted the recovered fuels, biogas mixtures of methane and carbon dioxide, to electricity. Under the optimal conditions of EDI (3.0 V applied voltage and 7.5 mm internal electrode distance (IED), and SOFCs (750 °C operating temperature), the system achieved 60% higher net energy output as compared to conventional systems. The estimated energy benefit of this proposed system showed that the net energy balance ratio is enhanced from 1.11 (existing system) to 1.75 (this study) for a local Hong Kong active landfill facility with 10.0 g L"−"1 chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.21 M NH_4"+-N. Additionally, an average of 80% inorganic ions (heavy metals and nutrient elements) can be removed from the raw landfill leachate by EDI cell. The results are successful demonstrations of the upgrades of anaerobic processes for energy extraction from wastewater streams.

  16. Evaluation of energy policy. [Including proposal by American Inst. of Architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windheim, L S

    1977-02-01

    It has been evident to some future-looking individuals for some time that both the availability of abundant cheap energy supplies and the exponential increasing use of unlimited amounts must change. However, official energy policy thinking in the U.S. either fails to believe that 'times have changed' or, if believing, is responding in a deleterious and counter-productive manner. This fantastically pervasive and interactive problem cannot be dealt with in the long run by any policy of 'normalizing', of trying to return to doing more with more. The more successful the U.S. is in maintaining or increasing its total energy consumption under conditions of declining net energy, or striving for simplistic first-law efficiencies without analyzing the second level or entropy effects or realizing that every energy exchange adds a minute but rapidly aggregating portion to the environmental pollution limit--doing more with more--the more rapidly inflation, unemployment, and general economic instability will increase. A small group of architectural professionals, the American Institute of Architects, has proposed an alternate energy strategy, essentially doing more with less which, if pursued, can provide more jobs, less inflation, less pollution, and the potential for better matching of energy task and source (entropy efficiency). This strategy exemplifies the characteristics of an appropriate technology response. It stresses capital and energy as well as labor productivity.

  17. Energy consumption analysis of integrated flowsheets for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Alzate, C.A.; Sanchez Toro, O.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel ethanol is considered one of the most important renewable fuels due to the economic and environmental benefits of its use. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for producing bioethanol due to its global availability and to the energy gain that can be obtained when non-fermentable materials from biomass are used for cogeneration of heat and power. In this work, several process configurations for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied through process simulation using Aspen Plus. Some flowsheets considering the possibilities of reaction-reaction integration were taken into account among the studied process routes. The flowsheet variants were analyzed from the energy point of view utilizing as comparison criterion the energy consumption needed to produce 1 L of anhydrous ethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process with water recycling showed the best results accounting an energy consumption of 41.96 MJ/L EtOH. If pervaporation is used as dehydration method instead of azeotropic distillation, further energy savings can be obtained. In addition, energy balance was estimated using the results from the simulation and literature data. A net energy value of 17.65-18.93 MJ/L EtOH was calculated indicating the energy efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol

  18. Energy use and economical analysis of potato production in Iran a case study: Ardabil province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Tabatabaeefar, Ahmad; Shahin, Shahan; Rafiee, Shahin; Keyhani, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine energy consumption of input and output used in potato production, and making an economical analysis in Ardabil, Iran. For this purpose, the data were collected from 100 potato farms in Ardabil, Iran. Inquiries were conducted in a face-to-face interviewing November-December 2006 period. Farms were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy inputs were 81624.96 MJ ha -1 . About 40% of this was generated by chemical fertilizers, 20% from diesel oil and machinery. About 82% of the total energy inputs used in potato production was indirect (seeds, fertilizers, manure, chemicals, machinery) and 18% was direct (human labor, diesel). Mean potato yield was about 28453.61 kg ha -1 , it obtained under normal conditions on irrigated farming, and taking into account the energy value of the seed, the net energy and energy productivity value was estimated to be 20808.03 MJ ha -1 and 0.35, respectively, and the ratio of energy outputs to energy inputs was found to be 1.25. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in potato production not accompanied by increase in the final product. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of production for one hectare of potato production was 3267.17 $. Benefit-cost ratio was calculated as 1.88

  19. Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaeian, Narges; Omid, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy use pattern, to investigate the energy use efficiency, and to make an economical analysis in greenhouse strawberry production in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 25 greenhouse strawberry growers using a face to face questionnaire method. The results indicate that greenhouse strawberry production consumed a total energy of 121891.33 MJ ha -1 . About 78% of this was generated by diesel fuel, 10% from chemical fertilizers, and 4.5% from electricity. Energy ratio, specific energy, net energy and energy intensiveness of greenhouse strawberry production were 0.15, 12.55 MJ kg -1 , -683488.37 MJ ha -1 and 8.18 MJ $ -1 , respectively. Determination of the efficient allocation of energy resources were modeled by Cobb-Douglas production function. Econometric model evaluation showed the impact of human labor, fertilizers, installation of equipment and transportation costs for strawberry production were all significant at 1% level. The elasticity estimates indicated that among the cost inputs, transportation is the most important input (-0.75) that influences total cost of production, followed by labor (0.31), fertilizers (0.18) and installation of equipments (0.22). The benefit-cost ratio and net return were obtained as 1.74 and 151907.91 $ ha -1 , respectively.

  20. Modeling of MeV alpha particle energy transfer to lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivell, J.; Monticello, D.A.; Fisch, N.; Rax, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    The interaction between a lower hybrid wave and a fusion alpha particle displaces the alpha particle simultaneously in space and energy. This results in coupled diffusion. Diffusion of alphas down the density gradient could lead to their transferring energy to the wave. This could, in turn, put energy into current drive. An initial analytic study was done by Fisch and Rax. Here the authors calculate numerical solutions for the alpha energy transfer and study a range of conditions that are favorable for wave amplification from alpha energy. They find that it is possible for fusion alpha particles to transfer a large fraction of their energy to the lower hybrid wave. The numerical calculation shows that the net energy transfer is not sensitive to the value of the diffusion coefficient over a wide range of practical values. An extension of this idea, the use of a lossy boundary to enhance the energy transfer, is investigated. This technique is shown to offer a large potential benefit

  1. Life cycle energy and environmental analysis of a microgrid power pavilion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, David V.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Baron, Scott G.

    2006-01-01

    Microgrids - generating systems incorporating multiple distributed generator sets linked together to provide local electricity and heat - are one possible alterative to the existing centralized energy system. Potential advantages of microgrids include flexibility in fuel supply options, the ability to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, and energy efficiency improvements through combined heat and power (CHP) applications. As a case study in microgrid performance, this analysis uses a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy and emissions performance of the NextEnergy microgrid Power Pavilion in Detroit, Michigan and a reference conventional system. The microgrid includes generator sets fueled by solar energy, hydrogen, and natural gas. Hydrogen fuel is sourced from both a natural gas steam reforming operation and as a by-product of a chlorine production operation. The chlorine plant receives electricity exclusively from a hydropower generating station. Results indicate that the use of this microgrid offers a total energy reduction potential of up to 38%, while reductions in non-renewable energy use could reach 51%. Similarly, emissions of CO 2 , a key global warming gas, can be reduced by as much as 60% relative to conventional heat and power systems. Hydrogen fuels are shown to provide a net energy and emissions benefit relative to natural gas only when sourced primarily from the chlorine plant. (Author)

  2. Energy consumption analysis of integrated flowsheets for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona Alzate, C.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales (Colombia)]. E-mail: ccardonaal@unal.edu.co; Sanchez Toro, O.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales (Colombia); Department of Engineering, University of Caldas, Calle 65 No. 26-10, Manizales (Colombia)

    2006-10-15

    Fuel ethanol is considered one of the most important renewable fuels due to the economic and environmental benefits of its use. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for producing bioethanol due to its global availability and to the energy gain that can be obtained when non-fermentable materials from biomass are used for cogeneration of heat and power. In this work, several process configurations for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied through process simulation using Aspen Plus. Some flowsheets considering the possibilities of reaction-reaction integration were taken into account among the studied process routes. The flowsheet variants were analyzed from the energy point of view utilizing as comparison criterion the energy consumption needed to produce 1 L of anhydrous ethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process with water recycling showed the best results accounting an energy consumption of 41.96 MJ/L EtOH. If pervaporation is used as dehydration method instead of azeotropic distillation, further energy savings can be obtained. In addition, energy balance was estimated using the results from the simulation and literature data. A net energy value of 17.65-18.93 MJ/L EtOH was calculated indicating the energy efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol.

  3. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  4. Energy Return on Investment (EROI for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Brandt

    Full Text Available Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs, nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.

