WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy security policies

  1. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  2. Updating energy security and environmental policy: Energy security theories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, L

    2018-06-18

    The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges. The study examines the classic energy security concepts (neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism and international political economy) and assesses if energy technology changes are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of 'international relations' and 'energy' research discourse with the use of big data, and case studies of Germany, China, and Russia. The paper offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  4. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  5. US oil policy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-05-01

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  6. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  7. Competing policy packages and the complexity of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Saunders, Harry

    2014-01-01

    To underscore both the diversity and severity of energy security tradeoffs, this study examines five different energy security policy packages—five distinct strategies aimed at reducing oil dependence, enhancing energy affordability, expanding access to modern energy services, responding to climate change, and minimizing the water intensity of energy production. It identifies both compelling synergies and conflicts between each of the five strategies. The central value of the study is that it turns on its head the widely accepted notion of a “portfolio approach” or “all of the above” strategy to energy policymaking. To make this case, the article begins by elucidating the complexity and multidimensionality of energy security as a concept. It then introduces our five energy security policy packages to illustrate how some energy security objectives complement each other whereas others counteract each other. It concludes by noting that energy security is not an absolute state, and that achieving it only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions, or policy goals and packages, more than others. - Highlights: • Energy security is a complex, multidimensional concept. • Policy packages aimed at achieving energy security often conflict with each other. • Energy security only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions more than others

  8. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  9. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  10. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  11. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  12. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  13. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.A

    2002-12-15

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  14. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, M.A.

    2002-12-01

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  15. Energy demand and supply, energy policies, and energy security in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoseok; Shin, Eui-soon; Chung, Woo-jin

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has enjoyed rapid economic growth and development over the last 30 years. Rapid increases in energy use-especially petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, and especially in the industrial and transport sectors-have fueled the ROK's economic growth, but with limited fossil fuel resources of its own, the result has been that the ROK is almost entirely dependent on energy imports. The article that follows summarizes the recent trends in the ROK energy sector, including trends in energy demand and supply, and trends in economic, demographic, and other activities that underlie trends in energy use. The ROK has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system, mainly induced by industrial, supply security, and environmental concerns, and energy policies in the ROK have evolved over the years to address such challenges through measures such as privatization of energy-sector activities, emphases on enhancing energy security through development of energy efficiency, nuclear power, and renewable energy, and a related focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The assembly of a model for evaluating energy futures in the ROK (ROK2010 LEAP) is described, and results of several policy-based scenarios focused on different levels of nuclear energy utilization are described, and their impacts on of energy supply and demand in the ROK through the year 2030 are explored, along with their implications for national energy security and long-term policy plans. Nuclear power continues to hold a crucial position in the ROK's energy policy, but aggressive expansion of nuclear power alone, even if possible given post-Fukushima global concerns, will not be sufficient to attain the ROK's 'green economy' and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals. - Research highlights: →Rapid industrialization caused ROK energy use to increase over 10-fold during 1970-2000, with dramatic structural changes. → Growth in energy use after 2000 slowed to under 5%/yr, and

  16. Energy policy of the EU and the role of Turkey in Energy Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHTER AYKIN Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the nations define strategies and develop policies on national and international levels to eliminate risks against energy security. The aim of this paper is to define the energy policy of the European Union and identify the potential of Turkey in securing energy supply to the European Union. To achieve this end, after explaining the policy frame of the European Union and that of Turkey in energy related matters, the existing and planned energy routes expanding from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea and the Middle East to the European Continent are mapped, and the role assigned to Turkey as an energy hub is exemplified with reference to its accession process. It is concluded that Turkey’s membership is to enrich the European Union and contribute to its energy supply security.

  17. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  18. Energy security in ASEAN: A quantitative approach for sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongsopit, Sopitsuda; Kittner, Noah; Chang, Youngho; Aksornkij, Apinya; Wangjiraniran, Weerin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate energy security of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) under the 4-A’s framework. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement launched in 2015 renewed a regional focus on energy security and sustainability. We employ an analytic framework to quantitatively assess progress in different categories including availability, acceptability, affordability, and applicability. Key metrics include the documentation of CO_2 emissions, energy access measures, and energy supply reserves from 2005–2010. We identify relevant energy indicators using high quality historical data from the IEA and World Bank. We find that ASEAN made little progress toward establishing energy security in the previous five-year planning period (2005–2010) as it regressed in most categories except applicability. Therefore, we suggest that increased development of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies would move ASEAN in a positive direction toward achieving energy security and sustainable energy policy goals. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security in ASEAN across four dimensions. • Energy security in ASEAN has mostly regressed from 2005–2010. • Future cooperative agreements will help ASEAN improve energy security.

  19. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri, E-mail: guri.bang@cicero.uio.n [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  20. Energy security and climate change concerns. Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress - the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo. (author)

  1. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  2. ENERGY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  3. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  4. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  5. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bohi, D.R. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R.; Bohi, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  8. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  9. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  10. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  11. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  12. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; Van der Zwaan, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO 2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  13. US oil policy and energy security; Politique petroliere americaine et securite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2002-05-15

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  14. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  15. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  16. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  17. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  18. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  19. Security, independence, and sustainability: Imprecise language and the manipulation of energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.

  20. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  1. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  2. The Policy Trade-off Between Energy Security and Climate Change in the GCC States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbek, Shaikha Ali

    Developing policies for energy security and climate change simultaneously can be very challenging as there is a trade-off. This research project strives to analyze the policies regarding the same that should be developed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) States which are; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman. Energy security is important in these countries because it is the prominent sector of their economies. Yet, the environment is being negatively impacted because of the energy production. There has been lot of international pressure on the GCC to divert its production and move towards clean energy production. It needs more research and development, as well as better economic diversification to maintain and improve the economic growth. Along with the literature review that has been used to study the cases and impacts of the GCC states, six in-depth interviews were conducted with professors, scholars and specialists in the environment and natural science fields to discuss about the GCC's situation. It has been alluded that the GCC states cannot be held solely responsible about the climate change because they are not the only energy producing nations in the world. Based on OPEC, there are 14 countries including the United States and China that also have prominent energy sectors. They should also be held accountable for the causes of environmental and climate change. This research provides recommendations for the GCC states to follow and apply in order to move forward with clean energy production, economic diversification and develop better policies.

  3. Energy security in western Mediterranean: new factors, new policies. A Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane-Estrada, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    After having noticed that there are two typical approaches and models to address energy security, policies acting on the supply side and policies based on a market-and-institutions approach (like stated by the European Union), the author outlines the effects of this second approach for countries of the western Mediterranean Sea, and then analyses the evolutions of energetic relationships between Algeria (where the energy sector is the most open, which is the best equipped in terms of gas infrastructures, and which attracts foreign investors) and European countries of the region (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Thus, she analyses present exchanges in the region, the dependency of these European countries on Mediterranean producers, and the relationships between involved companies of the region. She discusses the issue of energy security policy for the region from the perspective of the governments of producing countries and of consuming countries, and of companies. She discusses whether the project of Union for the Mediterranean complies with these objectives of energy security

  4. Strategic Culture and Energy Security Policy of South Korea: The Case of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun

    2012-01-01

    The U. S. - ROK Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement highlights the dilemma of contemporary international non-proliferation regime. Non-Proliferation Treaty has represented an awkward balance between the ideal of nuclear energy and the reality of nuclear weapons. It is neither complete nor effective. It is not complete because it does not cover all the issues with respect to nuclear energy, which have become increasingly complex. Nuclear security, for example, is not an issue that it addresses, and it is precisely why President Obama called for the unprecedented Nuclear Security Summit. It is not effective. It has failed in preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons states, India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea, who remain outside of the regime. An international regime is defined as 'a set of principles, norms, rules, and decision-procedures around which actors' expectations converge. The extents to which actors' expectations converge and forceful measures in the name of international community against any violation are justified will measure its effectiveness. NPT regime is sub-par on that. The world is in dire need of a comprehensive and integrated regime for nuclear energy regime, where proliferation, security, and safety concern are effectively addressed. South Korea, if it truly wants to become a key player in the field, has to be one of its architects. The ability to meet the challenge of revising Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement will show if it is a qualified architect

  5. Energy policy for Europe. Ensuring secure and low-carbon energy in the EU's internal market. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egenhofer, C.; Hammes, J.J.; Pedersen, K.

    2006-12-01

    In early March 2006, the European Commission re-launched the discussion on an Energy Policy for Europe with the 2006 publication of its Green Paper 'Secure, Competitive and Sustainable Energy for Europe'. This manifests the EU's will to broaden its reflection on its future energy systems, taking into account increasing market liberalisation and globalisation, environmental pressures, technological challenges and the growing import dependency from politically unstable regions. Other major contributions to this debate include the climate change communication 'Winning the battle against climate change' (published in 2005), the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency (2005), the Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2006), the ongoing works of the High Level Group on Competitiveness, Energy and the Environment (2006) and the enquiry into the energy sector by DG Competition of the European Commission in 2006. The Spring European Council in March 2006 welcomed the Energy Policy Green Paper and committed itself adopting a prioritised Action Plan at its spring session in 2007, to be prepared by the European Commission and the Energy Council. Early next year, the European Commission will table both the EU Strategic Energy Review, accompanied by a number of sectoral policies and a Green Paper on future climate change policy for the period post-2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Both the EU Strategic Energy Review and the post-2012 Green Paper will outline the European Union (EU) 'energy and climate change vision' and propose a roadmap towards achieving EU energy and climate change objectives, namely, how to ensure the competitiveness of European industries while at the same time combating climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. To contribute to this debate, the CEPS multi-stakeholder Task Force on 'energy policy for Europe' has presented this Interim Report, which attempts to develop the key elements for an EU energy policy framework. Although this report will focus

  6. The Paradox of German Foreign and Security Policy: With Respect to National Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    analysis from an historical perspective and first published post- materialist theory. It builds on Maslow ‟s hierarchy of needs and seeks to explain how...and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...policy. Being strategically prepared when market forces fail to balance contradictory interests becomes a necessity for many countries. Based on Germany

  7. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Gasoline consumption by passenger cars and light trucks is a major source of air pollution. It also adds to the economy's dependence on petroleum and vulnerability to oil price shocks. Despite these environmental and other costs, called external cost, the price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, has generally been declining since 1985, encouraging increased consumption. This paper reports that with these concerns in mind, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, requested that GAO assess policy options for addressing the external costs of gasoline consumption. To do this, GAO identified six major policy options and evaluated whether they addressed several relevant objectives, including economic growth, environmental quality, equity, petroleum conservation, visibility of costs, energy security, traffic congestion, competitiveness, and administrative feasibility

  8. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  9. Conceptualizing energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Energy security is one of the main targets of energy policy. However, the term has not been clearly defined, which makes it hard to measure and difficult to balance against other policy objectives. We review the multitude of definitions of energy security. They can be characterized according to the sources of risk, the scope of the impacts, and the severity filters in the form of the speed, size, sustention, spread, singularity and sureness of impacts. Using a stylized case study for three European countries, we illustrate how the selection of conceptual boundaries along these dimensions determines the outcome. This can be avoided by more clearly separating between security of supply and other policy objectives. This leads us to the definition of energy security as the continuity of energy supplies relative to demand. - Highlights: ► The widest energy security concept includes all risks that are caused by or have an impact on the energy supply chain. ► Authors narrow this down by choosing different risk sources, impact measures and subjective severity filters in their definitions. ► The selection of conceptual boundaries determines outcome of quantitative studies.

  10. Securing energy equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare, E-mail: lars.grimsby@umb.no [Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: > Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. > A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. > Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  11. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  12. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgathi, Donald L.; Mfundisi, K.B.; Mmopelwa, G.; Mosepele, K.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  13. Concept for Energy Security Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Einari; Hamburg, Arvi; Härm, Mihkel; Leppiman, Ando; Ots, Märt

    2016-01-01

    The following paper presents a discussion of short- and long-term energy security assessment methods and indicators. The aim of the current paper is to describe diversity of approaches to energy security, to structure energy security indicators used by different institutions and papers, and to discuss several indicators that also play important role in the design of energy policy of a state. Based on this analysis the paper presents a novel Energy Security Matrix that structures relevant energy security indicators from the aspects of Technical Resilience and Vulnerability, Economic Dependence and Political Affectability for electricity, heat and transport fuel sectors. Earlier publications by different authors have presented energy security assessment methodologies that use publicly available indicators from different databases. Current paper challenges viability of some of these indicators and introduces new indicators that would deliver stronger energy security policy assessments. Energy Security Matrix and its indicators are based on experiences that the authors have gathered as high-level energy policymakers in Estonia, where all different aspects of energy security can be observed. - Highlights: •Energy security should be analysed in technical, economic and political terms; •Energy Security Matrix provides a framework for energy security analyses; •Applicability of Matrix is limited due to the lack of statistical data and sensitivity of output.

  14. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  15. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  16. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  18. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  19. Europe's New Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piebalgs, A.; Conn, I.; Dobbeni, D.; Josefsson, L.G.; Mogg, L.; Rifkin, J.; Scaroni, P.; Tanaka, N.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's energy policy has been completely transformed over the last few years, tackling the dual challenges of climate change and energy security. This has lead to major new laws on issues such as energy liberalisation, renewable energy and energy efficiency. In this volume the detailed reasons for these changes are outlined and the way in which the European Union has risen to these challenges is discussed. Views are given on where Europe's energy policy will go next, the challenges of 2050 and the development of a 'third industrial revolution'. This insight is complemented by the observations and comments of some of the leading figures concerning European and global energy issues, explaining how industry, energy regulators and global thinkers see Europe's energy policy and the challenges that it now faces

  20. The Origins of Energy Security: British Energy Policy in the Middle East (Selling the Same Horse Three Times!)

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAKIS, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    This specific text focuses on UK energy policy. It attempts to link the past to the present by making a short story focusing on energy sources. The United Kingdom has decided to use the «black gold» in warships, with a serious risk: it didn’t have its own inventory and had to look for it elsewhere. The decision of Britain involved countries and people of the wider Middle East in support of its energy interests for many years.

  1. Study on the concentration of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2002-01-01

    'Energy Security' concept has played the central role in Japan's energy policy. However, the definition of the concept is not clear. If energy security will remain a principal policy target, its concept should be clearly defined as a precondition. This dissertation analyzes historical changes in energy security concept and considers their relationship with the development of national security concept in international relations studies. Following an introduction in the first chapter, the second chapter reveals that energy security concept has changed in accord with energy situation and policymakers' concern of the times. As a result, several different definitions of the concept now coexist. The third chapter deals with the relationship between energy security concept and national security concepts in international relations. Three major definitions of energy security concepts correspond to definitions of security concepts by three schools in security theory - realism, liberalism, and globalism. In the fourth chapter, energy security is conceptualized and its policy measures are systematized by addressing the issues appeared in its historical changes and referring to security theory in international relations studies. The fifth chapter discusses the contribution by nuclear energy to Japan's energy security, applying a theoretical framework presented in previous chapters. Characteristics of nuclear energy which enhance energy security are identified, and policy measures for improving those characteristics are proposed. (author)

  2. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    that, in fact, that women are not impacted equally by energy policy preferences as men and that women in developing countries benefit from increased access to modern household energy. Thus, gender-differentiated energy usage illustrates why treating population as a homogenous group fails to capture how energy policy preferences and energy policy performance can affect different subgroups of population in terms of individual choices and how those differences can affect an overall economic growth and development. Fundamental theoretical implications emerge from this dissertation's empirical findings. First, improving gender equality through technological advancements in household electricity facilitates the progress of demographic transition in terms of reducing fertility rates. Time altering effects of increased access and use of household electricity modify intra-household relations by diminishing differing roles between men and women. When women gain greater autonomy facilitated by increasing time via access to modern household electricity for more economically and educationally productive activities, fertility rates and child births tend to decrease by altering choice in family size with increased investments in children. The effect that the reduction in fertility generated by increased gender equality has upon demographic transition is that it alters the change in age structure in a developing country by decreasing youth dependency ratios generating the demographic dividend. Gender equality-generated fertility reductions may also facilitate the return to human capital by lessening the burden of non-SNA work and activities including reducing child care, increasing female labor force participation rates.

  3. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  4. Security and policy driven computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Security and Policy Driven Computing covers recent advances in security, storage, parallelization, and computing as well as applications. The author incorporates a wealth of analysis, including studies on intrusion detection and key management, computer storage policy, and transactional management.The book first describes multiple variables and index structure derivation for high dimensional data distribution and applies numeric methods to proposed search methods. It also focuses on discovering relations, logic, and knowledge for policy management. To manage performance, the text discusses con

  5. A broadened typology on energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    A broadened typology describing the interconnection between energy and security is developed in this paper, with the aim of improving understanding of the relationship between energy and security by applying different research and policy perspectives. One approach involves studying energy as an object exposed to security threats, using concepts such as security of supply or security of demand. Another approach involves studying the role of the energy system as the subject in generating or enhancing insecurity. The latter approach includes studying the conflict-generating potential inherent in the economic value of energy, the risk of accidents and antagonistic attacks to energy infrastructure and the security risks related to the negative environmental impact of the energy system. In order to make a comprehensive analysis of the security consequences of proposed energy policies or strategies, all these aspects should be taken into account to varying degrees. The typology proposed here could be a valuable tool for ensuring that all security aspects have been considered. - Highlights: • The paper presents a broadened typology of energy and security, useful for policy analysis. • The energy system can be an object for security threats and as a subject generating or contributing to insecurity. • Energy as an object for security threats includes the concepts of security of supply and security of demand. • The economic value of energy can contribute to insecurity. • Technological and environmental risks of specific energy systems also provide potential threats to human security

  6. Energy audit and energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  7. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  8. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  9. Securing India's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuraman, V.

    2009-01-01

    India's development aspirations are challenged by energy security and climate change considerations. The integrated energy policy clearly deliberates the need to intensify all energy options with emphasis on maximizing indigenous coal production, harnessing hydropower, increasing adoption of renewables, intensifying hydrocarbon exploration and production and anchoring nuclear power development to meet the long-term requirements. The report also emphasizes the need to secure overseas hydrocarbon and coal assets. Subsequently the National Action Plan on climate change has underscored the need to wean away from fossil fuels, the ambitious National Solar Mission is a case in point. Ultimately securing India's energy future lies in clean coal, safe nuclear and innovative solar. Coal is the key energy option in the foreseeable future. Initiatives are needed to take lead role in clean coal technologies, in-situ coal gasification, tapping coal bed methane, coal to liquids and coal to gas technologies. There is need to intensify oil exploration by laying the road-map to open acreage to unlock the hydrocarbon potential. Pursue alternate routes based on shale, methane from marginal fields. Effectively to use oil diplomacy to secure and diversify sources of supply including trans-national pipelines and engage with friendly countries to augment strategic resources. Technologies to be accessed and developed with international co-operation and financial assistance. Public-Private Partnerships, in collaborative R and D projects need to be accelerated. Nuclear share of electricity generation capacity to be increased 6 to 7% of 63000 MW by 2031-32 and further to 25% (300000 MW) capacity by 2050 is to be realized by operationalizing the country's thorium programme. Nuclear renaissance has opened up opportunities for the Indian industry to meet not only India's requirements but also participate in the global nuclear commerce; India has the potential to emerge as a manufacturing hub

  10. Strategies of Chinese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2007-01-01

    In order to close the growing gap between stagnant domestic production and expanding consumption China has sought to reform its energy sector and diversify both its energy mix and sources. Securing supplies from abroad has become a major drive of the country's foreign policy and China's aggressive pursue of energy security on the international scene has increasing become a major global concern [it

  11. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  12. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  13. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  14. Human security policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Morton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available All evidence points towards climate- and environmentallyinduced migration becoming one of the major policychallenges of this century. Adequate planning for andmanagement of this phenomenon will be critical forhuman security.

  15. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO_2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  16. Integrated energy and climate policy. Securing the supply of natural energy. An investigation of the German and European law; Integrierte Energie- und Klimapolitik. Die Sicherstellung der Erdgasversorgung. Eine Untersuchung deutschen und europaeischen Rechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, Henning

    2012-07-01

    Due to the extreme importance of natural gas as an energy source within an integrated energy policy and climate policy at national and European level, and due to the specific risks associated with the supply of natural gas, the contribution under consideration reports on the security of supply of natural gas. The following aspects are examined: To what extent are regulations on security of the natural gas supply provided in the German and European law. Which actors have the responsibility for the security of supply? What are the weaknesses in the legal arrangement of security of supply? The contribution also reports on the increasing importance of the EU as an actor of guarantee. The contribution of the EU to the security of supply in the supply of natural gas also is analysed.

  17. Perspectives on Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Holmgren, Aake J.; Joensson, Thomas; Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-05-01

    A common notion of 'Energy Security' is that it includes access to energy resources without risking the the survival of the state. 'Security of supply' is most often the concept emphasized in the political discourse on energy security and it includes both production as well as secure and safe delivery of energy to the end consumers. Another aspect of energy security is the need for reducing energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. In this report, eight chapters covering these and other perspectives on energy security are presented. Six of the chapters deal with the supply perspective. Included topics cover power politics and geopolitical perspectives regarding large infrastructure projects and the ambitions of the EU in this regard. Further, methods and approaches for conducting risk analyses of electricity supply systems as well as for improving the security of digital control systems are discussed. As climate change will affect the supply and distribution of energy, one chapter presents an overview of this topic. The consumption perspective is discussed against the backdrop of research about household consumption practices and the role of climate change for future consumption levels. Finally, the role of armed forces as a large energy users is touched upon, as well as how so-called 'future studies' have dealt with energy as a topic

  18. Energy security in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Emil

    2009-09-01

    Yemen, situated in the Arab world, has considerable energy resources. However, its history of repeated revolts, civil wars and terrorism and also the presence of the Wahabi movement and al Qaeda in the country constitute security issues for the energy industry and its infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact level on the security of the energy sector in Yemen and the effect that the threats to that sector could have on global energy security. Analyses of the political environment, the security threats and the measures taken to respond to these threats have been carried out. Results showed that Yemen's resources are depleting and that the government is having trouble containing the escalation of conflicts; this situation could lead to Yemen's political collapse which could have an important impact on global energy security.

  19. Analyzing Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla

    2003-01-01

    NSA's Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux enhances Linux by providing a specification language for security policies and a Flask-like architecture with a security server for enforcing policies defined in the language...

  20. EUROPEAN POLICY REGARDING ENERGETIC SECURITY IN THE FIELD OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POPESCU,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the European Union has been working continually to promote green energy. Renewable energy presents certain social, economic and environmental benefits, has a low environmental impact, therefore, can support economic growth on a sustainable basis. Theme analyzes progress in the EU, trends and long-term scenarios in renewable resources. Renewables have a high potential to stimulate EU industrial competitiveness. Developing new energy sources with low carbon is very important to avoid high costs of climate change and pollution conditions. Renewable energy can use all our energy requirements: electricity production, transport and domestic heating. Hydropower and wind are exclusively used for generating electricity, while biomass, geothermal and solar can be used to produce electricity and heat.

  1. Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known. But the contribution that they can make to energy security is less widely recognised. This report aims to redress the balance, showing how in electricity generation, heat supply, and transport, renewables can enhance energy security and suggesting policies that can optimise this contribution.

  2. Can low-carbon societies deliver on energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The impact of low-carbon policies on energy security depends on both the timing and intensity of these policies, and the definition of energy security: security of what?; security for whom?; and security from which threats? The priorities of the EU’s 2030 climate/energy package and energy security show little if any alignment. Global climate stabilization policies benefit the energy security of India, China, and the EU, but may have negative impacts on export revenues of the U.S. and other energy exporters.

