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Sample records for energy restriction induced

  1. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

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    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  2. Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

    Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: prestriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

  3. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M; de Graaf, C; de Groot, C P G M; van Rossum, C T M; Kok, F J

    2006-01-01

    Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). Fasting serum leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite levels were measured during a 4-day diet containing 36% of the estimated energy requirements. Appetite levels were assessed with a 10-point Likert scale, reflecting hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective consumption and total appetite. After the 4-day energy deficit, fasting leptin concentrations decreased by 39.4% (95% CI: -43.6; -34.9%). This decline was associated with an increase in fasting hunger (r = -0.42; P < 0.01), desire to eat (r = -0.39; P < 0.05) and total appetite (r = -0.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between fasting leptin concentrations and fasting appetite levels became stronger during the energy restriction period (for total appetite: day 0 r = -0.15, P = 0.32; day 2 r = -0.31, P =< 0.05; day 4 r = -0.41, P < 0.01). The acute proportional reduction in fasting leptin after 4-day energy restriction is associated with an increase in self-perceived appetite. Additionally, the inverse association between proportional fasting leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite response becomes stronger as energy restriction is prolonged. These findings suggest that leptin has an instrumental role in restoring energy balance in humans through the expression of appetite.

  4. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between

  5. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M; Graaf, C de; Groot, C P G M de; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between

  6. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...... restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. Methods: 35 adults (age......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting...

  7. HMB attenuates muscle loss during sustained energy deficit induced by calorie restriction and endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Sup; Henning, Paul C; Grant, Samuel C; Lee, Won Jun; Lee, Sang-Rok; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle mass and physical performance under catabolic versus normal training conditions. Mice were divided into four groups (n=10/group): (1) ALT=ad libitum+trained (1 h/d for 3 d/wk); (2) ALTH=ALT+HMB (0.5 g/kg BW/d); (3) C=calorie restricted (-30%)+trained (6 h/d, 6 d/wk); and (4) CH=C+HMB. Repeated in vivo assessments included body composition, grip strength and sensorimotor coordination before and after the experimental protocol, while in vitro analyses included muscle wet weights, expression of selected genes and proteins regulating muscle mass, and myofiber cross-sectional area. ANOVAs were used with significance set at pHMB improves body composition and sensorimotor function during normal training and attenuates muscle mass and strength loss during catabolic conditions. © 2013.

  8. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NE L ). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a + , an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that

  9. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes induced by energy restriction using annealing control primer system from the liver and adipose tissues of broilers.

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    Wang, J W; Chen, W; Kang, X T; Huang, Y Q; Tian, Y D; Wang, Y B

    2012-04-01

    Female Arbor Acre broilers were divided into 2 groups at 18 d of age. One group of chickens had free access to feed (AL), and the other group of chickens had 30% energy restriction (ER). Adipose and hepatic RNA samples were collected at 48 d of age. We employed an accurate reverse-transcription (RT) PCR method that involves annealing control primers to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG) between ER and AL groups. Using 20 annealing control primers, 43 differentially expressed bands (40 downregulated and 3 upregulated in the ER group) were detected from the hepatic tissue, whereas no differentially expressed bands were detected from the adipose tissue. It seems that energy restriction could induce more DEG in hepatic tissue than that in adipose tissue and could result in more gene-expression downregulation in hepatic tissue. Eight DEG (6 known and 2 unknown genes) were gained from hepatic tissue and confirmed by RT-PCR, which were all supported by released expressed sequence tag sequences. Their expressions were all downregulated by energy restriction in hepatic tissues. Six known genes are RPL7, RPLP1, FBXL12, ND1, ANTXR2, and SLC22A18, respectively, which seem to play essential roles in the protein translation, energy metabolism, and tumor inhibition. The alterations of gene expression in 3 selected genes, including ND1 (P < 0.01), FBXL12 (P < 0.01), and RPLP1 (P < 0.05), were supported by real-time quantitative RT-PCR reaction. Our data provide new insights on the metabolic state of broilers changed by energy restriction.

  11. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  12. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Paula B M; Neff, Laurence A; Strosova, Miriam K; Arsenijevic, Denis; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Scapozza, Leonardo; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dulloo, Abdul G; Dorchies, Olivier M

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.

  13. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  14. Estimation of fluctuation in restricted energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Nagata, K.

    1983-01-01

    Restricted Energy Loss (REL) is defined as an energy loss [(dE/dX)/sub E//sub delta/<ν/] that produced the delta-rays of energies less than some specified energy ν and is often used as a simple measure of track structure. For example, REL is a measure of track formation threshold in plastic track detector and the growth rate of track in chemical etching solution is considered to depend only on REL given along the track. Using a stack of elastic sheets, recently, it became possible to identify isotopes of incident particles. In that case, the limit of mass resolution is determined by fluctuation of REL in the length of etch pit produced along the path of particle. A computer program was developed to calculate the probability distribution for energy deposition in absorber allowing for electron escape. In this calculation, it is assumed that all electrons with energies greater than a certain value epsilon/sub d/ escape. This means that this calculation directly gives the fluctuation of REL. Therefore, we tried to use the computer program to estimate the ultimate mass resolution in plastic detector. In this paper, we show firstly the comparison of ASB's calculation with the experimental results obtained by a gas counter and next the results of estimation of ultimate mass resolution in plastic detectors

  15. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  17. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  18. Model analyses for sustainable energy supply under CO2 restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Ishitani, Hisashi.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at clarifying key points for realizing sustainable energy supply under restrictions on CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, possibility of solar breeding system is investigated as a key technology for the sustainable energy supply. The authors describe their mathematical model simulating global energy supply and demand in ultra-long term. Depletion of non-renewable resources and constraints on CO 2 emissions are taken into consideration in the model. Computed results have shown that present energy system based on non-renewable resources shifts to a system based on renewable resources in the ultra-long term with appropriate incentives

  19. Lack of Additive Effects of Resveratrol and Energy Restriction in the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rolo, Anabela P; Soeiro Teodoro, João; Palmeira, Carlos M; Portillo, María P

    2017-07-11

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the effect of resveratrol on liver steatosis in obese rats, to compare the effects induced by resveratrol and energy restriction and to research potential additive effects. Rats were initially fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for six weeks and then allocated in four experimental groups fed a standard diet: a control group, a resveratrol-treated group, an energy restricted group and a group submitted to energy restriction and treated with resveratrol. We measured liver triacylglycerols, transaminases, FAS, MTP, CPT1a, CS, COX, SDH and ATP synthase activities, FATP2/FATP5, DGAT2, PPARα, SIRT1, UCP2 protein expressions, ACC and AMPK phosphorylation and PGC1α deacetylation. Resveratrol reduced triacylglycerols compared with the controls, although this reduction was lower than that induced by energy restriction. The mechanisms of action were different. Both decreased protein expression of fatty acid transporters, thus suggesting reduced fatty acid uptake from blood stream and liver triacylglycerol delivery, but only energy restriction reduced the assembly. These results show that resveratrol is useful for liver steatosis treatment within a balanced diet, although its effectiveness is lower than that of energy restriction. However, resveratrol is unable to increase the reduction in triacylglycerol content induced by energy restriction.

  20. Laser induced energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two related methods of rapidly transferring stored energy from one excited chemical species to another are described. The first of these, called a laser induced collision, involves a reaction in which the energy balance is met by photons from an intense laser beam. A collision cross section of ca 10 - 17 cm 2 was induced in an experiment which demonstrated the predicted dependence of the cross section on wavelength and power density of the applied laser. A second type of laser induced energy transfer involves the inelastic scattering of laser radiation from energetically excited atoms, and subsequent absorption of the scattered light by a second species. The technique of producing the light, ''anti-Stokes Raman'' scattering of visible and infrared wavelength laser photons, is shown to be an efficient source of narrow bandwidth, high brightness, tunable radiation at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths by using it to excite a rare gas transition at 583.7 A. In addition, this light source was used to make the first measurement of the isotopic shift of the helium metastable level at 601 A. Applications in laser controlled chemistry and spectroscopy, and proposals for new types of lasers using these two energy transfer methods are discussed

  1. The effect of energy restriction on satiation an satiety in obese and lean men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how time-blinded obese and lean men compensate for a 3-day energy-restrictive diet. Methods: Subjects were randomly put on a three-day energy-restrictive (ER) (67% energy restriction) and a three-day energy-balanced (EB) diet, with a washout period of one month. Both diets were

  2. Physical activity, energy restriction, and the risk of pancreatic cancer: Prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Lumey, L.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because of their influence on insulin concentrations, we hypothesized that both physical activity and energy restriction may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We examined the associations between physical activity, proxies for energy restriction, and pancreatic cancer

  3. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kulseng, Bård; Truby, Helen; Martins, Cátia

    2018-06-01

    Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. 35 adults (age: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting respiratory quotient (RQ), ExEff (10, 25, and 50 W), subjective appetite ratings (hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption (PFC)), and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin (AG), cholecystokinin (CCK), total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and insulin) were measured before and after WL. Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR decreased and ExEff at 25 and 50 W increased (P intermittent, does not appear to modulate the compensatory mechanisms activated by weight loss. NCT02169778 (the study was registered in clinicaltrial.gov). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction. The effect of modest energy deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Batterham, Rachel L; Stensel, David J

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3-36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with changes in appetite across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.037). An energy deficit of ~1475 kJ stimulated compensatory increases in appetite when induced via calorie restriction but not when achieved by an acute bout of exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3-36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake. Copyright

  5. Energy Analysis in the Elliptic Restricted Three-body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; de Ruiter, Anton

    2018-05-01

    The gravity assist or flyby is investigated by analyzing the inertial energy of a test particle in the elliptic restricted three-body problem (ERTBP), where two primary bodies are moving in elliptic orbits. Firstly, the expression of the derivation of energy is obtained and discussed. Then, the approximate expressions of energy change in a circular neighborhood of the smaller primary are derived. Numerical computation indicates that the obtained expressions can be applied to study the flyby problem of the nine planets and the Moon in the solar system. Parameters related to the flyby are discussed analytically and numerically. The optimal conditions, including the position and time of the periapsis, for a flyby orbit are found to make a maximum energy gain or loss. Finally, the mechanical process of a flyby orbit is uncovered by an approximate expression in the ERTBP. Numerical computations testify that our analytical results well approximate the mechanical process of flyby orbits obtained by the numerical simulation in the ERTBP. Compared with the previous research established in the patched-conic method and numerical calculation, our analytical investigations based on a more elaborate derivation get more original results.

  6. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  7. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Weitao

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N 4 ). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as 〈S ^2 〉 are also developed and tested

  8. Restricted second random phase approximations and Tamm-Dancoff approximations for electronic excitation energy calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N{sup 4}). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as 〈S{sup ^2}〉 are also developed and tested.

  9. Can early protein restriction induce the development of binge eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechine, Madge Farias; Borba, Tássia Karin; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Lopes-de-Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that perinatal undernourishment is a factor for binge eating. At 52 days rats born from dams fed on 17% protein (Control) or 8% protein (Undernourished) were distributed into four groups, two of which continued to be fed ad libitum chow and two were submitted to three consecutive Restricted/Refeeding (R/R) cycles. According to the following schedule: Control Naïve (from mothers fed 17% protein/no restriction phase); Control Restricted (from mothers fed 17% protein/restriction phase); Undernourished Naïve (from mothers fed 8% protein/no restriction phase); and Undernourished Restricted (from mothers fed 8% protein/restriction phase). Each cycle consisted of a restriction phase (in the first four days 40% of the mean daily individual chow intake was offered for consumption), followed by a refeeding phase (4 days of chow ad libitum). After the three cycles, all animals were subjected to a feeding test (chow diet and palatable food ad libitum for 24h). During the feeding test, the Undernourished Restricted demonstrated rebound hyperphagia during 2, 4 and 6h. These results suggest the perinatal undernourishment cannot contribute to a binge eating phenotype. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Lira do Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  11. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 7-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Fasting ghrelin does not predict food intake after short-term energy restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Mars, M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Stafleu, A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of ghrelin as a hunger signal during energy restriction and to test the hypothesis that changes in fasting leptin concentrations during energy restriction are associated with changes in fasting ghrelin concentrations. Research Methods and Procedures: Thirty-five healthy,

  13. Decreases in fasting leptin and insulin concentrations after acute energy restriction and subsequent compensation in food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kok, Frans J

    2005-03-01

    The decrease in leptin after energy restriction is a starvation signal to the brain. Several studies have found an association between this decrease and subjective appetite; however, no solid data are available on the acute decrease in fasting leptin concentration and subsequent caloric compensation. The objective was to assess the effect of acute decreases in fasting leptin concentrations, induced by energy restriction, on subsequent energy intake compensation. We hypothesized that men with a large decrease in fasting leptin concentrations would have larger ad libitum energy intakes than would men with a small decrease in leptin. Thirty-four male unrestrained eaters [age: 23 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.3 +/- 1.6] participated in a semicontrolled intervention study. Fasting serum leptin and insulin concentrations were measured before and 2 d after 62% energy restriction. Energy intake was measured on the 2 following days on which food was provided ad libitum. During energy restriction, fasting leptin and insulin concentrations decreased by 27.2% (95% CI: -34.4%, -19.9%) and 30.7% (95% CI: -41.0%, -20.4%), respectively. Subjects consumed 143 +/- 27% of their estimated energy requirements (18.3 +/- 2.9 MJ) on the first day and 124 +/- 20% (16.0 +/- 2.6 MJ) on the second day of ad libitum intake. No significant correlations were observed between decreases in fasting leptin or insulin concentrations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake; however, decreases in insulin were correlated with an increase in carbohydrate intake (r=-0.49, P < 0.01). Although fasting leptin concentrations decreased significantly during energy restriction and subjects showed compensatory behavior during subsequent ad libitum food intake, no association was observed between the decrease in fasting leptin concentrations and caloric compensation.

  14. Fasting ghrelin does not predict food intake after short-term energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Wendy A M; Mars, Monica; Hendriks, Henk F J; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Stafleu, Annette; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2006-05-01

    To study the role of ghrelin as a hunger signal during energy restriction and to test the hypothesis that changes in fasting leptin concentrations during energy restriction are associated with changes in fasting ghrelin concentrations. Thirty-five healthy, lean men (23 +/- 3 years of age; BMI: 22.3 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a controlled intervention study. Fasting ghrelin and leptin concentrations were measured before and after 2 days of 62% energy restriction and after a 2-day period of ad libitum food intake. Energy intake during the latter period was assessed. On average, ghrelin concentrations did not change (0.05 mug/liter; 95% confidence interval, -0.03; 0.12) during energy restriction. Changes in ghrelin concentration during energy restriction were not associated with energy intake during the ad libitum period (r = 0.07; not significant). Ad libitum energy intake was, however, associated with the change in ghrelin concentrations during the same period (r = -0.34; p = 0.05). Ghrelin and leptin concentrations were not associated. In addition, the ratio of percentage changes in ghrelin and leptin during energy restriction was not correlated with ad libitum food intake after energy restriction (r = -0.26; p = 0.14). Fasting ghrelin concentrations did not rise after a 2-day energy restriction regimen. Moreover, changes in ghrelin concentrations during energy restriction were not associated with subsequent ad libitum food intake, suggesting that fasting ghrelin does not act as a hunger signal to the brain. The data did not support our hypothesis that leptin suppresses ghrelin levels.

  15. Distinct cell stress responses induced by ATP restriction in quiescent human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Yalamanchili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quiescence is the prevailing state of many cell types under homeostatic conditions. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how quiescent cells respond to energetic and metabolic challenges. To better understand compensatory responses of quiescent cells to metabolic stress, we established, in human primary dermal fibroblasts, an experimental ‘energy restriction’ model. Quiescence was achieved by short-term culture in serum-deprived media and ATP supply restricted using a combination of glucose transport inhibitors and mitochondrial uncouplers. In aggregate, these measures led to markedly reduced intracellular ATP levels while not compromising cell viability over the observation period of 48 h. Analysis of the transcription factor landscape induced by this treatment revealed alterations in several signal transduction nodes beyond the expected biosynthetic adaptations. These included increased abundance of NF-κB regulated transcription factors and altered transcription factor subsets regulated by Akt and p53. The observed changes in gene regulation and corresponding alterations in key signaling nodes are likely to contribute to cell survival at intracellular ATP concentrations substantially below those achieved by growth factor deprivation alone. This experimental model provides a benchmark for the investigation of cell survival pathways and related molecular targets that are associated with restricted energy supply associated with biological aging and metabolic diseases.

  16. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  17. Repeated blood flow restriction induces muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Kano, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    We recently developed an animal model to investigate the effects of eccentric contraction (ECC) and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle tissue at the cellular level. This study clarified the effects of repeated BFR, ECC, and BFR combined with ECC (BFR+ECC) on muscle fiber hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: BFR, ECC, and BFR+ECC. The contralateral leg in the BFR group served as a control (CONT). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the tibialis anterior was determined after the respective treatments for 6 weeks. CSA was greater in the BFR+ECC group than in the CONT (P muscle fiber hypertrophy at the cellular level. Muscle Nerve 55: 274-276, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Proposed energy conservation contingency plan: emergency restrictions on advertising lighting. Authorities, need, rationale, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The emergency restrictions on advertising lighting proposed in Energy Conservation Contingency Plan No. 5 of 1977 are presented. A statement is given on the need for rationale and operation of the Contingency Plan.

  19. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  20. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents.......A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents....