  5. Lessons from spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.Th. van; Moll, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • There is a substantial gap between bio-energy potential and net energy gain. • For reaching production goals the green gas utilization pathway is preferable. • Environmental sustainability favors the waste management pathway. • Renewable energy production goals and environmental sustainability do not always align. • There is a gap between top–down regulation and actual emission reduction and sustainability. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) can play an important role in achieving the renewable energy goals set within the European Union. Within this article the focus is placed on reaching the Dutch local renewable production goal set for the year 2020 with locally available biomass waste flows, avoiding intensive farming and long transport distances of biomass and energy carriers. The bio-energy yields, efficiency and environmental sustainability are analyzed for five municipalities in the northern part of the Netherlands, using three utilization pathways: green gas production, combined heat and power, and waste management. Literature has indicated that there is sufficient bio-energy potential in local waste streams to reach the aforementioned goal. However, the average useful energy finally produced by the AD production pathway is significantly lower, often due to poor quality biomass and difficult harvesting conditions. Furthermore, of the potential bio-energy input in the three utilization pathways considered in this article, on average: 73% can be extracted as green gas; 57% as heat and power; and 44% as green gas in the waste management pathway. This demonstrates that the Dutch renewable production goal cannot be reached. The green gas utilization pathway is preferable for reaching production goals as it retains the highest amount of energy from the feedstock. However, environmental sustainability favors the waste management pathway as it has a higher overall efficiency, and lower emissions and environmental impacts. The main

  6. Energy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  7. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - The first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first stages of the energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - taking stock of the heritage of the past and conceptualizing the nature of reforms - were accomplished in 1990. While two countries - the USSR and Albania -introduced some market economy elements into central energy planning and basically maintained the latter, all other countries of central and eastern Europe opted for a replacement of central energy planning by market-oriented energy policies and practices. In those latter countries, a typical policy of market adaptation emerged consisting of a change of policies, institutions, economic instruments and relations. Differences in the conditions prevailing in the various countries resulted in the emergence of specific national ''models'' of market adaptation. The reforms, if successful, would imply: greater energy efficiency, reduced pollution, enhanced nuclear safety, a reduced impact on the climate, greater business opportunities, the closure of uneconomic capacities, a decline of coal production, a rise in unemployment; a rise of the energy trade dependence coupled with a rise of gas and oil imports; but practically no change of the net energy exports of the USSR. By the end of 1990 developed market economies agreed to co-ordinate assistance (within the ''Group of 24'') and determined the type and modalities of support. This support would enable and encourage the economies in transition to finalize reform, stimulate their practical implementation and address side effects (disinvestments, unemployment) and systematic risks (e.g. trade dependence) and opportunities (e.g. trade diversification). The business community and lending institutions would have to assess and support investments opportunities more actively. Intergovernmental organizations will play an important role in improving the conditions for business involvement. In 1990, the frameworks for energy reforms in central and eastern Europe, short term assistance, long term business

  8. Two methods of space--time energy densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    With a view to the goal of net energy production from a DT microexplosion, we study two ideas (methods) through which (separately or in combination) energy may be ''concentrated'' into a small volume and short period of time--the so-called space-time energy densification or compression. We first discuss the advantages and disadvantages of lasers and relativistic electron-beam (E-beam) machines as the sources of such energy and identify the amplification of laser pulses as a key factor in energy compression. The pulse length of present relativistic E-beam machines is the most serious limitation of this pulsed-power source. The first energy-compression idea we discuss is the reasonably efficient production of short-duration, high-current relativistic electron pulses by the self interruption and restrike of a current in a plasma pinch due to the rapid onset of strong turbulence. A 1-MJ plasma focus based on this method is nearing completion at this Laboratory. The second energy-compression idea is based on laser-pulse production through the parametric amplification of a self-similar or solitary wave pulse, for which analogs can be found in other wave processes. Specifically, the second energy-compression idea is a proposal for parametric amplification of a solitary, transverse magnetic pulse in a coaxial cavity with a Bennett dielectric rod as an inner coax. Amplifiers of this type can be driven by the pulsed power from a relativistic E-beam machine. If the end of the inner dielectric coax is made of LiDT or another fusionable material, the amplified pulse can directly drive a fusion reaction--there would be no need to switch the pulse out of the system toward a remote target

  9. Two methods of space-time energy densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    With a view to the goal of net energy production from a DT microexplosion, two ideas (methods) are studied through which (separately or in combination) energy may be ''concentrated'' into a small volume and short period of time--the so-called space-time energy densification or compression. The advantages and disadvantages of lasers and relativistic electron-beam (E-beam) machines as the sources of such energy are studied and the amplification of laser pulses as a key factor in energy compression is discussed. The pulse length of present relativistic E-beam machines is the most serious limitation of this pulsed-power source. The first energy-compression idea discussed is the reasonably efficient production of short-duration, high-current relativistic electron pulses by the self interruption and restrike of a current in a plasma pinch due to the rapid onset of strong turbulence. A 1-MJ plasma focus based on this method is nearing completion at this Laboratory. The second energy-compression idea is based on laser-pulse production through the parametric amplification of a self-similar or solitary wave pulse, for which analogs can be found in other wave processes. Specifically, the second energy-compression idea is a proposal for parametric amplification of a solitary, transverse magnetic pulse in a coaxial cavity with a Bennett dielectric rod as an inner coax. Amplifiers of this type can be driven by the pulsed power from a relativistic E-beam machine. If the end of the inner dielectric coax is made of LiDT or another fusionable material, the amplified pulse can directly drive a fusion reaction--there would be no need to switch the pulse out of the system toward a remote target. (auth)

  10. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

  11. Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-05-17

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  12. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M; Verstegen, M W; Heetkamp, M J; Haaksma, J; Schrama, J W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) content on the metabolic rate in group-housed sows was studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were each fed one of four experimental diets similar in composition except for the starch and NSP content. Exchanging sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in starch and NSP ratio in the diet. On a DM basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed and fed at 1.30 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-d experimental period, which was preceded by a 33-d adaptation period. Both digestibility and metabolizability of energy decreased with increasing dietary SBPS content (P 0.1). Based on energy retention data and apparent fecal digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat, starch, and NSP, the estimated net energy value of fermented NSP was 13.4 kJ/g. The present study shows that group-housed sows are capable of using energy from fermented NSP (i.e., NSP from SBPS) as efficiently as energy from digested starch (i.e., starch from tapioca).

  13. ENERGY USE EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS IN COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN AN ARID REGION: A CASE STUDY FOR ISFAHAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Zahedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to evaluate the energy consumption and the economic analysis of cotton production in Esfahan province of Iran. For this purpose, data were selected from 47 cotton growers using a face-to-face questionnaire. The results indicate that cotton production consumed a total energy of 52507.8 MJ ha-1. Among sources of input energy, the contribution of energy related to diesel fuel (47% was highest, followed by chemical fertilizers (20% and water for irrigation (12%. The shares of direct and non renewable energy were 68.3% and 77.7%, respectively. The impacts of indirect and non-renewable energy on cotton yield were higher than those of direct and renewable energy. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, energy intensiveness, and net energy were 0.7, 19.2 MJ-1 kg, 0.10 kg MJ-1, 27.2 MJ-1 $ -1, -15625.2 MJ-1ha-1, respectively. Total cost of cotton production was 1927.9 $ ha-1. About 67% of the cost of production was variable costs, while 33% was fixed costs. The benefit to cost ratio was estimated 1.22. It is suggested that efforts to increase energy efficiency of cotton production in the investigated area should primarily focus on proper use of fertilizers and irrigation systems and also on saving diesel fuel by improving machinery operating performance.

  14. Energy use pattern in rice production: A case study from Mazandaran province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AghaAlikhani, M.; Kazemi-Poshtmasari, H.; Habibzadeh, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the energy use efficiency in rice production for traditional and mechanized system. ► Since farmers growing native, high yield and hybrid rice cultivars we have focused on mean data. ► Chemical fertilizer has the highest share in total energy inputs were followed by diesel fuel. ► Rice production in traditional system has lower output but higher EUE than mechanized system. - Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is grown under both traditional system (TS) and mechanized system (MS) in Iran. In this study the energy consumption for rice is analyzed in Mazandaran, Northern province of Iran. The indicators are: net energy, energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, direct energy, indirect energy, renewable energy, non-renewable and total energy input. The cultivars of rice commonly grown in Iran are listed in three groups: native, high yield cultivars and hybrid cultivar. Primary data were obtained through field survey and personal interviews using questionnaires from 48 agricultural services center in Mazandaran province. Secondary data and energy equivalents were obtained from available literature using collected data of the production period of 2007–2008. Analysis of date showed that averagely diesel fuel had the highest share within the total energy inputs, followed by chemical fertilizer in rice production in both TS and MS. Energy use efficiency was calculated as 1.72 in TS and 1.63 in MS. Total energy consumption in rice production were 71,092.26 MJ/ha (TS) and 79,460.33 MJ/ha (MS). In general, there were not significant changes regarding the human labor and chemicals in tow systems

  15. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  16. Energy efficiency of digestible protein, fat and carbohydrate utilisation for growth in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Johan W; Haidar, Mahmoud N; Geurden, Inge; Heinsbroek, Leon T N; Kaushik, Sachi J

    2018-04-01

    Currently, energy evaluation of fish feeds is performed on a digestible energy basis. In contrast to net energy (NE) evaluation systems, digestible energy evaluation systems do not differentiate between the different types of digested nutrients regarding their potential for growth. The aim was to develop an NE evaluation for fish by estimating the energy efficiency of digestible nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and to assess whether these efficiencies differed between Nile tilapia and rainbow trout. Two data sets were constructed. The tilapia and rainbow data set contained, respectively, eight and nine experiments in which the digestibility of protein, fat and energy and the complete energy balances for twenty-three and forty-five diets was measured. The digestible protein (dCP), digestible fat (dFat) and digestible carbohydrate intakes (dCarb) were calculated. By multiple regression analysis, retained energy (RE) was related to dCP, dFat and dCarb. In tilapia, all digestible nutrients were linearly related to RE (Pefficiency of dCP, dFat and dCarb was 49, 91 and 66 %, respectively, showing large similarity with pigs. Tilapia and trout had similar energy efficiencies of dCP (49 v. 57 %) and dFat (91 v. 84 %), but differed regarding dCarb.