  3. Public Policy Issues in Transport. Taxes and standards for energy security and greenhouse gas objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskeland, Gunnar (Cicero, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-07-01

    The direct case for fuel economy standards on a stand alone basis dies in the textbook on the basis of first principles: the fuel tax is a better targeted instrument. In practice, the fuel economy standard, is killed by the 'rebound effect'. Vehicle users will, once they have more fuel efficient vehicles, respond to lower marginal costs by increased vehicle use. If an important part of negative externalities from transport are associated with vehicle kilometres (accidents, congestion, road wear) rather than fuel consumption, the rebound effect increases negative externalities from transport. The more direct way of addressing negative externalities from transport is to increase fuel taxes, and depending on their prior level, this is our first recommendation. But higher fuel taxes often raise political resistance. The fuel efficiency of existing cars is an important way by which people have adapted to present fuel taxes, determining their resistance to increases. A higher fuel efficiency standard is an instrument that faces little political resistance and which - over time - reduces the political resistance to increased fuel taxes. In efforts to reduce the fuel intensity of an economy, this interplay between an activity's fuel intensity, like gallons per vehicle mile, and the activity level, vehicle miles travelled or transported, nicely illustrates some important empirical questions and public policy issues: i) the first best policy proposition to reduce fuel related externalities is fuel taxes. Indeed, at the right level of fuel taxes, the externalities are zero: they are internalized. ii) the part of an economy's ability to shed fuel consumption lies in increased fuel efficiency in the individual activities, and this part can be stimulated with fuel efficiency standards. The other part, the activity level, should then be addressed with fuel tax increases. iv) We speculate that it may be difficult credibly to raise expected fuel taxes more than

  4. The economics of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.; Walls, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of research on energy security that has been conducted over the past 20 years are brought together and expanded. Chapter 2 lays out basic conceptual arguments regarding the economic externalities and the military premium, as well as the general problem of identifying a market failure. Chapter 3 provides a brief history of the oil price shocks of the 1970s and reviews the empirical evidence on the energy security externalities laid out in Chapter 2. Chapter 4 builds on the material in Chapter 3 to critique published estimates of the overall premium associated with oil imports or oil consumption. Chapter 5 examines how the oil market has changed in the twenty years since the first oil shock of the 1970s and assesses the effect of these changes on price behavior and market efficiency. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on two sectors in which the energy security debate is being carried out through concrete policy measures: the choice of electricity generation technology and the market for transportation fuels. In Chapter 8, we summarize our assessments of potential energy security externalities and examine their implications for a variety of policy measures at the national and subnational levels. 7 figs., 11 tabs., 200 refs

  5. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  6. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...... AFRICOM and US actions in Africa could be seen as a true (newfound) American interest in Africa or whether actions that are considered low-key and low-budget in Washington are to be regarded as a true asymmetry because African states regard US action as important and significant. The paper will explain...

  7. Energy security strategy and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toichi, Tsutomu; Shibata, Masaharu; Uchiyama, Yoji; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    This special edition of 'Energy security strategy and nuclear power' is abstracts of the 27 th Policy Recommendations 'The Establishment of an International Energy Security System' by the Japan Forum on International Relations, Inc on May 18 th , 2006. It consists of five papers: Energy security trend in the world and Japan strategy by Tsutomu Toichi, Establishment of energy strategy supporting Japan as the focus on energy security by Masaharu Shibata, World pays attention to Japan nuclear power policy and nuclear fuel cycle by Yoji Uchiyama, Part of nuclear power in the energy security - the basic approach and future problems by Tatsujiro Suzuki, and Drawing up the energy strategy focused on the national interests - a demand for the next government by Kazuo Yamazaki. (S.Y.)

  8. An energy policy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document takes stock on the future energy policy of Europe. It discusses successively the challenges, the sustainability, the security of supply, the competitiveness, a strategic objective to guide europe energy policy, the action plan, the internal energy market, the solidarity between member states and security of supply for oil gas and electricity, a long term commitment to greenhouse gases reduction and the EU emissions trading System, the ambitious program of energy efficiency measures at Community national local and international level, a longer term target for renewable energy, a european strategic energy technology plan, a turn towards a low CO 2 fossil fuel future, the future of Nuclear, an international energy policy that actively pursues europe interests, the effective monitoring and reporting and how taking work forwards. (A.L.B.)

  9. Security Economics and European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  10. Development and analysis of security policies in security enhanced Android

    OpenAIRE

    Rimando, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines Security Enhanced Android. Both its policy and its additional security features are explored. The policy is examined in depth, providing a better understanding of the security provided by SE Android. We analyze the default SE Android policy. We identify a potential weakness and change the policy to facilitate control over communication channels. A proof-of-concept set of applications is developed to demonstrate ho...

  11. Ukraine: energy policy review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-13

    Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialized world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country's independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This dependence increases risks for security of supply. As tension between Ukraine and its main energy supplier has grown in recent years, the country's energy policy is driven by a strong desire to improve domestic energy security and reduce natural gas imports. Energy transit through the Ukraine is significant. Due to its geographic position, the country plays a major role in securing Europe's energy needs: 84% of Russian gas supplies to Europe transit through Ukraine via pipeline. This report addresses how Ukraine can meet its energy challenges. Three priority areas for action identified are: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing, and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine's single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country's growth and development. The review covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework, and sub-sectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

  12. Ukraine: energy policy review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-13

    Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialized world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country's independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This dependence increases risks for security of supply. As tension between Ukraine and its main energy supplier has grown in recent years, the country's energy policy is driven by a strong desire to improve domestic energy security and reduce natural gas imports. Energy transit through the Ukraine is significant. Due to its geographic position, the country plays a major role in securing Europe's energy needs: 84% of Russian gas supplies to Europe transit through Ukraine via pipeline. This report addresses how Ukraine can meet its energy challenges. Three priority areas for action identified are: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing, and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine's single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country's growth and development. The review covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework, and sub-sectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

  13. CEP energy policy : Policy 917

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Some of the environmental challenges facing the world in the twenty-first century are energy and global warming. Vital human needs such as warmth, light and transportation require energy, which is also required in the production of goods. Absent from the debate concerning the energy industry and its efforts to stop climate change is the voice of energy workers. Previous policies from the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) were replaced by this policy document. After providing a brief introduction, the document tackled global challenge: climate change. The following section dealt with global challenge: corporate rule. Canada's energy industries were examined from the workers' perspective, and the state of Canada's energy reserves was discussed. From national policies to national betrayal was the title of the following section of the document. Energy de-regulation and privatization was discussed, and an argument was made for a Canadian energy policy. The industrial policy was explored, as was the environment. A transition to sustainability was examined. refs

  14. Security Policy Alignment: A Formal Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    2013-01-01

    Security policy alignment concerns the matching of security policies specified at different levels in socio-technical systems, and delegated to different agents, technical and human. For example, the policy that sales data should not leave an organization is refined into policies on door locks,

  15. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  16. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  18. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  19. Energy security: between markets and sovereign politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudau Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a constant presence in the energy-related political discourse all over the world. States strive to secure steady inflows of needed energy supplies, as well as the price affordability of those supplies. However, what are deemed to be the best means to meet such goals depends on one’s theoretical vantage point. On the one hand, economically-minded theorists maintain that energy security is only a matter of market rules and interactions. Thus, they call upon energy markets to deliver both steady supplies and competitive prices. On the other hand, politically-minded scholars emphasize the political and hard-power nature of international energy trades, especially in a global context market by the emergence of state-centered, authoritarian regimes that use large national energy companies as foreign policy instruments. These two positions delineate competing approaches to how energy security risks ought to be managed. The former approaches energy security risks by means similar to portfolio management, requiring diversification of investments in order to insulate them from market shocks. The latter approaches energy security as a matter of foreign policy, by which states envisage interest coordination and favorable alignments within countervailing alliances against the agent of energy security risk. The present paper goes beyond the uncontentious point that these two dimensions are complementary. It argues that, depending on the international context, a more market-driven or a more-politically driven behavior may be adequate.

  20. Energy security and sustainability in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Williams, James H.; Savage, Timothy; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    'Energy Security' has typically, to those involved in making energy policy, meant mostly securing access to oil and other fossil fuels. With increasingly global, diverse energy markets, however, and increasingly transnational problems resulting from energy transformation and use, old energy security rationales are less salient, and other issues, including climate change and other environmental, economic, and international considerations are becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, a more comprehensive operating definition of 'Energy Security' is needed, along with a workable framework for analysis of which future energy paths or scenarios are likely to yield greater Energy Security in a broader, more comprehensive sense. Work done as a part of the Nautilus Institute's 'Pacific Asia Regional Energy Security' (PARES) project developed a broader definition of Energy Security, and described an analytical framework designed to help to compare the energy security characteristics - both positive and negative - of different quantitative energy paths as developed using software tools such as the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) system.

  1. Securing abundance : The politics of energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Energy Security is a concept that is known in the literature for its ‘slippery’ nature and subsequent wide range of definitions. Instead of another attempt at grasping the essence of this concept, Securing Abundance reformulates the problem and moves away from a definitional problem to a theoretical

  2. Staffing Policy for Solving the Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tolstoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining staffing policy implementation of information security tasks is given. The basic requirements that must be taken into account when developing policies are defined. The policy framework is determined and recommendations for the design of such policies are formulated. Requirements for the implementation of the policy are defined.

  3. Energy. Policy and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroop, A.

    2006-01-01

    Why does the government have an energy policy? What form does it take? Who is involved in implementing that policy? These and similar questions are answered in the latest Energy Report. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) argues that the objectives are feasible as long as the energy policies are matched by suitable implementation measures [nl

  4. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  5. Energy policy in Maghreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents energy policy in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Statistical data on fossil fuels reserves and renewable energy sources are given. This paper describes also energy consumption and energy conservation, power generation and interconnected power systems. 5 tabs

  6. No energy security without climate security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, M.

    2006-06-01

    WWF urges the G8 nations to embark on a serious global 'Climate and Energy Security Plan' akin in dimension to the Marshall plan after the Second World War. The plan would aim at dramatically augmenting energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources within the next five years

  7. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  8. Evaluation of nuclear energy in the context of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo; Kanda, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the view expressed by the Japanese government on the role of nuclear energy for energy security through scrutiny of Japan's policy documents. The analysis revealed that the contribution by nuclear energy to Japan's energy security has been defined in two ways. Nuclear energy improves short-term energy security with its characteristics such as political stability in exporting countries of uranium, easiness of stockpiling of nuclear fuels, stability in power generation cost, and reproduction of plutonium and other fissile material for use by reprocessing of spent fuel. Nuclear energy also contributes to medium- and long-term energy security through its characteristics that fissile material can be reproduced (multiplied in the case of breeder reactor) from spent fuels. Further contribution can be expected by nuclear fusion. Japan's energy security can be strengthened not only by expanding the share of nuclear energy in total energy supply, but also by improving nuclear energy's characteristics which are related to energy security. Policy measures to be considered for such improvement will include (a) policy dialogue with exporting countries of uranium, (b) government assistance to development of uranium mines, (c) nuclear fuel stockpiling, (d) reprocessing and recycling of spent fuels, (e) development of fast breeder reactor, and (f) research of nuclear fusion. (author)

  9. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  10. Unification of Information Security Policies for Network Security Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Chernyavskiy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of command languages on network security solutions’ (NSS interfaces causes problems in a process of information security policy (ISP deployment. Unified model for security policy representation and implementation in NSS could aid to avoid such problems and consequently enhance efficiency of the process. The proposed solution is Unified language for network security policy (ULNSP. The language is based on formal languages theory, and being coupled with its translator, ULNSP makes it possible to formalize and implement ISP independently of particular NSS.

  11. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  12. Rethinking EU energy security considering past trends and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2014-01-01

    EU energy policy objectives are directed at three highly interdependent areas: energy supply security, competitiveness and decarbonization to prevent climate change. In this paper, we focus on the issue of energy supply security. Security of energy supply for the immediate and medium-term future is

  13. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  14. Coal and American energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the role of coal in establishing America's energy security. There is no mismatch of subject and keynote, for in the truest sense the author's topic is nothing less than the health and safety of the United States. Both will begin with the way we handle things in the coal mines at the working face. If energy policy were a piece of new equipment, the National Energy Strategy would be the equivalent of specifications---what the new hardware should be capable of doing. The National Energy Security Act of 1991 is the blueprint for the equipment. The hardware still must be assembled, tested and perfected. Undertaken between oil-related U.S. military deployments to stabilize the oil-exporting regions of the Persian Gulf that dominate world markets, the strategy has two objectives. There are multiple threats to America's energy security

  15. Energy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  16. Energy security in China and in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    In the first part, this report addresses the issue of energy security in China. The authors first consider renewable energies by discussing the Chinese policy (incentive policies, delayed reforms, issue of a legal framework to promoter these energies), and by commenting the case of wind energy (a too strong emergence, promotion policies, wind energy industry, a disordered growth, quality vs quantity) and the case of solar energy (a recent but strong lift off, uncertainty about the international context and focus on the domestic market). The authors outline the necessity of a reform, the difficulties faced on the short term, and some suggested solutions. They more briefly address the cases of hydraulic energy and biomass. They address the case of fossil energies for which China is facing an increasing demand but also technical and institutional challenges which limit the development of this sector. Therefore, China uses foreign supplies: this a source of partnerships but also of conflicts. Opportunities for the French expertise are outlined. The specific case of coal is analysed: a pillar of energy security for China, a new industry, with necessary reforms, and opportunities for foreign companies. The second part of the report addresses the issue of energy security in India. The authors first comment the Indian energy mix. They outline that energy security is weakened by governance problems, and that imports are used to address domestic shortages

  17. Nuclear energy and the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2005-01-01

    Security of energy supply was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. In this paper, the author discusses the problem of energy supply security. Can security of supply be measured? What is the role of government and of nuclear energy? And what are measures for ensuring security of supply? (A.L.B.)

  18. A study on energy security and nuclear energy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Energy security was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. Here, an energy security concept has been proposed, which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide-meaning energy security is divided broadly into two categories. One is short-term (∼10 y) energy crisis, which is narrow-meaning energy security. Short-term energy crisis is further divided into contingent crisis, such as energy supply chain (sealane) interruption due to conflict, accident, terrorism, etc., and structural crisis, such as price fluctuations, supply shortage, energy demand increase in Asia, technology development stagnation, etc. The other is long-term (∼100 y) energy crisis and global energy problems, such as fossil fuel exhaustion and global warming. (author)

  19. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  20. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  1. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  2. Is there a role for biofuels in promoting energy self sufficiency and security? A CGE analysis of biofuel policy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wianwiwat, Suthin; Asafu-Adjaye, John

    2013-01-01

    Given the rising price of crude oil, some developing countries including Thailand are looking towards developing their domestic renewable energy resources, in particular biofuels. However, there are concerns about the possible adverse effects such a policy strategy would have on key variables such as sectoral output, land allocation and the effects of prices, particularly food prices. This study develops a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Thailand economy that features enhancements of the energy sector and uses it to analyze the government’s recent renewable energy development plan. This plan aims to increase domestic energy use from renewable sources to replace fossil fuel imports. The study simulated specific policies contained in the plan. Among other things, we found that promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel and biofuel feedstock in the short-run, whereas these prices only increase slightly in the long-run due to more elastic supplies. The prices of food and other products marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined by the policy. On the basis of the findings, the study recommends a review of some of the targets because they were found to be rather high, and a phasing in of others. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates Thailand’s 10-year alternative energy development plan. ► Promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel. ► Food prices marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined. ► We recommend a review of some of the targets because they are too high

  3. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  4. Generating WS-SecurityPolicy documents via security model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko

    2009-01-01

    When SOA-based business processes are to be enhanced with security properties, the model-driven business process development approach enables an easier and more reliable security definition compared to manually crafting the security realizations afterwards. In this paper, we outline an appropriat...... security model definition and transformation approach, targeting the WS-SecurityPolicy and WS-BPEL specifications, in order to enable a Web-Service-based secure business process development.......When SOA-based business processes are to be enhanced with security properties, the model-driven business process development approach enables an easier and more reliable security definition compared to manually crafting the security realizations afterwards. In this paper, we outline an appropriate...

  5. Do we need an energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey.

    1992-01-01

    The debate on the two alternatives of planning or the free operation of market forces as a means of securing the nation's energy supply is of obvious political interest in this pre-election period in the United Kingdom. In UK Energy Policy Post Privatisation, the study reported here, the authors argue for an energy policy that is environment driven. (author)

  6. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  7. Validity of information security policy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Onome Imoniana

    Full Text Available Validity is concerned with establishing evidence for the use of a method to be used with a particular set of population. Thus, when we address the issue of application of security policy models, we are concerned with the implementation of a certain policy, taking into consideration the standards required, through attribution of scores to every item in the research instrument. En today's globalized economic scenarios, the implementation of information security policy, in an information technology environment, is a condition sine qua non for the strategic management process of any organization. Regarding this topic, various studies present evidences that, the responsibility for maintaining a policy rests primarily with the Chief Security Officer. The Chief Security Officer, in doing so, strives to enhance the updating of technologies, in order to meet all-inclusive business continuity planning policies. Therefore, for such policy to be effective, it has to be entirely embraced by the Chief Executive Officer. This study was developed with the purpose of validating specific theoretical models, whose designs were based on literature review, by sampling 10 of the Automobile Industries located in the ABC region of Metropolitan São Paulo City. This sampling was based on the representativeness of such industries, particularly with regards to each one's implementation of information technology in the region. The current study concludes, presenting evidence of the discriminating validity of four key dimensions of the security policy, being such: the Physical Security, the Logical Access Security, the Administrative Security, and the Legal & Environmental Security. On analyzing the Alpha of Crombach structure of these security items, results not only attest that the capacity of those industries to implement security policies is indisputable, but also, the items involved, homogeneously correlate to each other.

  8. Energy crisis: policy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemetz, P N [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Resource-management techniques must be applied to assess the risks, benefits, priorities, and potentials of the different energy options as prospective slowdowns in the flow of crude oil threaten recurring energy crises. The 23 contributors to this book use various managerial approaches in the formulation of energy policies. There is little agreement among the remedies put forth as to which policies will best achieve a balanced energy system. While some experts argue that Canadian energy policy should emphasize intensive development of coal, others claim that it ought to strive for greater reliance on electricity, and still others contend that the transition to soft energy paths is a preferable policy approach. The essays offer a broad range of policy responses, examining not only technical and economic possibilities, but political and institutional alternatives as well. 147 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  9. Energy operations policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that energy policy was designed following the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development review of the most pressing energy issues confronting Central and Eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The main features of the policy described in the document set the general framework for the Bank's energy operations. Energy strategies for particular countries are designed as an integral part of the Bank's individual country strategies. Tabs

  10. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way....... This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques...

  11. Japan, new agenda for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    The author argues that the Japanese government will actively seek to strengthen security of supply. Japan has almost no domestic energy reserves. It is Asia's leading energy importer, but it faces increasing competition for resources from China and India. This has led to growing concern among Japanese policy makers. In the spring of 2007 a new Basic Energy Law was drafted that offers a strategic change of direction, away from a policy emphasis on free (energy) trade promotion and liberalisation of domestic energy markets. Japan will boost energy diplomacy towards energy producing countries and increase financial guarantees to Japanese oil and gas development companies. At the same time, Japan will raise efforts to lower its dependency on foreign oil and gas. To this end, it has set ambitious targets for further nuclear power development and the promotion of bio-trade. The author points at a multitude of complexities that may impede the success of these policies, Still, EU policy makers should be aware that Japan's energy policy has changed, driven by the conviction that markets alone cannot be relied upon to guarantee a secure supply of energy. [nl

  12. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  13. Ecosystem services for energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Andrea; McCormick, Nadine

    2010-09-15

    The world is at an energy crossroads. The changes underway will have implications for ecosystems and livelihoods. Energy security is the reliable supply of affordable energy, of which there are two dimensions; reliability and resilience. Changes in ecosystem services linked to degradation and climate change have the potential to impact both on the reliabiity of energy systems and on their resiliance. Investing in ecosystems can help safeguard energy systems, and mitigate unforeseen risks to energy security. The energy and conservation community should come together to build reliable and resilliant energy systems in ways which recognise and value supporting ecosystems.

  14. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  15. United States energy policy, 1980--1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the nation's energy policy over the past several years. It looks at how domestic oil, energy efficiency, natural gas, nuclear energy, and renewable energy resources can help maintain and enhance our energy security. It surveys advances in energy technologies from enhanced oil recovery to new clean coal processes. It also describes the federal research programs in the basic energy sciences and it outlines the environmental issues that may profoundly affect our future energy choices

  16. The role of electric grids in the European energy policy. Grids development is necessary to supply cleaner and securer electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The world is actually entering a new energy era where CO 2 emissions must be reduced. Consequently, the European Union policy includes three goals: a) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; b) to improve the security of energy supply; c) to improve interconnection between regions. In this context, electrical grids play a strategic role. While the overall energy consumption in Europe will decrease, the electricity demand will increase by more than 1% per year. A large part of this increase will be covered by renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. In 2020 the total wind power installed in Europe should be ∼1000 GW, leading to a mean power production of 200-250 GW. This makes necessary an adaptation of electrical grids in order to be able to integrate into the system large power sources of intermittent character, and also to improve the solidarity of the different countries. The interconnection of the grids must be improved in order to balance electricity supply and demand. For the transport of electricity over large distances, developments will take place in three different areas; a) high voltage alternative current for most of the grids; b) high voltage direct current where it is necessary to overpass obstacles (mountains, sounds); c) gaseous insulation technology for underground transport. Local (mostly low voltage) grids must also be adapted: so far, they only carry electricity in one direction, to the customers. With the distributed power production, electricity transport in the reverse direction must also be considered

  17. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    .... but provides the strong security guarantees of modern languages such as Java. A second avenue of language-based work explored a general class of policy enforcement mechanism based on in-line reference monitors (IRM...

  18. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartholomees, Jr, J. B

    2006-01-01

    ...: Theory of War and Strategy and National Security Policy and Strategy. The result for this book is the expansion of the block on strategic theory and the introduction of a block on specific strategic issues...

  19. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?; Quelle est la place des preoccupations de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance energetique dans la politique de l'energie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  20. An aggregated energy security performance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martchamadol, Jutamanee; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► AESPI shows a country’s (or province’s) energy security status. ► AESPI considers social, economic and environmental aspects using 25 indicators. ► AESPI shows the impact of the trend of energy policies/measures. ► AESPI could be a tool for monitoring and evaluating the impact of energy policies. -- Abstract: An “Aggregated Energy Security Performance Indicator (AESPI)” has been developed by considering 25 individual indicators representing social, economy and environmental dimensions. The principle used, data required and the methodology for the development of AESPI have been detailed. AESPI requires time series data for its development and its value ranges from 0 to 10. The characteristics of AESPI have been compared with the existing indicators in terms of methodology, data requirements, analysis possible and the applications. The advantages of AESPI is that it not only assists in knowing the past energy security status of a country, but also helps in assessing the future status considering the energy policies and plans of the country, thus enabling the monitoring of the impacts of the policies.

  1. Energy policy of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  2. Lessons Learned from the Energy Policies of IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This information paper provides policy makers and managers, facing tough energy policy challenges, with a wider perspective of how the same issues are being addressed by different IEA member countries. The topics included are: Government structures for co-ordinating energy and climate policies; The use of long-term energy forecasts and scenarios; and Progress in the delivery of key energy security policies.

  3. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  4. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  5. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  6. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  8. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  9. Second Strategic Energy Review. Securing our Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Europe has agreed a forward-looking political agenda to achieve its core energy objectives of sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. This agenda means substantial change in Europe's energy system over the next years, with public authorities, energy regulators, infrastructure operators, the energy industry and citizens all actively involved. It means choices and investments during a time of much change in global energy markets and international relations. The European Commission has therefore proposed a wide-ranging energy package which gives a new boost to energy security in Europe, i.e. putting forward a new strategy to build up energy solidarity among Member States and a new policy on energy networks to stimulate investment in more efficient, low-carbon energy networks; proposing a Energy Security and Solidarity Action Plan to secure sustainable energy supplies in the EU and looking at the challenges that Europe will face between 2020 and 2050; adopting a package of energy efficiency proposals aims to make energy savings in key areas, such as reinforcing energy efficiency legislation on buildings and energy-using products. All relevant and related documents with regard to the Second Strategic Energy Review can be found through this site

  10. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  11. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  12. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  13. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  14. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davies, Lincoln [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues.

  15. IFRI's notebooks. Energy, development and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Jacquet, P.

    1999-01-01

    Today, the concept of energy security has been greatly modified by the worldwide trade, the markets deregulation, the technical progress and the nuclear contestation. This notebook is the synthesis of a colloquium jointly organized in December 16, 1997 by the IFRI and the Institute of Economy and Energy Policy (IEPE) with the sustain of the French delegation of strategic affairs of the defense ministry. It analyzes the evolution of energy markets at the year 2030 prospects and stresses on the role of Middle-East and on the stakes of the economical development and energy policy of China. Finally, it treats of the goals and modalities of the French and European energy policies. (J.S.)

  16. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  17. Energy Efficiency Policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beravs, F.

    1998-01-01

    When Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, its energy sector was characterised by largely centralised state planning and artificially low prices maintained by widespread subsidies. Supply side considerations tended to dominate the energy policy and sectoral planning. As a result the final energy intensity in Slovenia was (still albeit declining) considerably higher than the EU average. In order to support economic growth and transition to a modern market economy, integrated and competitive in the European and world market structures, the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted a resolution on the Strategy of Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia in early 1996. In the field of energy use, the long-term strategic orientation is to increase energy efficiency in all sectors of energy consumption. The main objective can be summarised as to secure the provision of reliable and environmentally friendly energy services at least costs. In quantitative terms the Strategy attaches a high priority to energy efficiency and environmental protection and sets the target of improving the overall energy efficiency by 2% p.a. over the next 10 to 15 years. To achieve the target mentioned above the sectoral approach and a number of policy instruments have been foreseen. Besides market based energy prices which will, according to the European Energy Charter, gradually incorporate the cost of environment and social impacts, the following policy instruments will be intensified and budget-supported: education and awareness building, energy consultation, regulations and agreements, financial incentives, innovation and technology development. The ambitious energy conservation objectives represent a great challenge to the whole society. (author)

  18. Omega report: energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Adam Smith Institute's Omega Project was conceived to fill a significant gap in the field of public policy research. Administrations entering office in democratic societies are often aware of the problems which they face, but lack a well-developed range of policy options. The Omega Project was designed to create and develop new policy initiatives, to research and analyze these new ideas, and to bring them forward for public discussion in ways which overcame the conventional shortcomings. The organization of the Project is described. The results are presented in sections entitled: energy supplies and policy; the gas industry; North Sea oil; the coal industry; the electricity industry; nuclear energy; renewable and alternative fuel sources; energy conservation. (U.K.)