  1. Expression of ultraviolet-induced restriction alleviation in Escherichia coli K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, B.; Wackernagel, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet-induced restriction alleviation is an SOS function which partially relieves the K-12-specific DNA restriction in Escherichia coli. Restriction alleviation is determined by observing elevated survival of unmodified phage lambda in cells irradiated with ultraviolet prior to infection. The authors demonstrate that restriction of lambda is also relieved when log-phase cells are irradiated as late as 50 min after adsorption of lambda. At this time more than 60% of the lambda DNA is already released as acid-soluble material from the cells. Experiments involving reextraction of lambda DNA from infected cells and a mild detergent treatment removing adsorbed phages from the cellular surface showed that only a small specific fraction of all lambda infections is destined to escape restriction due to restriction alleviation. This fraction (10-20%) has a retarded mode of DNA injection (60 min or longer) after adsorption which allows the expression of the restriction alleviation function before the phage DNA is exposed to restriction endonucleases. This behaviour of a fraction of lambda phages explains why the SOS function restriction alleviation could initially be discovered. The authors show that the retarded mode of DNA injection is not required for another SOS function acting on lambda DNA, the increased repair of ultraviolet-irradiated DNA (Weigle reactivation). (Auth.)

  2. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and spontaneous tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko

    1999-01-01

    The host-defense mechanisms against cancers are known to be modulated by changing the environmental factor(s). The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia is about 1% in C3H/He mice, and the incidence increases up to 23.3% when a single dose of radiation, 3 Gy X-ray, is exposed to a whole-body. Since calorie restriction was known to reduce the incidence of spontaneous tumors, a question as to whether such radiation induced-increase of myeloid leukemia would be also decreased by calorie restriction, was aimed to answer to elucidate possible mechanism of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. By the calorie restriction, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was significantly decreased; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the latent period of the myeloid leukemia in the groups for calorie restriction was significantly extended at a greater extent as compared with the control diet groups. Number of hematopoietic stem cells, the possible target cells for radiation-induced leukemias, in the groups for the calorie restriction demonstrated a significant decrease, especially in the spleen, as compared with that in the control, when the evaluation was made at the time of radiation exposure. Then, we examined whether the decreased number of target cells at the time of exposure is caused by the reduction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia with caloric restriction. The third restricted groups were fed 65 kcal diet (restricted diet) for the first 4 weeks i.e. from 6 weeks to 10 weeks old, then, the mice were fed with control diet after radiation. The incidence of myeloid leukemia in this group was slightly decreased but did not show statistically significance. Therefore, the caloric restriction seems to be more effective in the promotion stage than the initiation stage on radiation-induced leukemogenesis. It is well known that C3H/He mice develop hepatoma spontaneously

  3. One day of moderate energy deficit reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women: the role of calorie restriction and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Skenderi, Katerina P; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2010-08-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia are important cardiovascular risk factors in women. We sought to examine the effects of acute (1 day), moderate ( approximately 2 MJ) energy deficit induced by calorie restriction, exercise, or combination of both on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in women. Six healthy premenopausal women performed four oral fat tolerance tests in the morning after a day of a) rest (control), b) calorie restriction ( approximately 2 MJ), c) exercise (net deficit of approximately 2 MJ) and d) calorie restriction-plus-exercise (total energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ). All energy deficit trials significantly reduced fasting and postprandial total plasma TAG concentrations by 15-23% and 12-23%, respectively, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein TAG concentrations by 37-43% and 25-39%, respectively, compared with the control condition (Pwomen. Exercise elicits a somewhat greater effect than calorie restriction in the postprandial state. The acute effect of diet and exercise should be taken into account when studying the long-term effects of weight loss and exercise training on TAG metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of a moderately energy-restricted diet on energy metabolism and body composition in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Westerterp, K.R.; Berg, H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Since little information is available on the capacity of the non-obese to adapt to a moderate decrease in energy intake, the effect of a 10-week moderately energy-restricted diet (ER) on energy expenditure and body composition was studied. Design: A controlled intervention study. After a

  5. A magnetic gradient induced force in NMR restricted diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadirian, Bahman; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Castillo, Reynaldo; Price, William S.

    2014-01-01

    We predict that the phase cancellation of a precessing magnetisation field carried by a diffusing species in a bounded geometry under certain nuclear magnetic resonance pulsed magnetic field gradient sequences results in a small force over typically micrometre length scales. Our calculations reveal that the total magnetisation energy in a pore under the influence of a pulsed gradient will be distance-dependent thus resulting in a force acting on the boundary. It is shown that this effect of the magnetisation of diffusing particles will appear as either an attractive or repulsive force depending on the geometry of the pore and magnetic properties of the material. A detailed analysis is performed for the case of a pulsed gradient spin-echo experiment on parallel planes. It is shown that the force decays exponentially in terms of the spin-spin relaxation. The proof is based on classical electrodynamics. An application of this effect to soft matter is suggested

  6. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD 100 dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 ±14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 ± 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMPα2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 ± 2.1 μmol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 ± 1.9 μmol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway

  7. Effects of obesity, energy restriction and neutering on the faecal microbiota of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Manuela M; Kessler, Alexandre M; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Knotts, Trina A; Kim, Kyoungmi; Wei, Alfreda; Ramsey, Jon J; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-01

    Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction. Lean neutered cats had a bacterial profile similar to obese rodents and humans, with a greater abundance (Pcats was due to a bloom in Peptostreptococcaceae. Obese cats had an 18 % reduction in fat mass after energy restriction (Pcats. Additional work is needed to understand how neutering, obesity and weight loss are related to changes in feline microbiota and how these microbial shifts affect host physiology.

  8. Leptin responsiveness to energy restriction: genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hoebee, B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Serum leptin concentrations are an important afferent signal in energy balance homeostasis. It has been speculated that the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction is affected by the functionality of the leptin receptor. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the effect of polymorphisms in

  9. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Dijk, B.A.C. van; Lumey, L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of the Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945) existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945). We studied the association between energy

  10. The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Wright, Claire; Pegington, Mary; McMullan, Debbie; Mitchell, Ellen; Martin, Bronwen; Cutler, Roy G; Evans, Gareth; Whiteside, Sigrid; Maudsley, Stuart; Camandola, Simonetta; Wang, Rui; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P; Howell, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Intermittent energy restriction may result in greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and weight control than daily energy restriction (DER). We tested two intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction (IECR) regimens, including one which allowed ad libitum protein and fat (IECR+PF). Overweight women (n 115) aged 20 and 69 years with a family history of breast cancer were randomised to an overall 25 % energy restriction, either as an IECR (2500-2717 kJ/d, < 40 g carbohydrate/d for 2 d/week) or a 25 % DER (approximately 6000 kJ/d for 7 d/week) or an IECR+PF for a 3-month weight-loss period and 1 month of weight maintenance (IECR or IECR+PF for 1 d/week). Insulin resistance reduced with the IECR diets (mean - 0·34 (95% CI - 0·66, - 0·02) units) and the IECR+PF diet (mean - 0·38 (95% CI - 0·75, - 0·01) units). Reductions with the IECR diets were significantly greater compared with the DER diet (mean 0·2 (95% CI - 0·19, 0·66) μU/unit, P= 0·02). Both IECR groups had greater reductions in body fat compared with the DER group (IECR: mean - 3·7 (95% CI - 2·5, - 4·9) kg, P= 0·007; IECR+PF: mean - 3·7 (95% CI - 2·8, - 4·7) kg, P= 0·019; DER: mean - 2·0 (95% CI - 1·0, 3·0) kg). During the weight maintenance phase, 1 d of IECR or IECR+PF per week maintained the reductions in insulin resistance and weight. In the short term, IECR is superior to DER with respect to improved insulin sensitivity and body fat reduction. Longer-term studies into the safety and effectiveness of IECR diets are warranted.

  11. Calculation of the Local Free Energy Landscape in the Restricted Region by the Modified Tomographic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun

    2016-03-31

    The free energy landscape is the most important information in the study of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. However, it is difficult to calculate. In a large collective variable space, a molecule must take a long time to obtain the sufficient sampling during the simulation. To save the calculation quantity, decreasing the sampling region and constructing the local free energy landscape is required in practice. However, the restricted region in the collective variable space may have an irregular shape. Simply restricting one or more collective variables of the molecule cannot satisfy the requirement. In this paper, we propose a modified tomographic method to perform the simulation. First, it divides the restricted region by some hyperplanes and connects the centers of hyperplanes together by a curve. Second, it forces the molecule to sample on the curve and the hyperplanes in the simulation and calculates the free energy data on them. Finally, all the free energy data are combined together to form the local free energy landscape. Without consideration of the area outside the restricted region, this free energy calculation can be more efficient. By this method, one can further optimize the path quickly in the collective variable space.

  12. Leptin responsiveness to energy restriction: genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Monica; van Rossum, Caroline T M; de Graaf, Cees; Hoebee, Barbara; De Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kok, Frans J

    2004-03-01

    Serum leptin concentrations are an important afferent signal in energy balance homeostasis. It has been speculated that the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction is affected by the functionality of the leptin receptor. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the effect of polymorphisms in the LEPR gene on the acute decline in leptin after 4 days of 65% energy restriction. Leptin concentrations of the study group (n = 44; all men) declined by 2.3 +/- 1.5 micro g/L [-39.4% (95% confidence interval: -43.6 to -34.9)]. Leptin responses did not statistically differ between noncarriers and carriers of three mutant variants of the polymorphisms: Lys109/Lys109 (-41.4%) vs. Arg109/+ (-37.0%) (p = 0.33); Gln223/Gln223 (-41.5%) vs. Arg223/+ (-37.8%) (p = 0.40); Lys656/Lys656 (-39.5%) vs. Asn656/+ (-39.3%) (p = 0.96). No effect of the assessed polymorphisms in the LEPR gene on the acute decline in leptin after energy restriction was observed. Power calculations are provided for future studies on the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction.

  13. Level of energy restriction alters body condition score and morphometric profile in obese Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynsteen, L; Moons, C P H; Janssens, G P J; Harris, P A; Vandevelde, K; Lefère, L; Duchateau, L; Hesta, M

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high prevalence of obesity in some horses and ponies (especially in the leisure horse sector), effective and safe weight loss strategies are required. The present study evaluated the effect of two different energy restriction rates on physical, morphometric and welfare parameters in 18 obese (body condition score [BCS] 7-9/9) Shetland geldings. The trial was divided into three periods: (1) a 4 week adaptation period, during which the maintenance energy intakes to maintain a stable obese bodyweight were determined (100% MERob); (2) a 16.5-week weight loss period during which the ponies were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group) comprising a control group (CONTROL), moderate energy restricted (MOD), and severe energy restricted (SEV) groups that were respectively fed at 100%, 80% and 60% of their individual MERob; and (3) a 3 week follow up period in which the ponies were again fed at their outset individual 100% MERob. Between the start and end of the weight loss period, significant pairwise differences between the three treatment groups were seen for bodyweight, BCS, heart girth, belly girth, and relative ultrasound fat depth at the level of loin and ribs at several time points (P < 0.05). The higher energy restriction was associated with a faster decrease in BCS, tail head, and heart plus belly girth, but no gastric ulcers or stereotypic behaviours were seen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low energy restrictions for a flipped left-right symmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeg, J.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1990-05-01

    I consider some low energy restrictions for a 'flipped' left-right symmetric model containing exotic fermions of E{sub 6} and a right-handed W-boson, all with odd R-parity. The new interactions due to W{sub R}-exchange have no significant impact on rare kaon decays, because the W{sub R} does not couple to d, s, b quarks. On the other hand, W{sub R} exchanges might induce rare processes like D-anti D mixing, D{sup 0}{yields}{mu}anti {mu}, D{sup 0}{yields}{mu}anti e, {mu}{yields}e{gamma}, {mu}{yields}3e, and {mu}N{yields}eN. It turns out that the strongest bound is obtained from D-anti D mixing. With reasonable extra assumptions, it is found that the exotic right-handed W-boson is likely to be heavier than 500 to 1500 GeV. (orig.).

  15. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laura A E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Goeij, Anton F P M; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Engeland, Manon; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2010-10-01

    Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were 55-69 years of age (n = 120 852). Three indicators of early life exposure to energy restriction were assessed: father's employment status during the Economic Depression (1932-40), place of residence during Second World War years (1940-44) and the 'Hunger Winter' (1944-45), a severe famine. Using the case-cohort approach, incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for total colorectal, proximal colon, distal colon, rectosigmoid and rectal cancers, according to the three time periods of energy restriction. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 2573 cases were available for multivariate analyses. Men who lived in a western city during the Hunger Winter and therefore exposed to the highest degree of energy restriction, had a lower risk of developing CRC (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98), and tumours of the proximal colon (RR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.96) and rectum (RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96). In women, non-statistically significant inverse associations were observed for tumours of the distal colon, rectosigmoid and rectum. Inverse associations were also observed between the other two exposure times and studied endpoints, though not statistically significant. This unique observational evidence suggests that severe energy restriction during childhood and adolescence may lower CRC risk, especially in men, thus providing insight regarding the role of energy intake during early life in CRC development.

  16. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  17. Effects of moderate energy restriction on physical performance and substrate utilization in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Hoogzaad, L.V.; Berg, H. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    Energy restriction (ER) has shown to be an effective 'anti-aging' factor in rodents, resulting in an increased life span and preventing or delaying the occurrence of many age-related diseases in rodents. As a part of a feasibility study on the potential application of ER in humans, we studied the

  18. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  19. WTO law and economics and restrictive practices in energy trade : The case of the OPEC cartel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The World Trade Organization cannot deal comprehensively with restrictive export practices maintained by energy cartels such as the OPEC. The main reason for this is the absence of competition rules in the multilateral trading system. However, in spite of the fact that the WTO does not have rules on

  20. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  2. Activity restriction induced by fear of falling and objective and subjective measures of physical function: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E Jeffrey; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2008-04-01

    To examine whether activity restriction specifically induced by fear of falling (FF) contributes to greater risk of disability and decline in physical function. Prospective cohort study. Population-based older cohort. Six hundred seventy-three community-living elderly (> or = 65) participants in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study who reported FF. FF, fear-induced activity restriction, cognition, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, and demographic factors were assessed at baseline. Disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and performance on the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. One-quarter (25.5%) of participants did not report any activity restriction, 59.6% reported moderate activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of or = 3 activities). The severe restriction group reported significantly higher IADL disability and worse SPPB scores than the no restriction and moderate restriction groups. Severe activity restriction was a significant independent predictor of worsening ADL disability and accelerated decline in lower extremity performance on SPPB over the 3-year follow-up. Severe and moderate activity restriction were independent predictors of worsening IADL disability. Results were consistent even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. In an elderly population, activity restriction associated with FF is an independent predictor of decline in physical function. Future intervention studies in geriatric preventive care should directly address risk factors associated with FF and activity restriction to substantiate long-term effects on physical abilities and autonomy of older persons.

  3. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  4. Photo-Crosslinking Induced Geometric Restriction Controls the Self-Assembly of Diphenylalanine Based Peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Zuo-Xiu; Qin Meng; Zou Da-Wei; Cao Yi; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    The diphenylalanine (FF) motif has been widely used in the design of peptides that are capable of forming various ordered structures, such as nanotubes, nanospheres and hydrogels. In these assemblies, FF based peptides adopt an antiparallel structure and are stabilized by π — π stacking among the phenyl groups. Here we show that assembly of FF-based peptides can be controlled by their geometric restrictions. Using tripeptide FFY (L-Phe-L-Phe-L-Tyr) as an example, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine can impose a geometric restriction to the formation of an antiparallel structure, leading to a structural change of the assemblies from nanosphere to amorphous. This finding is confirmed using far-UV circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Based on such a mechanism, we are able to control the gel-sol transition of Fmoc-FFY using the geometric restriction induced by photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine groups. We believe that geometric restriction should be considered as an important factor in the design of peptide-based materials. It can also be implemented as a useful strategy for the construction of environment-responsive 'smart' materials. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Photo-crosslinking induced geometric restriction controls the self-assembly of diphenylalanine based peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Zuoxiu; Qin Meng; Zou Dawei; Cao Yi; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    The diphenylalanine (FF) motif has been widely used in the design of peptides that are capable of forming various ordered structures, such as nanotubes, nanospheres and hydrogels. In these assemblies, FF based peptides adopt an antiparallel structure and are stabilized by π-π stacking among the phenyl groups. Here we show that assembly of FF-based peptides can be controlled by their geometric restrictions. Using tripeptide FFY (L-Phe-L-Phe-L-Tyr) as an example, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine can impose a geometric restriction to the formation of an antiparallel structure, leading to a structural change of the assemblies from nanosphere to amorphous. This finding is confirmed using far-UV circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Based on such a mechanism, we are able to control the gel-sol transition of Fmoc-FFY using the geometric restriction induced by photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine groups. We believe that geometric restriction should be considered as an important factor in the design of peptide-based materials. It can also be implemented as a useful strategy for the construction of environment-responsive 'smart' materials. (authors)

  6. Gravitational Zero Point Energy induces Physical Observables

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, Remo

    2010-01-01

    We consider the contribution of Zero Point Energy on the induced Cosmological Constant and on the induced Electric/Magnetic charge in absence of matter fields. The method is applicable to every spherically symmetric background. Extensions to a generic $f(R) $ theory are also allowed. Only the graviton appears to be fundamental to the determination of Zero Point Energy.

  7. Prolonged REM sleep restriction induces metabolic syndrome-related changes: Mediation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Chronic sleep restriction in human beings results in metabolic abnormalities, including changes in the control of glucose homeostasis, increased body mass and risk of cardiovascular disease. In rats, 96h of REM sleep deprivation increases caloric intake, but retards body weight gain. Moreover, this procedure increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may be involved with the molecular mechanism proposed to mediate insulin resistance. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a chronic protocol of sleep restriction on parameters of energy balance (food intake and body weight), leptin plasma levels and its hypothalamic receptors and mediators of the immune system in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). Thirty-four Wistar rats were distributed in control (CTL) and sleep restriction groups; the latter was kept onto individual narrow platforms immersed in water for 18h/day (from 16:00h to 10:00h), for 21days (SR21). Food intake was assessed daily, after each sleep restriction period and body weight was measured daily, after the animals were taken from the sleep deprivation chambers. At the end of the 21day of sleep restriction, rats were decapitated and RPAT was obtained for morphological and immune functional assays and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was assessed in skeletal muscle. Another subset of animals was used to evaluate blood glucose clearance. The results replicated previous findings on energy balance, e.g., increased food intake and reduced body weight gain. There was a significant reduction of RPAT mass (pmetabolic syndrome-related alterations that may be mediated by inflammation of the RPAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Positron and electron energy bands in several ionic crystals using restricted Hartree-Fock method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, A. B.; Waber, J. T.