  17. Energy consumption development 1980 - 2020 - a historical development, driving forces and projections; Energibruksutvikling 1980 - 2020 - historisk utvikling, drivkrefter og fremskrivninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun

    2005-10-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology has on commission from the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate studied the development in the energy consumption in the period 1980 - 2020 and the energy use development towards 2020. With the historical developments in the various sectors, the Ministry of Finance projections and dialogs with firms and industries as basis various basic scenarios for the development in the energy consumption towards 2020 are made. The total end energy utilisation in a stationary sector would be approx. 151 Twh in 2001. In the basis scenario this will increase with 10 % to 167 Twh in 2020. The largest increase would be in the service sector with approx. 9 Twh net energy. In the household sector the increase would be approx. Twh while in the industrial sector about 1.5 Twh. Analysis carried out with the MARKAL model shows that it would be macro conomically profitable to implement energy conservation measures corresponding to 19 Twh in 2020. The composition of the energy carriers would be somewhat altered in 2020 compared to 2001. The oil consumption would particularly be reduced while the use of gas, bio nergy and district heating would increase.

  18. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO 2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  19. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sadie B; Wright, Jonathan C

    2010-07-02

    Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5-6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either 'whole' or 'processed' cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15-20%), carbohydrate (40-50%), and fat (33-39%) composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12) and men (n=5) studied in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137+/-14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1+/-10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy). Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  20. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  1. Energy: nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy balance calculations and assessment of two thermochemical sulfur cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Lessart, P.; Manaud, J.P.; Benizri, R.; Courvoisier, P.

    1978-01-01

    Thermochemical cyclic processes which include the highly endothermal decomposition of sulphuric acid are promising for hydrogen production by water-splitting. Our study is directed toward two cycles of this family, each involving the formation and decomposition of sulphuric acid and including other reactions using iron sulphide for the first and oxides and bromides of copper and magnesium for the second. Thermochemical analyses of the two cycles are undertaken. Thermodynamic studies of the reactions are carried out, taking into account possible side-reactions. The concentration of reactants, products and by-products resulting from simultaneous equilibria are calculated, the problems of separation thoroughly studied and the flow-diagrams of the processes drawn up. Using as heat source the helium leaving a 3000 MWth high temperature nuclear reactor and organizing internal heat exchange the enthalpy diagrams are drawn up and the net energy balances evaluated. The overall thermal efficiencies are about 28%, a value corresponding to non-optimized process schemes. Possible improvements aiming at energy-saving and increased efficiency are indicated

  3. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  4. An energy and mortality impact assessment of the urban heat island in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased summer energy use and increased summer heat related mortality are the two most cited detrimental impacts of the urban heat island (UHI). An assessment of these impacts was made that considered the annual impact of the UHI, not just the summer impact. It was found that in north of the US there was a net decrease in energy use from the UHI, as heating energy reductions were larger than the increase in cooling energy. In the south there was a net energy increase from the UHI. The impact of the UHI on heat related deaths was an estimated increase of 1.1 deaths per million people. The impact of the UHI on cold related deaths was an estimated decrease of 4.0 deaths per million people. These estimates are caveated by the acknowledgement that compounding factors influence mortality. Hypothermia related death rates were three times higher in rural areas than urban areas. This is surprising as the homeless population is usually considered the most at risk, yet they mostly live in urban areas. - Highlights: • The urban heat island (UHI) may actually be beneficial in colder cities in the US in terms of energy use • The UHI may cause an increase in heat related mortality of ~ 1 deaths per million • In winter the UHI may decrease cold related mortality by ~ 4 deaths per million • Cold related death rates were 3 times higher in rural areas although the homeless population live mainly in urban areas

  5. An energy and mortality impact assessment of the urban heat island in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Scott A., E-mail: Scott.lowe@manhattan.edu

    2016-01-15

    Increased summer energy use and increased summer heat related mortality are the two most cited detrimental impacts of the urban heat island (UHI). An assessment of these impacts was made that considered the annual impact of the UHI, not just the summer impact. It was found that in north of the US there was a net decrease in energy use from the UHI, as heating energy reductions were larger than the increase in cooling energy. In the south there was a net energy increase from the UHI. The impact of the UHI on heat related deaths was an estimated increase of 1.1 deaths per million people. The impact of the UHI on cold related deaths was an estimated decrease of 4.0 deaths per million people. These estimates are caveated by the acknowledgement that compounding factors influence mortality. Hypothermia related death rates were three times higher in rural areas than urban areas. This is surprising as the homeless population is usually considered the most at risk, yet they mostly live in urban areas. - Highlights: • The urban heat island (UHI) may actually be beneficial in colder cities in the US in terms of energy use • The UHI may cause an increase in heat related mortality of ~ 1 deaths per million • In winter the UHI may decrease cold related mortality by ~ 4 deaths per million • Cold related death rates were 3 times higher in rural areas although the homeless population live mainly in urban areas.

  6. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  7. Comparison of the energy and environmental impact by integrating a H_2 vehicle and an electric vehicle into a zero-energy building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrating a commercial-scale H_2 vehicle (HV) or electric vehicle (EV) into a ZEB. • Simultaneously fulfilling net-zero energy building and absolute-zero energy vehicle. • Energy performance comparison between the ZEBs with HV, EV, and no vehicle. • The energy matching-enhancing solutions for integrating the HV or EV with the ZEB. • Solutions for improving the matching and relieving the negative impact on the grid. - Abstract: The boundary extension of a zero-energy building to integrate a new energy vehicle will facilitate the realization of the target set by the EU 2050 roadmap. In this study, either a hydrogen vehicle (HV) or an electric vehicle (EV) is integrated into a renewable-supported building system with appropriate control strategies. The focused variables in this study are renewable energy capacities, vehicle system options, extents to utilize vehicle storages for domestic purposes, and the Excess REe-HW recharging strategies. The analysing aspects include the energy and environmental impact as well as the energy matching and the grid interactions. The results show that the annual net-zero energy/emission balance can be met by a 16, 12, and 12 kW rated wind turbine, or by a 195.8, 160.2, and 142.4 m"2 PV, for the building with the HV, the EV and no vehicle (NV), respectively. The building with the HV will be more demanding in meeting the balance due to the less efficient HV system than that with the EV. Moreover, better matching for the zero-energy system can be achieved by relieving the condition to discharge the vehicle storages for domestic usages and by using the Excess REe-HW recharging strategy. However, their negative effect will be a slight increase in the annual net-energy consumption, due to an increased loss from both the HV/EV integrated system and the thermal storage.

  8. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  9. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  10. Optically nonlinear energy transfer in light-harvesting dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2004-08-01

    Dendrimeric polymers are the subject of intense research activity geared towards their implementation in nanodevice applications such as energy harvesting systems, organic light-emitting diodes, photosensitizers, low-threshold lasers, and quantum logic elements, etc. A recent development in this area has been the construction of dendrimers specifically designed to exhibit novel forms of optical nonlinearity, exploiting the unique properties of these materials at high levels of photon flux. Starting from a thorough treatment of the underlying theory based on the principles of molecular quantum electrodynamics, it is possible to identify and characterize several optically nonlinear mechanisms for directed energy transfer and energy pooling in multichromophore dendrimers. Such mechanisms fall into two classes: first, those where two-photon absorption by individual donors is followed by transfer of the net energy to an acceptor; second, those where the excitation of two electronically distinct but neighboring donor groups is followed by a collective migration of their energy to a suitable acceptor. Each transfer process is subject to minor dissipative losses. In this paper we describe in detail the balance of factors and the constraints that determines the favored mechanism, which include the excitation statistics, structure of the energy levels, laser coherence factors, chromophore selection rules and architecture, possibilities for the formation of delocalized excitons, spectral overlap, and the overall distribution of donors and acceptors. Furthermore, it transpires that quantum interference between different mechanisms can play an important role. Thus, as the relative importance of each mechanism determines the relevant nanophotonic characteristics, the results reported here afford the means for optimizing highly efficient light-harvesting dendrimer devices.