  19. Directed Security Policies: A Stateful Network Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Diekmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large systems are commonly internetworked. A security policy describes the communication relationship between the networked entities. The security policy defines rules, for example that A can connect to B, which results in a directed graph. However, this policy is often implemented in the network, for example by firewalls, such that A can establish a connection to B and all packets belonging to established connections are allowed. This stateful implementation is usually required for the network's functionality, but it introduces the backflow from B to A, which might contradict the security policy. We derive compliance criteria for a policy and its stateful implementation. In particular, we provide a criterion to verify the lack of side effects in linear time. Algorithms to automatically construct a stateful implementation of security policy rules are presented, which narrows the gap between formalization and real-world implementation. The solution scales to large networks, which is confirmed by a large real-world case study. Its correctness is guaranteed by the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  20. Difficulties with the energy policy triptych

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The worth of an energy policy is usually measured along three axes: security of the energy supply, protection of the environment and economic growth. How to assess, beyond any doubt, how a given decision measures up along each of these axes? Certain so-called facts taken for granted turn out to be, in fact, false. For example, the degree of energy independence does not provide a good measure of energy security. Yet another example, renewable energy sources do not, in general, contribute to this security, nor to economic growth, nor, for that matter, to protection of the environment. Moreover, energy efficiency is often a worthy goal but not always.... The grounds for the energy policy triptych ('20-20-20') set by the European Union, as well as the relevance of the decisions made for reaching these objectives, are examined. The often incredible conclusions drawn herein call for urgently adopting thoroughgoing, corrective measures

  1. Climate policy and energy-intensive manufacturing: A comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of cost mitigation provisions in the American Energy and Security Act of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the ongoing climate policy debates, this study examines the cost impacts of carbon-pricing legislation on selected US energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Specifically, it evaluates output-based rebate measures and the border adjustment provision specified in the bill, and tests the effectiveness of cost containment features of the policy, such as the international offsets, under various market assumptions. Results of the examination confirm that in all policy cases or industries, the output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the manufacturers' carbon-pricing costs in the short-to-medium term. However as the rebates decline after 2020, especially in a case where low-carbon electricity generation or international offsets are not readily available or implemented, these industries would suffer greater declines in profitability. At the same time, the study's findings were mixed concerning the effectiveness of the border adjustment measure in reducing cost impacts after 2020. While border adjustments could reduce costs to US manufacturing sectors, at least temporarily, they could create problems for domestic downstream producers and exports, under cost pass-along conditions. However at best, the output-based rebates, international offset, and border adjustment and measures primarily buy time for manufacturers. The only long-term solution is for EITE industries to invest in energy-saving and next-generation low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: → The output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the costs of carbon-pricing for EITE industries. → After 2021 economic impacts on the EITE industries would escalate. → The BA measure would support US firms passing through their emissions costs to their US customers. → The BA measure would not alleviate the higher production costs of US. EITE exports. → In the medium term the only true solution is for US. EITE manufacturers to invest in energy-saving technologies.

  2. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  3. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  5. Rethinking energy security in Asia. A non-traditional view of human security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Anthony, Mely [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (SG). Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies; Chang, Youngho [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Division of Economics; Putra, Nur Azha (eds.) [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Energy Security Division

    2012-07-01

    Traditional notions of security are premised on the primacy of state security. In relation to energy security, traditional policy thinking has focused on ensuring supply without much emphasis on socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Non-traditional security (NTS) scholars argue that threats to human security have become increasingly prominent since the end of the Cold War, and that it is thus critical to adopt a holistic and multidisciplinary approach in addressing rising energy needs. This volume represents the perspectives of scholars from across Asia, looking at diverse aspects of energy security through a non-traditional security lens. The issues covered include environmental and socioeconomic impacts, the role of the market, the role of civil society, energy sustainability and policy trends in the ASEAN region.

  6. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  7. Food security policies in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Elleby, Christian; Zobbe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    dependence on price-based measures causes relatively larger and more volatile fiscal burdens, thereby likely making it more vulnerable in dealing with similar events in the future. These findings have important implications for food policy and food security in the two countries in the future.......Food insecurity is a much more serious concern in India than China. In addition to income and poverty differences, we argue in this paper that differences in food policies can further explain the different food security outcomes across the two countries. First, India mostly uses price-based input...

  8. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  9. Energy and non-traditional security (NTS) in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Anthony, Mely [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (SG). Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies; Chang, Youngho [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Division of Economics; Putra, Nur Azha (eds.) [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Energy Security Division

    2012-07-01

    Traditional notions of security are premised on the primacy of state security. In relation to energy security, traditional policy thinking has focused on ensuring supply without much emphasis on socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Non-traditional security (NTS) scholars argue that threats to human security have become increasingly prominent since the end of the Cold War, and that it is thus critical to adopt a holistic and multidisciplinary approach in addressing rising energy needs. This volume represents the perspectives of scholars from across Asia, looking at diverse aspects of energy security through a non-traditional security lens. The issues covered include environmental and socioeconomic impacts, the role of the market, the role of civil society, energy sustainability and policy trends in the ASEAN region.

  10. US energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    After three years in power, the Reagan Administration has been able to reverse much of the US federal government's energy policy measures that had occurred since 1973, particularly the build-up that took place during the Carter presidency. Another change is a repudiation of social equity concerns, which were an important part of the energy policies of the Nixon, Ford and Carter presidencies. Instead of using government to direct energy policy, the Reagan Administration has stressed the pre-eminence of the private sector. One exception is nuclear energy, which the Administration strongly supports. While the Reagan policies implemented have increased economic efficiency and reduced federal-related budgets and staffs, they have caused environmental degradation and hardship on the poor. Yet their greatest implication is that of a nation less well prepared to handle a severe energy shortage. The Administration believes this is not a problem, based on its optimistic expectations of the extent of untapped resources worldwide and the resilience of the free market. (author)

  11. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  12. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  13. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: an approach to South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives...

  14. Security Force Assistance: Cases and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    theory , cases, and policy implications presented. 3 Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures The analytical narrative method was used to test the...underlying theory --developed separately as a principal-agent model with capacity building in the DwP project. These two cases were chosen as part...the following implications for U.S. national security policy: o Use aid to create incentives , especially via conditionality. Avoid apolitical

  15. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...

  16. Energy security and climate change protection: Complementarity or tradeoff?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy security and climate change protection have risen to the forefront of energy policy - linked in time and a perception that both goals can be achieved through the same or similar policies. Although such complementarity can exist for individual technologies, policymakers face a tradeoff between these two policy objectives. The tradeoff arises when policymakers choose the mix of individual technologies with which to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security. Optimal policy is achieved when the cost of the additional use of each technology equals the value of the additional energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emission that it provides. Such an approach may draw more heavily on conventional technologies that provide benefits in only one dimension than on more costly technologies that both increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  17. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France); [Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, F.; Bosseboeuf, D.

    1995-01-01

    The report 'energy efficiency policies' shows the evolution of energy efficiency for different countries since the first petroleum crisis. The countries concerned by this study are European countries, North America ones, Japan, Eastern Asia countries and some out of OECD such Brazil, Chile, Poland. The results are presented in a global way and then by industry sectors, transports and tertiary and residential sectors. 8 tabs

  19. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  20. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  1. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L M [ed.

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  2. Creating energy security indexes with decision matrices and quantitative criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry; Shupe, Darren

    2010-09-15

    Energy security is becoming an important policy issue in a growing number of jurisdictions because of volatile energy markets and production challenges faced by many producers. As a result, policymakers and politicians are looking for tools or methods that can create an energy security index with results that are justifiable, understandable, and reproducible. This paper describes a method which employs a decision matrix to produce an energy security index using quantitative criteria and metrics. The method allows a range of indexes to be produced, thereby offering further insight into the state of a jurisdiction's energy security.

  3. Modelling mobility aspects of security policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; van Eck, Pascal; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Barthe, G.; Burdy, L.; Huisman, Marieke; Lanet, J.-L.; Muntean, T.

    Security policies are rules that constrain the behaviour of a system. Different, largely unrelated sets of rules typically govern the physical and logical worlds. However, increased hardware and software mobility forces us to consider those rules in an integrated fashion. We present SPIN models of

  4. Reflections on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennings, M.

    1980-01-01

    The author first gives a general view of the present situation of the energy industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Starting from the facts that we need further industrial growth in our country and the energy demand will increase, although not as fast as it did in the past, Mr. Lennings pleads for a long-range energy policy which should be accepted by the majority of the nation. The predominant goal of such a long-range energy policy, he states, should be a supply guarantee, i.e. sufficient supplies at relatively favourable prices must be guaranteed with regard to the industrial growth and the high export dependence of the German industry. Mr. Lenning's thoughts centre at the possible exchange potential to reduce the use of petroleum. A 'leave the petroleum' policy can only be realised by increased capital investiment, states he. In this connection he closely deals with district heating, heat pumps, conversion plants, and coal beneficiation processes and proves that with a capital investment of appr. 91 billion DM fuel oil and gasoline of appr. 28 million tons could be saved. To do this, however, additional quantities of hard coal would be necessary. Result: nuclear energy must be extended as fast as possible so it can replace coal in the sphere of power generation. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Energy policy, strategies for uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.L.; Surrey, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: energy policy-objectives, strategies and policies; the 1967 fuel policy; problems of the optimising approach; the uncertain outlook; oil; coal; gas; electricity; the interdependence of the four fuel industries; energy policy for the future - the need for a long-term strategy; medium-term strategies and short-term policies; the organisational decisions of energy policy. Nuclear power is included in the subject matter. (U.K.)

  6. The Flask Security Architecture: System Support for Diverse Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Flask microkernel -based operating sys­ tem, that successfully overcomes these obstacles to pol- icy flexibility. The cleaner separation of mechanism and...other object managers in the system to en- force those access control decisions. Although the pro­ totype system is microkernel -based, the security...mecha­ nisms do not depend on a microkernel architecture and will easily generalize beyond it. The resulting system provides policy flexibility. It sup

  7. Nuclear Power, Energy Economics and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Economic development requires reliable, affordable electricity that is provided in sufficient quantities to satisfy the minimum energy requirements at a local, regional or national level. As simple as this recipe for economic development appears, technological, infrastructural, financial and developmental considerations must be analysed and balanced to produce a national energy strategy. Complicating that task is the historic fact that energy at the desired price and in the desired quantities can be neither taken for granted nor guaranteed. Energy economics and energy security determine the options available to nations working to establish a sustainable energy strategy for the future.

  8. Study on defensive security concepts and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report begins by describing the background against which the proposal for the study emerged-the welcome developments brought about by the end of the cold war but also the emergence of new threats and the reappearance of long-standing problems. The study proceeds to examine current trends in the international security environment and how they may influence the peaceful settlement of dispute and the effecting of restraint and a defensive orientation in the development, maintenance and use of armed forces. A discussion of the substance and main features of defensive security concepts and policies follows. Existing studies and models designed to eliminate the offensive character of military force postures by effecting a defensive orientation of capabilities are surveyed. In addition, the study discusses political and military aspects of defensive security, pointing out how defensive security differs from those existing models

  9. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Kim, Wonjoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption.

  10. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU policy of decreasing its overall gas demand and

  11. Democratic energy policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronconi, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The author stresses the need for greater public participation, in particular, by organized labour in the role of organizer-coordinator, in the creation and implementation of local and regional clean energy-environmental protection programs. These would conform to innovative national strategies which would adapt the traditional short-sighted economic growth-energy use models still used by many industrialized countries, to current global requirements - that of harmonized global development and environmental protection to satisfy present needs without compromising the capacity of future generations, of developing, as well as, developed countries, to satisfy their own needs. With reference energy policies of Italy, heavily dependent on oil and gas imports, the author points out the strategic importance and technical-economic feasibility of energy conservation. He then makes suggestions on how to overcome past failures, due primarily to excessive bureaucracy and scarce investment, in the realization of effective energy conservation programs

  12. Challenges and countermeasures of China’s energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wensheng; Bluth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    China is now a major consumer and importer of energy, and its choices and policies will increasingly affect the rest of the world. This paper analyses the key features of China’s energy policy as it faces the prospect of possible challenges to its energy security given the increasing reliance on fuel imports and the need to transform its energy to meet the requirements of a modern, fast-growing economy. The paper examines whether the current energy mix is appropriate and sustainable, and considers the China’s policymakers new emphasis on energy efficiency, conservation, renewable energy and the shift to natural gas the primary energy source. It examines the internal and external constraints on China’s energy policy and considers the strategic dilemmas arising from China’s increasing involvement in international energy markets. It concludes that both the domestic and international implications of China’s search for energy security will confront policymakers with hard choices that will affect not only energy policy, but also China’s geopolitical grand strategy. - Highlights: ► Conception of energy security and energy policy in China’s grand strategy are expatiated. ► Challenges China is facing are analyzed from 4 aspects. ► New strategic thoughts of China including 6 capability enhancements are raised. ► Major tasks of safeguarding energy security contain 3 measures of improvement.

  13. Energy security, energy modelling and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, Anil [Basque Centre for Climate Change (Spain); University of Bath (United Kingdom); Pemberton, Malcolm [University College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The paper develops a framework to analyze energy security in an expected utility framework, where there is a risk of disruption of imported energy. The analysis shows the importance of an energy tax as a tool in maximizing expected utility, and how the level of that tax varies according to the key parameters of the system: risk aversion, probability of disruption, demand elasticity and cost of disruption. (author)

  14. Energy security, energy modelling and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, Anil; Pemberton, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops a framework to analyze energy security in an expected utility framework, where there is a risk of disruption of imported energy. The analysis shows the importance of an energy tax as a tool in maximizing expected utility, and how the level of that tax varies according to the key parameters of the system: risk aversion, probability of disruption, demand elasticity and cost of disruption. (author)

  15. The concept of energy security: Beyond the four As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Jewell, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Energy security studies have expanded from their classic beginnings following the 1970s oil crises to encompass various energy sectors and increasingly diverse issues. This viewpoint contributes to the re-examination of the meaning of energy security that has accompanied this expansion. Our starting point is that energy security is an instance of security in general and thus any concept of it should address three questions: “Security for whom?”, “Security for which values?” and “Security from what threats?” We examine an influential approach – the ‘four As of energy security’ (availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability) and related literature of energy security – to show it does not address these questions. We subsequently summarize recent insights which propose a different concept of energy security as ‘low vulnerability of vital energy systems’. This approach opens the road for detailed exploration of vulnerabilities as a combination of exposure to risks and resilience and of the links between vital energy systems and critical social functions. The examination of energy security framed by this concept involves several scientific disciplines and provides a useful platform for scholarly analysis and policy learning. - Highlights: • Energy security should be conceptualized as an instance of security in general. • 4As of energy security and related approaches do not address security questions. • We define energy security as low vulnerability of vital energy systems (VES). • VES support critical social functions and can be drawn sectorally or geographically. • Vulnerability is a combination of exposure to risks and resilience capacities

  16. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between

  17. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  18. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  19. The French nuclear policy. A model for security policy in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Between the end of the second world war and the collapse of the Berlin wall, the French diplomacy was based on the nuclear policy in a solid and coherent way. This nuclear policy was an 'incarnation' of the national security conception, allowing France to recover its political, military and economical rank on the international scene. The most important characteristic of the French nuclear policy concerns the commercialization of the nuclear energy which aims to ensuring the national security through the building up of a financial, technological and political 'reserve'. In front of the domination of the USA and USSR during the cold war era, NE Asia had a similar geostrategic configuration as Western Europe. It concerns in particular the massive application of nuclear energy for both military and industrial purposes. The bases of the security policy in this region refers to the real use of the nuclear weapon by the USA against Japan in 1945. The French nuclear policy may be considered as a model for the building of the security policy of NE Asia, in particular through the commercialization of the nuclear technology between the countries in concern. This nuclear approach would allow the countries of these region to change their present day national defense policy into an economical and military cooperation. (J.S.)

  20. Review of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II. (UK)

  1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years. Content: Foreword; Executive Summary; 1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy - Concepts and Issues: - Energy supply security: An introduction, - Why security of energy supply remains a policy issue in OECD countries, - The external dimension: import dependence, resource exhaustion and carbon policy, - The internal dimension: economic, financial and technical considerations for energy supply security - Orientations for government policies to enhance the security of energy supply, - Conclusions; 2. Indicators and Models for Measuring Security of Energy Supply Risks: - Introduction, - Different approaches towards designing the Supply/Demand Index, - A detailed review of selected security of supply indicators, - Comprehensive models for assessing the security of energy supply, - The Supply/Demand Index, - Concluding observations; 3. Evolution of the Security of Energy Supply in OECD Countries: - Time-dependent quantification of the security of energy supply, - Changes in security of supply in selected OECD countries, - Electricity generation and the security of energy supply, - The contribution of nuclear energy and energy intensity to the security of energy supply, - The geographical distribution of SSDI values, - Conclusions; 4. Public

  2. Energy security and the IEA ExCo on combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, P. [Hutchinson Consultant (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Energy security is an issue for those nations which consume more energy than is available from indigenous sources. A failure to secure adequate energy supplies at an acceptable price prejudices both national and economic security. Energy security is therefore a significant policy issue. A discussion of energy security and the International Energy Agency ExCo on combustion was offered in this presentation. The purpose of the discussion was to determine if a task or set of tasks on combustion research related to energy security should be launched; the structure of such a task; topics of interest; who would wish to participate; who would lead the collaboration; and the next steps. The presentation discussed the proper understanding and analysis of energy security and the interactions between international politics; defence; economics and economic development; present and future technologies; national infrastructure; resource distribution; and environmental science and politics. The presentation also discussed whether there was a shortage of energy, world reserves of crude oil, coal, and hydrocarbons. Oil supply disruptions and nominal and real world oil prices were also discussed. Options for addressing energy security were presented, with particular reference to increasing the energy intensity of the economy; using a wide range of different fuels such as coal; developing indigenous supplies such as renewables; and developing a reliable long life energy source. It was concluded that imports of energy can be reduced when energy security improves. tabs., figs.

  3. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    O&M Operations and Maintenance PSO Power System Optimization PV Photovoltaic RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks RBAC Role...elements of the initial study and operational power system model (feeder size , protective devices, generation sources, controllable loads, transformers...EW-201340) Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A

  4. Modeling Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications for Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla; Leonard, Elizabeth; Pradella, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux is a modification of Linux initially released by NSA in January 2001 that provides a language for specifying Linux security policies and, as in the Flask architecture, a security server...

  5. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  6. Alignment of Organizational Security Policies -- Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.

    2012-01-01

    To address information security threats, an organization defines security policies that state how to deal with sensitive information. These policies are high-level policies that apply for the whole organization and span the three security domains: physical, digital and social. One example of a

  7. Nuclear energy, needs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, B.; Rahimi, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    As an oil-and gas-rich state, Iran is among the main energy exporting countries of the world. No doubt, economic development in a country causes increase in its energy demand. Having a glance at the statistics of energy consumption in Iran during the past three decades reveals that energy consumption has been quadrupled. Due to dependability of the country's energy-supply system on fossil industries and thanks to the increasing demand, social and economic development will face great problems. For this reason, the problem has prompted Iranian officials to diversify the country's energy-supply system, as it has been give top priority in the policies of the first and second plans. The discovered and undiscovered fields of applied nuclear sciences and technologies indicate the importance of transferring and developing nuclear technologies for different countries' economic systems. Like many other countries, Iran is also in dire need of transferring nuclear technology and applying the related sciences in various fields, paving the way for economic, agricultural, medical development and having a more active presence in the international markets through quality and standard products. Iran has all the time called for a Middle East region free of nuclear weapons and expressed its concern over production and development of atomic weapons by certain regional countries and called it a serious threat to its national and regional security

  8. ''Neighbourhood'' as an international energy policy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Campaner, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    Since 2002, the concept of ''neighbourhood'' has been central to the EU thinking about the emergence of a European foreign and security policy. The relations between the EU and the countries that share - or could share in the future - a border with it, but have little or no prospects for full membership, are supposed to be structured by the emerging ''European Neighbourhood Policy'' (ENP). On the receiving end of this policy proposal are a number of countries on the Eastern edge of the Union, in the South Caucasus, East and South of the Mediterranean. The ENP is very much a ''transformationist'' agenda, with very ambitious goals of bringing about long term political and economic reforms in the neighbour countries. The ultimate goal is to promote stability and prosperity on the edges of the Union. The means for that is to exchange gradual integration into the EU common market and direct economic aid against verifiable commitments of political and economic reforms. Many neighbour countries are of great significance as energy producers, energy exporters, or transit countries to the EU. Hence the following two questions: 1) Is there an explicit energy security component - or energy motive - in the ENP. If yes, how is it structured. 2) What are the potential energy security implications of the ENP. In other words: To what extent, and through which mechanisms, would EU energy security be served by a process of economic and political reforms in the neighbour countries. It's worth extending the questioning to the study of the ''neighbourhood'' dimension in the existing EU international energy policy. It appears that the energy security thinking of the EU Commission has long been structured by the concept of ''neighbourhood''. It is then of some importance to study how the development of this policy will be affected by the implementation of the ENP. Beyond that, we develop a critical assessment of ''neighbourhood'' as a concept for energy security policies. Based on a

  9. 49 theses on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1977-01-01

    The theses presented refer to the following subjects: 1) economic growth and energy consumption, 2) energy policy and primary energies, 3) nuclear energy, 4) licensing procedures, 5) administrative problems, 6) international integration of energy policy, and 7) long-term forecasts. (GG) [de

  10. Energy technology evaluation report: Energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, R.; Lamont, A.; Schock, R.

    1992-09-01

    Energy security was identified in the National Energy Strategy (NES) as a major issue for the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a process designed by the DOE to identify technologies important to implementing the NES, an expert working group was convened to consider which technologies can best contribute to reducing the nation's economic vulnerability to future disruptions of world oil supplies, the working definition of energy security. Other working groups were established to deal with economic growth, environmental quality, and technical foundations. Energy Security working group members were chosen to represent as broad a spectrum of energy supply and end-use technologies as possible and were selected for their established reputations as experienced experts with an ability to be objective. The time available for this evaluation was very short. The group evaluated technologies using criteria taken from the NES which can be summarized for energy security as follows: diversifying sources of world oil supply so as to decrease the increasing monopoly status of the Persian Gulf region; reducing the importance of oil use in the US economy to diminish the impact of future disruptions in oil supply; and increasing the preparedness of the US to deal with oil supply disruptions by having alternatives available at a known price. The result of the first phase of the evaluation process was the identification of technology groups determined to be clearly important for reducing US vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. The important technologies were mostly within the high leverage areas of oil and gas supply and transportation demand but also included hydrogen utilization, biomass, diversion resistant nuclear power, and substitute industrial feedstocks.

  11. Energy policies and renewable energy systems monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nisio, Attilio; Savino, Mario; Spadavecchia, Maurizio [Electrical and Electronic Measurements Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy)], e-mails: dinisio@misure.poliba.it, savino@misure.poliba.it, spadavecchia@misure.poliba.it

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The global energy crisis is forcing every country worldwide to review its policies on energy. The environmental disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has accelerated this process. Many people around the world are citing the disaster as evidence that nuclear power would endanger the survival of mankind on earth and should be banned. Today we need to focus more substantially on energy saving, especially using smart devices with low power consumption. We have also to review the approach to the exploitation of energy and move from a philosophy 'from the ground to the subsurface' to another 'from the earth to the sun'. This paper highlights the increasing importance of solar power in meeting energy needs while achieving security of supply and minimising carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. It deals also with the development of solar power plants, which require a supervisory control system that improves their efficiency and reliability. (author)

  12. Japan’s energy security predicament post-Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    If energy security is defined as the availability of energy at all times in various forms, in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices, without unacceptable or irreversible impact on the economy and the environment, Japan is facing an energy security predicament. For a country that was already uneasy about energy security, the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which caused a nuclear catastrophe in TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, turned this unease into outright anxiety. With the temporary and/or permanent closure of many nuclear reactors Japan has had to replace lost power. Tokyo has had no choice but to secure additional fossil fuels, a strategy that has negatively affected Japan’s economy due to rising fuel costs. The increase in Japan’s fossil fuel consumption has also caused a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions, and affected Tokyo’s commitment to Kyoto targets. This paper analyzes the consequences of the 2011 nuclear disaster for Japan’s energy security. Recognizing that Japan’s future energy policy choices are constrained and path dependent, the paper outlines energy policy recommendations for Japan’s government. - Highlights: ► Analysis of Japan’s energy security situation post-Fukushima. ► Energy transition is path dependant and slow. ► Government is facing significant challenges in terms of future energy policy.