    1981-08-01

    Using a restricted Hartree-Fock formalism and suitably localized and symmetrized wave functions, both the positron and electron energy bands were calculated for NaF, MgO and NiO. The lowest positron state at Γ 1 lies above the vacuum level and negative work functions are predicted. Positron annihilation rates were calculated and found to be in good agreement with measured lifetimes.

  9. Unlimited energy, restricted carbohydrate diet improves lipid parameters in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Brian S; Bailes, James R

    2008-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a leading health concern. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited energy diet for weight reduction in elementary school-aged children. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have looked at the effect of this diet on lipid profiles in elementary school-aged children. Therefore, the objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, unlimited energy diet on lipid profiles in obese children 6 to 12 years of age. Overweight children (body mass index >97%) referred to our obesity clinic were treated with a restricted-carbohydrate (unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. Weight, height, body mass index, and fasting lipid profiles were obtained at baseline and at 10 weeks on each patient. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in our study, with a total of 18 patients returning for our 10 week follow-up (67%). The study group included 10 males and 8 females, with an age range of 6 to 12 years. Both total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed a significant reduction; 24.2 (P = 0.018) and 56.9 (P = 0.015) mg/dL, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides in elementary school-aged children after 10 weeks of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. We suggest that this diet may decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. Long-term studies will be needed to substantiate these data.

  10. Intermittent energy restriction in type 2 diabetes: A short discussion of medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sharayah; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2016-12-15

    To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included "VLCD" or "very low energy diet" or "very low energy restriction" or "IER" or "intermittent fasting" or "calorie restriction" or "diabetes mellitus type 2" and "type 2 diabetes". Reference lists of selected articles were also screened for relevant publications. Only research articles written in English, which also included an explanation of medication changes were included. A recent pilot trial using the 5:2 IER method, conducted by our research group, will also be summarized. A total of 8 studies were found that investigated the use of VLCD in T2DM and discussed medication management. Overall these studies indicate that the use of a VLCD for people with T2DM usually require the cessation of medication to prevent hypoglycemia. Therefore, the 5:2 IER method will also require medication changes, but as seen in our pilot trial, may not require total cessation of medication, rather a cessation on the 2 IER days only. Guidelines outlined here can be used in the initial stages of a 2-d IER diet, but extensive blood glucose monitoring is still required to make the necessary individual reductions to medications in response to weight loss.

  11. Anticonvulsant effect of time-restricted feeding in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model: Metabolic and epigenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eLandgrave-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL and a second group underwent a time-restricted feeding (TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE, and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 hours after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs. Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3 in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the

  12. Possibilities and restrictions of wind energy use in one federal state in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltschmitt, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a current political topic, the request for increasing use of wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate this call in more detail in some parts of the Federal Republic of Germany by analyzing possibilities, restrictions, and production costs of electricity generation from wind energy in Baden-Wurttemberg, an inland state in the southwest of Germany. Based on zones with similar average wind velocities, the theoretical potential to install converters is assessed for each municipality, considering among other things residential areas, highways, roads, rivers, and nature conservation areas as not usable territories. The result is a technical area potential suitable for the installation of wind energy converters. Based on this area potential, a methodological approach is presented that allows the definition and the analysis of strategies of a wind energy use on a high spatial and timely resolution

  13. Complexity of inheritance of $\\mathcal{F}$-convexity for restricted games induced by minimum partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Skoda, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Let $G = (N,E,w)$ be a weighted communication graph (with weight function $w$ on $E$). For every subset $A \\subseteq N$, we delete in the subset $E(A)$ of edges with ends in $A$, all edges of minimum weight in $E(A)$. Then the connected components of the corresponding induced subgraph constitute a partition of $A$ that we call $P_{\\min}(A)$. For every game $(N, v)$, we define the $P_{\\min}$-restricted game $(N, \\bar{v})$ by $\\bar{v}(A) = \\sum_{F \\in P_{\\min}(A)} v(F)$ for all $A \\subseteq N$....

  14. Restriction on an energy-dense diet improves markers of metabolic health and cellular aging in mice through decreasing hepatic mTOR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Anke; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Rimbach, Gerald; Huebbe, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) on a normal low-fat diet improves metabolic health and may prolong life span. However, it is still uncertain whether restriction of an energy-dense, high-fat diet would also be beneficial and mitigate age-related processes. In the present study, we determined biomarkers of metabolic health, energy metabolism, and cellular aging in obesity-prone mice subjected to 30% DR on a high-fat diet for 6 months. Dietary-restricted mice had significantly lower body weights, less adipose tissue, lower energy expenditure, and altered substrate oxidation compared to their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Hepatic major urinary proteins (Mup) expression, which is linked to glucose and energy metabolism, and biomarkers of metabolic health, including insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, were likewise reduced in high-fat, dietary-restricted mice. Hallmarks of cellular senescence such as Lamp2a and Hsc70 that mediate chaperone-mediated autophagy were induced and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated upon high-fat DR. In contrast to DR applied in low-fat diets, anti-oxidant gene expression, proteasome activity, as well as 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation were not changed, suggesting that high-fat DR may attenuate some processes associated with cellular aging without the induction of cellular stress response or energy deprivation.

  15. SirT1 regulates energy metabolism and response to caloric restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Boily

    Full Text Available The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.

  16. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Stoppelenburg, J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Mars, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives - Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially

  17. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    weeks of gestation. Whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and retained energy (RE) were calculated from respiratory gaseous exchange combined with nitrogen balance at 7, 5 and 2 weeks prepartum. Twin lamb birth weight was lower in the R group compared to those in the A group (7.9 ± 0.31 vs 9.3 ± 0.19 kg, P...

  18. Investigation of the contamination induced by the cars travelling in the restricted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinomura, Koji; Yamada, Norikazu; Inoue, Ryo

    2012-12-01

    Traffic on the Route 6 will increase after the revision of the evacuation area and the restricted one. The purpose of this investigation is to study on the contamination induced by cars travelling in the current restricted area. This study focuses on the police cars patrolling all over the restricted area, whose total number is up to 101 cars. The measurement issues are shown as the following, 1. Background contamination, 2. Initial contamination of a car, regarding a radiator, a tire and a tire-house in the front and the rear, just before going into the restricted area, 3. Subsequent contamination of the same parts just after leaving the area, 4. Question about the travelling routes, the districts, and the environmental conditions of every car. Each background contamination at 1cm, 30cm and 1.0m height shows about 200 cpm and keeps stable. The histogram of the contamination difference between the initial and the subsequent one corresponds to normal distribution, whose mean value lies about zero in the measurement cases of the radiators and the front and rear tires of all the cars. It means that no additional contamination by travelling in the restricted area has occurred on such parts. On other hands, the possibility of additional contamination which exceeds 500 cpm per day has been suggested particulary on the tire-houses. The contamination difference of the car travelling on roads between with and without pavements has not been identified as well as in weather conditions at least based on the obtained histograms. Eventually, patrolling around the restricted area or passing mountainous zones in the area has been recognized as a common factors which increases additional contamination to more than 500 cpm per day, but in such a case the accumulated contamination trend with daily travelling has not been identified. The average contamination level basically remains low against the screening one, 13,000 cpm, defined in the regulation. However, much attention should be

  19. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods: 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only' (DO; n = 42 or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise' (D/Ex; n = 33 for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, normal-density muscle area (NDMA, and visceral fat area. Results: Total body weight (DO: -6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: -7.3 ± 4.6% and visceral fat (DO: -16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: -23.1 ± 14.7% decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5% compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%. NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9% but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity.

  20. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J Schouten

    Full Text Available Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of The Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945 existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945. We studied the association between energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood on the risk of ovarian cancer later in life. In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Follow-up for cancer was established by record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 364 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2220 subcohort members (sampled from the total cohort directly after baseline with complete information confounders were available for case-cohort analyses. In multivariable analysis, ovarian cancer risk was lower for participants with an unemployed father during the 1930s (Hazard Ratio (HR, 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.47-1.06 compared to participants with an employed father as well as for participants living in a city during World War II (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90 compared to participants living in the country-side. Residence in a Western City during the famine (Hunger Winter was not associated with a decreased risk. Our results show a relation between proxy variables for modest energy restriction over a longer period of time during childhood or early adulthood and a reduced ovarian cancer risk.

  1. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkels, Renate M; Jolink-Stoppelenburg, Angelique; de Graaf, Kees; Siebelink, Els; Mars, Monica; de Groot, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially influences energy intake of older compared with young men and, additionally, to study potential underlying mechanisms, namely changes in gastric emptying rate and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels in blood. Dietary intervention of 3 phases. After a phase of energy balance, we fed participants in phase 2 by a mean of 70% of their needs for 21 days. During phase 3, we assessed ad libitum energy intake of the participants during 9 days. At the end of phases 1 and 2, we assessed appetite, gastric emptying, and CCK levels in blood in response to a test meal. Fifteen young (age 24 years [range 20-34], body mass index 23.0 kg/m(2) ± 2.3) and 17 older (age 68 years [64-85], body mass index 24.5 kg/m(2) ± 1.9) men participated in this study. During energy balance, mean energy intake of young men (14.3 ± 2.3 MJ/day) was significantly higher than that of older men (11.3 ± 1.8 MJ/day, P men and to 14.4 ± 3.2 MJ/day in older men. Ad lib energy intake after underfeeding did not differ between young and older men (analysis of covariance, with energy intake during phase 1 as covariate, P = .99). There were no differential changes in body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, gastric emptying rate, CCK-8 levels, and appetite between young and older men during the study. Our results do not indicate that older men have an impaired ability to control energy intake after a period of underfeeding compared with younger men. NCT00561145. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Sardeli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear as to what extent resistance training (RT can attenuate muscle loss during caloric restriction (CR interventions in humans. The objective here is to address if RT could attenuate muscle loss induced by CR in obese elderly individuals, through summarized effects of previous studies. Databases MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were used to perform a systematic search between July and August 2017. Were included in the review randomized clinical trials (RCT comparing the effects of CR with (CRRT or without RT on lean body mass (LBM, fat body mass (FBM, and total body mass (BM, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, on obese elderly individuals. The six RCTs included in the review applied RT three times per week, for 12 to 24 weeks, and most CR interventions followed diets of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat. RT reduced 93.5% of CR-induced LBM loss (0.819 kg [0.364 to 1.273], with similar reduction in FBM and BM, compared with CR. Furthermore, to address muscle quality, the change in strength/LBM ratio tended to be different (p = 0.07 following CRRT (20.9 ± 23.1% and CR interventions (−7.5 ± 9.9%. Our conclusion is that CRRT is able to prevent almost 100% of CR-induced muscle loss, while resulting in FBM and BM reductions that do not significantly differ from CR.

  3. Neuropeptide S overcomes short term memory deficit induced by sleep restriction by increasing prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poly-Thomasson, Betty; Trousselard, Marion; Granon, Sylvie; Chauveau, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) impairs short term memory (STM) that might be related to different processes. Neuropeptide S (NPS), an endogenous neuropeptide that improves short term memory, activates arousal and decreases anxiety is likely to counteract the SR-induced impairment of STM. The objective of the present study was to find common cerebral pathways in sleep restriction and NPS action in order to ultimately antagonize SR effect on memory. The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task. Results showed that SR impaired short term memory performance and decreased neuronal activation in cingular cortex.NPS injection overcame SR-induced STM deficits and increased neuronal activation in infralimbic cortex. SR spared anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Neural activation in basolateral nucleus of amygdala and ventral hippocampus were not changed after SR.In conclusion, the present study shows that NPS overcomes SR-induced STM deficits by increasing prefrontal cortex activation independently of anxiety-like behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth, meat and feed efficiency traits of lambs born to ewes submitted to energy restriction during mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, L; Quintans, G; San Julián, R; Ferreira, G; Ithurralde, J; Fierro, S; Pereira, A S C; Baldi, F; Banchero, G E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (Penergy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (Pefficient (P=0.16) than lambs from unrestricted dams. Ribeye area and BF were not influenced by treatment. Treatment significantly affected slaughter weight, but had no effects on carcass yield and traits or on meat traits. The results obtained in both experiments indicate submitting ewes to energy restriction during gestation affects the performance of their progeny but the final outcome would depend on the ewe's re-feeding level during late gestation and the capacity of the offspring to compensate the in utero restriction after birth.

  5. Inducement and responsibility in the energy turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The book includes several contributions concerning the Bonn discussion on energy legislation (volume 7): inducement and responsibility -in terms of constitutional law; between Europe and re-regulation - what is the regulation framework? Continuity requirement as legislative action directive; the future of the nuclear fuel tax after the nuclear phaseout - problems of the constitutional finance and the European tax legislation, strategy and energy markets; regulatory challenges in the realization of the energy turnaround policy.

  6. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) may decrease in subjects on hypocaloric diets, in amounts that exceed body mass loss, favoring weight regain. To verify if a short-term caloric restriction lowers Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) more than predicted by changes in body composition, and if this reduction of EE is related with compliance to the diet. Twenty-two women aged 23-44 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-32 kg/m2, underwent a three-month calorie restriction treatment (20 kcal/kg initial weight) and were encouraged to increase their physical activity. At the beginning and end of the intervention, body composition (DEXA), REE, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure (PAEE) and TEE were assessed, through a combination of indirect calorimetry and actigraphy. Participants, who lost more or equal than 5% of their initial weight were considered compliant with the diet. In the compliant group, REE decreased, when expressed in absolute numbers or when adjusted by fat free mass (FFM) [-164 ± 168 kcal/day (10,6%) and -4,3 ± 4,6 kcal/kg FFM (10,5%)]. This decline was significantly greater than that observed in the non-compliant group [-6,2 ± 1.42 Kcal/day (0.16%) and -0,5 ± 3,4/Kg FFM (0.96%)]. FFM did not change in any of the two groups. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between FFM and REE (r = 0, 56 p women showed a significant reduction in both absolute and adjusted REE, which together with the loss of correlation between REE and FFM at the end of the intervention suggests a metabolic adaptation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Potent and reversible lentiviral vector restriction in murine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Franziska K; Galla, Melanie; Hoffmann, Dirk; Kuehle, Johannes; Zychlinski, Daniela; Maetzig, Tobias; Schott, Juliane W; Schwarzer, Adrian; Goffinet, Christine; Goff, Stephen P; Schambach, Axel

    2017-05-31

    Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or less permissive to retrovirus infection due to the presence of active defense mechanisms, or the absence of important cellular host co-factors. In contrast to multipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. Much remains to be elucidated in the field of anti-viral immunity in stem cells, especially in PSC. In this study, we report that transduction with HIV-1-based, lentiviral vectors (LV) is impaired in murine PSC. Analyses of early retroviral events in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) revealed that the restriction is independent of envelope choice and does not affect reverse transcription, but perturbs nuclear entry and proviral integration. Proteasomal inhibition by MG132 could not circumvent the restriction. However, prevention of cyclophilin A (CypA) binding to the HIV-1 capsid via use of either a CypA inhibitor (cyclosporine A) or CypA-independent capsid mutants improved transduction. In addition, application of higher vector doses also increased transduction. Our data revealed a CypA mediated restriction in iPSC, which was acquired during reprogramming, associated with pluripotency and relieved upon subsequent differentiation. We showed that murine PSC and iPSC are less susceptible to LV. The block observed in iPSC was CypA-dependent and resulted in reduced nuclear entry of viral DNA and proviral integration. Our study helps to improve transduction of murine pluripotent cells with HIV-1-based vectors and contributes to our understanding of retrovirus-host interactions in PSC.

  8. Effect of Intermittent Energy Restriction on Flow Mediated Dilatation, a Measure of Endothelial Function: A Short Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Michelle L; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2018-06-04

    Intermittent energy restriction is a popular alternative to daily energy restriction for weight loss; however, it is unknown if endothelial function, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is altered by periods of severe energy restriction. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of two consecutive very low energy intake days, which is the core component of the 5:2 intermittent energy restriction diet strategy, on endothelial function compared to consecutive ad libitum eating days. The secondary objective was to explore the effects of these dietary conditions on fasting glucose concentrations. This was a 4-week randomized, single-blinded, crossover study of 35 participants. Participants consumed a very low energy diet (500 calories for women, 600 calories for men) on two consecutive days per week and 5 days of habitual eating. In weeks 3 and 4 of the trial, participants had measurements of flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and blood samples taken following either 2 habitual eating days or 2 energy restricted days in a randomized order. FMD values were not different after the two eating states (8.6% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.7). All other outcome variables were unchanged. Endothelial function, as measured by flow mediated dilatation, was not altered by two consecutive very low energy intake days. Further investigations assessing the impact in specific population groups as well as different testing conditions would be beneficial.