  11. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Du; Hu Zhiyuan; Pu Gengqiang; Li He; Wang Chengtao

    2006-01-01

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  12. When exercise does not pay: Counterproductive effects of impending exercise on energy intake among restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron Y; Lee, Li Ling; Cheon, Bobby K

    2018-04-01

    Evidence suggests people may overestimate the effectiveness of future positive behaviour, leading to counterproductive behaviours in the present. Applied to weight-management, we hypothesize that inaccurate expectations about impending exercise may impede weight management by promoting overconsumption prior to exercise. This study aimed to determine how expectations about impending exercise and its potential ability to expend energy may influence i) energy intake before exercise and ii) overall energy balance (energy intake minus energy expended via exercise). Using a randomised, counterbalanced design, 21 inactive, overweight males, following a baseline session, completed two experimental trials: i) ad-libitum snack meal (potato-crisps) followed by an exercise session (SE) and ii) ad-libitum snack meal only (SO). There was no main effect of condition (SE vs. SO) on ad-libitum snack intake (p = .917). However, after accounting for dietary restraint (covariate), a difference in snack intake between SE and SO was revealed (p = .050). Specifically, participants who scored higher in dietary restraint consumed more in the SE (vs. SO) session (162 ± 359 kcal more) compared with participants who scored lower in dietary restraint (89 ± 135 kcal less). Among restrained eaters, the relative (net) energy consumed after accounting for energy expended from exercise in SE was not different from the energy consumed in the SO condition, suggesting that energy expended via exercise in SE does not appear to negate extra energy consumed in this condition compared with SO. Of interest, desire to eat and prospective food consumption ratings at the start of the trial were greater (p ≤ .029) in SE compared with SO. Findings suggest that restrained-eaters are at risk of adopting compensatory eating behaviour that may impede negative energy balance typically resulting from exercise (i.e. expending insufficient energy to negate compensatory energy intake

  13. Future energy, exotic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumon, R

    1974-01-01

    The Detroit Energy Conference has highlighted the declining oil reserves, estimated worldwide at 95 billion tons vs. an annual rate of consumption of over 3 billion tons. The present problem is one of price; also, petroleum seems too valuable to be simply burned. New sources must come into action before 1985. The most abundant is coal, with 600 billion tons of easily recoverable reserves; then comes oil shale with a potential of 400 billion tons of oil. Exploitation at the rate of 55 go 140 million tons/yr is planned in the U.S. after 1985. More exotic and impossible to estimate quantitatively are such sources as wind, tides, and the thermal energy of the oceans--these are probably far in the future. The same is true of solar and geothermal energy in large amounts. The only other realistic energy source is nuclear energy: the European Economic Community looks forward to covering 60% of its energy needs from nuclear energy in the year 2000. Even today, from 400 mw upward, a nuclear generating plant is more economical than a fossil fueled one. Conservation will become the byword, and profound changes in society are to be expected.

  14. Nuclear energy and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear energy and the renewable energies namely: solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and biomass are complementary. They are not polluting and they are expected to develop in the future to replace the fossil fuels

  15. Energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    From energy policy to the problem of public acceptance of nuclear power, problems like energy supply, energy strategies, the race of industrial countries for the short energy reserves, the West German energy demand until the year 2.000, energy conservation, and the controversy over increased use of nuclear energy are reviewed. (GL) [de

  16. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  17. Energy markets in the European Community - short-term outlook 1985-86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T

    1985-08-01

    The Community's consumption of primary energy is expected to increase by 2.6% in 1985 and 2.9% in 1986. The four main reasons for this are the expected increases in the Community's GDP (2.3% for both years), 3-4% growth rates of industrial production, weaker energy prices (led by lower oil prices) and cold weather in the early part of 1985. The base case forecast also assumes some ECU reevaluation against the dollar which, if correct will accelerate the fall in real energy prices. Following the ending of the United Kingdom mining strike in early 1985, coal consumption could be 3% higher this year than in 1984, but oil consumption is forecast to fall by 2-3% in 1985 but perhaps increase very slightly in 1986. Gas and electricity consumption should increase in both years and at similar rates, but the most telling factor in the period will be the increase in nuclear power. In 1986 nuclear should provide nearly 15% of the Community's energy needs, as against only 4% in 1980. The Community's net energy import dependence is expected to fall to 42% in 1986, as compared to 44% last year.

  18. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  19. Phase transformation based pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting with improved practicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, almost 60% of thermal energy produced in the United States was lost to the environment as waste heat. Ferroelectric based pyroelectric devices can be used to convert some of this waste heat into usable electrical energy using the Olsen cycle, an ideal thermodynamic cycle, but there are a number of barriers to its realization in a practical device. This study uses the Olsen cycle to benchmark a less efficient thermodynamic cycle that is more easily implemented in devices. The ferroelectric pyroelectric material used was (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.55 Sn 0.32 Ti 0.13 )O 3 ceramic, a ferroelectric material that undergoes a temperature driven phase transformation. A net energy density of 0.27 J cm −3 per cycle was obtained from the ferroelectric material using the modified cycle with a temperature change between 25°C and 180°C. This is 15.5% of the Olsen cycle result with the same temperature range and 1–8 MV m −1 applied electric field range. The power density was estimated to 13.5 mW cm −3 with given experimental conditions. A model is presented that quantitatively describes the effect of several parameters on output energy density and can be used to design ferroelectric based pyroelectric energy converters. The model indicates that optimization of material geometry and heating conditions can increase the output power by an order or magnitude. (paper)

  20. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  1. Tidal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochte, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    Together with wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and the often overlooked energy from ocean curents tidal energy belongs to those renewable energy sources that can be subsumed under the generic term of ocean energy. All that these energy sources have in common, however, is that they are found in the ocean. The present article discusses tidal energy with respect to the four principal factors determining the scope of a renewable energy source, namely global, technical, and economic availability and ecological acceptability. (orig.) [de

  2. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  3. Energy Fact Sheets - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  4. A hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach to predict hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshasbi, Samira; Kurnitski, Jarek; Mohammadi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The energy consumption and renewable generation in a cluster of NZEBs are modeled by a novel hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach and used for the prediction of instantaneous and cumulative net energy balances and hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid. - Highlights: • Hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of NZEBs was simulated. • Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach were employed. • Dampening effect of energy used by a cluster of buildings was demonstrated. • Hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the grid was simulated. • Results showed that NZEB cluster was 63.5% grid dependant on annual bases. - Abstract: Employing a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach, energy consumption and renewable energy generation in a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) was thoroughly investigated with hourly simulation. Moreover, the cumulative energy consumption and generation of the whole cluster and each individual building within the simulation space were accurately monitored and reported. The results indicate that the developed simulation algorithm is able to predict the total instantaneous and cumulative amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid over any time period. During the course of simulation, about 60–100% of total daily generated renewable energy was consumed by NZEBs and up to 40% of that was fed back into the central energy grid as surplus energy. The minimum grid dependency of the cluster was observed in June and July where 11.2% and 9.9% of the required electricity was supplied from the central energy grid, respectively. On the other hand, the NZEB cluster was strongly grid dependant in January and December by importing 70.7% and 76.1% of its required energy demand via the central energy grid, in the order given. Simulation results revealed that the cluster was 63

  5. Potential feedbacks between snow cover, soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stordal, Frode

    2017-04-01

    At high latitudes, the snow season has become shorter during the past decades because snowmelt is highly sensitive to a warmer climate. Snowmelt influences the energy balance by changing the albedo and the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. It further influences the water balance by changing the runoff and soil moisture. In a previous study, we identified southern Norway as a region where significant temperature changes in summer could potentially be explained by land-atmosphere interactions. In this study we hypothesise that changes in snow cover would influence the summer surface fluxes in the succeeding weeks or months. The exceptionally warm summer of 2014 was chosen as a test bed. In Norway, evapotranspiration is not soil moisture limited, but energy limited, under normal conditions. During warm summers, however, such as in 2014, evapotranspiration can be restricted by the available soil moisture. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model we replace the initial ground conditions for 2014 with conditions representative of a snow-poor spring and a snow-rich spring. WRF was coupled to Noah-MP at 3 km horizontal resolution in the inner domain, and the simulations covered mid-May through September 2014. Boundary conditions used to force WRF were taken from the Era-Interim reanalysis. Snow, runoff, soil moisture and soil temperature observational data were provided by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate for validation. The validation shows generally good agreement with observations. Preliminary results show that the reduced snowpack, hereafter "sim1" increased the air temperature by up to 5 K and the surface temperature by up to 10 K in areas affected by snow changes. The increased snowpack, hereafter "sim2", decreased the air and surface temperature by the same amount. These are weekly mean values for the first eight simulation weeks from mid May. Because of the higher net energy available ( 100 Wm-2) in sim 1, both

  6. Case Study of a Nearly Zero Energy Building in Italian Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saeed Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is an important stakeholder in the energy and environmental scenario of any country. It continues to grow across the world due to factors such as population growth, and economic and infrastructure development. Within the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energy requirements and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. The building sector is keen to improve its sustainability standards and also to help achieve the 20-20-20 targets set by the European Union. The present work aims to design a nearly zero energy sports gymnasium building in Calolziocorte, Italy. Various sustainability techniques are applied in an integrated design project approach using ECOTECT software to undertake the energy modelling exercise. Firstly, the base-case is modelled with conventional building materials and the total energy demand is calculated. Duly considering the local climatic conditions, sustainable materials are chosen for walls, the floor, the roof, and windows and a 38% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. The impact of louvers as a passive design technique has also been examined on the total energy demand of the building. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is undertaken for various individual functions inside the building to identify the critical areas that consume more energy. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is performed with the proposed materials and the air infiltration rate is improved through the building envelope and 63% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. A solar access analysis is conducted to understand the on-site energy production and then the building net energy demand is calculated, which is reduced to 90% compared to the base-case.