  13. Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Krey, Volker; McCollum, David; Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan

    2012-01-01

    We use the MESSAGE model to examine multiple dimensions of sustainable development for three Asian regions in a set of scenarios developed for the Asian Modelling Exercise. Using climate change mitigation as a starting point for the analysis, we focus on the interaction of climate and energy with technology choice, energy security, energy access, and air pollution, which often have higher policy priority than climate change. Stringent climate policies drive the future energy supply in Asia from being dominated by coal and oil to a more diversified system based mostly on natural gas, coal with CCS, nuclear and renewable energy. The increase in diversity helps to improve the energy security of individual countries and regions. Combining air pollution control policies and universal energy access policies with climate policy can further help to reduce both outdoor and indoor air pollution related health impacts. Investments into the energy system must double by 2030 to achieve stringent climate goals, but are largely offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution abatement. Strong focus on end-use efficiency also helps lowering overall total costs and allows for limiting or excluding supply side technologies from the mitigation portfolio. Costs of additional energy access policies and measures are a small fraction of total energy system costs. - Highlights: ► Half of added investments in energy offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution. ► Costs for achieving universal energy access much smaller than energy system costs. ► Combined emissions and access policies further reduce air pollution impacts on health. ► Strong focus on end-use efficiency allows for more flexibility on energy sources. ► Stringent climate policy can improve energy security of Asian regions.

  14. The nuclear energy policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanne, H.

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the nuclear question mobilizes attentions and when a new cycle of debates about non-proliferation opens up, the author recalls the constraints and challenges of a nuclear power generation policy. After a brief history of the development of nuclear energy in France and in the rest of the world, the author presents the risks linked with this energy source (TMI and Chernobyl accidents), the particularities of the fuel cycle with its safety and security aspects, and the promises of some past and future reactor technologies (FBR's and fusion reactors). Then, the author stresses on the importance of investments in this domain as illustrated by the launching of new nuclear programs in France, UK, Italy, Finland and in the US, and by the willing of some emerging countries to develop this energy source (China, India, United Arab Emirates, Jordan..). Finally, nuclear energy must not be considered as a privilege of developed countries but should benefit to the rest of the world as well since it promotes economic development thanks to an abundant and cheap energy. (J.S.)

  15. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  16. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  17. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  19. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  20. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  1. Energy policy of Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Bong-ki

    2006-01-01

    No other country in the world has so few resources of fossil sources of energy and depends on imports of power as the Republic of Korea. As a consequence of economical and political processes of globalization, new challenges are developed: elevated regional and global conflicts relating to resources as well as new possibilities of cooperation by means of amore intensely international division of labour. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the energy policy of the Republic of Korea. Especially, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Characteristics of the power structure of the Republic of Korea; (b) National energy policy and measures for energy security; (c) Practical measures of energy security; (d) Regional co-operation for energy security from the view of the Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has a very weak energy structure and strongly depends on foreign countries. Among the successful measures of energy security, there exist measures for energy saving in industrial areas, diversification of sources of energy and exporting countries, increase of competitiveness of the energy economy due to restructuring and privatization of national companies as well as liberalisation of the energy market. Investments in the research of energy saving technologies and renewable energy such as solar energy, hydraulic power and fuel cells are trend-setting. The development of new sources of energy and the increase of the self-fund relating to petroleum, coal and natural gas are encouraging. The Republic of Korea is not attached at the international power net. Therefore, the Republic of Korea highly is susceptible according to energy crisis. The elevated dependence from other countries will exist furthermore. The Republic of Korea should expend its activities relating to foreign affairs and the large oil producers

  2. Energy Policies of Slovenia. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA survey was carried out at the request of the Government of Slovenia in order to assist the Government in defining and meeting energy policy objectives. Since its independence in 1991, Slovenia has made considerable progress in establishing a market-oriented energy sector. The report analyses developments in energy supply and demand, the restructuring of the coal and electricity industries, nuclear safety, and progress in energy efficiency and environmental protection. It contains energy production and consumption data as well as supply and demand projections. The report includes recommendations on removing distortions in energy prices, on increasing security of supply and on measures to improve the environment. (author). 21 figs., 41 tabs

  3. European energy policy: the green book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  4. China's energy security and strategic choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellistrandi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the present day international political and economical situation, China's energy security covers five important aspects: energy supplies security, energy prices security, environment security with respect to energy consumption, energy transport security, R and D security in the domain of energy resources exploration, exploitation and utilisation. Considering the above-mentioned aspects, China's strategic choices should include five major goals: counting on its own energy resources and giving priority to energy saving, participating to the international competition and implementing a national strategic reserves system, readjusting the energy consumption structure and promoting environment protection by developing nuclear energy, harmonizing China's relations with some countries and avoiding political and military conflicts, increasing investment in energy R and D, in particular in clean coal, nuclear, automotive, renewable energy and energy saving technologies. (J.S.)

  5. Energy policies of Hungary: 1995 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Great progress has been made towards adapting the energy sector of the Hungarian economy to perform effectively in an increasingly market oriented economy since the last IEA Survey in 1991. This new report reviews progress in restructuring energy industries and developments in energy markets, privatisation policy and regulatory arrangements. it also examines issues of energy supply security and environmental protection. Analysis of energy supply and demand is based on the most authoritative data available and the Survey concludes with a series of recommendations designed to further achievement of the Government's energy policy objectives. The Government is applauded for building emergency oil stocks in line with IEA policy and for progress in industrial restructuring and price reform. At the same time the need to complete price reforms to schedule is underlined and the Government is urged to complete regulatory arrangements well ahead of the planned privatisation of gas and electricity industries to ensure success. (authors). 60 tabs

  6. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  7. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  8. A generic framework for the description and analysis of energy security in an energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2012-01-01

    While many energy security indicators and models have been developed for specific jurisdictions or types of energy, few can be considered sufficiently generic to be applicable to any energy system. This paper presents a framework that attempts to meet this objective by combining the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security with structured systems analysis techniques to create three energy security indicators and a process-flow energy systems model. The framework is applicable to those energy systems which can be described in terms of processes converting or transporting flows of energy to meet the energy–demand flows from downstream processes. Each process affects the environment and is subject to jurisdictional policies. The framework can be employed to capture the evolution of energy security in an energy system by analyzing the results of indicator-specific metrics applied to the energy, demand, and environment flows associated with the system's constituent processes. Energy security policies are treated as flows to processes and classified into one of three actions affecting the process's energy demand or the process or its energy input, or both; the outcome is determined by monitoring changes to the indicators. The paper includes a detailed example of an application of the framework. - Highlights: ► The IEA's definition of energy security is parsed into three energy security indicators: availability, affordability, and acceptability. ► Data flow diagrams and other systems analysis tools can represent an energy system and its processes, flows, and chains. ► Indicator-specific metrics applied to a process's flow determine the state of energy security in an energy system, an energy chain, or process. ► Energy policy is considered as a flow and policy outcomes are obtained by measuring flows with indicator-specific metrics. ► The framework is applicable to most jurisdictions and energy types.

  9. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  10. Measuring the security of energy exports demand in OPEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, Jude Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of OPEC is the security of demand for the crude oil exports of its members. Achieving this objective is imperative with the projected decline in OECD countries' crude oil demand among other crude oil demand shocks. This paper focuses on determining the external crude oil demand security risks of OPEC member states. In assessing these risks, this study introduces two indexes. The first index, Risky Energy Exports Demand (REED), indicates the level of energy export demand security risks for OPEC members. It combines measures of export dependence, economic dependence, monopsony risk and transportation risk. The second index, Contribution to OPEC Risk Exposure (CORE), indicates the individual contribution of the OPEC members to OPEC's risk exposure. This study utilises the disaggregated index approach in measuring energy demand security risks for crude oil and natural gas and involves a country level analysis. With the disaggregated approach, the study shows that OPEC's energy export demand security risks differ across countries and energy types. - Highlights: • REED and CORE indexes are suitable measures for energy exports demand security risk. • The indexes show that energy demand security risk is different for each OPEC country. • The countries contribution to OPEC's energy demand security risk is also different. • The outcome is necessary for OPEC's common energy and climate change policies. • The outcome makes a case for oil demand security as a topical issue in the literature

  11. Slovak Republic - energy policy review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country's EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership. 39 refs., 32 tabs., 4 apps.

  12. The energy geo-policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis updates and develops the analysis of the energy geo-policy proposed by the French Review of geo-policy. In this framework the today policies of the different sate and geographical actors, as suppliers and consumers of petroleum energy, are examined. Then the author analyzes the political problems resulting from, this petroleum energy transfers by earth and sea and the problems resulting specifically from the nuclear energy. The last part brings the author own opinions. (A.L.B.)

  13. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  14. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  15. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  16. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  17. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  18. Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-30

    More than a dozen energy experts convened in Houston, Texas, on February 13, 2009, for the first in a series of four regionally-based energy summits being held by the Council on Competitiveness. The Southern Energy Summit was hosted by Marathon Oil Corporation, and participants explored the public policy, business and technological challenges to increasing the diversity and sustainability of U.S. energy supplies. There was strong consensus that no single form of energy can satisfy the projected doubling, if not tripling, of demand by the year 2050 while also meeting pressing environmental challenges, including climate change. Innovative technology such as carbon capture and storage, new mitigation techniques and alternative forms of energy must all be brought to bear. However, unlike breakthroughs in information technology, advancing broad-based energy innovation requires an enormous scale that must be factored into any equation that represents an energy solution. Further, the time frame for developing alternative forms of energy is much longer than many believe and is not understood by the general public, whose support for sustainability is critical. Some panelists estimated that it will take more than 50 years to achieve the vision of an energy system that is locally tailored and has tremendous diversity in generation. A long-term commitment to energy sustainability may also require some game-changing strategies that calm volatile energy markets and avoid political cycles. Taking a page from U.S. economic history, one panelist suggested the creation of an independent Federal Energy Reserve Board not unlike the Federal Reserve. The board would be independent and influence national decisions on energy supply, technology, infrastructure and the nation's carbon footprint to better calm the volatile energy market. Public-private efforts are critical. Energy sustainability will require partnerships with the federal government, such as the U.S. Department of Energy

  19. Energy policy, ethics, and a return to civility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    For the past decade or so government, business and the general public have been concerned with framing a coherent set of energy policies that will meet our present responsibilities and secure an adequate and diversified energy future of a nation. Thinking about these policies and the possible sources of energy supply that we might be able to rely on has involved, in addition to the customary technical and commercial considerations, certain ethical issues as well. In this context the author discusses, 1) energy policy, price deregulation and distributive justice, 2) energy policy, social policy and basic goods, 3) the energy-environment-safety debate and 4) nuclear waste management

  20. Security Engine Management of Router based on Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Su Hyung Jo; Ki Young Kim; Sang Ho Lee

    2007-01-01

    Security management has changed from the management of security equipments and useful interface to manager. It analyzes the whole security conditions of network and preserves the network services from attacks. Secure router technology has security functions, such as intrusion detection, IPsec(IP Security) and access control, are applied to legacy router for secure networking. It controls an unauthorized router access and detects an illegal network intrusion. This paper re...

  1. Japan's new energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  2. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  3. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  4. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: A Summary of Major Provisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sissine, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (P.L. 110-140, H.R. 6) is an omnibus energy policy law that consists mainly of provisions designed to increase energy efficiency and the availability of renewable energy...

  5. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  6. Consumer energy - conservation policy: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described, and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programs. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy (economic stability and economic security) are goals well worth pursuing. 13 references, 2 tables.

  7. New green paper on European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2006, EU Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso and Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs presented to the public the Green Paper on 'A European Strategy for a Sustainable, Competitive, and Secure Energy', which had been expected for some time. The authors thus underscore the great importance for European development of energy policy. However, the European treaties restrict the competence of the EU in matters of energy policy. The Green Paper is to spark off a broad consultation and discussion process about the potential design of a comprehensive European energy policy. 6 main areas are mentioned in which action needs to be taken: - Energy for growth and employment. - Single energy market and continuity of supply. - Mix of energy resources: sustainable, efficient, divers. - Climate protection. - Innovation in energy technologies. - Coherent foreign policy in matters of energy. 3 key objectives are identified: - Development of renewable and other energy sources also with low CO 2 emissions. - Opening of markets, promotion of investments, energy efficiency. - Continuity of supply. (orig.)

  8. Iran's energy policy current dilemmas and perspective for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarrat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Iran is facing large challenges in the area of energy policy. In order to illuminate these challenges and the problems and possibilities they present, first I will analyze the current energy consumption patterns in Iran as well as the energy policy of the Iranian government-Including its atomic energy programs. Based on this analysis, I will then formulate alternative concepts for Iran's future energy and national security policy. The increase in energy usage in Iran is distinctly out of proportion with the development of economic productivity. Negative structural characteristics of this system are: first, an above-average energy intensity; second, an increase in energy consumption in the traffic sector; third, a high growth rate in the use of electrical energy; and lastly, an above-average amount of stress to the environment. Traditionally, Iran's energy policy has focused on satisfying the growing demand for energy by oil and, in the last fifteen years, by successively expanding natural gas. However, the further development of the natural gas supply only makes sense within the context of a holistic energy policy, which takes into account the principles of sustainable development. In the short term, such a policy would take advantage of both considerable energy-saving techniques, as well as potential renewable energy sources. In the long term, such a policy would strive for the complete transfer to renewable energy sources and technology. The atomic energy program is not a good answer to the future energy needs of Iran, and better solutions should be envisaged for Iran's legitimate security concerns

  9. Conceptualising energy security and making explicit its polysemic nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Lynne [The John Curtin Institute of Public Policy, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Twenty-first century access to energy sources depends on a complex system of global markets, vast cross-border infrastructure networks, a small group of primary energy suppliers, and interdependencies with financial markets and technology. This is the context in which energy security has risen high on the policy agenda of governments around the world and the term 'energy security' has quietly slipped into the energy lexicon. The limited discourse about the nature of the term or its underlying assumptions has been totally eclipsed by an almost overwhelming focus on securing supplies of primary energy sources and geopolitics. An examination of explicit and inferred definitions finds that the concept of energy security is inherently slippery because it is polysemic in nature, capable of holding multiple dimensions and taking on different specificities depending on the country (or continent), timeframe or energy source to which it is applied. This 'slipperiness' poses analytical, prediction and policy difficulties but if explicitly recognised through definitional clarity, new levels of understanding will enrich the policy debate to deal with obstacles impacting on the constantly evolving nature of energy security. (author)

  10. Conceptualising energy security and making explicit its polysemic nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century access to energy sources depends on a complex system of global markets, vast cross-border infrastructure networks, a small group of primary energy suppliers, and interdependencies with financial markets and technology. This is the context in which energy security has risen high on the policy agenda of governments around the world and the term 'energy security' has quietly slipped into the energy lexicon. The limited discourse about the nature of the term or its underlying assumptions has been totally eclipsed by an almost overwhelming focus on securing supplies of primary energy sources and geopolitics. An examination of explicit and inferred definitions finds that the concept of energy security is inherently slippery because it is polysemic in nature, capable of holding multiple dimensions and taking on different specificities depending on the country (or continent), timeframe or energy source to which it is applied. This 'slipperiness' poses analytical, prediction and policy difficulties but if explicitly recognised through definitional clarity, new levels of understanding will enrich the policy debate to deal with obstacles impacting on the constantly evolving nature of energy security.

  11. Energy policy of the Bavarian Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, F J

    1986-06-01

    On the annual meeting of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Regionaler Energieversorgungsunternehmen in Munich (April 28-29) the Prime Minister of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauss was speaking about Bavarian energy policy as stretching from Kahl to the planned Wackersdorf reprocessing plant. Neither did he fail to mention the intended increase of the coal rate nor to express his opinion on the Ukrainian reactor accident. Besides, Strauss expressed his wish of returning to a harmonic basic energy policy which will look after the interests of man and the environment and will help to arrive at a consensus free from all ideology which is the basis of our conditions of life and future social security.

  12. Fossil energy and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folke, G.

    2001-01-01

    To fulfil the basic goal of delivering food for the tables of the citizens, modern Western agriculture is extremely dependent on supporting material flows, infrastructure, and fossil energy. According to several observers, fossil fuel production is about to peak, i.e., oil extraction is no longer capable of keeping pace with the increasing demand. This situation may trigger an unprecedented increase in fossil energy prices, which may make the current highly energy dependent food production-distribution system highly vulnerable. The paper starts with a survey of this vulnerability. Also, the supply of phosphorus, a key factor in agriculture, may be at stake under such circumstances. The paper analyses this situation and discusses settlement structures integrated with agriculture that might increase food security by reducing energy demands. In the proposed ideal societal structure, agriculture is integrated with settlements and most of the food needed by the population is produced locally, and the nutrients for food production are recycled from households and animals by means of biological processes demanding considerably less mechanical investment and fossil support energy than the conventional type of agriculture. The vulnerability of this structure would be considerably lower, than that of the current system. (author)

  13. New US energy policy act in force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The United States of America is accused by politicians of the German Red-Green federal government, but also by the EU, of not caring enough about climate protection. This allegation is fueled, above all, by the refusal of the United States to sign the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Climate Framework Convention of 1997. However, the US is not idle in this respect. In late July, the United States together with China, India, Japan, South Korea and Australia agreed on an Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. Almost at the same time, on July 29, 2005, after more than five years of debate, the US Congress adopted new energy legislation (A Bill to Ensure Jobs for the Future with Secure and Reliable Energy - the Energy Policy Act of 2005). The holistic aspect in this piece of US legislation covers nearly the whole field of energy policy. The Act encompasses these areas: - energy efficiency, - renewable energies, - oil and natural gas, - clean coal, - nuclear power, - vehicles and fuels, - hydrogen, - electricity, - research and development. With its new Energy Policy Act, the United States has paved the way politically for making energy supply in the world's largest industrialized national securer and safer on a technical basis and less pollutant for the environment and the climate. (orig.)

  14. Shaping China's energy security: The impact of domestic reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lixia; Chang, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a subsequent study of China's energy security situation which concludes that China's energy security has not improved over 30 years of economic reform. The objective of the study is to explore qualitatively why the energy security situation has not improved. To answer the ‘why’ question, the study opens up a new perspective by analyzing the relationship between energy security and energy policies from the macroeconomic reform perspective. This study discusses major reforms that took place over 30 years. It is found that China's macroeconomic reform has restricted the formation of China's energy policies and determined its energy security situation. In essence, China's energy policies are only a reaction to the macroeconomic measures. In other words, China's energy policies are not originally intended to improve energy security, but passive reactions to China's macroeconomic reform. This explains why China did not improve its energy security situation despite 30 years of reform. - Highlights: • This study identifies relationship between China's reform and energy policy. • This study identifies the key variable that has affected China's energy security. • Policy implication of the identification is drawn. • A new perspective to analyze energy security is provided

  15. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Lieutenant General, Canadian Forces, Canadian Military Repre- sentative to NATO Elizabeth Race, Deputy Defence Policy Advisor, Canadian Joint...Ruehle, Head, Energy Security Section, Emerging Security Challenges Division, NATO ( Brus - sels) Patrick Nash, Lieutenant General, Irish Army, for- mer

  16. Energy Policy is Technology Politics The Hydrogen Energy Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl-Jochen Winter

    2006-01-01

    Germany's energy supply status shows both an accumulation of unsatisfactory sustainabilities putting the nation's energy security at risk, and a hopeful sign: The nation's supply dependency on foreign sources and the accordingly unavoidable price dictate the nation suffers under is almost life risking; the technological skill, however, of the nation's researchers, engineers, and industry materializes in a good percentage of the indigenous and the world's energy conversion technology market. Exemplified with the up and coming hydrogen energy economy this paper tries to advocate the 21. century energy credo: energy policy is energy technology politics! Energy source thinking and acting is 19. and 20. century, energy efficient conversion technology thinking and acting is 21. century. Hydrogen energy is on the verge of becoming the centre-field of world energy interest. Hydrogen energy is key for the de-carbonization and, thus, sustainabilization of fossil fuels, and as a storage and transport means for the introduction of so far un-operational huge renewable sources into the world energy market. - What is most important is hydrogen's thermodynamic ability to exergize the energy scheme: hydrogen makes more technical work (exergy) out of less primary energy! Hydrogen adds value. Hydrogen energy and, in particular, hydrogen energy technologies, are to become part of Germany's national energy identity; accordingly, national energy policy as energy technology politics needs to grow in the nation's awareness as common sense! Otherwise Germany seems ill-equipped energetically, and its well-being hangs in the balance. (author)

  17. Better Policies Accelerate Clean Energy Transition. Policy brief - Focus on energy system flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Farid; Lund, Peter; Skytte, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The use of variable renewable energy sources will increase in the Nordic and Baltic countries in the future. This will call for increased flexibility in the electricity market to ensure both high energy security and efficient use of renewable power in all circumstances. The barriers and hence also...... policies to energy system flexibility are numerous. In this brief, we focus on policy recommendations for two important barriers to flexibility in the Nordic electricity market, namely insufficient market signals to some stakeholders, and uneven market frameworks for different renewable energy resources...

  18. Evaluating energy security in the Asia-Pacific region: A novel methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes an 'energy security assessment instrument' based on a new and expanded conceptualisation of energy security. The instrument is a systematic interrogative tool for evaluating energy security of individual states or regions. It consists of eleven broad energy security dimensions associated with the current global energy system. These energy security dimensions take into account numerous quantitative and qualitative attributes of each country's energy security and policy, and include both traditional energy security concerns and many new factors, such as environmental, socio-cultural and technological. Another dimension, largely absent from previous analyses, is the existence of, and the issues addressed in, energy security policy in each country. This instrument serves as an assessment system with which to evaluate energy security in the Asia-Pacific region. The existing studies on energy security in the Asia-Pacific region suffer from serious limitations. No study to date examines regional energy security policies by adopting a more comprehensive energy security definition as a starting point. Most studies also focus on a single country or issue. Even if they examine energy security in major regional economies, they lack critical comparative analysis. The instrument is valuable as it may be utilised to draw a comprehensive map of regional energy security situation, which can also include comparative analysis of energy security characteristics across the Asia-Pacific region. Ultimately, it may be utilised to set up a framework for improved regional energy cooperation with the aim of providing regional leaders with a blueprint for improving regional energy security and policy.

  19. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  20. Conceptualizing and measuring energy security: A synthesized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Mukherjee, Ishani

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synthesized, workable framework for analyzing national energy security policies and performance. Drawn from research interviews, survey results, a focused workshop, and an extensive literature review, this article proposes that energy security ought to be comprised of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. We then break these five dimensions down into 20 components related to security of supply and production, dependency, and diversification for availability; price stability, access and equity, decentralization, and low prices for affordability; innovation and research, safety and reliability, resilience, energy efficiency, and investment for technology development; land use, water, climate change, and air pollution for sustainability; and governance, trade, competition, and knowledge for sound regulation. Further still, our synthesis lists 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators that policymakers and scholars can use to analyze, measure, track, and compare national performance on energy security. The article concludes by offering implications for energy policy more broadly. -- Highlights: → Energy security should consist of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. → The dimensions of energy security can be broken down into 20 components. → These components can be distilled into 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators.

  1. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  2. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Lee, Keat Teong

    2006-01-01

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia

  3. Energy policy and public administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneke, G.A.; Lagassa, G.K. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    At the 1979 conference of the American Society for Public Administration, each editor chaired a separate panel on the administrative dimensions of energy policy. Both panels revealed the importance of involvement in energy decision making by all levels of government. It turns out that energy policy makers are confronted with unrealistic, and therefore paralyzing, choices between two rather extreme sets of energy stategies and futures: large-scale, centralized technologies vs. small-scale, decentralized, appropriate technologies. The nineteen chapters selected and compiled here represent the basic policy issues that must be confronted along whichever path that is chosen. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter.

  4. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  5. Trade unions and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (the review of energy policy by the Trades Union Congress); energy objectives and the energy crisis; energy planning (a planning framework for supply and demand; energy demand management; public planning inquiries; a plan for Britain; beyond Britain); a low energy growth strategy (UK primary energy demand); choice of supplies (coal; oil and gas; nuclear energy); new sources of energy (e.g.solar, geothermal, biofuels, wave, wind, tidal); conservation; health and safety - employers in the energy industries; conclusions. (U.K.)