  9. Effect of Intermittent Energy Restriction on Flow Mediated Dilatation, a Measure of Endothelial Function: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Headland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent energy restriction is a popular alternative to daily energy restriction for weight loss; however, it is unknown if endothelial function, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is altered by periods of severe energy restriction. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of two consecutive very low energy intake days, which is the core component of the 5:2 intermittent energy restriction diet strategy, on endothelial function compared to consecutive ad libitum eating days. The secondary objective was to explore the effects of these dietary conditions on fasting glucose concentrations. This was a 4-week randomized, single-blinded, crossover study of 35 participants. Participants consumed a very low energy diet (500 calories for women, 600 calories for men on two consecutive days per week and 5 days of habitual eating. In weeks 3 and 4 of the trial, participants had measurements of flow mediated dilatation (FMD and blood samples taken following either 2 habitual eating days or 2 energy restricted days in a randomized order. FMD values were not different after the two eating states (8.6% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.7. All other outcome variables were unchanged. Endothelial function, as measured by flow mediated dilatation, was not altered by two consecutive very low energy intake days. Further investigations assessing the impact in specific population groups as well as different testing conditions would be beneficial.

  10. The effect of intermittent fasting and water restriction on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Salih Tunç; BOZDOĞAN, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intermittent fasting and water restriction on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. Materials and methods: Six minutes of ischemia followed by 6 min of reperfusion was produced by the ligation and then releasing of the left coronary artery. Intermittent fasting and water restriction were applied during 1 month for 12 h/day. The duration, type, and incidence of arrhythmias during reperfusion and the survival rate at the end of reperfusion were determined and c...

  11. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Kumahara, Hideaki; Tobina, Takuro; Matsuda, Takuro; Watabe, Kiwa; Matono, Sakiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Kiyonaga, Akira; Anzai, Keizo; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only’ (DO; n = 42) or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise’ (D/Ex; n = 33) for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), normal-density muscle area (NDMA), and visceral fat area. Results Total body weight (DO: −6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: −7.3 ± 4.6%) and visceral fat (DO: −16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: −23.1 ± 14.7%) decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5%) compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%). NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9%) but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%). Conclusion Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity. PMID:24457527

  12. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfried B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect, malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  13. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. → Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. → trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. → Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. → trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1

  14. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio, E-mail: amirviz@upo.es [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Swoboda, Peter, E-mail: peter.swoboda@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. {yields} Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. {yields} trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. {yields} Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. {yields} trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose

  15. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (Pexercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART

  16. Role of IGF-1 in cortical plasticity and functional deficit induced by sensorimotor restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoet, Julien; Dupont, Erwan; Bastide, Bruno; Canu, Marie-Hélène

    2015-09-01

    In the adult rat, sensorimotor restriction by hindlimb unloading (HU) is known to induce impairments in motor behavior as well as a disorganization of somatosensory cortex (shrinkage of the cortical representation of the hindpaw, enlargement of the cutaneous receptive fields, decreased cutaneous sensibility threshold). Recently, our team has demonstrated that IGF-1 level was decreased in the somatosensory cortex of rats submitted to a 14-day period of HU. To determine whether IGF-1 is involved in these plastic mechanisms, a chronic cortical infusion of this substance was performed by means of osmotic minipump. When administered in control rats, IGF-1 affects the size of receptive fields and the cutaneous threshold, but has no effect on the somatotopic map. In addition, when injected during the whole HU period, IGF-1 is interestingly implied in cortical changes due to hypoactivity: the shrinkage of somatotopic representation of hindlimb is prevented, whereas the enlargement of receptive fields is reduced. IGF-1 has no effect on the increase in neuronal response to peripheral stimulation. We also explored the functional consequences of IGF-1 level restoration on tactile sensory discrimination. In HU rats, the percentage of paw withdrawal after a light tactile stimulation was decreased, whereas it was similar to control level in HU-IGF-1 rats. Taken together, the data clearly indicate that IGF-1 plays a key-role in cortical plastic mechanisms and in behavioral alterations induced by a decrease in sensorimotor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Caloric Restriction-Induced Extension of Chronological Lifespan Requires Intact Respiration in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Sung-Keun; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2017-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC gene-deleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension. On the contrary, the other 16 respiration-capable mutants showed increased CLS upon CR along with increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, with decreased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We measured the same parameters in the 17 non-respiratory mutants upon CR. CR simultaneously increased MMP and mitochondrial superoxide generation without altering intracellular ATP levels. In conclusion, respiration is essential for CLS extension by CR and is important for balancing MMP, ROS, and ATP levels.

  18. Influence of pre and postnatal energy restriction on the productive performance of ewes and lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Alexandre Boscaro de Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding energy levels during the last third of gestation and lactation on performance of ewes and lambs up to weaning. The experiment was carried out in the sheep raising sector of Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL, from August to December of 2007. Thirty-two adult lambs with 105 days of gestation, average live weight of 57.55 kg and average body condition scores of 3.42 were used in the beginning of the experiment. The animals were confined in collective pens, distributed randomly in three treatments: 2.4; 2.2 and 2.0 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME/kg of dry matter (DM. Feed supply was ad libitum during the last third of gestation and lactation. Weaning occurred at 70 days. Body weight, body condition score and milk production of ewes and body weight of the lambs were analyzed. There were no significant differences for body weight and body condition of ewes at lambing; however, the level of 2.4 Mcal enabled better results for those characteristics at weaning and higher gain in weight and body condition scoring during the experiment. Severe energetic restriction (2.0 Mcal ME/kg DM determined lower average daily milk production. Lambs from levels 2.4 and 2.2 presented similar weights in all measurements and were superior to those in level 2.0. Lambs from level 2.4 presented higher average weight gain from birth to weaning. The energetic restriction upon lambs at the end of gestation and during lactation limits the performance of ewes and lambs up to weaning.

  19. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes...... in brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and cerebral cytoplasmatic redox state. The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets....

  20. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; González-Barrios, María; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-03-18

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1 in ASJ neurons during aging, which in turn triggers TRX-1-dependent mechanisms to extend adult lifespan in the worm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of direct cardiac damage following high-intensity exercise in chronic energy restriction: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Marianne F; Grace, Fergal; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Graham, Scott M; Fleming, Audrey; Baker, Julien S

    2017-07-01

    Following prolonged endurance events such as marathons, elevated levels of cardiospecific biomarkers are commonly reported. Although transiently raised levels are generally not considered to indicate clinical myocardial damage, comprehension of this phenomenon remains incomplete. The popularity of high-intensity interval training highlights a paucity of research measuring cardiac biomarker response to this type of exercise. This a posteriori case report discusses the elevation of cardiac troponins (cTn) associated with short interval, high-intensity exercise. In this case report, an apparently healthy 29-year-old recreationally active female presented clinically raised cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (>0.04 ng/mL), after performing high-intensity cycle ergometer sprints. As creatine kinase (CK) is expressed by multiple organs (e.g., skeletal muscle, brain, and myocardium), cTnI assays were performed to determine any changes in total serum CK levels not originating from skeletal muscle damage. A posteriori the individual's daily energy expenditure indicated chronically low-energy availability. Psychometric testing suggested that the individual scored positive for disordered eating, highly for fatigue levels, and low in mental health components. The current case report provides novel evidence of elevated cTnI occurring as a result of performing short duration, high intensity, cycle ergometer exercise in an individual with self-reported chronically depleted energy balance. A schematic to identify potentially "at risk" individuals is presented. Considering this as a case report, results cannot be generalized; however, the main findings suggest that individuals who habitually restrict their calorie intake below their bodies' daily energy requirements, may have elevated biomarkers of exercise induced myocardial stress from performing high-intensity exercise.

  2. Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfør, T M; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S

    2018-07-01

    Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome. In total 112 participants (men [50%] and women [50%]) aged 21-70 years with BMI 30-45 kg/m 2 (mean 35.2 [SD 3.7]) were randomized to intermittent or continuous energy restriction. A 6-month weight-loss phase including 10 visits with dieticians was followed by a 6-month maintenance phase without additional face-to-face counselling. The intermittent energy restriction group was advised to consume 400/600 kcal (female/male) on two non-consecutive days. Based on dietary records both groups reduced energy intake by ∼26-28%. Weight loss was similar among participants in the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (8.0 kg [SD 6.5] versus 9.0 kg [SD 7.1]; p = 0.6). There were favorable improvements in waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol with no difference between groups. Weight regain was minimal and similar between the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (1.1 kg [SD 3.8] versus 0.4 kg [SD 4.0]; p = 0.6). Intermittent restriction participants reported higher hunger scores than continuous restriction participants on a subjective numeric rating scale (4.7 [SD 2.2] vs 3.6 [SD 2.2]; p = 0.002). Both intermittent and continuous energy restriction resulted in similar weight loss, maintenance and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after one year. However, feelings of hunger may be more pronounced during intermittent energy restriction. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT02480504. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine

  3. Prenatal programming in an obese swine model: sex-related effects of maternal energy restriction on morphology, metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvilo, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Benítez, Rita; Ayuso, Miriam; Barbero, Alicia; Pérez-Solana, Maria L; Barragán, Carmen; Astiz, Susana; Fernández, Almudena; López-Bote, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    Maternal energy restriction during pregnancy predisposes to metabolic alterations in the offspring. The present study was designed to evaluate phenotypic and metabolic consequences following maternal undernutrition in an obese pig model and to define the potential role of hypothalamic gene expression in programming effects. Iberian sows were fed a control or a 50 % restricted diet for the last two-thirds of gestation. Newborns were assessed for body and organ weights, hormonal and metabolic status, and hypothalamic expression of genes implicated in energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid function and methylation. Weight and adiposity were measured in adult littermates. Newborns of the restricted sows were lighter (P control newborns of both the sexes (P metabolic stress by nutrient insufficiency. A lower hypothalamic expression of anorexigenic peptides (LEPR and POMC, P controls (Pmetabolic alterations in the offspring. Differences in gene expression at birth and higher growth and adiposity in adulthood suggest a female-specific programming effect for a positive energy balance, possibly due to overexposure to endogenous stress-induced glucocorticoids.

  4. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida

    2016-01-01

    respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections...... reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular...

  5. Food restriction increases acquisition, persistence and drug prime-induced expression of a cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danielle; Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Carr, Kenneth D

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) is more persistent in food-restricted than ad libitum fed rats. This study assessed whether food restriction acts during conditioning and/or expression to increase persistence. In Experiment 1, rats were food-restricted during conditioning with a 7.0 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of cocaine. After the first CPP test, half of the rats were switched to ad libitum feeding for three weeks, half remained on food restriction, and this was followed by CPP testing. Rats tested under the ad libitum feeding condition displayed extinction by the fifth test. Their CPP did not reinstate in response to overnight food deprivation or a cocaine prime. Rats maintained on food restriction displayed a persistent CPP. In Experiment 2, rats were ad libitum fed during conditioning with the 7.0 mg/kg dose. In the first test only a trend toward CPP was displayed. Rats maintained under the ad libitum feeding condition did not display a CPP during subsequent testing and did not respond to a cocaine prime. Rats tested under food-restriction also did not display a CPP, but expressed a CPP following a cocaine prime. In Experiment 3, rats were ad libitum fed during conditioning with a 12.0 mg/kg dose. After the first test, half of the rats were switched to food restriction for three weeks. Rats that were maintained under the ad libitum condition displayed extinction by the fourth test. Their CPP was not reinstated by a cocaine prime. Rats tested under food-restriction displayed a persistent CPP. These results indicate that food restriction lowers the threshold dose for cocaine CPP and interacts with a previously acquired CPP to increase its persistence. In so far as CPP models Pavlovian conditioning that contributes to addiction, these results suggest the importance of diet and the physiology of energy balance as modulatory factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reactive oxygen species are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Xiang; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hua; Wei, Wei

    2006-12-01

    Maternal infection is a cause of adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, intrauterine fetal death, and preterm labor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced developmental toxicity at early gestational stages has been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure at late gestational stages on intrauterine fetal growth and skeletal development and to assess the potential role of reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation. The timed pregnant CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (25 to 75 microg/kg per day) on gestational day 15 to 17. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species on lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation, the pregnant mice were injected with alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide (75 microg/kg per day, intraperitoneally), followed by an additional dose of alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 3 hours after lipopolysaccharide. The number of live fetuses, dead fetuses, and resorption sites was counted on gestational day 18. Live fetuses in each litter were weighed. Crown-rump and tail lengths were examined and skeletal development was evaluated. Maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure significantly increased fetal mortality, reduced fetal weight and crown-rump and tail lengths of live fetuses, and retarded skeletal ossification in caudal vertebrae, anterior and posterior phalanges, and supraoccipital bone in a dose-dependent manner. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, almost completely blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal death (63.2% in lipopolysaccharide group versus 6.5% in alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone + lipopolysaccharide group, P intrauterine growth restriction

  7. Chronic sleep restriction induces changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage of rats: roles of Akt, Bad and Caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wu, Gaoyi; Zhu, Guoxiong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats that had been subjected to chronic sleep restriction and to investigate whether Akt, Bad and Caspase3 play a role in the mechanism underlying the changes. One hundred and eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 60 in each): cage control group, large-platform control group, and sleep restriction group. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n = 20 in each) of three different time points (7, 14 and 21 days), respectively. The modified multiple platform method was used to induce chronic sleep restriction. The TMJ tissue histology was studied by staining with haematoxylin and eosin. The expression of Akt, p-Aktser473, Bad, p-Badser136 and Caspase3 proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The expression of Akt, Bad and Caspase3 mRNAs was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Compared with the large-platform and cage control groups, condylar cartilage pathological alterations were found in the sleep restriction group. There were significantly decreased expression levels of Akt, p-Aktser473 and p-Badser136 and significantly increased expression levels of Bad and Caspase3 after sleep restriction. These data suggest that sleep restriction may induce pathological alterations in the condylar cartilage of rats. Alterations in Akt, Bad and Caspase3 may be associated with the potential mechanism by which chronic sleep restriction influences the condylar cartilage.

  8. Induced innovation, energy prices, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David Clifford

    The process of developing new technologies is a central question for economic theory as well as for public policy in many areas. For example, the development of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies will play an important role in reducing the threat of global warming. To study how technology evolves over time, this dissertation uses patent data on energy innovations from 1970 to 1991 to examine the impact of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. Before this can be done, however, information on supply-side factors which influence innovation is also needed. In the case of innovation, supply-side factors are the usefulness of the existing base of scientific knowledge. Patent citations are used for this purpose. Subsequent citations to patents granted each year since 1970 are used to show that the returns to research and development (R&D) fall over time for most of the technologies studied. These estimates are then combined with data on demand-side factors, such as energy prices, to estimate a model of induced innovation in energy technologies. Both energy prices and the supply of knowledge are found to have strongly significant positive effects on innovation. Next, the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC), which maps patents to the industries in which they are used, is employed to construct a stock of energy-related knowledge for 14 energy intensive industries. The effect of changes in this stock on energy consumption in these industries is estimated. On average, the present value of energy savings resulting from a new patent is eight million dollars, with the maximum savings coming about five years after the initial patent application. Finally, the results of each regression are combined to simulate the impact of a ten percent energy tax. Initially, simple factor substitution due to the price change has the largest effect. However, because of the cumulative nature of R&D, induced innovation has a much larger effect than factor substitution in the long run

  9. Regulatory restrictions and energy: The impact of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gius, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. Although the Jones Act pertains to the domestic shipment of all types of goods, the present study will only focus on gasoline. The present study will use data obtained from the Energy Information Administration in order to determine if the price of gasoline declined during Jones Act waiver periods. Looking at daily prices, the results regarding the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices are mixed. When using a t-test, the results indicated either that there was no significant difference or that prices were actually higher during the waiver periods. When using a first-order autoregressive model, it was found that prices were lower during the 2005 waiver period but higher during the 2012 waiver. Given these inconclusive results, it is not possible to conclude that the Jones Act restrictions contribute to higher gasoline prices. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. • I use daily price data over a seven year period. • I find that the results are mixed. • For the Hurricane Katrina waiver, prices fell, but for the Hurricane Sandy waiver, prices rose

  10. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  11. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Elmenhorst, David; Weisshaupt, Angela; Wedekind, Franziska; Kroll, Tina; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and β-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day(-1) for 5 consecutive days (SR1-SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1-R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26-31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in β-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  13. Intermittent energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in obese men: the MATADOR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N M; Sainsbury, A; King, N A; Hills, A P; Wood, R E

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. Subjects/Methods: Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total). Forty-seven participants completed a 4-week baseline phase and commenced the intervention (CON: N=23, 39.4±6.8 years, 111.1±9.1 kg, 34.3±3.0 kg m−2; INT: N=24, 39.8±9.5 years, 110.2±13.8 kg, 34.1±4.0 kg m−2). During ER, energy intake was equivalent to 67% of weight maintenance requirements in both groups. Body weight, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured throughout the study. Results: For the N=19 CON and N=17 INT who completed the intervention per protocol, weight loss was greater for INT (14.1±5.6 vs 9.1±2.9 kg; Penergy balance blocks was minimal (0.0±0.3 kg). While reduction in absolute REE did not differ between groups (INT: -502±481 vs CON: −624±557 kJ d−1; P=0.5), after adjusting for changes in body composition, it was significantly lower in INT (INT: −360±502 vs CON: −749±498 kJ d−1; Penergy balance ‘rest periods’ may reduce compensatory metabolic responses and, in turn, improve weight loss efficiency. PMID:28925405

  14. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  15. Decreases in fasting leptin and insulin concentrations after acute energy restriction and subsequent compensation in food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The decrease in leptin after energy restriction is a starvation signal to the brain. Several studies have found an association between this decrease and subjective appetite; however, no solid data are available on the acute decrease in fasting leptin concentration and subsequent caloric

  16. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind

  17. Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Silvie; Konings, Ellen; Bilet, Lena; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Weijer, van de Tineke; Hoeks, Joris; Krieken, van der Sophie; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kersten, Sander; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hesselink, Matthijs K.; Kunz, Iris; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Auwerx, Johan; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound that profoundly affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here we treated 10 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol in a randomized

  18. Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Silvie; Konings, Ellen; Bilet, Lena; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; van de Weijer, Tineke; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hoeks, Joris; van der Krieken, Sophie; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kersten, Sander; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Kunz, Iris; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Auwerx, Johan; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind

  19. Upregulation of circulating myomiR following short-term energy restriction is inversely associated with whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) influences expression of skeletal muscle-specific microRNA (miRNA) in circulation (c-myomiR) and whether changes in c-myomiR are associated with rates of whole body protein synthesis. Sixteen older (64 +/- 2 ...