  7. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  8. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  9. Biological disintegration of microalgae for biomethane recovery-prediction of biodegradability and computation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Yukesh Kannah, R; Rajesh Banu, J; Kaliappan, S; Johnson, M

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the synergistic effect of combined bacterial disintegration on mixed microalgal biomass for energy efficient biomethane generation. The rate of microalgal biomass lysis, enhanced biodegradability, and methane generation were used as indices to assess efficiency of the disintegration. A maximal dissolvable organics release and algal biomass lysis rate of about 1100, 950 and 800mg/L and 26, 23 and 18% was achieved in PA+C (protease, amylase+cellulase secreting bacteria), C (cellulase alone) and PA (protease, amylase) microalgal disintegration. During anaerobic fermentation, a greater production of volatile fatty acids (1000mg/L) was noted in PA+C bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass. PA+C bacterial disintegration improve the amenability of microalgal biomass to biomethanation process with higher biodegradability of about 0.27gCOD/gCOD, respectively. The energy balance analysis of this combined bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass provides surplus positive net energy (1.14GJ/d) by compensating the input energy requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient characteristics of thermal energy storage in an enclosure packed with MEPCM particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siao, Yong-Hao; Yan, Wei-Mon; Lai, Chi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of phase change materials have been of continuing interest of research due to various potential technical applications, such as the latent-heat thermal energy storage, thermal protection, as well as active/passive electronic cooling. In this work, the transient characteristics of thermal energy storage in a partitioned enclosure filled with microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) particles were investigated experimentally and numerically. To examine the different melting temperature effects, two different MEPCM particles are tested. The core phase change materials of the MEPCM are n-octadecane with melting temperature about T M  = 28 °C and 37 °C. The enclosure is partitioned and is differentially heated by the two horizontal isothermal surfaces, while the other vertical surfaces are considered thermally insulated. The studies have been undertaken for five sets of the hot and cold wall temperatures imposed across the enclosure. The consequents show that the numerical results are in agreement with the measured data. At the initial transient, the net energy storage in enclosure, Q net , increases with the time Fo. Finally, the Q net approaches quickly the steady state for the case with a higher temperature difference of T h  − T c . Additionally, higher dimensionless accumulated energy through the hot wall Q h and cold wall Q c is found for a case with higher hot wall temperature T h

  11. Energy values and estimation of power generation potentials of some non-woody biomass species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M; Patel, S K [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India)

    2008-07-01

    In view of high energy potentials in non-woody biomass species and an increasing interest in their utilization for power generation, an attempt has been made in this study to assess the proximate analysis and energy content of different components of Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species (both non-woody), and their impact on power generation and land requirement for energy plantations. The net energy content in Ocimum canum was found to be slightly higher than that in Tridax procumbens. In spite of having higher ash contents, the barks from both the plant species exhibited higher calorific values. The results have shown that approximately 650 and 1,270 hectares of land are required to generate 20,000 kWh/day electricity from Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species. Coal samples, obtained from six different local mines, were also examined for their qualities, and the results were compared with those of studied biomass materials. This comparison reveals much higher power output with negligible emission of suspended particulate matters (SPM) from biomass materials.

  12. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  13. The Taylor-Proudman column in a rapidly-rotating compressible fluid I. energy transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of the steady flow of a compressible fluid in a rapidly rotating finite cylinder. Flow is generated by imposing mechanical and/or thermal disturbances at the rotating endwall disks. Both the Ekman and Rossby numbers are small. An examination is made of the energy budget for a control volume in the Ekman boundary layer. A combination of physical variables, which is termed the energy flux content, consisting of temperature and modified angular momentum, emerges to be relevant. The distinguishing features of a compressible fluid, in contrast to those of an incompressible fluid, are noted. A plausible argument is given to explain the difficulty in achieving the Taylor-Proudman column in a compressible rotating fluid. For the Taylor-Proudman column to be sustained, in the interior, it is shown that the net energy transport between the solid disk wall and the interior fluid should vanish. Physical rationalizations are facilitated by resorting to the concept of the afore-stated energy flux content.

  14. Energy Return on Investment for Norwegian Oil and Gas from 1991 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Höök

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian oil and gas fields are relatively new and of high quality, which has led, during recent decades, to very high profitability both financially and in terms of energy production. One useful measure for profitability is Energy Return on Investment, EROI. Our analysis shows that EROI for Norwegian petroleum production ranged from 44:1 in the early 1990s to a maximum of 59:1 in 1996, to about 40:1 in the latter half of the last decade. To compare globally, only very few, if any, resources show such favorable EROI values as those found in the Norwegian oil and gas sector. However, the declining trend in recent years is most likely due to ageing of the fields whereas varying drilling intensity might have a smaller impact on the net energy gain of the fields. We expect the EROI of Norwegian oil and gas production to deteriorate further as the fields become older. More energy-intensive production techniques will gain in importance.

  15. The use of biomass in Denmark. Goal and means in ``Energy 21``; Biomasseanvendelse i Danmark. Maal og virkemidler i ``Energi 21``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, O.

    1997-12-31

    This conference paper discusses the role of biomass in Denmark up to 2005. The energy action plan ``Energy 21``, which was adopted in 1996, conforms to the goal of reducing the CO{sub 2} emission by 20% by 2005 compared to the 1988 level and by 50% by 2030. In 2030, 20% of the net energy consumption will come from biomass. The instruments for achieving this ambitious goal take the form of agreements with the electricity utilities, taxes and charges, and selective subsidies to the use of biomass technologies, to electricity produced from biomass, and to research and development. Revisions of the Biomass Agreement may contribute to achieving the goals. The market conditions for the electricity utilities for buying straw and wood chips have been made more flexible and biogas may now be used for decentralized combined heat and power in natural gas regions. The development and demonstration projects have paid off by having brought the development to a level where a forced biomass utilization is possible. The development of biomass is undergoing a comprehensive readjustment. 1 figure, 5 tabs.

  16. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  17. France's energy balance for 2014: production peak and a consumption low

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine

    2015-07-01

    2014 was the warmest year since 1900 in France and in the rest of the world. In particular, the mild winter led to heating needs 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) lower than the needs in an average year. Real primary energy consumption fell below the symbolic 250 Mtoe level, a low it had not reached since 1995. Although energy demand decreased, national primary energy production increased for the second year running, reaching 139 Mtoe, a little over 1 Mtoe higher than in 2013. This rise in production is explained by nuclear generated electricity. The 2014 physical trade deficit for energy therefore decreased significantly, by 10 Mtoe, to below 114 Mtoe. Such a low level had not been observed since 1988. The level of energy self-sufficiency rose sharply in 2014, to 55.8%, a level not hitherto reached. The decrease in net energy imports was accompanied by a drop in quoted prices for energy products on the European and international markets. As a result, France's energy bill was 17% lower than in 2013. At around euro 55 billion, it fell to a level close to that of the early 1980's. Even excluding the effects of the higher temperatures in 2014, thereby adjusting for climate variations, primary energy went from 275 Mtoe - its maximum, reached in 2005 - to 257 Mtoe, with an average annual decrease of -2 Mtoe, confirming the downward trend initiated in the mid-2000's. Final energy consumption was 150 Mtoe in 2014, the lowest level since 1996. It decreased by a little more than 1% in relation to 2013, with reductions in all sectors except for transport, where consumption remained stable. (author)