  6. Energy supply security and geopolitics: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlje, Aad; Linde, Coby van der

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets. Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and economic blocks, competing for resources and markets via political, economic and military power. It is shown that these storylines have a significant impact on the development of the energy market, on the way in which energy supply may be secured and on the effect and applicability of the several types of instruments available. The current EU is geared towards enlargement and a deepening of economic integration, based on the tenets of the post-1945 multilateral world system. The present world tends towards Regions and Empires and suggests that the EU may have to reorient its energy security policy. Energy policy must become an integral part of EU external trade and foreign relations and security policy. The EU should develop its own strategy, actively investing in dialogues with producer countries in the Persian Gulf and Africa and with Russia. Sustainable prosperity and governance in these regions will support EU energy security

  7. Secure Energy Supply 2009. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this invitation lecture professor Slugen (President of Slovak Nuclear Society and President of European Nuclear Society) invited the participants of the International Conference: Secure Energy Supply 2009.

  8. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  9. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  10. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  11. Energy policy of Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirche, W.

    1988-01-01

    The government of the Land Lower Saxony in February 1988 submitted a new energy programme intended to define the energy-political boundary data for energy industry and energy consumers, and to bring about the broadest possible consensus for the implementation of this energy policy between politicians, the energy industry and the population. The Minister of Economy of Lower Saxony in his statement refers particularly to the topics nuclear energy and coal, renewable energies, structure of areas to be supplied with energy, and considerations relating to a revision of the antitrust laws. (orig.) [de

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries. France 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of France, including recommendations on how policies could be improved. The report acknowledges the considerable progress made since the first oil crisis towards meeting stated energy policy goals-energy security, competitiveness and environmental protection - but argues the case for some reorientation of policy. Key issues highlighted in the report include restructuring and liberalization of the electricity and gas sectors, distortions to inter-fuel competition and the need for a more rational system of energy taxation, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote energy efficiency. (authors). 13 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  14. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  15. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  16. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  17. Exploring public perceptions of energy security risks in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demski, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Along with climate change and affordability, concerns about energy security are key drivers behind proposals for major energy system change in the UK and numerous other countries. Unlike climate change we know very little about how the public thinks and feels about this aspect of sustainability and energy policy. Beyond engaging critically with conceptual and theoretical discussions, empirical data from two surveys (Cardiff postal survey, N=520; online UK survey, N=499) using a ten item energy security scale are presented and discussed. Here we show that aspects of energy security are certainly of concern to the UK public, with particularly high concern around dependence on fossil fuels/imports and relatively lower expressed concern for actual disruption of energy supply. However public concerns around energy security are only emerging, and likely to change depending on the context in which it is discussed (e.g. in comparison to climate change). In addition, findings from public interviews are used to further contextualise the survey findings, showing unfamiliarity among the UK public with regards to the term “energy security”. We discuss implications, and further work that would be useful for understanding public perceptions in more depth. - highlights: • Exploring public views on energy security using a 10 item scale. • Concerns over energy security is relatively high but susceptible to framing. • Patterns of concern for different energy security aspects examined. • The term energy security is unfamiliar, only an emerging concern among UK publics. • Further discussion on the meanings and implications of these perceptions

  18. European security and defense policy and its implications for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özköse, Ö Faruk

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The “European Security and Defense Policy” is an evolving process. Since the Maastricht Treaty (1991), the European Union members have been trying to constitute a common security and defense policy within the framework of Common Foreign and Security Policy, second pillar of the European Union. The efforts to create “separable but not separate” European forces within NATO have increased speed in the last years and changed direction towar...

  19. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ENERGY POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the issues raised by the implementation of energy policies and the fiscal measures in the energy sector and it aims to identify the impact of energy policies at regional level. It is emphasized, along with the environmental impact of the use of renewable resources and economic and social effects on sustainable regional development which can generate state intervention through direct and indirect, financial and non-financial instruments. Given the complex energy profile of Romania, the paper reveals also, the problems that have had to face in the last two decades and the impact of energy policies of Romanian governments. The research is based on an analysis of statistics, publications in energy sector, as well as primary and specific legislation.

  20. Security of supply and regulation of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the security of energy supplies has re-emerged as a central issue in the energy policy arena in the UK and elsewhere. This re-emergence takes place against a backdrop of increased liberalisation of the energy markets, so that security of supply needs to be revisited within this context. Security of supply is multifaceted, but is often discussed in terms of physical availability of energy sources and their commodity price risk. This paper discusses the relationship between security of supply and network regulation - that is, how the energy networks, and appropriate regulation of them, can contribute to security of supply in liberalised energy sectors. Energy networks are predominantly natural monopolies and as a result are generally subject to regulatory oversight. We discuss a range of issues and trends that pose challenges and opportunities to network regulation and which call for new and innovative measures. The paper identifies a number of areas where network regulation can play a significant role in increasing the security of supply of future energy systems. (author)

  1. Energy and environment policies. International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of how energy policies can be adapted to environmental concerns. The efficiency of measures solving environmental problems is investigated, in particular measures substituting energy carriers, improving energy efficiency rates, postfitting pollution control devices, and applying clean energy technologies. In connection with methods of state control the report deals with questions of taxation and regularization which are to induce the private sector to actively to something for the protection of the environment. (orig.) [de

  2. Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy security usually considers both the stability of energy supply and security of energy use and it is receiving increasing attention globally. Considering the strategic importance and sensitivity to international change of the crude oil supply, we decided to examine China’s energy security. An original network model was established based on ecological network analysis to holistically evaluate the security of the crude oil supply in China. Using this model, we found that the security of the crude oil supply in China generally increased from 2001 to 2010. The contribution of different compartments in the network to the overall energy security resembled a pyramid structure, with supply sources at the bottom, the consumption sector at the top, and the refining and transfer sectors in the middle. North and South America made the largest contribution to the security of the crude oil supply in China. We provide suggestions to improve the security of the crude oil supply in China based on our results and further scenario analysis. The original network model provides a new perspective for energy security assessment, which can be used as a baseline to develop other models and policy. - Highlights: • Ecological network analysis (ENA) is introduced into energy security assessment. • A model of crude oil supply network in China is established based on ENA. • A pyramid structure of the contributions of different compartments to energy security was found. • Suggestions for forming a stable network are given to improve energy security

  3. Event-related stresses in energy systems and their effects on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Ranjan, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Energy systems change over time as events, such as grid failures, new energy sources, and extreme weather conditions, occur, often affecting the system's energy security. Understanding events, their causes, and how they are handled, can help a jurisdiction and its energy stakeholders develop better, evidence-based energy policy. This paper employs a definition of stress in combination with systems analysis to specify methods for explaining the states through which an energy process, chain, or system passes in response to an event and how this response results in energy security improving, deteriorating, or being maintained. The definition uses three dimensions-availability, affordability, and acceptability-derived from the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security to show when and how a system's energy security will change. Examples are used to illustrate the application of the methods. - Highlights: • A generic set of methods and a common terminology to formalize the ongoing energy security discourse is proposed. • The methods define, measure and explain how energy security can change when events cause stresses in an energy system. • Events are classified in terms of three dimensions derived from the IEA's definition of energy security. • The application of the method is illustrated with detailed examples

  4. Dynamic reconfiguration of security policies in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-03-04

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs).We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain.

  5. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Security Policies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Pinto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs.We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain.

  6. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  7. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  8. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  9. Information security policies and procedures a practitioner's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Introduction Corporate Policies Organizationwide (Tier 1) Policies Organizationwide Policy Document Legal Requirements Duty of Loyalty Duty of Care Other Laws and Regulations Business Requirements Where to Begin? Summary Why Manage This Process as a Project? Introduction First Things First: Identify the Sponsor Defining the Scope of Work Time Management Cost Management Planning for Quality Managing Human Resources Creating a Communications Plan Summary Planning and Preparation Introduction Objectives of Policies, Stand

  10. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  11. Energy policy formulation for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pakistan is a low income, low energy consumption country. In view of the close interdependence between economic growth and energy consumption, she will need increasing energy supplies in order to maintain her economic growth. This paper develops an energy sector optimization model for the Pakistan economy, which consists of production models for five energy industries, ie oil, gas, coal, electricity (including electricity generated in nuclear power plants) and non-commercial fuels. The model is first used to forecast energy balances for the period 1975 - 2006. The model is then employed to formulate a long-term comprehensive energy policy for Pakistan. Finally the suggested policy is compared with the current official energy programme. (author)

  12. International study on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A study, presented in September 2004 at the world energy council congress of Sydney (Australia) by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) evaluates the energy efficiency policies and their impact in 63 countries, and in particular in the developing countries. It has permitted to identify the five most efficient measures about which case studies have been given to subject specialists for thorough analysis. Completed in July 2004, this triennial report has been carried out by the Ademe and the World energy council with the joint collaboration of the Latin American energy organization (Olade) and the Asia Pacific energy research centre (Aperc) under the coordination of Enerdata agency. This short article makes a brief summary of this presentation: energy efficiency at the global scale, transport sector, world power consumption and CO 2 emissions, evaluation of energy efficiency policies and measures (institutions and programmes, efficiency labels and standards for household appliances, innovative financing means, local information centers). (J.S.)

  13. Finns and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikka, P.; Kiljunen, P.

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of energy attitude studies was launched in the University of Tampere in 1983. The objective of the study is to find out the attitude of the Finns on different energy sources. Energy economy, safety, environmental effects, availability and realiability are the most important factors dealt with. The main conclusions of the study are: people are more anxious about the environmental effects, natural gas is the most popular and coal the less popular energy source, nuclear power has stabilized its approval at the 1988 level and people think, that savings is not the solution to the increasing energy demand in the future. 28% of the people want more nuclear power, 35% less and the rest are still thinking

  14. Policy on energy pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, M. G.

    1977-10-15

    Some economic principles of energy pricing in a market type economy in which there is consumer sovereignty are discussed. Thus resources will be allocated via the production processes in line with the preferences of consumers as revealed by their purchases of goods and services. Prices play the crucial role of coordinating instruments in this allocative process. It is assumed that all the energy industries are in the public sector. The following topics are discussed: the specification of objectives for the energy sector; marginal cost pricing; problems associated with the measurement of marginal costs; some aspects of the environmental costs associated with energy production and use, and some issues related to time differentiated tariffs; the modification of prices to achieve financial targets; and the use of energy prices to achieve income distribution objectives.

  15. EU Energy Policy in a Supply-constrained World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-10-01

    Energy is quickly becoming an issue of integration and disintegration of the EU and will perhaps turn out to be the ultimate litmus test of political and economic unity in the EU, as energy issues are increasingly intertwined with wider security issues on the continent. Very often, economic issues are elevated to the political-strategic level, serving a different agenda than merely contributing to the energy policy agenda of the EU. The challenges to the EU and its member states in the energy sector are many: some issues are part of the wider geopolitical and geo-economic agenda, but some are also the product of the new EU that emerged after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The enlargement with member states that are asymmetrically dependent on oil and gas supplies mainly from Russia has further emphasised the growth of structural energy import dependency. Moreover, the new member states did not have the benefit of introducing the energy 'acquis', i.e. liberalisation, in a period of ample supply and relatively low prices. From 2004 onwards, energy has become tighter and more politicised. It was these developments that also uncovered the calculated risk of the old member states to embark on liberalisation without putting a crisis management policy into place. With the increasing worries about the security of supply and the asymmetric exposure of Eastern Europe to a single supplier, energy security issues also began to dominate the internal policy debates both in energy and in external relations. The new developments require the EU member states to consider how and to what extent their external energy policies should also be merged into a more EU-wide approach, if they can agree on the common risks that need to be averted and the common benefits gained, and if and how a crisis mechanism for fuels other than oil is needed to manage the perceived increased security of supply risks. Moreover, they should also consider the internal market design they set out to implement and

  16. Interactions of Policies for Renewable Energy and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even where CO2 emissions are duly priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals other noteworthy interaction effects of climate policy and renewable policy instruments on the wholesale electricity prices in deregulated markets, which open new areas for future research.

  17. Nuclear energy in Romania - a road to energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Lucaciu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Program in Romania is a part of the national and European energy policy: sustainable development, security of energy supply and competitiveness; Romania has a proven experience in construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs, as well as the necessary support infrastructure: Unit 2 completion represents the major project of Nuclearelectrica during its first decade of existence; Innovative approach of Nuclearelectrica related is applied to Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 completion: Major project for the second decade of company life; Risks management and allocation – major tool for project management and financing closure; Support from the political class is crucial, considering that the completion of such projects are covering more than one elections cycle

  18. China's energy security: Perception and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Guy C.K.

    2011-01-01

    China, now the world's second-largest economy, is worried about energy security, which underpins the core objectives of Beijing and the political legitimacy of the Communist Party of China. The purpose of this study is to explore certain popular myths about China's energy security. The study consists of six parts. After the introduction, it formulates the obscure concept of 'energy security' and attempts to contextualize it with 'Chinese characteristics.' Then it explicitly points out that the largest driver of oil demand by China as the 'World's Factory' is transport instead of industry. Next, it explores the effectiveness of transnational pipelines as a measure of energy security and explains why they are less effective than many observers have previously assumed. Furthermore, it investigates the global expansion of Chinese national oil companies and questions their actual contribution to energy security. A few concluding remarks then follow. - Research highlights: → Oil is the form of energy that has produced most of China's energy insecurity. → Transport sector, rather than industry, is the largest driver of China's oil demand. → The contribution of oil pipelines to China's energy security is smaller than many assumed. → Acquisition of oil reserves abroad cannot necessarily guarantee China a supply of oil that is more reliable and less expensive. → Energy security is a means; it is not a goal.

  19. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  20. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  1. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  2. Handbook of space security policies, applications and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, Peter; Robinson, Jana; Moura, Denis; Giannopapa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Space Security involves the use of space (in particular communication, navigation, earth observation, and electronic intelligence satellites) for military and security purposes on earth and also the maintenance of space (in particular the earth orbits) as safe and secure areas for conducting peaceful activities. The two aspects can be summarized as "space for security on earth" and “the safeguarding of space for peaceful endeavors.” The Handbook will provide a sophisticated, cutting-edge resource on the space security policy portfolio and the associated assets, assisting fellow members of the global space community and other interested policy-making and academic audiences in keeping abreast of the current and future directions of this vital dimension of international space policy. The debate on coordinated space security measures, including relevant 'Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures,' remains at a relatively early stage of development. The book offers a comprehensive description of the variou...

  3. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodari A. Simonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries 2003. 2003 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains an analysis of developments in energy policies in the Member countries of the International Energy Agency. It features an overview of major trends in the energy markets, notably the renewed interest in energy security on the part of policy-makers. The study describes how, during the period before and during the war in Iraq, the IEA successfully worked to secure oil supply. 2003 was also a year when growing gas demand and rising import dependency in most IEA Member countries obliged energy policy makers to look at the longer term issue of security of gas supply. In addition to these external developments, an internal dimension of energy security arose in the context of electricity and gas market reform. The book also describes the efforts by countries having ratified the Kyoto Protocol to implement the agreements and the trend of energy R and D policies, as well as developments in energy security and energy market reform in major non-OECD countries. It includes: summaries of the in-depth reviews of Austria, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan and Switzerland conducted from October 2002 to June 2003. The full reviews are published separately

  5. Energy policy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihl, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    More competition is to be achieved in the energy markets of Europe and Germany. New legislation is being adopted to this end, but attempts are also made to block it. DIHT, the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, examines the influence exerted on competition in the energy sector and on deregulation by the German Act Redefining Hard Coal Subsidies, the German Act Reorganizing Power Economy Law, and the separation of grid operation and power generation and the access to the grid this provides to third parties. In order to be reliable, electricity generation must be based on a broad, balanced mix of energy sources. In the baseload range, neither low-cost lignite - development of the Garzweiler II new open cast mine - nor nuclear power -where the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station is threatened by permanent shutdown - must be excluded. Especially consumers are to benefit from more competition, while the interests of associations or groupings must rank second. (orig.) [de

  6. Energy Policies of Ukraine. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Few countries in the world have a more precarious energy situation than Ukraine. A heavy dependence on oil and gas imports, inefficiently-mined coal, and unsafe unsafe nuclear power have left the country vulnerable to energy supply disruptions. Despite some positive moves to restructure the energy sector, Ukraine has not charted a course toward the adoption of a market-oriented, long term energy strategy. This IEA report takes an in-depth look at recent developments and additional steps needed to move Ukraine's energy sector through the difficult transition process, including: a redefinition of the government's energy role; a shift toward market-led business practices in oil and gas production, oil refining and marketing, coal mining and distribution, electricity generation, and gas and power distribution; improved energy security through more diversified energy imports, reliance on domestic coal, and after use of nuclear energy; and a drive to conserve energy and minimise energy waste, in tandem with energy price liberation. Included in this IEA survey are revised data on Ukraine's energy demand, supply, trade and prices. The study offers policy makers and private companies a better understanding of the energy risks and trade-off facing Ukraine in the years ahead. (author). 28 figs., 47 tabs., 8 appends., 8 charts., 3 maps

  7. Energy policy and public administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneke, G.A.; Lagassa, G.K. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of both the centralized hard path and the decentralized soft path of renewable resources are discussed in terms of the relative effectiveness of energy policy initiatives in order to clarify a discussion that has tended to become polarized. The basic issues necessary for a balanced policy are examined and realistic strategies are suggested that will ensure the best possible energy future. The contributors to the 19 chapters examine possible energy sources and their relevant institutional and political constraints and opportunities. 6 figures, 8 tables, 330 references. (DCK)

  8. Energy policy aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattick, W.

    1980-01-01

    A general survey on the development of the total energy sector of the Federal Republic of Germany is given; the comparative presentations cover up to two decades. After some fundamental remarks on the development of the gross national product, primary energy and gross electricity consumption, as well as on the balance of performance and trade of the FRG with the OPEC countries the consumer behaviour is discussed in particular. This behaviour has scarcely changed between 1973 and 1979. The increasing demand and other omissions in the power plant construction resulting from various causes make stronger efforts in the construction of nuclear power plants necessary. (UA) [de

  9. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  10. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  11. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

  12. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  13. Reconsidering relations between nuclear energy and security concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2004-01-01

    Relations between nuclear energy and security concepts can be clarified through investigation into the multivocal nature of security concepts. While military uses of nuclear energy significantly influence national security, peaceful uses of nuclear energy contribute energy security, which is an expanded concept of national security. Military and peaceful uses of nuclear energy have reciprocal actions, thus influencing national security and energy security, respectively. Nuclear security, which means security of nuclear systems themselves, recently attracts the attention of the international society. Nuclear security directly influences national security issues. On the other hand, along with nuclear safety, nuclear security becomes a prerequisite for energy security through peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In investigating into relations between nuclear energy and security concepts, the difficulty of translating the English word of 'nuclear security' into Japanese as well as other languages is found. (author)

  14. Energy policy: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwrick-Piercy, E [comp.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is based on material held in the UK Department of Energy Library. Energy-related documents published between 1973 and 1980 are emphasized in the 260 references listed. The bibliography is organized under the major headings of United Kingdom, Irish Republic, World, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Middle East. For continuing information on energy policy, 5 useful periodicals are listed.

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  17. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  18. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  19. Energy access and security strategies in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Franziska; Surroop, Dinesh; Singh, Anirudh; Leal, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are isolated and surrounded by ocean. The generation and use of energy resources are two very important aspects for the development of SIDS. Unfortunately, most of SIDS do not use their potential in respect of energy resources, and they as a result have to depend on the import of fossil fuels in order to meet their energy needs. This increases the overall vulnerability of SIDS as they have to depend on the rising or fluctuating fossil fuels prices. Some SIDS, especially in the geographically dispersed Pacific region, do not have proper access to energy whereas other SIDS struggle more with energy security issue. At the same time, SIDS are most vulnerable to the impacts and effects of climate change, as they are among the ones to be most severely affected in case of natural calamities and sea-level rise. Drawing on experiences from Fiji and Mauritius, this paper explains core elements related to energy access and security in SIDS, contextualizes and discusses barriers and list some of the strategies that may be used to ensure access to and a continuous supply of energy in SIDS. A situational analysis of two SIDS outlines their current energy situation and compares their energy policies to globally accepted criteria for SIDS policies as well as with each other. It is claimed that the diverging energy performances of Fiji and Mauritius cannot be explained by policies differences. The reasons for the varying energy performances may therefore lie in the administrative and institutional mechanisms used by the two countries in implementing their energy policies. Finally, to enable SIDS to reduce their overall vulnerability and become truly sustainable islands, it is recommended to undertake careful assessments of the particular local contexts under which island energy regimes operate. - Highlights: • Core elements related to energy access/security in SIDS, barriers and strategies. • Situational analysis of two SIDS: Fiji and

  20. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, V.; Markandya, A.; Vicini, G.

    2007-01-01

    This policy compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level. (author)

  1. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  2. A SES (sustainable energy security) index for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of the energy system of a country is a prerequisite for framing good energy polices. However, the existing indices which claim to measure energy security have limited applicability for developing countries. Energy sustainability is also increasingly gaining importance and countries are keen to measure it to tailor their energy policies. Therefore, the concept of SES (sustainable energy security) has been proposed as the goal for a developing country. This paper presents an analytical framework for the assessment of SES of an energy system and the methodology for constructing an SES index. A hierarchical structure has been proposed and the energy system has been divided into 'supply', 'conversion & distribution' and 'demand' sub-systems. Each subsystem is further divided into its components which are evaluated for four dimensions of SES, Availability, Affordability, Efficiency and (Environmental) Acceptability using quantitative metrics. Energy indices are constructed using 'scores' (objective values), and 'weights' (subjective values representing tradeoffs) which are then aggregated, bottom-up, to obtain an overall SES Index for a country. The proposed SES Index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible. Such a SES Index can be used to design policy interventions for transitioning to a sustainable and a secure energy future. - Highlights: • A SES (sustainable energy security) index is proposed for developing countries. • A hierarchical structure includes the entire energy system from supply to end use. • The performance of all energy sources, energy carriers and sectors is assessed. • Availability, affordability, efficiency and acceptability dimensions are evaluated. • The SES index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible.

  3. External dimension of Ukraine’s security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the external dimension of security policy of Ukraine is stipulated for the need to analyse the current state of relations with organizations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and The Collective Security Treaty Organization, and relations within the Common European Security and Defence Policy. Ukraine’s European Integration means inclusion in the global space security with countries that it shares common values and principles. It does not exclude the collaboration with the countries that belong to other systems of collective security in the scope that is appropriate to basic national interests of Ukraine. It is proved that the activities of the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission is an important contribution to the process of peaceful conflict resolution, and helps to develop democratic principles and foundations of foreign policy. It is determined that the further development of the constructive cooperation between the EU advisory mission under CSDP will provide an opportunity to improve and increase the security of national borders from external threats and challenges, and help to accelerate the process of integration into the European security space. The attention is paid to the fact that, taken into consideration the state of relations with Russia, the further cooperation with the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO may adversely affect the overall security situation in Ukraine and lead to further tension with Russia today.

  4. Policy for tidal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, T L

    1977-01-01

    The potential of tidal energy for the United Kingdom should be reassessed, it is argued, and some of its advantages are cited. The technology for its development is available and proven; experience suggests that the capital works will have an indefinite life, with only the turbine blades needing to be replaced occasionally. It is a source of water power, and can be regulated to generate when required, on a flexible basis and only by day if so desired; this compares favorably with the relatively unpredictable nature of the other sources. It can be made to complement directly, and so to improve the performance of the coal and nuclear sources at a scale readily possible from a proportionately small installed capacity. The fuel is free. Present indications unquestionably suggest that it will be timely to reassess this source as part of the present energy review, so that its potential may be realized when needed after 1990. It is especially significant that the environmental effects of the necessary works appear to be comparatively small whereas the industrial and social rewards, so far not financially quantified, could be appreciable. The disadvantages that have been expressed are cited, but the author counters the attack on them. (MCW)

  5. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  6. Towards a more conservative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, N.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: the meaning of energy policy; previous attempts to formulate United Kingdom energy policy; patterns of energy supply and demand (in the UK) (current and future); towards a more conservative energy policy (the use of energy in the various sectors, the conversion and distribution of energy (coal, nuclear power, electricity, oil and gas, renewable sources)); energy policy in broader perspective (international context, cost benefit assessments, contrasting patterns of energy use, ethical issues). (U.K.)