  20. Short-term moderate energy restriction does not affect indicators of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, R.E.W. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verhagen, H.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H.E.; Berg, H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Restriction of energy intake (ER), without malnutrition of essential nutrients, has repeatedly been demonstrated to increase longevity in rodents. In the antioxidant theory of aging the lack of balance between the generation of free radicals and free radical scavenging was thought to be a main

  1. Beneficial effect of a moderately energy-restricted diet on fibrinolytic factors in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Meijer, P.; Kluft, C.; Berg, H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Impaired fibrinolytic activity has been reported in the elderly and is thought to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death in most Western countries. Since restriction of energy intake has been demonstrated to act beneficially on the aging process in

  2. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  3. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition...

  4. Validity of resting energy expenditure predictive equations before and after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan R Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the validity of REE predictive equations before and after 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention in Spanish obese (30 kg/m(2>BMI<40 kg/m(2 women. METHODS: We measured REE (indirect calorimetry, body weight, height, and fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM, dual X-ray absorptiometry in 86 obese Caucasian premenopausal women aged 36.7±7.2 y, before and after (n = 78 women the intervention. We investigated the accuracy of ten REE predictive equations using weight, height, age, FFM and FM. RESULTS: At baseline, the most accurate equation was the Mifflin et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 241-247 when using weight (bias:-0.2%, P = 0.982, 74% of accurate predictions. This level of accuracy was not reached after the diet intervention (24% accurate prediction. After the intervention, the lowest bias was found with the Owen et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 1-19 equation when using weight (bias:-1.7%, P = 0.044, 81% accurate prediction, yet it provided 53% accurate predictions at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation in the accuracy of REE predictive equations before and after weight loss in non-morbid obese women. The results acquire especial relevance in the context of the challenging weight regain phenomenon for the overweight/obese population.

  5. Sex Differences in Placental Mitochondrial Function Associated with Ozone-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal growth restriction is a major underlying cause of infant mortality worldwide. Despite knowledge of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, the mechanisms that drive compromised growth during pregnancy have not been well established. Placental maladaptation, particularl...

  6. International Emissions Trading and Induced Carbon-Saving Technical Change : Effects of Restricting the Trade in Carbon Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Matschoss, Patrick; Welsch, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of restricting the tradability of carbon rights in the presence of induced technical change. Unlike earlier approaches aiming at exploring the tradability-technology linkage we focus on climate-relevant 'carbon-saving' technical change. This is achieved by incorporating endogenous investment in carbon productivity into the RICE-99 integrated assessment model of Nordhaus and Boyer (2000). Simulation analysis of various emission reduction scenarios with seve...

  7. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly D; Scheffler, Tracy L; Kasten, Steven C; Reinholt, Brad M; van Eyk, Gregory R; Escobar, Jeffery; Scheffler, Jason M; Gerrard, David E

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood) are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (Pblood glucose increased (Pblood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01), even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001). Chronic HED intake increased (PAUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  8. Tea polyphenols EGCG and TF restrict tongue and liver carcinogenesis simultaneously induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Subhayan, E-mail: subhayansur18@gmail.com [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India); Pal, Debolina; Roy, Rituparna; Barua, Atish [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India); Roy, Anup [North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal (India); Saha, Prosenjit [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India); Panda, Chinmay Kumar, E-mail: ckpanda.cnci@gmail.com [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in tongue and liver of the same mouse and restriction of carcinogenesis by Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Theaflavin (TF), if any. For that purpose, cellular proliferation/apoptosis, prevalence of CD44 positive stem cell population and expressions of some key regulatory genes of self renewal Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways and some of their associated genes were analyzed in the NDEA induced tongue and liver lesions in absence or presence of EGCG/TF. Chronic NDEA exposure in oral cavity could decrease mice body weights and induce tongue and liver carcinogenesis with similar histological stages (severe dysplasia up to 30th weeks of NDEA administration). Increasing mice body weights were seen in continuous and post EGCG/TF treated groups. EGCG/TF treatment could restrict both the carcinogenesis at similar histological stages showing potential chemopreventive effect in continuous treated groups (mild dysplasia) followed by pre treatment (moderate dysplasia) and therapeutic efficacy in post treated groups (mild dysplasia) up to 30th week. The mechanism of carcinogenesis by NDEA and restriction by the EGCG/TF in both tongue and liver were similar and found to be associated with modulation in cellular proliferation/apoptosis and prevalence of CD44 positive population. The up-regulation of self renewal Wnt/β-catenin, Hh/Gli1 pathways and their associated genes Cyclin D1, cMyc and EGFR along with down regulation of E-cadherin seen during the carcinogenesis processes were found to be modulated during the restriction processes by EGCG/TF. - Highlights: • Simultaneous tongue and liver carcinogenesis in mice by oral NDEA administration • Restriction of both carcinogenesis by EGCG and TF at early pre-malignant stages • The mechanisms of carcinogenesis and restriction were similar in both the organs. • Changes in proliferation

  9. Tea polyphenols EGCG and TF restrict tongue and liver carcinogenesis simultaneously induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Subhayan; Pal, Debolina; Roy, Rituparna; Barua, Atish; Roy, Anup; Saha, Prosenjit; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in tongue and liver of the same mouse and restriction of carcinogenesis by Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Theaflavin (TF), if any. For that purpose, cellular proliferation/apoptosis, prevalence of CD44 positive stem cell population and expressions of some key regulatory genes of self renewal Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways and some of their associated genes were analyzed in the NDEA induced tongue and liver lesions in absence or presence of EGCG/TF. Chronic NDEA exposure in oral cavity could decrease mice body weights and induce tongue and liver carcinogenesis with similar histological stages (severe dysplasia up to 30th weeks of NDEA administration). Increasing mice body weights were seen in continuous and post EGCG/TF treated groups. EGCG/TF treatment could restrict both the carcinogenesis at similar histological stages showing potential chemopreventive effect in continuous treated groups (mild dysplasia) followed by pre treatment (moderate dysplasia) and therapeutic efficacy in post treated groups (mild dysplasia) up to 30th week. The mechanism of carcinogenesis by NDEA and restriction by the EGCG/TF in both tongue and liver were similar and found to be associated with modulation in cellular proliferation/apoptosis and prevalence of CD44 positive population. The up-regulation of self renewal Wnt/β-catenin, Hh/Gli1 pathways and their associated genes Cyclin D1, cMyc and EGFR along with down regulation of E-cadherin seen during the carcinogenesis processes were found to be modulated during the restriction processes by EGCG/TF. - Highlights: • Simultaneous tongue and liver carcinogenesis in mice by oral NDEA administration • Restriction of both carcinogenesis by EGCG and TF at early pre-malignant stages • The mechanisms of carcinogenesis and restriction were similar in both the organs. • Changes in proliferation

  10. Maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated to oxidative disruption at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Alves, José L; de Oliveira, Jéssica M D; Ferreira, Diorginis J S; Barros, Monique A de V; Nogueira, Viviane O; Alves, Débora S; Vidal, Hubert; Leandro, Carol G; Lagranha, Cláudia J; Pirola, Luciano; da Costa-Silva, João H

    2016-12-01

    Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation predisposes the adult offspring to sympathetic overactivity and arterial hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, dysregulation of the oxidative balance has been proposed as a putative trigger of neural-induced hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the oxidative status at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata and maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension. Wistar rat dams were fed a control (normal protein; 17% protein) or a low protein ((Lp); 8% protein) diet during pregnancy and lactation, and male offspring was studied at 90 days of age. Direct measurements of baseline arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in awakened offspring. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutamatergic receptors (Grin1, Gria1 and Grm1) and GABA(A)-receptor-associated protein like 1 (Gabarapl1). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, CAT and SOD activities were examined in ventral and dorsal medulla. Lp rats exhibited higher ABP. The mRNA expression levels of SOD2, GPx and Gabarapl1 were down regulated in medullary tissue of Lp rats (Pmedulla. Taken together, our data suggest that maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated with medullary oxidative dysfunction at transcriptional level and with impaired antioxidant capacity in the ventral medulla. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Increased energy intake following sleep restriction in men and women: A one-size-fits-all conclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the degree of interindividual responses in energy intake (EI) to an imposed sleep restriction versus habitual sleep duration protocol. It also investigated participant (age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI) and study (study site and protocol order) characteristics as potential contributors to the variance in EI responses to sleep restriction between individuals. Data from two randomized crossover trials were combined. All participants (n = 43; age: 31 ± 7 years, BMI: 23 ± 2 kg/m 2 ) were free of medical/sleep conditions, were nonsmokers, reported not performing shift work, and had an average sleep duration of 7 to 9 hours per night. Ad libitum, 24-hour EI was objectively assessed following sleep restriction (3.5-4 hours in bed per night) and habitual sleep (7-9 hours in bed per night) conditions. Large interindividual variations in EI change (ΔEI) between restricted and habitual sleep conditions were noted (-813 to 1437 kcal/d). Only phase order was associated with ΔEI (β = -568 kcal/d, 95% confidence interval for β = -921 to -215 kcal/d; P = 0.002); participants randomized to the habitual sleep condition first had greater increases in EI when sleep was restricted (P = 0.01). Large interindividual variations in ΔEI following sleep restriction were noted, suggesting that not all participants were negatively impacted by the effects of sleep restriction. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. Screening of respiration deficiency mutants of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) induced by ion irradiation and the mtDNA restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Genming; Wei Zengquan; Xie Hongmei; Ma Qiufeng; Gu Ying

    2005-01-01

    Screening of the respiration deficiency mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by 5.19 MeV/u 22 Ne 5+ ion irradiation is reported in this paper. Some respiration deficiency mutants of white colony phenotype, in a condition of selective culture of TTC medium, were obtained. A new and simplified method based on mtDNA restriction analysis is described. The authors found that there are many obvious differences in mtDNAs between wild yeasts and the respiration deficiency mutants. The mechanism of obtaining the respiration deficiency mutants induced by heavy ion irradiation is briefly discussed. (authors)

  13. Effects of energy and protein restriction, followed by nutritional recovery on morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z H; He, Z X; Zhang, Q L; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Wang, M; Yan, Q X

    2013-09-01

    Effects of energy, protein, or both energy and protein restriction on gastrointestinal morphological development were investigated in 60 Liuyang Black kids, which were sourced from local farms and weaned at 28 d of age. Weaned kids were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 dietary treatments (15 kids per treatment), which consisted of adequate nutrient supply (CON), energy restriction (ER), protein restriction (PR), or energy and protein restriction (EPR). The entire experiment included adaptation period (0 to 6 d), nutritional restriction period (7 to 48 d), and recovery period (49 to 111 d). Three kids from each group were killed at d 48 and 111, and the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested. On d 48 (end of nutritional restriction), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.005), jejunum (P = 0.003), and ileum (P = 0.003), and weights of the rumen (P = 0.004), duodenum (P = 0.006), jejunum (P = 0.006), and ileum (P = 0.004) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were less than those of kids in CON. Compared with CON, PR decreased papillae width (P = 0.03) and surface area (P = 0.05) of the rumen epithelium, villus surface area (P = 0.05), and N concentration (P = 0.02) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. Compared with CON, EPR decreased papillae height (P = 0.001), width (P = 0.001), and surface area (P = 0.003), N concentration (P = 0.01), and the ratio of N to DNA (P = 0.03) of the rumen epithelium. Compared with CON, EPR also decreased villus height (P = 0.01), width (P = 0.006), and surface area (P = 0.006), N concentration (P kids in ER, PR, and EPR were still less than those of kids in CON; N concentrations of rumen epithelium of kids in PR (P = 0.01) and EPR (P = 0.001), and the ratio of N to DNA of jejunum mucosa of kids in EPR (P kids in CON. Results indicate that nutritional restriction of 6 wk can retard gastrointestinal morphological development for kids weaned at 28 d of age and retarded development remains evident, even after nutritional recovery of 9 wk.

  14. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function.

  15. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hua; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including preterm delivery, fetal death, teratogenicity, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Previous reports showed that zinc protected against LPS-induced teratogenicity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (75 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were administered zinc sulfate through drinking water (75 mg elemental Zn per liter) throughout the pregnancy. As expected, an i.p. injection with LPS daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in 36.4% (4/11) of dams delivered before GD18. In dams that completed the pregnancy, 63.2% of fetuses were dead. Moreover, LPS significantly reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Of interest, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly alleviated LPS-induced IUGR and skeletal development retardation. Further experiments showed that zinc supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Zinc supplementation also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in mononuclear sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth zone. It inhibited LPS-induced placental AKT phosphorylation as well. In conclusion, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  17. Effect of energy restriction and re-alimentation in Belgian Blue double-muscled beef cows on digestibility and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Vanacker, J M; De Boever, J L; van Caelenbergh, W; Aerts, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2007-02-01

    Four groups of five non-lactating and non-pregnant Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) cows were used to investigate the effect of energy level (E) on digestion, and blood and urine metabolites. The energy levels of the groups, applied indoors during a 140-day restriction period, were 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements (E100, E90, E80, E70) respectively. Afterwards, animals grazed on the same swards for 203 days (re-alimentation period). Balance trials were conducted at the end of the restriction period (BT1) and at the end of the re-alimentation period (BT2). Blood was sampled at the end of these trials. Diets consisted of maize silage and straw (80/20 on a dry matter basis) and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at the appropriate E during BT1, or maize silage and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at 125% of the maintenance requirements, during BT2. Significant increases of the digestibility coefficients were found during BT1 when E decreased, resulting in a better net energy capture of 7% for E70 compared with E100 (p < 0.05). Slightly, but non-significantly higher digestibility coefficients were observed for decreasing E during BT2. Plasma concentrations of glucose and creatinine did not differ between treatments during BT1, while differences were found for triacylglycerols and alpha-amino nitrogen. A tendency for a linear increase was observed for non-esterified fatty acids with decreasing E. Differences in blood metabolite concentrations disappeared in BT2. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by E, while body nitrogen loss increased linearly with energy restriction in BT1. No differences were found during BT2, suggesting that non-lactating and non-pregnant BBDM cows are able to adapt to a cyclic change of body weight and body reserves. These data show that restricted cows mobilized body fat as well as body protein. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of metabolism during energy restriction are comparable in double-muscled cows with

  18. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  19. Effect of qualitative feed restriction on energy metabolism and nitrogen retention in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamalzadeh, A.; Koops, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Periodic restrictions in feed quality and quantity is an important phenomenon in regions where animal production should bridge the gap between periods of forage production separated by a dry season. Eighteen Swifter male lambs, weaned at the age of ca. three months, were used to quantify effects of

  20. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups

  1. Napping reverses the salivary interleukin-6 and urinary norepinephrine changes induced by sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Nakib, Samir; Drogou, Catherine; Elbaz, Maxime; Sauvet, Fabien; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal; Léger, Damien

    2015-03-01

    Neuroendocrine and immune stresses imposed by chronic sleep restriction are known to be involved in the harmful cardiovascular effects associated with poor sleep. Despite a well-known beneficial effect of napping on alertness, its effects on neuroendocrine stress and immune responses after sleep restriction are largely unknown. This study was a strictly controlled (sleep-wake status, light environment, caloric intake), crossover, randomized design in continuously polysomnography-monitored subjects. The study was conducted in a laboratory-based study. The subjects were 11 healthy young men. We investigated the effects on neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers of a night of sleep restricted to 2 h followed by a day without naps or with 30 minute morning and afternoon naps, both conditions followed by an ad libitum recovery night starting at 20:00. Salivary interleukin-6 and urinary catecholamines were assessed throughout the daytime study periods. The increase in norepinephrine values seen at the end of the afternoon after the sleep-restricted night was not present when the subjects had the opportunity to take naps. Interleukin-6 changes observed after sleep deprivation were also normalized after napping. During the recovery day in the no-nap condition, there were increased levels of afternoon epinephrine and dopamine, which was not the case in the nap condition. A recovery night after napping was associated with a reduced amount of slow-wave sleep compared to after the no-nap condition. Our data suggest that napping has stress-releasing and immune effects. Napping could be easily applied in real settings as a countermeasure to the detrimental health consequences of sleep debt.

  2. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coker Robert H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess adipose tissue and sarcopenia presents a multifaceted clinical challenge that promotes morbidity and mortality in the obese, elderly population. Unfortunately, the mortality risks of muscle loss may outweigh the potential benefits of weight loss in the elderly. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of whey protein and essential amino acids towards the preservation of lean tissue, even under the conditions of strict bedrest in the elderly. Methods In the context of caloric restriction-based weight loss, we hypothesized that a similar formulation given as a meal replacement (EAAMR would foster the retention of lean tissue through an increase in the skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR. We also proposed that EAAMR would promote the preferential loss of adipose tissue through the increased energy cost of skeletal muscle FSR. We recruited and randomized 12 elderly individuals to an 8 week, caloric restriction diet utilizing equivalent caloric meal replacements (800 kcal/day: 1 EAAMR or a 2 competitive meal replacement (CMR in conjunction with 400 kcal of solid food that totaled 1200 kcal/day designed to induce 7% weight loss. Combined with weekly measurements of total body weight and body composition, we also measured the acute change in the skeletal muscle FSR to EAAMR and CMR. Results By design, both groups lost ~7% of total body weight. While EAAMR did not promote a significant preservation of lean tissue, the reduction in adipose tissue was greater in EAAMR compared to CMR. Interestingly, these results corresponded to an increase in the acute skeletal muscle protein FSR. Conclusion The provision of EAAMR during caloric restriction-induced weight loss promotes the preferential reduction of adipose tissue and the modest loss of lean tissue in the elderly population.