  18. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive assessment of the life cycle energy demand of passive houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, André; Crawford, Robert H.; Myttenaere, Kristel de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life cycle energy demand of a passive house (PH) is measured over 100 years. • Embodied, operational and user transport energy demand are considered. • Embodied energy represents the highest energy consumption in all variations. • A PH might not save energy compared to a standard house. • A poorly insulated city apartment can use less energy than a best case suburban PH. - Abstract: Certifications such as the Passive House aim to reduce the final space heating energy demand of residential buildings. The latter are responsible for a significant share of final energy consumption in Europe of which nearly 70% is associated with space conditioning, notably heating. The improvement of the energy efficiency of residential buildings, in terms of space heating, can therefore reduce their total energy demand. However, most certifications totally overlook other energy requirements associated with residential buildings. Studies on passive houses do not take into consideration the embodied energy required to manufacture the building materials, especially the large amount of insulation required to achieve high operational efficiencies. At an urban scale, most passive houses are single family detached houses located in low density suburbs with a high car usage, resulting in considerable transport related energy demand. This paper analyses the total life cycle energy demand of a typical Belgian passive house, comprising embodied, operational and transport energy. It relies on a comprehensive technique developed by Stephan et al. [1] and conducts a parametric analysis as well as a comparison to alternative building types. Results show that current building energy efficiency certifications might not ensure a lower energy demand and can, paradoxically result in an increased energy consumption because of their limited scope. More comprehensive system boundaries should be used to make sure that net energy savings do occur. The embodied energy of passive

  20. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  1. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  2. Dossier Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijer, H.; Holwerda, B.; Schrauwers, A.; Van de Graaf, A.; Van Gelder, T.

    2003-01-01

    Several aspects with respect to energy are discussed in a special section of this magazine: the security of energy supply in a liberalized market, saving energy by outsourcing (e.g. compressed air contracting), the profits of a liberalized energy market for businesses, incentives for energy saving projects and innovations, an energy efficiency project at Ineos Silicas (producer of zeolites), and energy efficient electronic equipment [nl

  3. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  4. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation: A comprehensive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Murphy, David; Fthenakis, Vasilis; Frischknecht, Rolf; Breyer, Christian; Bardi, Ugo; Barnhart, Charles; Buckley, Alastair; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Csala, Denes; Wild-Scholten, Mariska de; Heath, Garvin; Jæger-Waldau, Arnulf; Jones, Christopher; Keller, Arthur; Leccisi, Enrica; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    A recent paper by asserts that the ERoEI (also referred to as EROI) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is so low that they actually act as net energy sinks, rather than delivering energy to society. Such claim, if accurate, would call into question many energy investment decisions. In the same paper, a comparison is also drawn between PV and nuclear electricity. We have carefully analysed this paper, and found methodological inconsistencies and calculation errors that, in combination, render its conclusions not scientifically sound. Ferroni and Hopkirk adopt ‘extended’ boundaries for their analysis of PV without acknowledging that such choice of boundaries makes their results incompatible with those for all other technologies that have been analysed using more conventional boundaries, including nuclear energy with which the authors engage in multiple inconsistent comparisons. In addition, they use out-dated information, make invalid assumptions on PV specifications and other key parameters, and conduct calculation errors, including double counting. We herein provide revised EROI calculations for PV electricity in Switzerland, adopting both conventional and ‘extended’ system boundaries, to contrast with their results, which points to an order-of-magnitude underestimate of the EROI of PV in Switzerland by Ferroni and Hopkirk. - Highlights: • A recent paper by Ferroni and Hopkirk estimated an EROI=0.8 for PV in Switzerland. • We identify several critical methodological and calculation flaws in that paper. • We discuss such flaws in detail and rebut Ferroni and Hopkirk's conclusions. • We provide revised EROI calculations with both conventional and extended boundaries.

  5. Energy reduction through voltage scaling and lightweight checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadric, Edin

    As the semiconductor roadmap reaches smaller feature sizes and the end of Dennard Scaling, design goals change, and managing the power envelope often dominates delay minimization. Voltage scaling remains a powerful tool to reduce energy. We find that it results in about 60% geomean energy reduction on top of other common low-energy optimizations with 22nm CMOS technology. However, when voltage is reduced, it becomes easier for noise and particle strikes to upset a node, potentially causing Silent Data Corruption (SDC). The 60% energy reduction, therefore, comes with a significant drop in reliability. Duplication with checking and triple-modular redundancy are traditional approaches used to combat transient errors, but spending 2--3x the energy for redundant computation can diminish or reverse the benefits of voltage scaling. As an alternative, we explore the opportunity to use checking operations that are cheaper than the base computation they are guarding. We devise a classification system for applications and their lightweight checking characteristics. In particular, we identify and evaluate the effectiveness of lightweight checks in a broad set of common tasks in scientific computing and signal processing. We find that the lightweight checks cost only a fraction of the base computation (0-25%) and allow us to recover the reliability losses from voltage scaling. Overall, we show about 50% net energy reduction without compromising reliability compared to operation at the nominal voltage. We use FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays) in our work, although the same ideas can be applied to different systems. On top of voltage scaling, we explore other common low-energy techniques for FPGAs: transmission gates, gate boosting, power gating, low-leakage (high-Vth) processes, and dual-V dd architectures. We do not scale voltage for memories, so lower voltages help us reduce logic and interconnect energy, but not memory energy. At lower voltages, memories become dominant

  6. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  7. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  8. Energy assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Energy industry initiatives during the 1970s and during the 1990s are compared. During the 1970s, the objective was to reduce energy consumption and to reduce dependency on foreign fuel. Today, the emphasis is on reducing energy costs and to improve net operating income. The challenges posed by the drive to reduce energy costs are discussed. As a tool in the drive to reduce energy cost, the energy assessment process was described. The process entails a detailed analysis of energy consumption, an investigation of energy rates and an assessment of site conditions and equipment, with a view towards an optimum combination that will lead to energy cost reductions

  9. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    The author first discusses the various concepts and definitions associated with energy needs, and then the difference between actual needs and energy needs by distinguishing personal needs, needs of the productive sector, energetic needs and services. In the next part, he discusses how energy needs are assessed. He discusses the relationship between energy needs and energy consumption, how energy consumptions can be analysed and interpreted. He comments how energy needs can be assessed and analysed in time and in space. He notices and explains why economy and climate are the main causes of spatial differences for energy needs per habitant, and comments the evolution of energy consumption over long periods

  10. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  11. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  12. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  13. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  14. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  15. Scenario comparisons of gasification technology using energy life cycle assessment for bioenergy recovery from rice straw in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shie, J.L.; Lee, C.H.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, K.L.; Chang, C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy balances of potential gasification technology and limitation boundary are evaluated. • The transportation and pre-treatment are the greatest parts of energy use. • Every technology process has positive energy benefits at all on-site pre-treatment cases. • The optimal ranges of transportation distance and treatment capacity are suggested. • The optimal technology from the tendency model is addressed. - Abstract: This study uses different scenarios to evaluate, by means of energy life-cycle assessments (ELCAs), the energy balance of potential gasification technology and limitation boundaries in Taiwan. Rice straw is chosen as the target material in this study because it is the most significant agriculture waste in Taiwan. Energy products include syngas (CO + H 2 ), methane, carbon dioxide and carbon black residue. The scenarios simulate capacities of 50,000–200,000 tons/year. The distances of collection and transportation are calculated by a circular area 50–100 km in diameter. Also, the on-site and off-site pretreatments of rice straw are evaluated. For this optimum scenario case, the average of the total input energy for the assessed systems is about 15.9% of the average output energy; the value of the net energy balance (NEB) is 0.841. Every technological process has positive energy benefits at all on-site scenario cases. As the capacity is increased, the energy consumption required for transportation increases and the values of the energy indicators decrease. According to the limitation boundaries from the tendency model at on-site cases, the suggested transportation distance and treatment capacity are below 114.72 km and 251,533 tons/year, respectively, while the energy return on investment (EROI) value is greater than 1

  16. Neural network modeling of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of watermelon production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine energy consumption, model and analyze the input–output, energy efficiencies and GHG emissions for watermelon production using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the Guilan province of Iran, based on three different farm sizes. For this purpose, the initial data was collected from 120 watermelon producers in Langroud and Chaf region, two small cities in the Guilan province. The results indicated that total average energy input for watermelon production was 40228.98 MJ ha–1. Also, chemical fertilizers (with 76.49% were the highest energy inputs for watermelon production. Moreover, the share of non-renewable energy (with 96.24% was more than renewable energy (with 3.76% in watermelon production. The rate of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy was calculated as 1.29, 0.68 kg MJ−1 and 11733.64 MJ ha−1, respectively. With respect to GHG analysis, the average of total GHG emissions was calculated about 1015 kgCO2eq. ha−1. The results illustrated that share of nitrogen (with 54.23% was the highest in GHG emissions for watermelon production, followed by diesel fuel (with 16.73% and electricity (with 15.45%. In this study, Levenberg–Marquardt learning Algorithm was used for training ANNs based on data collected from watermelon producers. The ANN model with 11–10–2 structure was the best one for predicting the watermelon yield and GHG emissions. In the best topology, the coefficient of determination (R2 was calculated as 0.969 and 0.995 for yield and GHG emissions of watermelon production, respectively. Furthermore, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the seed and human labor had the highest sensitivity in modeling of watermelon yield and GHG emissions, respectively.