  7. Conceptual Framework of Energy Security Assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Seung Su

    2016-01-01

    Korea's electric power is an essential source of energy, supplying 21.4% of the energy required by the manufacturing industry, 43.4% of that required for commerce, and 59.5% of that required by the public sector in 2014. Korea relies heavily on imports of energy sources because of its lack of natural resources. Its land area is limited, making it difficult to utilize renewable energy. Moreover, it is difficult to trade electricity through grid connections with neighbouring countries. Considering the key role of electric power in Korea and the circumstances of its power generation industry, we must understand the contribution of each fuel used in power plants to energy sustainability. This study derives the conceptual framework to quantify energy security levels for nuclear power generation in Korea and employ them in evaluating the national energy security. And sample calculation of nuclear energy security indicators is performed. The implications drawn from the evaluation are as follows. Nuclear power demonstrates dominance in the dimensions of economy and technology as the related technologies have entered into the stage of maturity. Without constant technological innovation, however, sustainability of nuclear sources will not be guaranteed. Nuclear has in the middle in terms of SS, but their high volatility impels Korea to pursue the diversification of energy suppliers. The energy security indicators suggested in this study are anticipated to contribute to establishing an energy security policy based on a comprehensive understanding of the energy security status in Korea. In the future, it will be necessary to establish specific scenarios for a decrease of regional conflicts and a post-2020 climate change conventions and conduct realistic and dynamic analyses

  8. Conceptual Framework of Energy Security Assessment in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Seung Su [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea's electric power is an essential source of energy, supplying 21.4% of the energy required by the manufacturing industry, 43.4% of that required for commerce, and 59.5% of that required by the public sector in 2014. Korea relies heavily on imports of energy sources because of its lack of natural resources. Its land area is limited, making it difficult to utilize renewable energy. Moreover, it is difficult to trade electricity through grid connections with neighbouring countries. Considering the key role of electric power in Korea and the circumstances of its power generation industry, we must understand the contribution of each fuel used in power plants to energy sustainability. This study derives the conceptual framework to quantify energy security levels for nuclear power generation in Korea and employ them in evaluating the national energy security. And sample calculation of nuclear energy security indicators is performed. The implications drawn from the evaluation are as follows. Nuclear power demonstrates dominance in the dimensions of economy and technology as the related technologies have entered into the stage of maturity. Without constant technological innovation, however, sustainability of nuclear sources will not be guaranteed. Nuclear has in the middle in terms of SS, but their high volatility impels Korea to pursue the diversification of energy suppliers. The energy security indicators suggested in this study are anticipated to contribute to establishing an energy security policy based on a comprehensive understanding of the energy security status in Korea. In the future, it will be necessary to establish specific scenarios for a decrease of regional conflicts and a post-2020 climate change conventions and conduct realistic and dynamic analyses.

  9. Energy security - how far possible in reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Pradip Kumar; Bera, R.; Chaki, Dibabasu

    2014-01-01

    In the context of depletion of fossil fuels and continuous increase of global warming, future energy security is under a big question. Generation of energy in conventional method and utilization of energy always produces huge amount of pollution. That is why alternative sources of energy i.e. renewable power is highly solicited. But different factors like man, market, politics, population etc. play very important role in this chain. The authors are advocating that energy security problem is a techno-economic socio-political problem. (author)

  10. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  11. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  12. Strategy for energy policy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, T.

    2012-01-01

    UK Energy Policy is leading the world in showing how governments can effectively respond to the now widely accepted challenges of security of supply, low-carbon generation and pragmatic implementation. Confidence in the UK as place to invest in new nuclear is very high-there are already 3 developers who have between them already invested over 1 billion, 5 sites are planned to be developed and between 10 and 12 new reactors are planned to be built. To be clear, this is by far the largest commitment to new nuclear in the Western World and swamps in other countries. This achievement is a combination of vision, continuity, political consensus and a group of ministers and officials who are clear in the goals for the long-term sustain ability of an energy policy that will dramatically affect the lives of many generations to come. Recognising the multi-generational obligations and consequences of government policy's key to ensuring that this investment continues, together with the maintenance of the trust that investors have developed in the management of energy policy by the UK government. There is no doubt in the commitment of the UK government to delivering the safe, secure and low-carbon energy future of the UK. The opportunities for businesses and high-quality job creation are undoubted-all that now has to happen is for developers, reactor vendors, construction companies and communities to show how they can together deliver the cheapest form of low-carbon base load to time and to cost and to the benefit of local communities and the UK economy. the world is watching for the UK to show how it can be done. (Author)

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  14. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  15. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  16. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  17. Critical Perspective on ASEAN's Security Policy Under ASEAN Political and Security Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Jati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Despite economic integration challenges, ASEAN faces greater security challenges. It is obvious to assert that a stable economic development requires a secure regional atmosphere. The most probable threats against ASEAN are ranging from hostile foreign entities infiltration, intra and inter states disputes, radical religious movements, human trafficking, drugs and narcotics smuggling, cybercrimes and environmental disasters. In 2009, ASEAN established the ASEAN Political and Security Community as the umbrella of ASEAN’s political and security initiatives. APSC slots in some significant fora; ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR, ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM,  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting (ADMM, ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM, and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crimes (AMMTC. The wide array of these forums signify ASEAN efforts to confront double features of security; the traditional and nontraditional or critical security. The traditional security considers state security as the primary object security. While the critical security tends to focus on non-state aspects such as individual human being as its referent object. Even though some argue that APSC has been able to preserve the stability in the region, it still lack of confidence in solving critical issues such as territorial disputes and irregular migrants problems.Therefore, this piece would examine the fundamental questions: How does ASEAN address beyond state security issues in its security policy through APSC? To search for the answer this paper would apply critical security studies approach. Critical security posits that threats are not always for the states but in many cases for the people. Based on the examination of ASEAN security policies, this paper argues that ASEAN’s security policy has touched the non-traditional security issues but showing slow progress on its development and application. 

  18. Energy Security in a Time of Plenty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clawson, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Energy supply trends are good for Western security. Dependence on the volatile Persian Gulf may increase only slightly, as additional supplies come from stable pro-Western areas, such as Norway and Latin America...

  19. Using the social security system to deliver housing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Louise, Gee Wing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the interaction between housing policy and the social security benefits that support housing costs. Analysis concerns the extent and type of State intervention in housing, thus explaining the dynamic between State and individual responsibility in housing policy. This thesis involves an exploration of the different treatment of the owner-occupied and the rented housing sectors, with reference to the social security benefits which fund ongoing housing costs. This thesis see...

  20. The total energy policy in Flanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The policy of the Flemish region (Belgium) with regard to the total energy principle are presented. An overview of the main policy instruments to support energy saving and environmental-friendly investments as well as the development of new technologies is given. The total energy policy of the Flanders Region forms part of the general Flemish (energy) policy. (A.S.)

  1. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  2. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  3. Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An analysis. ... per cent of its total food needs and in poor years, it produces no more than 25 per cent. ... food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and ...

  4. Exogenous shocks and governing energy security

    OpenAIRE

    Diriöz, Ali Oğuz

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 219-248). The research examines how governments maintain energy security when faced with exogenous shocks. The main focus of inquiry examines the relative influence of markets vs. geopolitics in the area of energy security using the comparative case studies of Turkey, France, and Netherl...

  5. Indicators of energy security in industrialised countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2010-01-01

    Energy security has become a popular catch phrase, both in the scientific arena as well as in the political discussion. Yet, in general the applied concepts of energy security are rather vague. This paper sheds some light on concepts and indicators of energy security. First, we conceptually discuss the issue of energy supply security and explain why it is not to handle by one science alone and what economics may contribute in order to structure the topic. After providing a brief survey of existing attempts to define or measure energy security we suggest an additional dimension along which indicators of energy security may be classified: ex-post and ex-ante indicators. Finally, we illustrate our concept on the basis of several simplified indicators. While ex-post indicators are mostly based on price developments, ex-ante indicators are to a greater extent aimed at illustrating potential problems. Our illustration suggests that it is worthwhile to take into account the market structure along with the political stability of exporting countries. (author)

  6. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  7. Linking consumer energy efficiency with security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, J.P.; Scharpf, E.W.; Carrington, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Most modern energy policies seek to achieve systematic ongoing incremental increases in consumer energy efficiency, since this contributes to improved security of supply, favourable environmental outcomes and increased economic efficiency. Yet realised levels of efficiency are typically well below the most cost-effective equilibrium due to variety of behavioural and organisational barriers, which are often linked to information constraints. In addition efficient users are normally unrewarded for collective benefits to system security and to the environment, thus reducing the incentives for energy consumers to invest in efficiency improvements. This paper examines the dichotomies and symmetries between supply- and demand-side solutions to energy security concerns and reviews opportunities to overcome barriers to improved consumer efficiency. A security market is identified as a mechanism to promote both demand- and supply-side investments that support electricity system security. Such a market would assist in setting the optimal quantity of reserves while achieving an efficient balance between supply- and demand-side initiatives. It would also help to smooth overall investment throughout the energy system by encouraging incremental approaches, such as distributed generation and demand-side alternatives where they provide competitive value. Although the discussion is applicable to energy systems in general, it focuses primarily on electricity in New Zealand

  8. A look at the European domestic and foreign energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    After having defined the main characteristics of energy considered as a good (a private good, a product of first necessity, a redistributed product, a strategic good), the author presents the actors of the European energy policy: European authorities, member state governments, firms (operators and big consumers), and households. He presents the European domestic energy policy which comprises three main themes: the creation of a domestic market, the taking of government commitments for 2020 into account, and the emission trading scheme. He identifies and comments the three main objectives of the European foreign energy policy: supply security, struggle against climate change, and support to the less developed countries

  9. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2005-01-01

    .... One avenue of language-based work produced Cyclone, a type-safe variant of C. The Cyclone language retains the familiar syntax and semantics of C code, but provides the strong security guarantees of modem languages such as Java...

  10. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  11. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  12. Securing the energy industry : perspectives in security risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, G.L. [Anadarko Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation offered some perspectives in security risk management as it relates to the energy sector. Since the events of September 11, 2001 much attention has been given to terrorism and the business is reviewing protection strategies. The paper made reference to each of the following vulnerabilities in the energy sector: information technology, globalization, business restructuring, interdependencies, political/regulatory change, and physical/human factors. The vulnerability of information technology is that it can be subject to cyber and virus attacks. Dangers of globalization lie in privacy and information security, forced nationalization, organized crime, and anti-globalization efforts. It was noted that the Y2K phenomenon provided valuable lessons regarding interdependencies and the effects of power outages, water availability, transportation disruption, common utility corridor accidents, and compounding incidents. The paper also noted the conflict between the government's desire to have a resilient infrastructure that can withstand and recover from attacks versus a company's ability to afford this capability. The physical/human factors that need to be considered in risk management include crime, domestic terrorism, and disasters such as natural disasters, industrial disasters and crisis. The energy industry has geographically dispersed vulnerable systems. It has done a fair job of physical security and has good emergency management practices, but it was noted that the industry cannot protect against all threats. A strategy of vigilance and awareness is needed to deal with threats. Other strategies include contingency planning, physical security, employee communication, and emergency response plans. tabs., figs.

  13. Energy exchange increases supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2004-01-01

    Since October 5, 2004, Endex is an official futures market for energy. All the energy businesses and large-scale consumers in the Netherlands can trade electricity, and in the future also gas, anonymously [nl

  14. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria - 2014 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country's decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions. Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner. A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  15. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  16. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  17. Renewable energies and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.; Pierret, Ch.; Lienemann, M.N.

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  18. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  19. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  20. Development of Nuclear Energy Security Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Takehisa; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Okubo, Hiroo; Kikuchi, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In establishing of the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan that have a vulnerability in own energy structure, an effectiveness of energy security should be taken into account as well as an economy based on the balance of supply and demand of nuclear fuels. NMCC develops the 'Nuclear Energy Security Code' which was able to evaluate the effectiveness of energy security. Evaluation method adopted in this code is 'Import Premium' which was proposed in 'World Oil', EMF Report 6. The viewpoints of evaluation are as follows: 1. How much uranium fuel quantity can be reduced by using plutonium fuel? 2. How much a sudden rise of fuel cost can be absorbed by establishing the plutonium cycle beforehand the energy crisis? (author)

  1. Position paper: A generic approach for security policies composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    When modelling access control in distributed systems, the problem of security policies composition arises. Much work has been done on different ways of combining policies, and using different logics to do this. In this paper, we propose a more general approach based on a 4-valued logic, that abst...

  2. Natural gas prices force businesses to strategic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisse, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors which force businesses to think about a strategic energy policy: energy prices, supply security, regulations in the Netherlands and the European Union, technological developments with regard to fuels, etc. By using a decision making model several criteria can be assessed for different scenarios [nl

  3. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  4. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  5. Measuring energy security. A conceptual note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2008-11-06

    Along with the oil price, concerns about the security of energy supply have soared once again in recent years.Yet, more than 30 years after the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, energy security still remains a diffuse concept. This paper conceives a statistical indicator that aims at characterizing the energy supply risk of nations that are heavily dependent on energy imports. Our indicator condenses the bulk of empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels originating from a multitude of export countries as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic energy supply into a single parameter. Applying the proposed concept to empirical energy data on Germany and the U.S. (1980-2004), we find that there is a large gap in the energy supply risks between both countries, with Germany suffering much more from a tensed energy supply situation today than the U.S. (orig.)

  6. Canadian energy policy and the struggle for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This book examined selected energy policy issues and challenges confronting Canadians over the last two decades. The aim of the book was to provide an analysis of how energy policy has evolved. The book presents an overview of energy policy and its relationship to sustainable development. Politico-economic contexts were reviewed, including the changing nature of national and continental energy markets, energy policy and sustainable development. The difficulties in evaluating the environment in energy policy were discussed. Issues concerning electricity restructuring in Canada were reviewed, with reference to Canada-US electricity trade and the climate change agenda. Alberta's oil and gas industry and the Kyoto Protocol were also examined, with reference to voluntary measures to address climate change. Issues concerning stewardship, indigenous peoples and petroleum-based economic development in the north were reviewed, as well as northern gas pipeline policy and sustainable development. Conclusions and recommendations were made concerning the following 6 analytical and practical energy policy and governance challenges facing the current government: Kyoto Protocol implementation challenges; energy security; northern pipelines and concerns with Aboriginal peoples and sustainable northern development; electricity restructuring and the limits of regulatory-market design; energy science and technology and innovation policy links; and prospects for turning the struggle for sustainable development in the energy policy field into something closer to an actual achievement. 37 refs

  7. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  8. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  9. Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax......, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access...... control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative...

  10. Socio-compatible energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Evaluation of renewable energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kancs, D.

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency in Poland is driven primarily by price signals. Due to Poland's recent international obligations towards addressing climate change, various sustainable energy policies have been established to foster energy efficiency as well as to define the conditions of conducting economic activities in the energy sector. This paper presented the results of an empirical ex-ante analysis which examined the effects of various potential energy policies in the Polish bioenergy sector. An applied general equilibrium model was used in which producers responded to changes in market prices of different energy products by adjusting their output and input levels. The model consisted of 3 major sections, namely production, consumption, and equilibrium conditions. The model used a set of simultaneous linear and non-linear equations to define the behaviour of economic agents. Each solution provided a full set of economic indicators, including household incomes, prices, supply and demand quantities for factors and commodities, and welfare indicators. Consumers in the model responded to changes in energy product prices with a reduced demand of certain goods and services, as well as by increasing demand for other services. Results of the simulation showed that a uniform subsidy led to the same increase of renewable energy supply as an equivalent uniform fossil energy tax. Results also indicated that reductions in the output of fossil fuel energy sectors below the reference case did not impact all fossil energy sectors equally. A subsidy was found to lower the average cost of production, while taxation was found to increase the average cost of production. It was concluded that the bioenergy sector will benefit more from an indirect tax reduction than from a removal of fossil energy sector subsidies. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Sustainable energy policy - implementation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, M. [Global Energy and Environmental Consultants, Felmersham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Implementation of sustainable energy must address current needs arising from poverty, inequity, unreliability of supplies, social and economic development requirements, and increasing efficiency as well as widening the fuel mix, accelerating the deployment of appropriate new renewable energy schemes, and giving the necessary consideration to protection of the biosphere and the needs of future generations. To achieve these multiple goals markets need to work better, additional investments need to be mobilised in sustainable energy, technological innovation needs to be encouraged, technological diffusion and capacity building in developing countries needs to be supported, and both sounder domestic policies and greater international co-operation are required. (author)

  14. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...... owner to a ?xed proportion of ex ante unknown total emissions. This creates an additional group of stakeholders on the side of the issue that has traditionally been underrepresented. The advantages over existing systems include an equilibrium carbon price closer to the social optimum, a more predictable...

  15. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.

  16. Development and Analysis of Security Policies in Security Enhanced Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    by Tresys Technology [32]. The suite contains tools for SE policy creation, management, and analysis. Apol provides a graphical interface for...runs under a predefined platform user: system, nfc , radio, etc. The third and fourth checks simply deal with different user strings, with fixed...system user id to the system domain and their application directories to system_data_file. Similarly, applications under the nfc and radio user id

  17. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  18. Elements of ESA's policy on space and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopapa, Christina; Adriaensen, Maarten; Antoni, Ntorina; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2018-06-01

    In the past decade Europe has been facing rising security threats, ranging from climate change, migrations, nearby conflicts and crises, to terrorism. The demand to tackle these critical challenges is increasing in Member States. Space is already contributing, and could further contribute with already existing systems and future ones. The increasing need for security in Europe and for safety and security of Europe's space activities has led to a growing number of activities in ESA in various domains. It has also driven new and strengthened partnerships with security stakeholders in Europe. At the European level, ESA is collaborating closely with the main European institutions dealing with space security. In addition, as an organisation ESA has evolved to conduct security-related projects and programmes and to address the threats to its own activities, thereby securing the investments of the Member States. Over the past years the Agency has set up a comprehensive regulatory framework in order to be able to cope with security related requirements. Over the past years, ESA has increased its exchanges with its Member States. The paper presents main elements of the ESA's policy on space and security. It introduces the current European context for space and security, the European goals in this domain and the specific objectives to which the Agency intends to contribute. Space and security in the ESA context is set out under two components: a) security from space and b) security in space, including the security of ESA's own activities (corporate security and the security of ESA's space missions). Subsequently, ESA's activities are elaborated around these two pillars, composed of different activities conducted in the most appropriate frameworks and in coordination with the relevant stakeholders and shareholders.

  19. Measuring energy security performance within China: Toward an inter-provincial prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Yu, Jing; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China has been the world's largest energy consumer and producer for many years, yet while myriad studies have investigated Chinese performance on energy metrics compared to other countries, few to none have looked internally at Chinese provinces. This paper firstly develops a five-dimensional evaluation system centered on the energy security dimensions of availability and diversity, affordability and equality, technology and efficiency, environmental sustainability, and governance and innovation. It then correlates these dimensions to 20 distinct energy security metrics that are used to assess the energy security performance of 30 Chinese provinces, divided into eight regions. Our results reveal both trends in energy policy and practice as well as provincial status of comparative energy security for the year 2013. We find, for instance, that there is no province which performs well in all five of the energy security dimensions, and that all provinces confronted threats related to energy availability and diversity. We also demonstrate that in comparative terms, the Middle Reaches of Yellow River and the Northwest were the most energy-secure, while the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and the Northeast were least energy-secure. - Highlights: • We assessed energy security for 30 Chinese provinces across five dimensions. • Fuzzy AHP, PROMETHEE and Sensitivity Analysis are used to investigate. • Western provinces perform better performance than eastern provinces in 2013. • Energy availability and diversity is the most severe threat facing China's energy security. • Developing renewable energy will help improve China's Provincial energy security significantly.

  20. Verification of Security Policy Enforcement in Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Puneet; Stoller, Scott D.

    Many security requirements for enterprise systems can be expressed in a natural way as high-level access control policies. A high-level policy may refer to abstract information resources, independent of where the information is stored; it controls both direct and indirect accesses to the information; it may refer to the context of a request, i.e., the request’s path through the system; and its enforcement point and enforcement mechanism may be unspecified. Enforcement of a high-level policy may depend on the system architecture and the configurations of a variety of security mechanisms, such as firewalls, host login permissions, file permissions, DBMS access control, and application-specific security mechanisms. This paper presents a framework in which all of these can be conveniently and formally expressed, a method to verify that a high-level policy is enforced, and an algorithm to determine a trusted computing base for each resource.

  1. Security Policies for Mitigating the Risk of Load Altering Attacks on Smart Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, Tatyana; AlMajali, Anas; Neuman, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    While demand response programs implement energy efficiency and power quality objectives, they bring potential security threats to the Smart Grid. The ability to influence load in a system enables attackers to cause system failures and impacts the quality and integrity of power delivered to customers. This paper presents a security mechanism to monitor and control load according to a set of security policies during normal system operation. The mechanism monitors, detects, and responds to load altering attacks. We examined the security requirements of Smart Grid stakeholders and constructed a set of load control policies enforced by the mechanism. We implemented a proof of concept prototype and tested it using the simulation environment. By enforcing the proposed policies in this prototype, the system is maintained in a safe state in the presence of load drop attacks.

  2. Managing Interactions Between Carbon Pricing and Existing Energy Policies. Guidance for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Christina

    2013-07-01

    Carbon pricing can be a key policy tool to help countries move their energy sectors onto a cleaner development path. One important issue to consider when introducing carbon pricing is how it will integrate with other energy policies that also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including policies to support low-carbon technologies (such as renewable energy) and energy efficiency programmes. Poor policy integration can undermine energy security and affordability, and affect the performance of renewable energy policies and energy markets. Climate objectives can also be undermined, through low and uncertain carbon prices and the risk of stop-start policy. Understanding how to manage policy interactions can improve the climate and energy policy package, reducing the trade-offs and advancing the synergies between energy and climate objectives. This will benefit the country in terms of a more effective and lower-cost low-carbon development path, as well as supporting a more energy-secure future.

  3. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  4. Energy management under policy and technology uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylock, Steven M.; Seager, Thomas P.; Snell, Jeff; Bennett, Erin R.; Sweet, Don

    2012-01-01

    Energy managers in public agencies are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting policy objectives regarding cost, environmental, and security concerns associated with alternative energy technologies. Making infrastructure investment decisions requires balancing different distributions of risks and benefits that are far from clear. For example, managers at permanent Army installations must incorporate Congressional legislative objectives, executive orders, Department of Defense directives, state laws and regulations, local restrictions, and multiple stakeholder concerns when undertaking new energy initiatives. Moreover, uncertainty with regard to alternative energy technologies is typically much greater than that associated with traditional technologies, both because the technologies themselves are continuously evolving and because the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies makes a certain level of uncertainty irreducible. This paper describes a novel stochastic multi-attribute analytic approach that allows users to explore different priorities or weighting schemes in combination with uncertainties related to technology performance. To illustrate the utility of this approach for understanding conflicting policy or stakeholder perspectives, prioritizing the need for more information, and making investment decisions, we apply this approach to an energy technology decision problem representative of a permanent military base. Highlights: ► Incorporate disparate criteria with uncertain performance. ► Analyze decisions with contrasting stakeholder positions. ► Interactively compare alternatives based on uncertain weighting. ► User friendly multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool.

  5. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Gracceva, Francesco; Markandya, Anil; Vicini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level

  6. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  7. The uniqueness of the energy security, justice, and governance problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that among all policy fields exhibiting externalities of a global scale, energy stands out on four dimensions: vertical complexity, horizontal complexity, higher entailed costs, and stronger path dependency. These structural attributes are at odds with contemporary key challenges of energy security, energy justice, and low carbon energy transition. With regard to the latter, energy governance challenges occur related to unclear levels of authority and weak resilience. This has implications for energy scholarship, specifically relating to the political economy of energy transitions, discussions about common pool resources, systems analysis, and other neighboring disciplines. - Highlights: ► Among all policy fields exhibiting global externalities, energy stands out. ► It is characterized by greater complexity, higher costs, and stronger path dependency. ► This is at odds with key challenges relating to security, justice, and transition. ► Problems are particularly related to unclear levels of authority and weak resilience. ► Energy scholarship needs to focus further on these issues.

  8. The German energy policy: between national requirements and community exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic and economic stakes that are associated with the security of energy supplies, the German federal government has made of this question one of the priorities of its european presidency. In this note, the author observes a radical change in the German energy policy with the future phaseout of nuclear energy and the perspectives of Russian gas supply. The author also reviews the challenges of the elaboration of a European energy policy, with certain member States refusing to transfer their sovereignty in the energy domain, and the large split between national requirements and community exigencies in this field

  9. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  10. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  11. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  12. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  13. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  14. Nuclear energy and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, T.

    1981-01-01

    The intention of this book lies in demonstrating why the Swiss industry and the Bund had begun to show interest for nuclear energy and in how far the framework conditions of this enterprise had been changed by the plans and constraints of foreign policy. Thus the topic of the study is located in the overlapping sector of different aspects of Swiss policy: foreign safety, economic, energy, and research policy had played an important role when the Swiss nculear programme had been developed. It is understood that there had frequently been conflicts of interest between the national sectors of politics, on one hand, and, on the other, between Swiss targets and international policy. The following study is trying to explain how these conflicts of interest had originated and had been solved after all. Emphasis is laid on the years 1967-1977. During that period the Swiss Confederation had decided to sign and to ratify the non-proliferation treaty at the end of a long and complicated process. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  16. Sustainable cities and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.; Pepping, G.