  3. Effect of carbohydrate restriction-induced weight loss on aortic pulse wave velocity in overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Abdul, Majid M; Hu, Qiong; Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Padilla, Jaume; Manrique-Acevedo, Camila; Heimowitz, Colette; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2018-05-10

    Increased aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and past data have shown that low-fat and low-energy diets, fed for 8-24 wks lower PWV. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a reduction in PWV would be achieved by dietary carbohydrate (CHO) restriction, shown to bring about weight loss over a shorter timeframe. Men [n=10, age: 41.8 ± 3.2 y, BMI: 34.2 ± 1.0 kg/m2 (mean±SE)] and women (n=10, age: 38.6 ± 1.9 y, BMI: 33.5 ± 1.2 kg/m2) with characteristics of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, consumed a structured, CHO-restricted diet (CRD) for 4 wks (energy deficit, 645 kcal/d). For the whole group, subjects lost 5.4 ± 0.5 % (Pwomen, it fell significantly (from 7.2 ± 0.3 m/s to 6.3 ± 0.3 m/s, P=0.028), while no changes were observed in men (7.2 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.3 m/s, P=0.144). This is the first study to demonstrate that weight loss can improve PWV in as little as 4 wks and that dietary CHO restriction may be an effective treatment for reducing aortic stiffness in women. Future studies are needed to establish the mechanisms by which dietary CHO restriction may confer more cardiovascular benefits to women compared to men.

  4. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  5. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status and responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge in postnatal young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more susceptible to a bacterial pathogen challenge. The present findings expand the existing knowledge in immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of disease in later life.

  6. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  7. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in insulin signaling and ATP sensitive potassium channel protein in hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Gao, Hong; Jiao, Yisheng; Gu, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this "metabolic imprinting" phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and K(ATP) protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase p85α in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders.

  8. Nutritional compensation to exercise- vs. diet-induced acute energy deficit in adolescents with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Thivel , David; Doucet , Eric; Julian , Valérie; Cardenoux , Charlotte; Boirie , Yves; Duclos , Martine

    2017-01-01

    This article belongs to a special issueConference: 24th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-the-Study-of-Ingestive-Behavior (SSIB)Location: Porto, PORTUGALDate: JUL 12-16, 2016Sponsor(s):Soc Study Ingest BehavThe authors want to thank the adolescents who took part in the study as well as Miss Nais Petiot and Miss Audrey Marion for their help; BACKGROUND: To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adol...

  9. Induced gravity and the attractor dynamics of dark energy/dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Putter, Roland de; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Attractor solutions that give dynamical reasons for dark energy to act like the cosmological constant, or behavior close to it, are interesting possibilities to explain cosmic acceleration. Coupling the scalar field to matter or to gravity enlarges the dynamical behavior; we consider both couplings together, which can ameliorate some problems for each individually. Such theories have also been proposed in a Higgs-like fashion to induce gravity and unify dark energy and dark matter origins. We explore restrictions on such theories due to their dynamical behavior compared to observations of the cosmic expansion. Quartic potentials in particular have viable stability properties and asymptotically approach general relativity

  10. The effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes; a pragmatic pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S; Clifton, P M; Keogh, J B

    2016-12-01

    Weight loss improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, as achieving and maintaining weight loss is difficult, alternative strategies are needed. Our primary aim was to investigate the effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Secondary aims were to assess effects on weight loss, body composition, medication changes and subjective measures of appetite. Using a 2-day IER method, we expected equal improvements to HbA1c and weight in both groups. Sixty-three overweight or obese participants (BMI 35.2±5kg/m 2 ) with T2DM (HbA1c 7.4±1.3%) (57mmol/mol) were randomised to a 2-day severe energy restriction (1670-2500kJ/day) with 5days of habitual eating, compared to a moderate CER diet (5000-6500kJ/day) for 12weeks. At 12weeks HbA1c (-0.7±0.9% P<0.001) and percent body weight reduction (-5.9±4% P<0.001) was similar in both groups with no group by time interaction. Similar reductions were also seen for medication dosages, all measures of body composition and subjective reports of appetite. In this pilot trial, 2days of IER compared with CER resulted in similar improvements in glycaemic control and weight reduction offering a suitable alternative treatment strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parties remove Sweden's self-imposed restrictions on nuclear energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, E.

    1991-01-01

    Since the 1980 decision of the Swedish Imperial Diet to switch off the last nuclear reactor by the year 2010 at the latest Sweden has been an example for those who are in favour of giving up nuclear energy. In their much-noticed agreement on energy politics in Sweden on the 15th January 1991 the Social Democrats, the Liberal Party and the Center Party removed the chains with which they had bound the Swedish energy politics. The new paper does not set a date for the switching off of nuclear reactors or the giving up of nuclear energy any more. The article contains the essential points but can only be understood against the background of the former decisions and the things which are not explicitly mentioned (negatively). (orig.) [de

  12. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both Pobese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health.

  13. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  14. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  15. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  16. Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans by dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Zheng, Xiaonan; Fu, Tianjiao; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess potential life-expanding effect of Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 (FDB89) isolated from feces of centenarians in Bama County (Guangxi, China). This study showed that feeding FDB89 extended the mean life span in C. elegans by up to 11.9% compared to that of control nematodes. The reduced reproductive capacities, pharyngeal pumping rate, growth, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and XTT reduction capacity were also observed in FDB89 feeding worms. To probe the anti-aging mechanism further, we incorporated a food gradient feeding assay and assayed the life span of eat-2 mutant. The results demonstrated that the maximal life span of C. elegans fed on FDB89 was achieved at the concentration of 1.0 mg bacterial cells/plate, which was 10-fold greater than that of C. elegans fed on E. coli OP50 (0.1 mg bacterial cells/plate). However, feeding FDB89 could not further extend the life span of eat-2 mutant. These results indicated that FDB89 modulated the longevity of C. elegans in a dietary restriction-dependent manner and expanded the understanding of anti-aging effect of probiotics.

  17. Caloric Restriction Protects against Lactacystin-Induced Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons Independent of the Ghrelin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Coppens

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc. Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP-based animal model for PD. We here investigated whether CR is neuroprotective in the lactacystin (LAC mouse model for PD, in which proteasome disruption leads to the destruction of the DA neurons of the SNc, and whether this effect is mediated via the ghrelin receptor. Adult male ghrelin receptor wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice were maintained on an ad libitum (AL diet or on a 30% CR regimen. After 3 weeks, LAC was injected unilaterally into the SNc, and the degree of DA neuron degeneration was evaluated 1 week later. In AL mice, LAC injection significanty reduced the number of DA neurons and striatal DA concentrations. CR protected against DA neuron degeneration following LAC injection. However, no differences were observed between ghrelin receptor WT and KO mice. These results indicate that CR can protect the nigral DA neurons from toxicity related to proteasome disruption; however, the ghrelin receptor is not involved in this effect.

  18. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-12-01

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Energy consumption restricted productivity re-estimates and industrial sustainability analysis in post-reform China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiyi; Santos-Paulino, Amelia U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of energy on China's industrial sustainability by using a novel approach to estimate real total factor productivity. The growth accounting indicates that the substantial industrial reforms in China have led to productivity growth. Energy and capital are also important factors driving China's industrial growth. Productivity growth in China's industry is mostly attributable to the high-tech light industrial sectors. - Highlights: ► Productivity has become the most important growth engine in majority of sectors. ► Energy and capital are also important factors promoting China's industrial growth. ► The productivity improvement is more attributable to high-tech light industry. ► The heavy industry performs worse than the light one in terms of productivity

  20. Food restriction by intermittent fasting induces diabetes and obesity and aggravates spontaneous atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolaemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighello, Gabriel G; Rovani, Juliana C; Luhman, Christopher J F; Paim, Bruno A; Raposo, Helena F; Vercesi, Anibal E; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2014-03-28

    Different regimens of food restriction have been associated with protection against obesity, diabetes and CVD. In the present study, we hypothesised that food restriction would bring benefits to atherosclerosis- and diabetes-prone hypercholesterolaemic LDL-receptor knockout mice. For this purpose, 2-month-old mice were submitted to an intermittent fasting (IF) regimen (fasting every other day) over a 3-month period, which resulted in an overall 20 % reduction in food intake. Contrary to our expectation, epididymal and carcass fat depots and adipocyte size were significantly enlarged by 15, 72 and 68 %, respectively, in the IF mice compared with the ad libitum-fed mice. Accordingly, plasma levels of leptin were 50 % higher in the IF mice than in the ad libitum-fed mice. In addition, the IF mice showed increased plasma levels of total cholesterol (37 %), VLDL-cholesterol (195 %) and LDL-cholesterol (50 %). As expected, in wild-type mice, the IF regimen decreased plasma cholesterol levels and epididymal fat mass. Glucose homeostasis was also disturbed by the IF regimen in LDL-receptor knockout mice. Elevated levels of glycaemia (40 %), insulinaemia (50 %), glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were observed in the IF mice. Systemic inflammatory markers, TNF-α and C-reactive protein, were significantly increased and spontaneous atherosclerosis development were markedly increased (3-fold) in the IF mice. In conclusion, the IF regimen induced obesity and diabetes and worsened the development of spontaneous atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor knockout mice. Although being efficient in a wild-type background, this type of food restriction is not beneficial in the context of genetic hypercholesterolaemia.

  1. Restriction of cosmic-ray acceleration, mechanisms by high-energy Be7/Be data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Buffington, A.; Mast, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    New high-energy cosmic-ray Be data indicate that the ratio Be 7 /Be drops by approximately a factor of two between 200 and 1500 MeV/nucleon. This result may provide a severe constraint for theories of cosmic-ray acceleration

  2. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Harvie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent energy restriction (IER has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  3. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month) studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  4. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation. PMID:28106818

  5. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg -1 h -1 for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg -1 h -1 of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg -1 h -1 . Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Charge independence restrictions on some high energy two-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dass, G V

    1972-01-01

    Bounds due to isospin invariance have been considered for spin effects and for the unpolarized cross sections in some situations of experimental interest. Dynamical consequences like possible structure in the near- forward direction and some knowledge of the strength of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude follow in a model- independent way from these isospin bounds for the unpolarized differential cross sections for np to np scattering and K/sup +or-/n to K/sup +or-/n scattering at high energies. Useful bounds for the differential cross sections for high energy pn to pn scattering and for the high-energy reactions pi N to rho N and KN to K*(890)N (and also bounds for the full observed density matrix of the vector meson) have been illustrated. Some simple implications of the rotation of the reference axes (about the normal to the production plane) for the resonance density matrix bounds are pointed out. Some other applications are discussed. (38 refs).

  7. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  8. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  9. Restrictions on Possible Forms of Classical Matter Fields Carrying no Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    It is postulated in general relativity that the matter energy-momentum tensor vanishes if and only if all the matter fields vanish. In classical Lagrangian field theory the energy and momentum density are described by the variational (symmetric) energy-momentum tensor (named the stress tensor) and a priori it might occur that for some systems the tensor is identically to zero for all field configurations whereas evolution of the system is subject to deterministic Lagrange equations of motion. Such a system would not generate its own gravitational field. To check if these systems can exist in the framework of classical field theory we find a relationship between the stress tensor and the Euler operator (i.e. the Lagrange field equations). We prove that if a system of interacting scalar fields (the number of fields cannot exceed the spacetime dimension d) or a single vector field (in spacetimes with d even) has the stress tensor such that its divergence is identically zero (i.e. ''on and of shell''), then the Lagrange equations of motion hold identically too. These systems have then no propagation equations at all and should be regarded as unphysical. Thus nontrivial field equations require the stress tensor be nontrivial too. This relationship between vanishing (of divergence) of the stress tensor and of the Euler operator breaks down if the number of fields is greater than d. We show on concrete examples that a system of n > d interacting scalars or two interacting vector fields can have the stress tensor equal identically to zero while their propagation equations are nontrivial. This means that non-self-gravitating (and yet detectable) field systems are in principle admissible. Their equations of motion are, however, in some sense degenerate. We also show, that for a system of arbitrary number of interacting scalar fields or for a single vector field (in some specific spacetimes in the latter case), if the stress tensor is not identically zero, then it cannot

  10. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  11. Semiclassical calculation for collision induced dissociation. III. Restricted two dimensional Morse oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinek, I.

    1980-01-01

    A semiclassical procedure previously used for collinear CID calculations is applied to the perpendicular collisions (2D, no rotation, zero impact parameter) of a Morse homonuclear diatomic molecule and an atom, interacting via an exponential repulsive potential. Values of the dissociation probability (P/sup diss/) are given as a function of total energy (E/sub t/) and initial vibrational state (n 1 =0,1,3,5) for a system with three identical masses. The results are compared with the P/sup diss/ previously reported for an identical one dimensional system. We find: (a) quasiclassical P/sup diss/ that are a good approximation to the semiclassical ones, if CID is classically allowed, (b) vibrational enhancement of CID, and (c) energetic thresholds for dissociation similar to the ones found in the collinear case

  12. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  13. Acute reductions in blood flow restricted to the dorsomedial medulla induce a pressor response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Hidefumi; Bhuiyan, Mohammad E R; Gouraud, Sabine S; Takagishi, Miwa; Hatada, Atsutoshi; Kohsaka, Akira; Paton, Julian F R; Maeda, Masanobu

    2011-08-01

    The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS) is a pivotal region for regulating the set-point of arterial pressure, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. Based on evidence that the NTS exhibits O2-sensing mechanisms, we examined whether a localized disturbance of blood supply, resulting in hypoxia in the NTS, would lead to an acute increase in arterial pressure. Male Wistar rats were used. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after specific branches of superficial dorsal medullary veins were occluded; we assumed these were drainage vessels from the NTS and would produce stagnant hypoxia. Hypoxyprobe-1, a marker for detecting cellular hypoxia in the post-mortem tissue, was used to reveal whether vessel occlusion induced hypoxia within the NTS. Following vessel occlusion, blood flow in the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata including the NTS region showed an approximately 60% decrease and was associated with hypoxia in neurons located predominantly in the caudal part of the NTS as revealed using hypoxyprobe-1. Arterial pressure increased and this response was pronounced significantly in both magnitude and duration when baroreceptor reflex afferents were sectioned. These results suggest that localized hypoxia in the NTS increases arterial pressure. We suggest this represents a protective mechanism whereby the elevated systemic pressure is a compensatory mechanism to enhance cerebral perfusion. Whether this physiological mechanism has any relevance to neurogenic hypertension is discussed.

  14. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4-6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S; Keller, Kathleen L

    2010-10-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4-6-year-old children's self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n=70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (ED(food+drink)) and ED for foods only (ED(foods)) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food+drink). In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food). There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children.

  15. Clinically suspected anaphylaxis induced by sugammadex in a patient with Weaver syndrome undergoing restrictive mammoplasty surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedirli, Nurdan; Işık, Berrin; Bashiri, Mehrnoosh; Pampal, Kutluk; Kurtipek, Ömer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sugammadex is a cylodextrin derivate that encapsulates steroidal neuromuscular blocker agents and is reported as a safe and well-tolerated drug. In this case report, we present a patient who developed grade 3 anaphylaxis just after sugammadex administration. Patient concerns: A 22-year-old woman with diagnosis of Weaver syndrome was scheduled for bilateral mammoplasty and resection of unilateral accessory breast tissue resection. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by propofol, rocuronium, and remifentanil. At the end of the operation, sugammadex was administered and resulted in initially hypotension and bradycardia then the situation worsened by premature ventricular contraction and bigeminy with tachycardia, bronchospasm, and hypoxia. Diagnosis: The Ring and Messmer clinical severity scale grade 3 anaphylactic reaction occurred just after sugammadex injection and the patient developed prolonged hypotension with recurrent cardiac arrhythmias in postoperative 12 hours. Interventions: Treatment was initiated bolus injections of ephedrine, epinephrine, lidocaine, steroids and antihistaminic and continued with lidocaine bolus dosages and norepinephrine infusion for the postoperative period. Outcomes: The general condition of the patient improved to normal 3 hours after the sugammadex injection, and she was moved to the intensive care unit. At 2nd and 8th hours of intensive care unit follow-up, she developed premature ventricular contraction and bigeminy with the heart rate of 130 to 135 beats/min, which returned to sinus rhythm with 50 mg lidocaine. After that, no symptoms were observed and the patient was discharged to plastic surgery clinic at the following day. Lessons: Sugammadex may result in life-treating anaphylactic reaction even in a patient who did not previously expose to drug. Moreover, prolonged cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrhythmias may occur. PMID:29505006

  16. Chest wall restriction limits high airway pressure-induced lung injury in young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L A; Peevy, K J; Moise, A A; Parker, J C

    1989-05-01

    High peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) during mechanical ventilation can induce lung injury. In the present study we compare the respective roles of high tidal volume with high PIP in intact immature rabbits to determine whether the increase in capillary permeability is the result of overdistension of the lung or direct pressure effects. New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to one of three protocols, which produced different degrees of inspiratory volume limitation: intact closed-chest animals (CC), closed-chest animals with a full-body plaster cast (C), and isolated excised lungs (IL). The intact animals were ventilated at 15, 30, or 45 cmH2O PIP for 1 h, and the lungs of the CC and C groups were placed in an isolated lung perfusion system. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). Base-line Kfc for isolated lungs before ventilation was 0.33 +/- 0.31 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100g-1 and was not different from the Kfc in the CC group ventilated with 15 cmH2O PIP. Kfc increased by 850% after ventilation with only 15 cmH2O PIP in the unrestricted IL group, and in the CC group Kfc increased by 31% after 30 cmH2O PIP and 430% after 45 cmH2O PIP. Inspiratory volume limitation by the plaster cast in the C group prevented any significant increase in Kfc at the PIP values used. These data indicate that volume distension of the lung rather than high PIP per se produces microvascular damage in the immature rabbit lung.