  17. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NE L /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NE L /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Energy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    These 8 charts bring information on with the primary energy consumption, energy indicators, energy bill, prices and electric power, petroleum, natural gas and solid mineral fuels from January 2003 to January 2006. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  20. Energy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...

  1. Energy, tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Frantál, B. (Bohumil)

    2015-01-01

    The chapter provides a general definition of energy and resume the role and environmental impacts of tourism as one of the largest global industries and energy consumers.Then the energy tourism nexus is conceptualized from three perspectives: The first is energy as a driver of tourism. The second is energy as a constraint of tourism. The third is energy as an attraction and object of tourists´interests.

  2. Crop Management Effects on the Energy and Carbon Balances of Maize Stover-Based Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Woli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the crop management options—the combinations of various cultivars, irrigation amounts, planting dates, and soils—that would maximize the energy sustainability and eco-friendliness of maize (Zea mays L. stover-based ethanol production systems in the Mississippi Delta. Stover yields simulated with CERES-Maize were used to compute net energy value (NEV and carbon credit balance (CCB, the indicators of sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production, respectively, for various scenarios. As the results showed, deeper soils with higher water holding capacities had larger NEV and CCB values. Both NEV and CCB had sigmoid relationships with irrigation amount and planting date and could be maximized by planting the crop during the optimum planting window. Stover yield had positive effects on NEV and CCB, whereas travel distance had negative. The influence of stover yield was larger than that of travel distance, indicating that increasing feedstock yields should be emphasized over reducing travel distance. The NEV and CCB values indicated that stover-based ethanol production in the Mississippi Delta is sustainable and environmentally friendly. The study demonstrated that the energy sustainability and eco-friendliness of maize stover-based ethanol production could be increased with alternative crop management options.

  3. Material and energy balances in the production of ethanol from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, M; Lora, J H; Gulbinas, E

    1978-01-01

    Experimental production of ethanol from aspen wood gave yeilds of 70.7% or 83.4% or theory when acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis weere used after autohydrolysis and extraction of lignin. These were, respectively, 58.4 and 68.9 gallons of 95% ethanol per ton of aspen wood (dry basis). In addition 426 lb of lignin with heat of combustion 11,100 Btu/lb were obtained per ton of wood. Gross energy recovery (ethanol + lignin) was 52.4 and 58.0% by thee two processes, or allowing for processing energy, net energy recovery was 36.1 and 42.3% respectively. Multi stage hydrolysis was beneficial for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, 80% and over 99% of theoretical yeilds of sugar being obtained by the two processes. Economic estimates show a significant advantage in investment and operating costs for the enzymatic process. Thee price of 95% ethanol, including a reasonable return on investment by this process is estimated at $1.34/gallon. This would be a good price for industrial ethanol, but would be quite high for gasoline use under prevailing circumstance.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States, using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu).

  5. Energy and protein requirements of weaned male and female Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, F O M; Leite, R F; St-Pierre, N R; Resende, K T; Almeida, A K; Souza, A P; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth in male (castrated and intact) and female Saanen goat kids between 15 and 30 kg BW. To determine the net energy requirements for maintenance (NE m ) and the net protein requirements for maintenance (NP m ), 75 goats (25 castrated and 26 intact males and 24 females) were used. Twenty-one goats (seven castrated and eight intact males and six females) were randomly assigned for slaughter to estimate the initial empty body composition. The 54 remaining animals (18 castrated and 18 intact males and 18 females) were randomly assigned in a split-plot design using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three sexes and three levels of intake (ad libitum and restricted feed to 75% or 50% of the ad libitum intake). Within each sex, six blocks (three goats per block) were formed and one goat was randomly assigned to each level of intake. The 75% and the 50% of ad libitum rationing were determined daily, based on the DMI of the animal fed ad libitum on the previous day. All animals within block were slaughtered when the animal fed ad libitum reached 30 kg BW. The net energy requirements for gain (NE g ) and the net protein requirements for gain (NP g ) were obtained using 58 animals (20 castrated and 20 intact males and 18 females). The animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW (15, 23 or 30 kg). Sex did not affect NE g and NP m (277.8 kJ/kg 0.75  BW day and 2.98 g CP/kg 0.75  BW day respectively), as well as NP g (180.9 ± 6.48 g/kg EBW gain) in Saanen goat kids. However, castrated males and females had similar NE g (varied from 12.6 ± 0.424 to 17.9 ± 1.38 MJ/kg EBW gain), greater than intact males (varied from 9.74 ± 0.420 to 10.7 ± 0.984 MJ/kg EBW gain), as the BW increased from 15 to 30 kg. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economical Analysis of Onion(Allium Cepa L. Production in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional agricultural systems using intensive energy have to be revitalized through new integrated approaches relying on renewable energy resources, which can allow farmers to stop dependence on fossil resources. The aim of this study was determining the amount of input–output energy used in onion (Allium cepa L. production in Khorasan Razavi province. For this purpose, the data was collected from 55 onion farm workers in Khorasan Razavi. Inquiries were conducted in face-to-face interviews in April-May 2011. Farm workers were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy input was 98479 MJ.ha-1. The share of electricity and nitrogen fertilizer was 50.9 and 14.7%, respectively out of total energy input. The average onion yield under normal conditions was 73227 kg.ha-1 on irrigated farms. The net energy and energy productivity values were estimated to be 18684 MJ.ha-1 and 0.74 kg.MJ-1, respectively, and the ratio of energy output to energy input was found to be 1.19. This indicated an intensive use of input in onion production, which is not parallel to the increase in the final yield. Approximately 77.3% of the total energy input used in onion production was non-renewable (machinery, diesel, fertilizers, chemicals and electricity and only 22.7% was renewable energy form (human labor, manure, water for irrigation, seeds. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of onion production for one hectare was 79262908 Rials. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 1.65. Although energy efficiency of onion production in Khorasan Razavi province is low, it is economically justified.

  7. Energy security, trans-national pipelines and China's role in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent decades, China's transformation from a regional energy supplier to one of the world's largest net energy importers, in particular with regards to oil and gas, has led to an increasing sense of energy insecurity in Chinese policy circles. Guaranteeing adequate supplies of energy to fuel economic growth is a central element in Beijing's efforts to maintain legitimacy in the face of economic reform and transformation. To combat energy insecurity a number of initiatives are being undertaken to diversify energy inputs, suppliers, and the means of their transport. Among these initiatives are a series of trans-national pipeline projects that will transport oil and gas from Eastern Siberia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, effectively reducing China's overall reliance on international sea lanes and maritime choke-points, in particular the Strait of Malacca. An analysis of these projects can shed light on how China's energy security policies are playing out on a regional level, how they are complicated and aided by various competing and converging interests of regional actors, and how they are re-shaping traditional regional dependencies. Indeed, more complex interdependencies among suppliers, consumers and transit states in continental Asia seem to be emerging as a consequence of China's growing role as an energy consumer. In the end, these pipelines help to diversify China's oil and gas suppliers and transport routes, easing its reliance on Middle Eastern oil and maritime transit, but they are by no means an alternative to the latter. China will continue to rely heavily on international oil markets and maritime shipping routes to deliver Middle Eastern oil. Suring up international markets and finding means to cooperate on international maritime security issues are thus and will remain in China's best interest. (author)

  8. Energy security, trans-national pipelines and China's role in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, China's transformation from a regional energy supplier to one of the world's largest net energy importers, in particular with regards to oil and gas, has led to an increasing sense of energy insecurity in Chinese policy circles. Guaranteeing adequate supplies of energy to fuel economic growth is a central element in Beijing's efforts to maintain legitimacy in the face of economic reform and transformation. To combat energy insecurity a number of initiatives are being undertaken to diversify energy inputs, suppliers, and the means of their transport. Among these initiatives are a series of trans-national pipeline projects that will transport oil and gas from Eastern Siberia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, effectively reducing China's overall reliance on international sea lanes and maritime choke-points, in particular the Strait of Malacca. An analysis of these projects can shed light on how China's energy security policies are playing out on a regional level, how they are complicated and aided by various competing and converging interests of regional actors, and how they are re-shaping traditional regional dependencies. Indeed, more complex interdependencies among suppliers, consumers and transit states in continental Asia seem to be emerging as a consequence of China's growing role as an energy consumer. In the end, these pipelines help to diversify China's oil and gas suppliers and transport routes, easing its reliance on Middle Eastern oil and maritime transit, but they are by no means an alternative to the latter. China will continue to rely heavily on international oil markets and maritime shipping routes to deliver Middle Eastern oil. Suring up international markets and finding means to cooperate on international maritime security issues are thus and will remain in China's best interest. (author)