    1999-01-01

    This book starts out with the optimistic perspective that modern cities can indeed play a strategic role in the necessary pathway to sustainable development, with particular emphasis on the opportunities offered by local energy and environmental initiatives. Our study aims to demonstrate that an urban sustainability policy has many socio-economic benefits, while it also seeks to identify the critical success and failure factors of sustainable city innovations. After a comprehensive review of various opportunities and experiences, attention is focused particularly on renewable energy resources which may offer new potential for the active involvement of local authorities. The study also highlights major impediments regarding the adoption and implementation of renewable energies, in particular, the development of advanced energy-environmental technology in a world dominated by natural (public) monopolies and/or monopolistic competition elements. In this context both theoretical and empirical elements are discussed, as well as institutional aspects. The theory and methodology is tested by a thorough empirical investigation into local renewable energy initiatives in three European countries, viz. Greece, Italy and The Netherlands. Based on an extensive data base, various statistical models are estimated in order to identify the key elements and major driving forces of sustainable development at the city level. And finally, the study is concluded with a long list of applicable and operational policy guidelines for urban sustainability. These lessons are largely based on meta-analytic comparative studies of the various initiatives investigated. (orig.)

  17. Energy conservation policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T; Roland, K [ECON-Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (NO)

    1992-02-01

    Energy market developments and the state of the environment will be decisive for economic growth and modernization of Chinese society. Lack of adequate energy supplies could in the future seriously impair the growth potential of the economy, as it has partly done during the 1980s. Environmental damage creates major health problems for the population and hamper the productive capacity of Chinese agriculture and industry. One obvious and effective measure to meet these challenges is a policy that pursues more efficient use of energy supplies. China achieved impressive results in energy efficiency improvements during the 1980s, largely on the back of the cheapest and most obvious conservation opportunities. These are now exhausted. Further improvements will require stronger measures. It is difficult to see how the current rate of economic growth (above 6 per cent) and energy efficiency improvements can be sustained without comprehensive market reforms. Economic growth and development is however, in Chinese policy, subordinate to political stability and continuity. The disruption of the political and economic reform processes in 1988-9 was largely motivated by a perceived fear of political instability and disintegration of the state. Thus, there may exist some degree of conflict between the objective of strong economic growth and the existing 'social order and stability'. To balance the potential conflict inherent in this development process is the big challenge facing Chinese society for the coming decades. (author).

  18. Liberalization of electricity markets and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Liberalization of electricity markets begun in England in 1990 and became the trends of the times. Its effects on the energy security and atomic power generation are discussed. On the effects on energy security, change of construction of fuel of power generation, decrease of fuel feed by high efficiency of power generation, decrease of fuel stock by pressure of cost-cutting, increase of import rate of electricity, increase of power consumption with decrease of power cost, flexibility of supply contract, diversification of service, international cooperation on energy security and mutual dependence relation by international investment are discussed. On the effects of liberalization on the electricity markets, characteristics of nuclear power generation, risk of investment, effects of introduction of competition on development of the existing and new nuclear power generation, relation between development of nuclear power generation and market failure and what the government should do for development of nuclear power generation are discussed. (S.Y.)

  19. China's energy security: The perspective of energy users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the energy security concerns faced by China from the point of view of energy users working in government, university, civil society and business sectors. The authors first derive a set of seven hypotheses related to Chinese energy security drawn from a review of the recent academic literature. We then explain each of these seven hypotheses, relating to (1) security of energy supply, (2) geopolitics, (3) climate change, (4) decentralization, (5) energy efficiency, (6) research and innovation of new energy technologies, and (7) self sufficiency and trade. Lastly, the article tests these hypotheses through a survey distributed in English and Mandarin completed by 312 Chinese participants. The conclusion presents insights for policymakers and energy scholars.

  20. Energy Security and Renewable Energy in Least Developed Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries (UN, 2001) states: The levels of production and consumption of energy in the majority of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are inadequate and unstable. This clearly indicates a situation of energy insecurity. Starting from an encompassing definition of energy security (a country's ability to expand and optimise its energy resource portfolio and achieve a level of services that will sustain economic growth and poverty reduction), it becomes quickly clear that energy security in LDCs is a complex topic with numerous interlinkages to other sustainable development objectives. This paper attempts to give an overview of issues related to energy security in LDCs by focusing on the role renewable energy can play in that context.(author)

  1. US energy policy and Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a perspective of Arctic energy resource development and the impact that science and technology will have on the American National Energy Policy (NEP). The role of the NEP is to provide energy security for the United States by ensuring dependable, affordable and sustainable energy for the future. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) conducts a wide range of energy and research activities that contribute to energy efficiency advances that help meet rising energy demand and reduce pollution emissions. In May 2001, the NEP proposed 100 recommendations, of which half focus on energy efficiency and developing renewable energy sources. The Clean Coal Power Initiative is also based on technological innovation and focuses on a program called FutureGen to build and operate a zero emission coal-fired power plant to produce both electricity and hydrogen. These initiatives could result in major changes in America's energy scenario. The provisions of the Energy Bill in streamlining the regulatory process for the proposed Alaska gas pipeline were outlined. The 2004 Annual Energy Outlook for the United States indicates that a pipeline from the Mackenzie Delta to Alberta would be constructed first, followed by one from Alaska. The North Slope Alaska natural gas pipeline will likely be operational by 2018 and add 4.5 BCF per day to meet growing natural gas demand in the United States. The National Petroleum Council's report on America's long-term natural gas supply and demand situation claims that lower-48 and traditional Canadian natural gas basins will be able to supply 75 per cent of the U.S. demand by the year 2025. The remainder will be made up by Alaskan natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas from new sources in Canada such as coalbed methane, methane hydrates, and oil sands

  2. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  3. Group Policy Fundamentals, Security, and the Managed Desktop

    CERN Document Server

    Moskowitz, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate Group Policy guide-now updated for Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2!. IT and network administrators can streamline their Windows Server management tasks by using Group Policy tools to automate or implement rules, processes, or new security across the enterprise. In this comprehensive guide, Microsoft Group Policy MVP Jeremy Moskowitz thoroughly explores Group Policy across all Windows platforms, including the latest on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2. If you're a Windows network administrator managing scores of users and computers, you need this essential reference on your desk.: Covers

  4. Development of an Internet Security Policy for health care establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2000-01-01

    The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality and integrity of information. This paper defines the basic security requirements that must be addressed in order to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and/or other sensitive Health Care information. It describes a suitable Internet Security Policy for Health Care Establishments and provides the set of technical measures that are needed for its implementation. The proposed security policy and technical approaches have been based on an extensive study of the related recommendations from the security and standard groups both in EU amid USA and our related work and experience. The results have been utilized in the framework of the Intranet Health Clinic project, where the use of the Internet for the transmission of sensitive Health Care information is of vital importance.

  5. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  6. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  7. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  8. Energy policy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ducroux, R.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are released in the air each year from the burning of fossil fuels. The problem of these massive emissions of CO 2 and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. While enhancing natural carbon sinks (reforestation, soils conservation, etc...) can only buy tune for the next decades, energy savings, CO 2 capture/storage and the development of non-fossil energy sources (hydropower, nuclear, wind power,...) can be highly beneficial. In order to secure future energy needs while stabilizing the CO 2 atmospheric concentration around 550 ppm, the ratio of the CO 2 emitted per unit of energy produced must decrease from 2.6 t CO 2 /toe to 0.5-1.1 t CO 2 /toe by 2100. In a growing world economy, now dependent on fossil fuels for 90% of its energy, this will require a vast increase in the supply of carbon-free power. Among these energy sources, hydropower and nuclear energy (operated under western safety and environmental standards) are the most readily available sources capable of supplying vast amount of energy at a competitive price. Wind power is also to be encouraged, as it is expected to approach the competitiveness threshold soon. The French example, where fossil fuel CO 2 emissions were cut by 27% in a matter of a few years (1979-1986) despite increasing energy consumption, suggests that implementing CO 2 stabilization is technically feasible at a competitive price

  9. The Evolution of the European Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negrut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of development of the European Union’s security dimension has known a spectacular evolution in the past years, passing from political consultation to establishing objectives, then commonactions and positions; at a practical level, the Petersburg measures, carried on initially by the Western European Union as an armed branch of the European Union, have been replaced by actions of implication ofthe Union in managing some conflicts. The Lisbon Treaty confirms the commitments of the member states and mentions the fact that the European Union will dispose of the necessary measures for the defense of its objectives and to contribute to world peace and stability.

  10. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for the following committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  11. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  12. South Asia energy security: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Bhupendra

    2013-01-01

    South Asia has witnessed a growing imbalance between energy demand and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. Energy endowments differ among the South Asian countries. However, access to the significant energy resources in the neighboring countries is denied, which increases the cost of energy supply and reduces energy security of the individual countries and of the region as a whole. The countries in the region could benefit significantly only by strengthening the mechanism of energy trade through improved connectivity. Therefore, greater cooperation within South Asia could be one of the most effective ways to deal with this Regional Energy deficit and ensure Energy Security of the Region. - Highlights: • No South Asian country is going to be able to meet its energy needs domestically. • Fostering cross border energy trade and promotion of investments opportunities are key solutions. • India’s neighbors have huge potential in hydroelectricity. • Co-operation among nations to tap the energy resource can be a win–win situation for all. • However it faces certain challenges

  13. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  14. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-01-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  15. Prospects of Renewable Energies Evolution in the Context of EU Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Amel Ghediri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, EU countries are not provided with sufficient amount of energy resources to satisfy an internal energy demand. According to this, such issues as country's energy security, usage of new energy sources, its economy and environmental consequences of irrational use of energy resources are becoming more acute. The article is devoted to various kinds of alternative energy sources, in particular, "green energy" and the issue of increasing use of renewable energy sources. The main goal of the publication is to analyze the energy policy of the EU countries, the expansion of renewable energy potential as the most energy-efficient sources.

  16. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  17. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, Francois

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  18. Energy crisis? The continuing need for a national energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre on the 11th September 2001 on the price of crude oil and petroleum products and the ensuing concentration on security measures in the oil and gas industries. The reasons for the need of a comprehensive energy policy are listed and include ensuring the physical security of energy supplies, helping to diversify oil supplies and reducing the effects of market disruptions, benefiting from additional efforts to increase energy efficiency, promoting conservation, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources, investing in the energy delivery infrastructure, and increasing domestic energy supplies

  19. (Nuclear) energy policy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    With this report the German Federal Diet submits the final results of the opinion-forming and decision-making process concerning the recommendations made by the investigation committee 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' in June 1980. By means of this report it is intended to point out to an interested public the difficult and time-consuming process of parliamentary decision-making. This report is also to be seen as the final opinion delivered on the recommendations made by the investigation committee. The recommendations were to continue to pursue the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the necessity and technical justifiability of which had basically been approved by all parliamentary groups. In view of the import of the subject and in recognition of the work done by the investigation committee, the German Parliament has thoroughly discussed the report and has reviewed the analyses and recommendations in conjunction with other political fields to be considered. One part of the recommendations was taken up almost unanimously. As far as the safety of nuclear installations is concerned, the investigation committee could not submit any new findings which would give reasons for modifying the hitherto positive assessment of the safety of nuclear installations. The recommendations of the investigation committee mainly referred to the decision-making process in the field of energy policy which will effect the next decade. What fundamental decisions are to be made until when was pointed out as well as the findings and experience to be made until then. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Energy security in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The traditional and current issues regarding the security of energy supplies is reviewed with particular emphasis on the oil sector and the implications of the terrorist attack on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001. In November 2001, the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) issued a press release about energy-related environmental problems and the need to factor in the danger of terrorist attacks on energy installations. The presentation examines the current levels of energy demand, expected areas of growth, and changing patterns of energy supply for the United States. The impact that growth in the industrial states of China will have in the global scheme of the petroleum industry is also discussed. Levels of political stability and security in many parts of the world are reviewed with particular reference to the Near and Middle East, Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is noted that liberalization and globalization are favouring the agglomeration of capital and labour into larger and larger multinational energy companies, which raises the concern about excessive market power. In its 2001 analysis of energy outlook, the International Energy Agency indicated that the reserves of oil, natural gas, coal and uranium are more than adequate to meet projected demand growth until at least 2020, by which time new technologies such as hydrogen-based fuel cells, clean coal burning and carbon sequestration will hold out the prospect of abundant, clean energy supplies. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Energy security in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The traditional and current issues regarding the security of energy supplies is reviewed with particular emphasis on the oil sector and the implications of the terrorist attack on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001. In November 2001, the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) issued a press release about energy-related environmental problems and the need to factor in the danger of terrorist attacks on energy installations. The presentation examines the current levels of energy demand, expected areas of growth, and changing patterns of energy supply for the United States. The impact that growth in the industrial states of China will have in the global scheme of the petroleum industry is also discussed. Levels of political stability and security in many parts of the world are reviewed with particular reference to the Near and Middle East, Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is noted that liberalization and globalization are favouring the agglomeration of capital and labour into larger and larger multinational energy companies, which raises the concern about excessive market power. In its 2001 analysis of energy outlook, the International Energy Agency indicated that the reserves of oil, natural gas, coal and uranium are more than adequate to meet projected demand growth until at least 2020, by which time new technologies such as hydrogen-based fuel cells, clean coal burning and carbon sequestration will hold out the prospect of abundant, clean energy supplies. 15 refs., 6 figs

  2. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  3. Towards a European Energy Community: A Policy Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Hancher, Leigh; Van Der Woude, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The think tank Notre Europe published its report on the future of European energy policy in April 2010 entitled 'Towards a European Energy Community: A policy proposal'. Initiated by Jacques Delors, this report is the harvest of the work of the Task Force of high-level European experts established by Notre Europe to study the feasibility of a European Energy Community. The report was elaborated by Marc van der Woude and Leigh Hancher as co-chairs and Sami Andoura as Rapporteur. The report gives an overview and assessment of the policies developed at European level so far and examines whether the existing European energy policy is capable of pursuing its three key objectives of 'affordable access to energy'; 'sustainable development' of energy production, transport, and consumption; and 'security-of-supply' in a consistent and credible manner. Relying on the conclusions that the existing European energy policy is suboptimal, the report puts forward a policy proposal for a genuine 'European Energy Community'. It explains why and what type of action is required to develop such Energy Community, identifying both the substantial elements which it should ideally cover and the legal and institutional policy instruments at the EU's disposal for developing it. The report finally examines how this model could be best achieved and develops several recommendations to that effect

  4. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?; Quelle est la place des preoccupations de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance energetique dans la politique de l'energie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  5. U.S. energy policy and the Bush administration's North American energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, K.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined the energy policy in the United States and its impact on frontier development in Alaska, deepwater offshore fields and in the western oil shale resources. The energy strategy focuses on technologies that increase domestic production from existing resources as well as technologies that create new sources of energy. In addition to emphasizing the cooperation between Canada and the United States in ensuring energy supply security and stability, this paper discussed the importance of overall bilateral trade between the 2 countries. It was noted that Canada is the United State's most secure and reliable energy partner and is the number 1 supplier of imported oil, natural gas, electricity and uranium. The Bush administration's energy policy is based on the mandate to supply stable, reliable, secure, affordable and environmentally sound energy for the country's growing economy. The energy strategy focuses on increasing energy supplies, promoting energy conservation, repairing and modernizing the energy infrastructure, protecting the environment and improving energy security. Basic changes to the way energy is produced and used will be needed in order to meet these challenges. Energy security can be met through efficiency gains, diversification and use of alternative energy sources. The strategy involves a balance of supply sources, ranging from increasing domestic oil and gas production to such sources as clean coal generation, nuclear power and hydropower. The policy also balances the use of traditional energy sources with renewables such as geothermal, solar, wind and hydrogen. The United States, Canada and Mexico have identified the following 9 areas as critical for interaction on energy: energy data, electricity, regulatory cooperation, energy efficiency, natural gas, oil sands, nuclear and energy science and technology. Construction of the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline is also one of the Bush administration's highest priorities, along with

  6. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  7. Energy policy in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    The outlook of world energy markets was described with a focus on the prospects for oil and gas supply and reserves. Implications of this outlook for energy policy-making were discussed. The three major projections of world primary energy demand were described. According to these projections world primary energy demand will grow steadily. Demand is expected to rise 46 per cent between now and 2010. Fossil-based fuels will account for almost 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010 which is about the same share as today. A structural shift in the shares of different regions in world commercial energy demand is likely to occur, i.e. the OECD share of world energy demand will fall in favour of that of the developing regions. It was also projected that oil will remain the dominant fuel with a share of about 40 per cent in 2010. World gas demand was also projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3 per cent over the outlook period. The rising fossil fuel consumption implies rising greenhouse gas emissions. It was noted that by 2010, without active policy intervention to change the course of energy demand, the world energy-related carbon emissions could be almost 50 per cent greater than 1990 levels. It was suggested that the main role for governments should be to establish a framework to enable competitive energy markets to function efficiently while ensuring that energy security and environmental concerns are addressed. Emergency response measures should be maintained in relation to oil, and the implications of growing dependence on imports of oil and gas from remote and potentially insecure countries should be monitored. The role of government should also include regulation of the environmental consequences of energy supply and use at the local, regional and global level. Government should also regulate the natural monopoly elements of the grid-based industries. There is also a role for government in continuing to encourage research and development

  8. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., energy security and economic stability for aviation. The aviation industry has made a commitment to... developing aviation in a manner that enhances and promotes the Nation's economic, environmental, and social... effectiveness of various policies, including economic incentives to limit and reduce CO 2 emissions. The U.S. is...

  9. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  10. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjoo Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indicators to meet data availability, nuclear energy relevancy, comparability among energy options, and fit with Korean energy policy objectives. The results show that sodium-cooled fast reactors is a better alternative than existing nuclear power as well as coal electricity generation across social, economic and environmental dimensions. Our method makes comparison between energy alternatives easier, thereby clarifying consequences of different energy policy decisions.

  11. Assuring the energy security; Para garantizar la seguridad energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, Daniel [Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Both the institutions and the policies adopted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo aren't able to satisfy both the energy consumers' and producers' necessities. It is necessary to extend the definition of energy security in order to stand up to the challenges of a globalized world. [Spanish] Las instituciones y politicas adoptadas despues del embargo petrolero arabe de 1973 ya no pueden satisfacer las necesidades de los consumidores y productores de energia. Se requiere expandir la definicion de seguridad energetica para hacer frente a los desafios de un mundo globalizado.

  12. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  13. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  14. Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

  15. In the name of energy security: the struggle over the exportation of Israeli natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Nathan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to place the notion of energy security under critical scrutiny by unpacking how different actors manipulate the term through the mobilization of existential language as a prism for creating securitization discourse. Through an examination of an Israeli inter-ministerial committee charged with developing national policy regarding newly-discovered natural gas reserves off the coast of Israel, the study finds that the concept of energy security is open for manipulation and various interpretations. While some actors stress environmental acceptability and independency as pillars of energy security, others prioritized supply reliability and geopolitical benefits associated with gas exportation. Each definition of energy security was also found to be anchored in different ideologies, goals, policies and legitimizing factors. The coupling of energy with securitization rhetoric was ultimately determined as working against cooperative efforts, as committee conflicts intensified and suggested institutional measures became disproportional. - Highlights: • The concept of energy security is open for manipulation and various interpretations. • Each definition of energy security was anchored in different ideologies, goals, policies and legitimizing factors. • Numerous discursive means were used to portray energy as a security matter. • The coupling of energy with securitization rhetoric was working against cooperative efforts

  16. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  17. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  18. The energy supply of China. Markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.; Meidan, M.

    2005-07-01

    China is a great part of the energy world economy. In 2003 and 2004, the chinese economic growth had a direct impact on the world energy markets: it is a main factor of the great world economic demand growth and the energy prices increase. In the other hand this growth generates new investment of energy offer in the world. The author details the China energy policy and its efficiency quest, the insertion in the gas markets and the petroleum market facing the chinese energy security. (A.L.B.)

  19. US energy conservation and efficiency policies. Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K.; Onysko, Ganna [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth; Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future. (author)

  20. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K. [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Onysko, Ganna, E-mail: gonysko@thegef.or [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  1. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Robert K.; McGowan, Elizabeth; Onysko, Ganna; Scheer, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  2. Energy Choices. The energy markets and the energy policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Lindh, Hampus

    2009-03-01

    Well-functioning energy markets are in society's interests whatever the circumstances. Furthermore, supply, demand and the competitive situation in the various energy markets influence the effect of energy and climate change policy measures. There are therefore good reasons to examine and evaluate how the energy markets operate. In this report we specifically focus on the energy markets. The analysis has been carried out against the background of the overall objectives for energy and climate change policy in Sweden and the EU. However, for these goals to be attainable a number of concrete energy and climate change policy decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. Some of these are key issues that will prove decisive for the formulation of energy and climate change policy, and we therefore also discuss these. The first of these concerns which policy instruments should be chosen to influence the energy markets. The second key issue concerns the power companies' prospects for using nuclear power even in the future. We will also focus on the extent to which energy and climate change policy chooses to prioritise measures which mean that climate change policy objectives can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. We can briefly summarize our results in the following conclusions: The cost of achieving the climate change policy objectives set by Sweden and the EU will probably be very high. It is therefore important that the choices made ensure that climate change policy objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost. Focusing on keeping costs to a minimum may in actual fact be the very thing that makes it at all possible to achieve these goals. The best solution then is as far as possible to base energy and climate change policy on so-called market-based instruments, such as emission charges and tradable emission permits. Emissions of carbon dioxide are easy to measure and the siting of emission sources is irrelevant in terms of the effect of the emissions

  3. EU Foreign Energy Policy. From Intergovernmentalism to Supranationalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, N. [European University Institute, Florence (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The European Union's increasing reliance on imports from third countries is reason for unsettling concern. It is anticipated that by 2030, assuming a continuation of the recent trend, more than 70 per cent of the EU's energy consumption has to be imported. Notwithstanding such anticipation, European regulation addressing the external dimension of energy policy remained far and few between. In practise it is the individual countries being leading actors on the foreign energy relations stage exercising their own respective foreign policies. To cope with these threats to the EU foreign energy policy, the European Commission issued its long anticipated Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation proposing concrete instruments on how energy foreign relations should be addressed in the future. But - does the Union have the power to bring about the crucial rebound?.

  4. EU Foreign Energy Policy. From Intergovernmentalism to Supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union's increasing reliance on imports from third countries is reason for unsettling concern. It is anticipated that by 2030, assuming a continuation of the recent trend, more than 70 per cent of the EU's energy consumption has to be imported. Notwithstanding such anticipation, European regulation addressing the external dimension of energy policy remained far and few between. In practise it is the individual countries being leading actors on the foreign energy relations stage exercising their own respective foreign policies. To cope with these threats to the EU foreign energy policy, the European Commission issued its long anticipated Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation proposing concrete instruments on how energy foreign relations should be addressed in the future. But - does the Union have the power to bring about the crucial rebound?.

  5. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... discuss National [[Page 12624

  6. Enhancing Tribal Energy Security and Clean Energy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  7. Securing a Home Energy Managing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2016-01-01

    Energy management in households gets increasingly more attention in the struggle to integrate more sustainable energy sources. Especially in the electrical system, smart grid towards a better utilisation of the energy production and distribution infrastructure. The Home Energy Management System...... (HEMS) is a critical infrastructure component in this endeavour. Its main goal is to enable energy services utilising smart devices in the households based on the interest of the residential consumers and external actors. With the role of being both an essential link in the communication infrastructure...... for balancing the electrical grid and a surveillance unit in private homes, security and privacy become essential to address. In this chapter, we identify and address potential threats Home Energy Management Platform (HEMP) developers should consider in the progress of designing architecture, selecting hardware...

  8. An integrated energy policy for Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tai-Yoo; Kim, Seung-Rae

    1993-01-01

    Economic theory defines a market failure when competitive markets cannot reach an equilibrium maximizing social welfare. One of its most typical examples has proved to be the energy market. Exhaustible energy resources provide the limits to economic growth, at least in the short term. Thus an energy policy for energy importing countries like Korea has been focused on minimizing the negative influences of external energy price shocks to the domestic economy. This study suggests one of the possible directions for an integrated energy policy which seeks to present a flow of policy rules which lead government policy to attain equilibrium, maximizing the national economic benefits by offsetting the market failure

  9. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  10. Towards a successful and sustainable energy policy. Advice for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The recommendations in this report of the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER) is focused on the energy transition policy in the Netherlands, coordinated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. The three main subjects in the sustainable energy policy in the Netherlands are climatic change, supply security and the accessibility and cost of energy. The SER is in favor of a strong energy policy, aiming at reliable, clean and affordable energy supply [nl

  11. Energy security from the Russian perspective. Think pipes not rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2008-07-01

    The presentation reviews the understanding of energy security, the Russian role in the energy source market and discusses how to increase the energy security. Environmental aspects such as climate change, CO2 reduction and the environmental costs of fossil fuel consumption with respect to the energy security are emphasized (tk)

  12. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2005 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country’s EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO2 emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership.