  17. Effects of caloric restriction with varying energy density and aerobic exercise on weight change and satiety in young female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sae Won; Bae, Yoon Jung; Lee, Dae Taek

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the combined effects of caloric restriction on body composition, blood lipid, and satiety in slightly overweight women by varying food density and aerobic exercise. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for a four-week weight management program: the high-energy density diet plus exercise (HDE: n = 12, 22 ± 2 yrs, 65 ± 7 kg, 164 ± 5 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) and low-energy density diet plus exercise (LDE: n = 11, 22 ± 1 yrs, 67 ± 7 kg, 161 ± 2 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) groups. Subjects maintained a low-calorie diet (1,500 kcal/day) during the program. Isocaloric (483 ± 26 for HDE, 487 ± 27 kcal for LDE) but different weight (365 ± 68 for HDE, 814 ± 202 g for LDE) of lunch was provided. After lunch, they biked at 60% of maximum capacity for 40 minutes, five times per week. The hunger level was scaled (1: extremely hungry; 9: extremely full) at 17:30 each day. Before and after the program, the subjects' physical characteristics were measured, and fasting blood samples were drawn. The daily energy intake was 1,551 ± 259 for HDE and 1,404 ± 150 kcal for LDE (P > 0.05). After four weeks, the subjects' weights and % fat decreased for both LDE (-1.9 kg and -1.5%, P < 0.05) and HDE (-1.6 kg and -1.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). The hunger level was significantly higher for HDE (2.46 ± 0.28) than for LDE (3.10 ± 0.26) (P < 0.05). The results suggest that a low-energy density diet is more likely to be tolerated than a high-energy density diet for a weight management program combining a low-calorie diet and exercise, mainly because of a reduced hunger sensation.

  18. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  19. Fisetin as a caloric restriction mimetic protects rat brain against aging induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Garg, Geetika; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2018-01-15

    In the present study, attempts have been made to evaluate the potential role of fisetin, a caloric restriction mimetic (CRM), for neuroprotection in D-galactose (D-gal) induced accelerated and natural aging models of rat. Fisetin was supplemented (15mg/kg b.w., orally) to young, D-gal induced aged (D-gal 500mg/kg b.w subcutaneously) and naturally aged rats for 6weeks. Standard protocols were employed to measure pro-oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential in brain tissues. Gene expression analysis with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to assess the expression of autophagy, neuronal, aging as well as inflammatory marker genes. We have also evaluated apoptotic cell death and synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporter activities in brain tissues. Our data demonstrated that fisetin significantly decreased the level of pro-oxidants and increased the level of antioxidants. Furthermore, fisetin also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptotic cell death and impairments in the activities of synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporters in aging rat brain. RT-PCR data revealed that fisetin up-regulated the expression of autophagy genes (Atg-3 and Beclin-1), sirtuin-1 and neuronal markers (NSE and Ngb), and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory (IL-1β and TNF-α) and Sirt-2 genes respectively in aging brain. The present study suggests that fisetin supplementation may provide neuroprotection against aging-induced oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, neuro-inflammation, and neurodegeneration in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  1. Analytic computation of average energy of neutrons inducing fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Alexander Rich

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe how I analytically computed the average energy of neutrons that induce fission in the bare BeRP ball. The motivation of this report is to resolve a discrepancy between the average energy computed via the FMULT and F4/FM cards in MCNP6 by comparison to the analytic results.

  2. Nutritional compensation to exercise- vs. diet-induced acute energy deficit in adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Doucet, Eric; Julian, Valérie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Boirie, Yves; Duclos, Martine

    2017-07-01

    To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12-15years old obese adolescents completed three experimental conditions (08:00am to 07:30pm) in a randomized crossover design: i) control session (CON); ii) diet-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EI), iii) and an exercise-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EX). The sessions order was either CON/Def-EI/Def-EX or CON/Def-EX/Def-EI as the deficit corresponded to 25% of the energy ingested at lunch on the control day (CON) and was imposed either by exercise (Def-EX) or diet (Def-EI). Ad libitum EI and macronutrients preferences were assessed at dinner and appetite sensations assessed using visual analogue scales. Mean BMI was 36.6±5.0kg/m 2 (z-BMI: 2.40±0.29). The individually calibrated 25% energy deficit represented 254±92kcal. Ad libitum EI was significantly higher during both Def-EX (971±225kcal) and Def-EI (949±246kcal) compared with CON (742±297) (pexercise and the control session (EI Def-EX - EI CON) (r=-0,643 pexercise- or diet-induced energy deficits could lead to similar EI compensation in obese adolescents but this EI compensation might be influenced by the magnitude of the deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  4. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat, low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR, high-fat diet (HC, 60% fat, high-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (HR, high-fat diet with voluntary running exercise (HE, and high-fat diet with a combination of 30% calorie restriction and exercise (HRE. The impacts of the interventions were assessed by comprehensive metabolic analyses and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Endurance exercise significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity. CR dramatically prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. A combination of CR and endurance exercise further reduced obesity and insulin resistance under the condition of high-fat diet. CR and endurance exercise each potently suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissues with additive effects when combined, but the effects of diet and exercise interventions in the liver were moderate to minimal. Conclusions CR and endurance exercise share a potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

  5. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, J.K.; Astrup, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy...... metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate...

  6. Loss of Nat4 and its associated histone H4 N-terminal acetylation mediates calorie restriction-induced longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Serrano, Diego; Schiza, Vassia; Demosthenous, Christis; Stavrou, Emmanouil; Oppelt, Jan; Kyriakou, Dimitris; Liu, Wei; Zisser, Gertrude; Bergler, Helmut; Dang, Weiwei; Kirmizis, Antonis

    2016-12-01

    Changes in histone modifications are an attractive model through which environmental signals, such as diet, could be integrated in the cell for regulating its lifespan. However, evidence linking dietary interventions with specific alterations in histone modifications that subsequently affect lifespan remains elusive. We show here that deletion of histone N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase Nat4 and loss of its associated H4 N-terminal acetylation (N-acH4) extend yeast replicative lifespan. Notably, nat4Δ-induced longevity is epistatic to the effects of calorie restriction (CR). Consistent with this, (i) Nat4 expression is downregulated and the levels of N-acH4 within chromatin are reduced upon CR, (ii) constitutive expression of Nat4 and maintenance of N-acH4 levels reduces the extension of lifespan mediated by CR, and (iii) transcriptome analysis indicates that nat4Δ largely mimics the effects of CR, especially in the induction of stress-response genes. We further show that nicotinamidase Pnc1, which is typically upregulated under CR, is required for nat4Δ-mediated longevity. Collectively, these findings establish histone N-acH4 as a regulator of cellular lifespan that links CR to increased stress resistance and longevity. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Pairing-induced kinetic energy lowering in doped antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, P; Eder, R; Fulde, P

    2003-01-01

    We analyse lowering of the kinetic energy in doped antiferromagnets at the transition to the superconducting state. Measurements of optical conductivity indicate that such unconventional behaviour takes place in underdoped Bi-2212. We argue that the definition of the operator representing the kinetic energy is determined by experimental conditions. The thermodynamic average of that operator is related to the integrated spectral weight of the optical conductivity and thus depends on the cut-off frequency limiting that integral. If the upper limit of the integral lies below the charge transfer gap the spectral weight represents the average of the hopping term in the space restricted to the energy range below the gap. We show that the kinetic energy is indeed lowered at the superconducting transition in the t-J model (tJM), which is an effective model defined in the restricted space. That result is in agreement with experimental observations and may be attributed to the formation of spin polarons and the change of roles which are played by the kinetic and the potential energy in the tJM and in some effective model for spin polarons. The total spectral weight represents the kinetic energy in a model defined in a broader space if the upper limit in the integral of the optical conductivity is set above the gap. We demonstrate that the kinetic energy in the Hubbard model is also lowered in the superconducting state. That result does not agree with experimental observations, indicating that the spectral weight is conserved for all temperatures if the upper limit of the integral is set above the charge transfer gap. This discrepancy suggests that a single band model is not capable of describing in some respects the physics of excitations across the gap

  8. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane; Martins, Frédéric; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Pisani, Didier F; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Maoret, Jean-José; Iacovoni, Jason; Déjean, Sébastien; Moro, Cédric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique

    2018-01-23

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  10. Energy restriction does not prevent insulin resistance but does prevent liver steatosis in aging rats on a Western-style diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Marie; Roy, Maggie; St-Pierre, Valérie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Fortier, Mélanie; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine; Gallis, Jean-Louis; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term energy restriction (ER) on plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle metabolite profiles in aging rats fed a Western-style diet. Three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Group 1 consisted of 2 mo old rats fed ad libitum; group 2 were 19 mo old rats also fed ad libitum; and group 3 were 19 mo old rats subjected to 40% ER for the last 11.5 mo. To imitate a Western-style diet, all rats were given a high-sucrose, very low ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet. High-resolution magic angle spinning-(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used for hepatic and skeletal muscle metabolite determination, and fatty acid profiles were measured by capillary gas chromatography on plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle. ER coupled with a Western-style diet did not prevent age-induced insulin resistance or the increase in triacylglycerol content in plasma and skeletal muscle associated with aging. However, in the liver, ER did prevent steatosis and increased the percent of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids relative to ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA. Although steatosis was reduced, the beneficial effects of ER on systemic insulin resistance and plasma and skeletal muscle metabolites observed elsewhere with a balanced diet seem to be compromised by high-sucrose and low ω-3 PUFA intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with structural alterations in human umbilical cord and decreased nitric oxide-induced relaxation of umbilical vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyter, A-C; Delhaes, F; Baud, D; Vial, Y; Diaceri, G; Menétrey, S; Hohlfeld, P; Tolsa, J-F

    2014-11-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects ∼8% of all pregnancies and is associated with major perinatal mortality and morbidity, and with an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Despite identification of several risk factors, the mechanisms implicated in the development of IUGR remain poorly understood. In case of placental insufficiency, reduced delivery of oxygen and/or nutrients to the fetus could be associated with alterations in the umbilical circulation, contributing further to the impairment of maternal-fetal exchanges. We compared the structural and functional properties of umbilical cords from growth-restricted and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) term newborns, with particular attention to the umbilical vein (UV). Human umbilical cords were collected at delivery. Morphological changes were investigated by histomorphometry, and UV's reactivity by pharmacological studies. Growth-restricted newborns displayed significantly lower growth parameters, placental weight and umbilical cord diameter than AGA controls. Total cross-section and smooth muscle areas were significantly smaller in UV of growth-restricted neonates than in controls. Maximal vasoconstriction achieved in isolated UV was lower in growth-restricted boys than in controls, whereas nitric oxide-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in UV of growth-restricted girls compared to controls. IUGR is associated with structural alterations of the UV in both genders, and with a decreased nitric oxide-induced relaxation in UV of newborn girls, whereas boys display impaired vasoconstriction. Further investigations will allow to better understand the regulation of umbilical circulation in growth-restricted neonates, which could contribute to devise potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or limit the development of IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy changes in massive target-nuclei, induced by high-energy hadronic projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1997-01-01

    Now it turned out that it is real to estimate by experiments the energy changes in massive target-nuclei, induced by high-energy hadronic projectiles. The subject matter in this work is to present results of the quantitative estimations of the energy changes in intranuclear matter at various stages of hadron-nucleus collision reactions. Appropriate formulas are proposed for the energy balances - as following from the experimentally based mechanism of the hadron-nucleus collision reactions

  13. Assessing the adequacy of essential nutrient intake in obese dogs undergoing energy restriction for weight loss: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Serisier, Samuel; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent

    2015-10-07

    Canine obesity is usually treated with dietary energy restriction, but data are limited regarding nutritional adequacy. The aim of the current study was to compare intake of essential nutrients with National Research Council recommendations in obese dogs during weight management with a purpose-formulated diet. Twenty-seven dogs were included in this non-randomised retrospective observational cohort study. All were determined to be systemically well, and without significant abnormalities based upon physical examination and clinicopathological assessments. The dogs underwent a controlled weight loss protocol of at least 182 days' duration using a high protein high fibre weight loss diet. Median, maximum, and minimum daily intakes of all essential nutrients were compared against NRC 2006 recommended allowances (RA) for adult dogs. Median weight loss was 28 % (16-40 %), mean daily energy intake was 61 kcal/kg(0.75) (44-74 kcal/kg(0.75)), and no clinical signs of nutrient deficiency were observed in any dog. Based upon the average nutrient content of the diet, daily intake of the majority of essential nutrients was greater than their NRC 2006 recommended allowance (RA per kg body weight(0.75)), except for selenium, choline, methionine/cysteine, tryptophan, magnesium, and potassium. However, apart from choline (2/27 dogs) and methionine/cysteine (2/27 dogs), all essential nutrients remained above NRC minimum requirements (MR) throughout the trial. When fed the diet used in the current study, daily intakes of most essential nutrients meet both their NRC 2006 RA and MR in obese dogs during weight loss. In light of absence of clinical signs of nutrient deficiency, it is unclear what significance intakes less that NRC cut-offs for some nutrients have (especially selenium and choline), and further studies are recommended.

  14. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR and total sleep deprivation (TSD produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00 and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75. During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00 and TSD (22:00–06:00, such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01 and saturated fat (p = 0.02 during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12. Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03. Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001. Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  15. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Laura E; Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni

    2016-12-19

    Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34-0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00-04:00) and TSD (22:00-06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein ( p = 0.01) and saturated fat ( p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake ( p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD ( p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD ( p sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  16. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-12-05

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce arcuate Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A.

    2016-01-01

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. PMID:27507595

  18. Exploitation of the Phebus inquiry. Better qualifying fuel poverty situations: coldness, heating restrictions, payment difficulties of energy bills, constrained limited mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, Giulia; Belaid, Fateh; Bair, Sabrine; Teissier, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The object of the research consists in estimating situations of fuel poverty from the statistical analysis of Phebus database 2012. The analysis of thermal characteristics of housing crossed with the uses by cutting down of heating, restriction of mobility and difficulties of payment of energy bills will allow us to anticipate better the phenomenon and to bring adapted answers

  19. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    ) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...

  20. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO2 assimilation is restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Baker, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water–water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO2 assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution together with CO2 uptake in leaves

  1. Cadmium-induced neural tube defects and fetal growth restriction: Association with disturbance of placental folate transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua; Hu, Jun; Guo, Min-Yin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies found that maternal Cd exposure on gestational day (GD)9 caused forelimb ectrodactyly and tail deformity, the characteristic malformations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal Cd exposure on GD8 induces fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl 2 (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) on GD8. Neither forelimb ectrodactyly nor tail deformity was observed in mice injected with CdCl 2 on GD8. Instead, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in the incidence of NTDs. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in fetal growth restriction. In addition, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 reduced placental weight and diameter. The internal space of maternal and fetal blood vessels in the labyrinth layer was decreased in the placentas of mice treated with CdCl 2 . Additional experiment showed that placental PCFT protein and mRNA, a critical folate transporter, was persistently decreased when dams were injected with CdCl 2 on GD8. Correspondingly, embryonic folate content was markedly decreased in mice injected with CdCl 2 on GD8, whereas Cd had little effect on folate content in maternal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis disturbs transport of folate from maternal circulation to the fetuses through down-regulating placental folate transporters. - Highlights: • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis causes NTDs and FGR. • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis impairs placental development. • Cd disturbs transport of folate by down-regulating placental folate transporters.

  2. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. IFN regulatory factor 1 restricts hepatitis E virus replication by activating STAT1 to induce antiviral IFN-stimulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhou, Xinying; Wang, Wenshi; Wang, Yijin; Yin, Yuebang; Laan, Luc J W van der; Sprengers, Dave; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2016-10-01

    IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is one of the most important IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in cellular antiviral immunity. Although hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, how ISGs counteract HEV infection is largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of IRF1 on HEV replication. Multiple cell lines were used in 2 models that harbor HEV. In different HEV cell culture systems, IRF1 effectively inhibited HEV replication. IRF1 did not trigger IFN production, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data analysis revealed that IRF1 bound to the promoter region of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1). Functional assay confirmed that IRF1 could drive the transcription of STAT1, resulting in elevation of total and phosphorylated STAT1 proteins and further activating the transcription of a panel of downstream antiviral ISGs. By pharmacological inhibitors and RNAi-mediated gene-silencing approaches, we revealed that antiviral function of IRF1 is dependent on the JAK-STAT cascade. Furthermore, induction of ISGs and the anti-HEV effect of IRF1 overlapped that of IFNα, but was potentiated by ribavirin. We demonstrated that IRF1 effectively inhibits HEV replication through the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, and the subsequent transcription of antiviral ISGs, but independent of IFN production.-Xu, L., Zhou, X., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Yin, Y., van der Laan, L. J. W., Sprengers, D., Metselaar, H. J., Peppelenbosch, M. P., Pan, Q. IFN regulatory factor 1 restricts hepatitis E virus replication by activating STAT1 to induce antiviral IFN-stimulated genes. © FASEB.