  9. Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, Dilip; Venkata, Bharadwaj K.; Silveira, Semida; Johnson, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study performs LCA analysis of sugarcane-based bioethanol production. • Energy and GHG balances are evaluated in the entire production chain. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key influencing parameters. • Efficient cogeneration and biogas recovery enhances energy and climate gains. • Results of LCA studies and issues related to land use change impact are discussed. - Abstract: This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO 2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are −7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  10. 24. IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Programme and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fosters the exchange of scientific and technical results in nuclear fusion research through its series of Fusion Energy Conferences. The 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2012) aims to provide a forum for the discussion of key physics and technology issues as well as innovative concepts of direct relevance to fusion as a source of nuclear energy. With a number of next-step fusion devices currently being implemented - such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Cadarache, France, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, USA - and in view of the concomitant need to demonstrate the technological feasibility of fusion power plants as well as the economical viability of this method of energy production, the fusion community is now facing new challenges. The resolution of these challenges will dictate research orientations in the present and coming decades. The scientific scope of FEC 2012 is, therefore, intended to reflect the priorities of this new era in fusion energy research. The conference aims to be a platform for sharing the results of research and development efforts in both national and international fusion experiments that have been shaped by these new priorities, and thereby help in pinpointing worldwide advances in fusion theory, experiments, technology, engineering, safety and socio-economics. Furthermore, the conference will also set these results against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and a fusion power plant in general, and will thus help in defining the way forward. With the participation of international organizations such as the ITER International Organization and EURATOM, as well as the collaboration of more than forty countries and several research institutes, including those working on smaller plasma devices, it is expected that this conference will, as in the past, serve to identify possibilities and means for a

  11. Development of Quebec's energy in a sustainable development context : summary; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Lemieux, D.; Lambert, N.; Lachance, J.G. [Eco Ressources Consultants, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bourque, F.; Benoit, P.A. [Reseau des ingenieurs du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-30

    As a net energy importer, issues of energy security are becoming increasingly important in Quebec. Since Quebec's energy policy is largely based on the development of hydropower, its energy development has already been consistent with sustainable development. Industry remains the largest energy consumer in Quebec, followed by the transportation sector, and the residential, commercial and agricultural sectors. Total energy consumption in the province is expected to increase by 1.2 per cent annually between 2001-2016. Although competitive electricity prices in Quebec have contributed to strengthening the provincial economy, it has been argued that the low price of electricity does not promote energy efficiency nor the development of alternative energy sources. Quebec imports all of its crude oil and natural gas. Energy production in the province is currently confined to electricity generation and refining of petroleum products at 3 main refineries. In 2005, the installed electrical capacity was 92.2 per cent hydropower, 5.3 per cent thermal power, 1.5 per cent nuclear power, and 0.9 per cent wind power. The vast majority of this installed capacity (78 per cent) is owned by Hydro-Quebec. Wind capacity is expected to reach 3,500 MW by 2017, representing about 8 per cent of Quebec's total electrical capacity. Guidelines have been identified in Quebec's energy strategy for 2006-2015 to promote energy efficiency and innovation of new energy technologies covering all markets and all forms of energy, including geothermal energy, solar energy and ethanol produced from forest residues, agricultural wastes and municipal wastes. The government's overall goal is to generate both energy savings and a reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Soft energy vs nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    During the early 1960s, a plentiful, inexpensive supply of petroleum enabled Japanese industry to progress rapidly; however, almost all of this petroleum was imported. Even after the first oil crisis of 1973, the recent annual energy consumption of Japan is calculated to be about 360 million tons in terms of petroleum, and actual petroleum forms 73% of total energy. It is necessary for Japan to reduce reliance on petroleum and to diversify energy resources. The use of other fossil fuels, such as coal, LNG and LPG, and hydraulic energy, is considered as an established alternative. In this presentation, the author deals with new energy, namely soft energy and nuclear energy, and discusses their characteristics and problems. The following kinds of energy are dealt with: a) Solar energy, b) Geothermal energy, c) Ocean energy (tidal, thermal, wave), d) Wind energy, e) Biomass energy, f) Hydrogen, g) Nuclear (thermal, fast, fusion). To solve the energy problem in future, assiduous efforts should be made to develop new energy systems. Among them, the most promising alternative energy is nuclear energy, and various kinds of thermal reactor systems have been developed for practical application. As a solution to the long-term future energy problem, research on and development of fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are going on. (author)

  13. Can storage reduce electricity consumption? A general equation for the grid-wide efficiency impact of using cooling thermal energy storage for load shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Thomas A.; Reimers, Andrew S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2018-02-01

    This study estimates changes in grid-wide, energy consumption caused by load shifting via cooling thermal energy storage (CTES) in the building sector. It develops a general equation for relating generator fleet fuel consumption to building cooling demand as a function of ambient temperature, relative humidity, transmission and distribution current, and baseline power plant efficiency. The results present a graphical sensitivity analysis that can be used to estimate how shifting load from cooling demand to cooling storage could affect overall, grid-wide, energy consumption. In particular, because power plants, air conditioners and transmission systems all have higher efficiencies at cooler ambient temperatures, it is possible to identify operating conditions such that CTES increases system efficiency rather than decreasing it as is typical for conventional storage approaches. A case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, USA shows that using CTES to shift daytime cooling load to nighttime cooling storage can reduce annual, system-wide, primary fuel consumption by 17.6 MWh for each MWh of installed CTES capacity. The study concludes that, under the right circumstances, cooling thermal energy storage can reduce grid-wide energy consumption, challenging the perception of energy storage as a net energy consumer.

  14. Energy Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  15. Energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefling, O.

    1980-01-01

    The physical and technical fundamentals of energy conversion are described in popular form. There are chapters on fossil nuclear, and renewable energy sources. The final chapter attempts to give a picture of the complex interactions in the fields of energy economy and energy policy. (UA) [de

  16. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  17. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  18. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  20. What energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption has developed significantly since the Second World War and population growth and improved living standards should see needs increasing even more. Traditional forecasts show that this energy consumption will continue to depend heavily on fossil energy. However, resources are limited and their use have a negative impact on the greenhouse effect and climate change. There is therefore a need to develop large quantities of renewable energy sources, to intensify energy saving programs and to pursue research in certain key areas

  1. Energy Leapfrogging

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur A. van Benthem

    2015-01-01

    Today's less developed countries (LDCs) have access to energy technologies that did not exist when today's richer countries were at similar stages of development. Do LDCs therefore consume less energy per capita than rich countries in the past? And is their economic growth associated with a lower growth in energy consumption? Can they "leapfrog" to a lower-carbon economy? I use data on energy consumption, prices, and gross domestic product for 76 countries to estimate the energy intensity of ...

  2. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  3. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    , right person for right job, capacity building of relevant institutions, for promotion of hydro electric power and other renewable sources. Public and private efforts in building a strong indigenous base for renewable energy technologies, designing, manufacturing, quality assurance, achieving cost effectiveness, reducing import dependence, promotion of self-reliance and minimizing environmental degradation is one of the objectives to be achieved. Electricity pilferage and technical losses, non payments of bills and corruption need to be seriously addressed. The government's policy towards renewable especially hydro and other energy balances would not only help the country to meet growing demand for electricity, but would also provide additional benefits by increasing fuel diversity or our electricity generation portfolio, reducing our exposure to fossil fuel price spikes, security and supply interruptions, deforestation, development of rural areas, minimize migration to cities, increasing economic development activity from a growing renewable energy industry and improving our environment etc. (author)

  4. Deciphering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author aims at giving some explanations about the various terms regarding energy which are present in our everyday life, in speeches, in papers and magazines, on the air, in our energy bills, for instance: energy poverty, price of a barrel of oil, resources and proved reserves, intermittency and energy storage, fossil and renewable energies, and so on. In a first part, the author addresses issues ranging from the development needs of a society to the energy assessment of a country, i.e.: nature and quantity of needs in services provided by energy, analysis of the required quantity of energy products needed to satisfy these needs, stages between primary resources and service delivery, description of the French consumption of available final energy products (per product and per economic sector). In the second part, he addresses energy supply, energy sectors and environmental issues, thus focusing on the front end of the energy system, i.e. ways of production from primary energy resources to final energy products: main physical characteristics and description of the different fissile, fossil and renewable energies, description of the main sectors of production of final energy products (fuels, electricity, heat) with a specific attention to electricity. In this part, local, regional and global environmental issues related to the exploitation of these energy sectors are discussed: sources of atmospheric pollution related to energy, relationship between energy and global warming, role of the different greenhouse gases emitted by these sectors, and quantitative analysis of these emissions. The third part addresses the economy of energy systems. The author proposes a cost assessment method which can be used for the production analysis as well as the economic analysis of a specific energy product. He also described external costs and profits, and methods to take those hidden costs and profits into account. Other economic tools are discussed and compared

  5. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are d