  13. A new paradigm for the European energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyrenc, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As the European Union adopted in 2009 an organisational framework for the energy sector (the third energy package), the author analyses and discusses the progressive evolutions of the European energy policy during the last decades. He first addresses the process of liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets (or network industries) which has been launched by the European Commission from the middle of the 1990's and has been almost achieved. He comments the break created by the emergence of the climate challenge during the 2000's which had an impact on the objectives of the European energy policy, on the environmental policy and on competitiveness. The author then addresses the emergence of concerns related to the security of energy supplies (a coherence challenge for the European policy): definition of the concept of supply security, dilemma of security of supply, discussion of the content of the Lisbon Treaty as a remedy to coherence challenge). The author then discusses these evolutions in terms of new content and continuity, questions the emergence of a European federalism and the lack of great projects

  14. Papers of the Public Policy Forum conference : Fueling our future : strategic energy policy opportunities for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Public Policy Forum is a unique organization in Canada which promotes excellence in public policy development due to its firm belief that high quality government is fundamental in the competitive global economy. This conference provided a forum to discuss recent developments in the oil markets and energy policies from a public policy perspective. Trends in global energy supply and demand were also reviewed with emphasis on issues such as industry consolidation, regulatory reform and oil pricing. The presentations examined the world energy outlook in terms of fossil fuel consumption, demand growth in developing countries, energy security, and how to reduce greenhouse gases for sustainable development. This conference featured 20 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. India's energy security: A sample of business, government, civil society, and university perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the concept of energy security perceived and understood by a sample of government, business, civil society, and university stakeholders in India. Based on a literature review, the authors hypothesize what energy experts suggest energy security is for India. The article then tests these hypotheses through the use of a survey completed by 172 Indian respondents. The article begins by describing its methodology before summarizing the results of the literature review to distill seven working hypotheses related to energy security in India. These hypotheses relate to (1) security of energy supply, (2) equitable access to energy services, (3) research and development of new energy technologies, (4) energy efficiency and conservation, (5) self-sufficiency and trade in energy fuels, (6) nuclear power, and (7) the energy-water nexus. It then tests these hypotheses with our survey instrument before concluding with implications for energy policy in India and beyond. - Research highlights: → We measured the concept of energy security for India through a survey that tested the importance of 16 dimensions. → For our sample of respondents from India, as hypothesized, security of fossil fuel supply, R and D in new technologies, centralized energy systems, and the availability of clean water emerged as important dimensions. → Equitable access to energy and low energy intensity did not emerge as important dimensions of energy security for our sample even though we hypothesized them to be so.

  16. India's energy security: A sample of business, government, civil society, and university perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain, E-mail: sppmjb@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This article explores the concept of energy security perceived and understood by a sample of government, business, civil society, and university stakeholders in India. Based on a literature review, the authors hypothesize what energy experts suggest energy security is for India. The article then tests these hypotheses through the use of a survey completed by 172 Indian respondents. The article begins by describing its methodology before summarizing the results of the literature review to distill seven working hypotheses related to energy security in India. These hypotheses relate to (1) security of energy supply, (2) equitable access to energy services, (3) research and development of new energy technologies, (4) energy efficiency and conservation, (5) self-sufficiency and trade in energy fuels, (6) nuclear power, and (7) the energy-water nexus. It then tests these hypotheses with our survey instrument before concluding with implications for energy policy in India and beyond. - Research highlights: {yields} We measured the concept of energy security for India through a survey that tested the importance of 16 dimensions. {yields} For our sample of respondents from India, as hypothesized, security of fossil fuel supply, R and D in new technologies, centralized energy systems, and the availability of clean water emerged as important dimensions. {yields} Equitable access to energy and low energy intensity did not emerge as important dimensions of energy security for our sample even though we hypothesized them to be so.

  17. Phase Two European Energy Policy Project. European energy and climate policy - Time for something new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During 2014, European energy and climate change policy has moved centre stage. The annexation of Crimea and the destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have raised tensions with Russia to levels not seen since the Cold War. The EU has responded with an energy security plan, and sanctions. Developments elsewhere have further complicated matters. In the Middle East, the rapid advances of ISIS (now called the Islamic State), the internal conflicts in Libya, the war in Gaza, and the continuing negotiations with Iran on nuclear matters suggest that early optimism about the 'Arab Spring' was at best misplaced, and chronic instability has returned. In the US, the energy revolution continues to change the geopolitics of oil and gas, with the early skepticism about the scale of the changes and the shift towards North American energy independence giving way to recognition that the changes are permanent and profound - for both global energy markets and Europe. The full implications of the end of the commodity super-cycle are both profound for European energy policy and very poorly understood. Commodity prices have tumbled, with oil prices falling below $80 a barrel. On climate change, there is almost certainly not going to be a continuation of the Kyoto style international framework after the Paris conference in December 2015. Chinese emissions per head have now exceeded those of the Europeans, and it is at last being recognized that the climate change problem is one in which China, not the EU, is centre stage. China has announced that it does not intend to cap its carbon emissions until after 2030, by which time they may peak anyway - from a very much higher base after another decade and a half of increases. The Paris conference will see a series of 'pledges' and 'commitments' very much on the pattern of the Copenhagen Accord, not the credible, enforceable legally binding measures that had been proposed at the Durban Conference of the Parties in 2011

  18. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  19. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  20. Requirements for an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conant, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central issue facing the US today lies in the rise of oil imports. No supergiant (5 billion barrels) oil discoveries have been made in the US. Production from existing fields is declining. The 1985-86 oil price collapse from $26 to less than $15 per barrel had a disastrous effect on the budgets of smaller oil companies which do most of the exploring, and on the service industry. Budgets for overseas exploration has been generally sustained. Oil prices are not expected to sustain domestic exploration. Gulf oil sources will, in the next five years, supply some 75 percent of all oil in international trade. Without an energy policy, involvement in Middle East oil will grow exponentially, as will the needs of others for Gulf oil. The natural gas situation is different, with a spare producing capacity of one trillion cubic feet this year, which could double next year. Natural gas deregulation has created an unbelievable mess in the requirements of producers/suppliers and purchasers to have dependable business arrangements. Coal is plentiful and will be until the end of time. Public opposition to emission problems and the greenhouse effect are an obstacle to greater use of coal. The nuclear option may be dead, with no new orders since 1978. Statistics are provided on proven world reserves of conventional crude oil, recoverable heavy oils, tar sands, and shale oil; which indicates for the long term an ability to transform the Geopolitics of oil away from the middle east. Energy options require energy R ampersand D, use of Alaskan gas, conservation and efficiency in energy use, strategic reserves, close energy relations with allies, and a government-industry link which insures meeting the US oil needs from the Western Hemisphere

  1. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  2. The Faroe Islands’ Security Policy in a Process of Devolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinta í Jákobsstovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s there has been a remarkable change in the institutional context of safety and security policies for the Faroes. The end of the Cold War led to a reduction in the strategic importance of, and military presence in, the islands. However, today Faroese sea and air space is increasingly exposed to heavy civilian traffic due to expected oil production as well as new sailing routes from the High North. The Faroese government is in a process, nearly completed, of taking over the full responsibility for societal security policy, a field it used to share with the Danish state authorities. In April 2002, the Faroese authorities took over the responsibility for SAR in Faroese sea territory and established a MRCC Center in Tórshavn. A new civic security law was passed by Løgtingið (the parliament in May 2012. This article discusses micro-states’ options in the international arena; provides a brief overview of the history of Faroese security policy; and discusses the present and future challenges involved in assuring protection and rescue services for the Faroese region of the North Atlantic.

  3. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  4. STUDY ON COMPANY SECURITY POLICIES FROM DIGITAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA-MARIA RĂDULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet development has brought both new opportunities and risks for either retailers or consumers. For example, electronic commerce is much faster and less expensive, but this openness makes it difficult to secure. People are aware of the fact that online businesses collecting, process and distribute enormous amounts of personal data and therefore, are concerned about their unauthorized use or their use in other purposes than intended by third parties in order to gain unauthorized access to them. There are more examples of cyber criminal activities, such as: hacking, software piracy, passwords attack, service prohibition attacks, scamming, etc. Such fears led to the editing of protection policies meant to secure personal data and to develop some mechanisms to ensure the reliability and confidentiality of electronic information. Security measures include access control devices, installation of firewalls and intrusion detection devices, of some security procedures to identify and authenticate authorized users of network systems. Such mechanisms constitute the core of this study. We will also analyze security and confidentiality policy of personal data of Google Inc.

  5. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  6. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  7. China's Sovereign Wealth Fund Investments in overseas energy: The energy security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Jianping; Wang, Yongfeng; Clark, Woodrow W.

    2014-01-01

    Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are state-owned investment funds that invest in real and financial assets. Since the global financial crisis in 2008, SWFs' investments have resulted in national security concerns of host countries because SWFs continue to expand rapidly and have become increasingly active in real-time strategic transactions. Given this background, China, which has the biggest SWF in the world, is facing severe challenges of energy resources shortages while its plan is to accomplish social and economic development goals. Energy security is a key driving force of the energy investment policy of China's SWFs. This makes the SWF investments more complicated and more politically sensitive. The combination of sovereign rights and the strategic importance of energy also makes geopolitics more complicated and brings more uncertainty to SWF investments. This article explores the relationship between energy security and energy investments of China's SWFs. It is recognised that the energy investment of SWFs must follow a sustainable path to coordinate energy security, economic growth, return on investment and national security concerns. Government policymakers are urged to balance the financial and political returns on SWFs against potential negative effects. The conclusion presents insights for policymakers, energy scholars and SWF researchers. - Highlights: • Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are government-owned and may pursue geopolitical power. • SWF investment in energy is necessary for commercial and strategic interests. • China's SWFs are active in energy investment to support a “going global” strategy. • Sovereign rights are inevitable to integrate the strategic property of energy. • SWF investments in energy suffer negative impacts due to sovereign rights

  8. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY SECURITY IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable, secure and competitive energy supply has long been recognized within the Community, and has been addressed on numerous occasions, notably in the Green Papers elaborated by the Commission in 2000 and 2006. Recent supply crises and rapidly escalating fuel prices have focused the minds of leaders across the European Union, as well as those of businesses and individual energy consumers. Energy policy transcends a range of different policy areas, including competition, transport, environment and energy itself. Decisions relating to energy policy in Europe are primarily within the remit of individual Member State governments, with the European Commission’s powers limited to two specific areas (creation of the European single market and matters relating to nuclear safety and security under the EURATOM Treaty. The extent of the transfer of powers towards Europe is clearly a critical decision point and in practice a sensitive balance is likely to be required between those matters for which the Commission should have responsibility and those where Member State governments retain sole authority. European officials are putting into evidence their belief that Europe’s energy predicament is acute and mention energy security as a priority issue for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Policy commitments say that energy strategy must move beyond the internal sphere and become systematically a part of EU external relations. The Commission’s 2006 Energy Green Paper promised “a better integration of energy objectives into broader relations with third countries”.

  9. France and Germany nuclear energy policies revisited: A veblenian appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy policy should have been a major area of cooperation for France and Germany, playing a lead role in the energy policy of the EU. Yet they have retained different options, especially regarding nuclear energy while the EU energy policy remained very indicative. These two “coordinated economies” should have been able to cooperate more closely on this issue. While the reasons for this difference in behavior have much to do with the specificities of the nuclear energy, they are more precisely related to the continuously rising level of security requirements, a learning process in which the magnitude of risks and time lengths appeared, even before Fukushima, to go beyond rational boundaries on which cooperation (as well as market ventures could be based. This raises the issue in the present state of the technologies of the possibility of an international governance of this nuclear industry.

  10. Policy in Conflict: The Struggle Between Environmental Policy and Homeland Security Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    environmental and energy 34 policy (Murkowski, 2010). However, a good set of literature on the broader, macro level question central to this investigation...terms of increasing efficiency of the automotive fleet (demand side), certain environmental policies have the unintended consequence of restricting the...Middle East  Broader aspects of the struggle between environmental policy and energy policy  A broad analysis of ways to diminish animus toward the

  11. PV in Japan - improving energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Currently, almost 80% of Japan's primary energy is imported and about 50% of this comes from politically unstable countries. The Japanese are now working hard to improve energy security in a clean and sustainable fashion. Since the wind patterns are not favourable for wind power, the emphasis is on photovoltaics (PVs), and many companies that once manufactured integrated circuits are now working on solar cells where their knowledge and experience of mass production, quality control, sales and marketing stand them in good stead. It is expected that the Japanese will be world leaders in the making and export of solar equipment, as well as one of the world's greatest users

  12. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  13. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  14. Visa Security Policy: Roles of the Departments of State and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    Cong., 2nd sess., April 20, 1950. 13 8 U.S.C. 1104 . 14 8 U.S.C. 1201. AILA InfoNet Doc. No. 11071267. (Posted 07/12/11) Visa Security Policy...Biometric 2-print fingerprint system (IDENT); and Advanced Passenger Information System ( APIS ). They also have access to selected legacy- INS automated

  15. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  16. Proposal on concept of security of energy supply with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Yamada, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply (SoS) was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. SoS concept has been proposed which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide meaning SoS consists of narrow meaning SoS of short-term energy crisis, which is the traditional concept, and long-term global energy problem, which has become important recently. Three models have been proposed here for evaluating SoS. A method to estimate energy security level in a quantitative manner by comparing with various measures has been also proposed, in which nuclear energy contribution onto SoS can be further measured. (author)

  17. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  18. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Information security policies for governmental organisations, the minimum criteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available and retention of documents. 18) Incident response. The policy discusses issues concerning how an organisation responds quickly and effectively to a system or network security breach [13]. 19) Contingency planning. The policy needs to address contingency... _ 17. Document destruction and retention X _ X X 18. Incident response X X X X 19. Contingency planning X _ X X 20. Telecommuting and mobile computing _ _ X _ 21. Intrusion Detection Systems X X X X From Table 1 it can be detained that not all...

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  2. The city and the energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, F.; Volkov, E.; Gantes, P.; Peek, P.; Vallar, Ch.; Telegina, E.; Fache, D.; Dreiski, P.; Pouffary, St.; Plate, N.; Kopsov, A.Y.; Benque, J.P.; Allegre, M.; Gsell, K.; Sanchez, M.; Hadhri, M.; Rouyer, J.L.; Rogeaux, B.; Clauwaert, A.; Garin, P.; Mernier, A.; Ruban, L.; Alario, E.; Allegre, M.; Asiani, F.; Banon, G.; Barelli, P.; Benque, J.P.; Bertoglio, S.; Blot, Y.; Bogolyubov, S.; Bonnaure, A.; Cabana, Y.; Casanova, L.; Chegodaev, A.; Cisse, S.; Clauwaert, A.; Colombier, A.M.; Collard, P.; Coma, O.; Combe, M.; Corbiere-Medecin, A.; Courdy, J.C.; Coursimault, E.; D'Addio, J.C.; Dastarac, H.; Daugreilh, J.P.; Surville, H. de; Doz, M.; Dreiski, P.; Efimouchkine, S.; Fache, D.; Ferrari, B.; Forkasiewicz, J.; Gantes, P.; Garin, P.; Gouirand, P.; Gsell, K.; Guibbolini, P.; Guillot, V.; Hadhri, M.; Ionescu, S.; Kostyuk, V.; Lecach, J.; Lorieux, L.; Luca, L.; Mangeard, Ph.; Matchabelli, V.; Mernier, A.; Murgeanu, R.; Nastase, A.; Nigoul, C.; D'Oleon, M.; Ollivier, J.; Oulianovsky, Y.; Pages, D.; Pataki, Z.; Peek, P.; Perdigon, M.F.; Piacenza, M.; Plate, N.; Poirier, J.; Pouffary, St.; Prez, Ch.; Prufer, Y.; Rogeaux, B.; Roques, F.; Rouyer, J.L.; Ruban, L.; Sanchez, M.; Sayamov, Y.; Semenescu, O.; Skorov, G.; Telegina, E.; Theiler, Ch.; Thomas, D.; Valais, M.; Vallar, Ch.; Volkov, E.; Von Scholz, H.; Waechter, M.; Zaboussov, V.; Zakharova, N.; Zoubkov, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The answers to the world energy crisis should not be limited to the management of geopolitical factors (Iran, Nigeria, Venezuela etc.) and to the control of the offer (inciting OPEC countries to optimize their production). They involve also a change of the demand and of the consumers' behaviour. The comments caused by the recent rise of oil prices have shown that this idea, considered as marginal by policy-makers, has started to make its way. The analyses limited to macro-economical units (states, international organization), always forget that cities are the main places of energy consumption. Recent events, like the repetitive saturation of power grids at the origin of spectacular blackouts (Moscow, California, Switzerland, Italy), have led the local authorities to take into consideration part of the problem. They effectively have at their disposition some important leviers which allow them to act both on the offer and on the behaviours. It is evident that in domains like transports, urban renovation or waste treatment, the local authorities have to play a significant role by implementing policies that maximize the energy efficiency and minimize the costs at the same time. The debates which took place during this forum were based on the experiences and realizations presented by experts of several big cities, in particular of Moscow, Madrid and Nuremberg. Some remarkable examples were presented, in particular in the domain of energy auditing, mastery of energy consumptions and production of alternative resources. The usual topics were also approached: energy overview, main trends of the present day energy policy of Russia, new opportunities of new technologies, geo-energy evolutions, Russia-European Union dialogue. (J.S.)

  3. Russia’s foreign energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the transition period, Russia was pursuing an energy policy composed of a set of responses to external developments. However, in the wake of the 2008 crisis, the government expedited the formulation of a new long-term energy strategy aiming to create a comprehensive energy policy to enhance Russia’s sustained development. Externally, Russia’s decisions in 2009 to postpone its accession to the WTO and refrain from ECT ratification sounded alarmingly. However, Russia’s policy cou...

  4. Nuclear energy and German foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that the present foreign-policy situation with regard to the nuclear-energy complex is due to political and energy-policy origins. He is further of the opinion that the expansion of nuclear energy - in spite of internal political difficulties - will continue in the long term. Hence breeders and reconditioning will become realities. For German foreign policy this means that it must also carry responsibilities on a global scale in this respect. (orig.) [de

  5. Security Policies from a Spatial Perspective: the Case of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Public insecurity became a central issue for many Hondurans in the late 1990s, as crime, delinquency and homicide increased significantly in the isthmus. Honduras had the second highest homicide rate (35.1 per 100,000 in the region after El Salvador (50.2. per 100,000 . This social violence triggered insecurity and fear, which was further accompanied by the overall perception that the state was unable of relieving or protecting the population. This article looks at the failed attempts of the Honduran state to stop social violence and to control youth gang expansion by focusing on the security policies Cero Tolerancia (Zero Tolerance, Mano Dura (Iron Fist and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law. It understands security policies as territorial strategies that attempt to reduce social violence and impose control.

  6. A View of Food Security through A Policy Coherent Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Member States “Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food, which is safe and consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation...... by increasing availability, affordability and consumption of biodiverse, safe, nutritious foods aligned with dietary recommendations and environmental sustainability.  Given that the number of chronically undernourished (stunted) could double over next 15 years, the Post-2015 Agenda and its Poverty Reduction......The term “food and nutrition security” reflects the multisector collaboration needed between those working with food security and nutrition security. The term expresses an integrated development goal to help guide implementation of policy and cost-effective programmatic action: As agreed by FAO...

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  8. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  9. Energy Policies for Resilience and National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    consequences: cancer , sterility, and gross birth defects...for many years after...release." [Joint Committee on Defense Production 1977:1:29] Since many of these...emergency generators, and thirteen other establishments, mainly medical , needed emergency generators repaired. Con Ed dispatched 18 of its 50 portable...scrap metal were il- licitly dug up and sold from a waste dump in Beatty, Nevada [NRC 1976a]. "Vast quantities of cannabis resin were smuggled into

  10. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still

  11. A review on global wind energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Islam, M.R.; Rahim, N.A.; Solangi, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock of fossil fuel have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Energy policy plays a vital role to mitigate the impacts of global warming and crisis of energy availability. This paper explores the wind energy industry from the point of view of the wind energy policy. It is noticed that energy policy could help increasing wind power generation as well as stimulating the energy industry. It may be stated that without specific energy policy, a country would not be able to solve the acute problems like reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, scarcity of energy, etc. This paper discussed the existing successful energy policies for few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS, incentives, pricing law and Quota system are the most useful energy policies practiced by many countries around the world. Then, status of wind energy policy for Malaysia was investigated and compared with few selected countries around the world. (author)

  12. G-8 leaders tackle global energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2006-01-01

    Leaders of the Group of 8 countries backed the IAEA's work at their annual summit held 15-17 July 2006 in St. Petersburg, Russia. A concluding summary statement endorsed IAEA programmes and initiatives in areas of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards. The G8 nations adopted a St. Petersburg Plan of Action to increase transparency, predictability and stability of the global energy markets, improve the investment climate in the energy sector, promote energy efficiency and energy saving, diversify energy mix, ensure physical safety of critical energy infrastructure, reduce energy poverty and address climate change and sustainable development. In a statement on global energy security, the G8 said countries who have or are considering plans for nuclear energy believe it will contribute to global energy security while reducing air pollution and addressing climate change. The G8 said it acknowledged the efforts made in development by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). GIF and INPRO both bring together countries to develop next generation nuclear energy systems, including small reactors, very high temperature reactors and supercritical water-cooled reactors. The G8 reaffirmed its full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT and called on all States to comply with their NPT obligations, including IAEA safeguards as well as developing effective measures aimed at preventing trafficking in nuclear equipment, technology and materials. The G8 is seeking universal adherence to IAEA comprehensive safeguards agreements and is actively engaged in efforts to make comprehensive safeguards agreements together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard. The G8 noted that an expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy must be carried forward in a manner consistent with nuclear non-proliferation commitments and standards. It discussed concrete

  13. Energy Assurance: Essential Energy Technologies for Climate Protection and Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Fulkerson, William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gaddis, Abigail [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Mason, Thom [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Zucker, Alexander [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    We present and apply a new method for analyzing the significance of advanced technology for achieving two important national energy goals: climate protection and energy security. Quantitative metrics for U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 and oil independence in 2030 are specified, and the impacts of 11 sets of energy technologies are analyzed using a model that employs the Kaya identity and incorporates the uncertainty of technological breakthroughs. The goals examined are a 50% to 80% reduction in CO2 emissions from energy use by 2050 and increased domestic hydrocarbon fuels supply and decreased demand that sum to 11 mmbd by 2030. The latter is intended to insure that the economic costs of oil dependence are not more than 1% of U.S. GDP with 95% probability by 2030. Perhaps the most important implication of the analysis is that meeting both energy goals requires a high probability of success (much greater than even odds) for all 11 technologies. Two technologies appear to be indispensable for accomplishment of both goals: carbon capture and storage, and advanced fossil liquid fuels. For reducing CO2 by more than 50% by 2050, biomass energy and electric drive (fuel cell or battery powered) vehicles also appear to be necessary. Every one of the 11 technologies has a powerful influence on the probability of achieving national energy goals. From the perspective of technology policy, conflict between the CO2 mitigation and energy security is negligible. These general results appear to be robust to a wide range of technology impact estimates; they are substantially unchanged by a Monte Carlo simulation that allows the impacts of technologies to vary by 20%.

  14. WRR-Policy Brief 6 : Big data and security policies: serving security, protecting freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Dennis; Schrijvers, Erik; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Big Data analytics in national security, law enforcement and the fight against fraud can reap great benefits for states, citizens and society but require extra safeguards to protect citizens’ fundamental rights. This requires new frameworks: a crucial shift is necessary from regulating the phase of

  15. Energy Climate Change - Challenges and Prospects of the EU Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, P.; Bosnjakovic, B.; Frankovic, B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the main challenges and prospects of EU policy in the field of energy and climate change, without going into technical details, but establishes the main themes of sustainability: economy, environment and new jobs. It describes the foundations and the objectives of the current EU energy policy, and the reasons why the current approach to reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is disappointing. Also, the question is whether EU will achieve the renewable energy goals for the year 2020. The security of energy supply and availability is also considered, especially in view of high dependence on import energy in the today fragmented market. For the way forward to mid-century, the targets to year 2030 are of critical importance. Also, the paper gives an overview of the state of renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions in Croatia.(author)

  16. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tick Hui; Pang, Shen Yee; Chua, Shing Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Energy is essential to the way we live. Whether it is in the form of oil, gasoline or electricity, a country's prosperity and welfare depends on having access to reliable and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices. However, it is also one of the benefits taken for granted by many people, knowing little about the impact of electricity on their lives. Having dependent mainly on oil and gas for half a century, Malaysia has started to realize the importance to adopt renewable energy in the energy<