  4. Cadmium-induced neural tube defects and fetal growth restriction: Association with disturbance of placental folate transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghuadev@126.com; Hu, Jun; Guo, Min-Yin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies found that maternal Cd exposure on gestational day (GD)9 caused forelimb ectrodactyly and tail deformity, the characteristic malformations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal Cd exposure on GD8 induces fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) on GD8. Neither forelimb ectrodactyly nor tail deformity was observed in mice injected with CdCl{sub 2} on GD8. Instead, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in the incidence of NTDs. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in fetal growth restriction. In addition, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 reduced placental weight and diameter. The internal space of maternal and fetal blood vessels in the labyrinth layer was decreased in the placentas of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Additional experiment showed that placental PCFT protein and mRNA, a critical folate transporter, was persistently decreased when dams were injected with CdCl{sub 2} on GD8. Correspondingly, embryonic folate content was markedly decreased in mice injected with CdCl{sub 2} on GD8, whereas Cd had little effect on folate content in maternal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis disturbs transport of folate from maternal circulation to the fetuses through down-regulating placental folate transporters. - Highlights: • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis causes NTDs and FGR. • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis impairs placental development. • Cd disturbs transport of folate by down-regulating placental folate transporters.

  5. RFLP analysis of rice semi-dwarf mutation induced by high energy argon ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Chuxiong; Hu Weimin; Mei Mantong

    1997-01-01

    Two Indica rice varieties, Bianpizhan and Xiangzhan, and their semi-dwarf mutants induced by high energy argon ion radiation, Ar-10, and Xiang-Ar-1, were examined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis by using 97 rice single copy genomic clones mapped on 12 chromosomes of molecular genetic map, combined with 5 restriction enzymes. Among the markers screened, 9 detected polymorphism were between Bianpizhen and Ar-10, and 11 detected polymorphism were between Xiangzhan and Xiang-Ar-1. Moreover, two or more restriction enzymes could generate RFLP patterns when screened with a given marker for several polymorphic markers. Based on the polymorphic allelic loci, the mutation frequencies were estimated as 5.15% and 6.39% for Ar-10 and Xiang-Ar-1 respectively. These results suggested that the nature of mutation on the DNA level was probably large genetic changes rather than point mutation. Genetic analysis and gene tagging of semi-dwarf mutation in one of the mutant line, Ar-10, indicated that this mutation was controlled by a major recessive gene, which was preliminary located on chromosome 4

  6. RFLP Analysis of rice semi dwarf mutation induced by high energy argon ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Chuxiong; Hu Weimin; Mei Mantong

    1997-01-01

    Two Indica rice varieties, Bianpizhan and Xiangzhan, and their semi dwarf mutants induced by high energy argon ion radiation, Ar 10, and Xiang Ar 1, were examined with restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP)analysis by using 97 rice single copy genomic clones mapped on 12 chromosomes of molecular genetic map, combined with 5 restriction enzymes.Among the markers screened, 9 detected polymorphism were between Bianpizhan and Ar 10, and 11 detected polymorphism were between Xiangzhan and Xiang Ar 1.Moreover, two or more restriction enzymes could generate RFLP patterns when screened with a given marker for several polymorphic markers. Based on the polymorphic allelic loci, the mutation frequencies were estimated as 5 15% and 6 39% for Ar 10 and Xiang Ar 1 respectively.These results suggested that the nature of mutation on the DNA level was probably large genetic changes rather than point mutation.Genetic analysis and gene tagging of semi dwarf mutation in one of the mutant line, Ar 10, indicated that this mutation was controlled by a major recessive gene, which was preliminary located on chromosome 4. (author)

  7. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based...... in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  8. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals alterations in the liver induced by restricted meal frequency in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Liu, Zhengqun; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Hongfu

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of meal frequency on metabolite levels in pig plasma and hepatic proteome by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Twenty-four pigs (60.7 ± 1.0 kg) consumed the same amount of feed either in 2 (M2, n = 12) or 12 (M12, n = 12) meals per day. After an 8-wk feeding period, plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones, hepatic biochemical traits, and proteome (n = 4 per group) were measured. Pigs on the M12 regimen had lower average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio than pigs fed the M2 regimen. The M2 regimen resulted in lower total lipid, glycogen, and triacylglycerol content in the liver and circulating triacylglycerol concentration than that in the M12 pigs. The metabolic hormone concentrations were not affected by meal frequency, with the exception of elevated fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations in the M2 regimen compared with the M12 regimen. The iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed 35 differentially expressed proteins in the liver between pigs fed two and 12 meals per day, and these differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of general biological process such as glucose and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism, stress response, and cell redox homeostasis. Altogether, the proteomic results provide insights into the mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of restricted meal frequency on the metabolic fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2011-01-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction...... to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation...... requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed...

  10. The free energy of the metastable supersaturated vapor via restricted ensemble simulations. III. An extension to the Corti and Debenedetti subcell constraint algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Chu; Geng, Jun; Marlow, William H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the sampling of restricted microstates in our previous work [C. Nie, J. Geng, and W. H. Marlow, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154505 (2007); 128, 234310 (2008)] and quantitatively predict thermal properties of supersaturated vapors, an extension is made to the Corti and Debenedetti subcell constraint algorithm [D. S. Corti and P. Debenedetti, Chem. Eng. Sci. 49, 2717 (1994)], which restricts the maximum allowed local density at any point in a simulation box. The maximum allowed local density at a point in a simulation box is defined by the maximum number of particles N m allowed to appear inside a sphere of radius R, with this point as the center of the sphere. Both N m and R serve as extra thermodynamic variables for maintaining a certain degree of spatial homogeneity in a supersaturated system. In a restricted canonical ensemble, at a given temperature and an overall density, series of local minima on the Helmholtz free energy surface F(N m , R) are found subject to different (N m , R) pairs. The true equilibrium metastable state is identified through the analysis of the formation free energies of Stillinger clusters of various sizes obtained from these restricted states. The simulation results of a supersaturated Lennard-Jones vapor at reduced temperature 0.7 including the vapor pressure isotherm, formation free energies of critical nuclei, and chemical potential differences are presented and analyzed. In addition, with slight modifications, the current algorithm can be applied to computing thermal properties of superheated liquids.

  11. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THIheat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THIheat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THIHeat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of baseline leptin and ghrelin levels on body weight and fat mass changes after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women: effects on energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lasa, Arrate; Simón, Edurne; Margareto, Javier

    2011-06-01

    Hormones related to energy balance control may play an important role on weight loss resistance after low-caloric diet (LCD) intervention. To investigate the predictive value of baseline leptin and ghrelin on body fat mass (FM) loss after 12 wk of LCD intervention and to study whether these associations could be related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR). The study comprised a total of 78 obese women (age 36.7 ± 7 yr). We measured, before and after the LCD intervention, FM (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and RMR (kilojoules per kilogram body weight per day, indirect calorimetry). We also analyzed fasting serum leptin and ghrelin, and leptin to ghrelin ratio was calculated. FM and RMR changes (data at baseline - data after the intervention) were assessed. Baseline serum leptin (r = -0.301; age- and baseline FM-adjusted P = 0.009) and ghrelin (r = 0.314, adjusted P = 0.014) levels as well as leptin to ghrelin levels (r = -0.331; adjusted P = 0.009) were significantly correlated with FM changes. Leptin to ghrelin ratio was significantly correlated with RMR at baseline and after the LCD (both P Baseline leptin to ghrelin ratio significantly predicted changes in RMR after the LCD (r = 0.298; P = 0.019) regardless of age, baseline RMR, and total body weight (r = 0.307; P = 0.016) or FM loss (r = 0.312; P = 0.015). Obese women with higher leptin and lower ghrelin levels at baseline seem to be more resistant to FM loss. The leptin to ghrelin ratio could be proposed as a biomarker for predicting metabolic adaptations to energy restriction treatment and, if confirmed in future studies, as a predictor of treatment success/failure.

  13. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate: 1997-2006?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hua; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    China is the second largest energy consumer in the world. During 1997-2002, China's energy intensity declined by 33%. However, it rose by 10.7% over 2003-2005, and declined by 1.2% in 2006. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate so drastically? Industry accounts for approximately 70% of the total energy consumption in China. In this paper, we decompose China's industrial energy intensity changes between 1997 and 2002 into sectoral structural effects and efficiency effects (measured by sectoral energy intensities at two-digit level and including the shifts of product mix in the sub-sector or firm level), using Toernqvist and Sato-Vartia Index methods. The results show that in this period, efficiency effects possibly contributed to a majority of the decline, while the contribution from structural effects was less. During 2003-2005, the excessive expansion of high-energy consuming sub-sectors and the high investment ratio were foremost sources of the increasing energy intensity. Attributed to the government efforts, the energy intensity has started to decline slightly since July 2006. In future, to save more energy, in addition to technical progress, China should attach more importance to optimizing its sectoral structure, and lowering its investment ratio

  14. Effects of calorie restriction and diet-induced obesity on murine colon carcinogenesis, growth and inflammatory factors, and microRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Olivo-Marston

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established colon cancer risk factor, while preventing or reversing obesity via a calorie restriction (CR diet regimen decreases colon cancer risk. Unfortunately, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood, hampering development of mechanism-based approaches for preventing obesity-related colon cancer. We tested the hypotheses that diet-induced obesity (DIO would increase (and CR would decrease colon tumorigenesis in the mouse azoxymethane (AOM model. In addition, we established that changes in inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and microRNAs are associated with these energy balance-colon cancer links, and thus represent mechanism-based targets for colon cancer prevention. Mice were injected with AOM once a week for 5 weeks and randomized to: 1 control diet; 2 30% CR diet; or 3 DIO diet. Mice were euthanized at week 5 (n = 12/group, 10 (n = 12/group, and 20 (n = 20/group after the last AOM injection. Colon tumors were counted, and cytokines, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3, adipokines, proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of microRNAs (miRs were measured. The DIO diet regimen induced an obese phenotype (∼36% body fat, while CR induced a lean phenotype (∼14% body fat; controls were intermediate (∼26% body fat. Relative to controls, DIO increased (and CR decreased the number of colon tumors (p = 0.01, cytokines (p<0.001, IGF-1 (p = 0.01, and proliferation (p<0.001. DIO decreased (and CR increased IGFBP-3 and apoptosis (p<0.001. miRs including mir-425, mir-196, mir-155, mir-150, mir-351, mir-16, let-7, mir34, and mir-138 were differentially expressed between the dietary groups. We conclude that the enhancing effects of DIO and suppressive effects of CR on colon carcinogenesis are associated with alterations in several biological pathways, including inflammation, IGF-1, and microRNAs.

  15. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  16. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  17. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gikal, K. B., E-mail: kgikal@mail.ru; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Piasecki, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University (Poland); Rubchenya, V. A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Sahiev, S. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Trzaska, W. H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Vardaci, E. [INFN Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell’Università di Napoli (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  18. A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Regression Analysis on Early-Life Energy Restriction and Cancer Risk in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elands, Rachel J J; Simons, Colinda C J M; Dongen, Martien van; Schouten, Leo J; Verhage, Bas A J; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, long-term moderate energy restriction (ER) is reported to decelerate carcinogenesis, whereas the effect of severe ER is inconsistent. The impact of early-life ER on cancer risk has never been reviewed systematically and quantitatively based on observational studies in humans. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and a meta-(regression) analysis on cohort studies to clarify the association between early-life ER and organ site-specific cancer risk. PubMed and EMBASE (1982 -August 2015) were searched for observational studies. Summary relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a random effects model when available ≥3 studies. Twenty-four studies were included. Eleven publications, emanating from seven prospective cohort studies and some reporting on multiple cancer endpoints, met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Women exposed to early-life ER (ranging from 220-1660 kcal/day) had a higher breast cancer risk than those not exposed (RRRE all ages = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.56; RRRE for 10-20 years of age = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.34). Men exposed to early-life ER (ranging from 220-800kcal/day) had a higher prostate cancer risk than those not exposed (RRRE = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30). Summary relative risks were not computed for colorectal cancer, because of heterogeneity, and for stomach-, pancreas-, ovarian-, and respiratory cancer because there were <3 available studies. Longer duration of exposure to ER, after adjustment for severity, was positively associated with overall cancer risk in women (p = 0.02). Ecological studies suggest that less severe ER is generally associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Early-life transient severe ER seems to be associated with increased cancer risk in the breast (particularly ER exposure at adolescent age) and prostate. The duration, rather than severity of exposure to ER, seems to positively influence relative risk estimates. This result should be interpreted with caution due to the

  19. Food restriction-induced changes in gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone-immunoreactive cells are associated with sexual motivation and food hoarding, but not sexual performance and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Klingerman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3 and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH of energetically-challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  20. A facility for low energy charged particle induced reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Singkarat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Intarasiri, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2000-01-01

    In Chiang Mai, a highly stable low energy ion accelerator (0 - 350 kV) facility is being established. A subnano-second pulsing system will be incorporated into the beam transport line. The detecting system will consist of a time-of-flight charged particle spectrometer and a high resolution gamma-ray system. The new facility will be used in the studies of low energy heavy ion backscattering and charged particle induced cross section measurement in the interests of material characterization and nucleosynthesis. (author)

  1. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  2. Productivity effects of technology diffusion induced by an energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the political discussion, the economy-wide effects of an energy tax have gained considerable attention. So far, macroeconomic analyses have focused on either (positive or negative) costs triggered by an energy tax, or on the efficiency gains resulting from new energy taxes combined with lower distortionary taxes. By contrast, the innovative effects of climate protection measures have not yet been thoroughly analysed. This paper explores the productivity effects of a 50 per cent energy tax in the German industry sector employing a technology-based, three-step bottom-up approach. In the first step, the extensive IKARUS database is used to identify the technological adjustments arising from an energy tax. In the second step, the technologies are classified into different clusters. In the third step, the productivity effects generated by the technological adjustments are examined. The results imply that an energy tax induces mainly sector-specific and process-integrated technologies rather than add-on and cross-cutting technologies. Further, it is shown that the energy-saving technologies tend to increase productivity. This is particularly the case for process-integrated, sector specific technologies. (author)

  3. Reactions induced by low energy electrons in cryogenic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, A.D.; Sanche, L.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent research on reactions (including dissociation) initiated by low-energy electron bombardment of monolayer and multilayer molecular solids at cryogenic temperatures. With incident electrons of energies below 20 eV, dissociation is observed by the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anions from target films and is attributed to the processes of dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and to dipolar dissociation. It is shown that DEA to condensed molecules is sensitive to environmental factors such as the identity of co-adsorbed species and film morphology. The effects of image-charge induced polarization on cross-sections for DEA to CH3Cl are also discussed. Taking as examples, the electron-induced production of CO within multilayer films of methanol and acetone, it is shown that the detection of electronic excited states by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy can be used to monitor electron beam damage. In particular, the incident energy dependence of the CO indicates that below 19 eV, dissociation proceeds via the decay of transient negative ions (TNI) into electronically excited dissociative states. The electron induced dissociation of biomolecular targets is also considered, taking as examples the ribose analog tetrahydrofuran and DNA bases adenine and thymine, cytosine and guanine. The ESD of anions from such films also show dissociation via the formation of TNI. In multilayer molecular solids, fragment species resulting from dissociation, may react with neighboring molecules, as is demonstrated in anion ESD measurements from films containing O 2 and various hydrocarbon molecules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reported for electron irradiated monolayers of H 2 O and CF 4 on a Si - H passivated surface further show that DEA is an important initial step in the electron-induced chemisorption of fragment species

  4. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  5. Design and Numerical Simulations of a Flow Induced Vibration Energy Converter for Underwater Mooring Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited battery energy restricts the duration of the underwater operation of underwater mooring platforms (UMPs. In this paper, a flow-induced vibration energy converter (FIVEC is designed to produce power for the UMPs and extend their operational time. The FIVEC is equipped with a thin plate to capture the kinetic energy in the vortices shed from the surface of the UMP. A magnetic coupling (MC is applied for the non-contacting transmission of the plate torque to the generators so that the friction loss can be minimized. In order to quantify and evaluate the performance of the FIVEC, two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are performed. Simulations are based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations and the shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulent model is utilized. The CFD method is firstly validated using existing experimental data. Then the influences of plate length and system damping on the performance of the FIVEC are evaluated. The results show that the device has a maximum averaged power coefficient of 0.0520 (13.86 W in the considered situations. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of this energy converter plan.

  6. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomize...

  7. Safety consequences of the release of radiation induced stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1994-08-01

    Due to the disposal of HLW in a salt formation gamma energy will be deposited in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat, whilst a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. Energy is stored in the damaged crystals. Due to uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1000 J/g in the most heavily damaged crystals close to the waste containers. The amount of radiation damage decays exponentially with increasing distance from the containers and at distances larger than 0.2 m the stored energy can be neglected. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be excluded completely. Therefore the thermo-mechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. To account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures an amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appeared that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (more than 100 m), the probability of a release of radiation induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater, is extremely low. The radiological consequences of a groundwater intrusion scenario induced by this very unprobable pathway are bounded by the 'standard' groundwater intrusion

  8. High intake of dairy during energy restriction does not affect energy balance or the intestinal microflora compared to low dairy intake in overweight individuals in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Blædel, Trine; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2018-01-01

    During weight loss, dairy calcium is proposed to accelerate weight and fat mass loss through increased fecal fat excretion. The primary objective was to investigate if a high-dairy energy-restricted diet is superior to low-dairy in terms of changes in body weight, body composition and fecal fat...... excretion over 24 weeks. Secondary objectives included fecal energy and calcium excretion, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. In a randomized, parallel-arm intervention study 11 men and 69 women (BMI 30.60.3 kg/m2, age 441 years) were allocated to a 500 kcal...... not increase fecal fat or accelerate weight and fat mass loss beyond energy restriction over 24 weeks in overweight and obese adults with a habitual calcium intake of ~1000 mg/d. However, this study indicate that Papillibacter is involved in body compositional changes....

  9. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with restrictive cardiomyopathy may be heart transplant candidates. The outlook depends on the cause of the ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  10. Development of guidance for preparing treatability variance petitions from the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions for DOE [Department of Energy] mixed-waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.; Scheuer, N.; Martin, R.; Van Epp, T.; Triplett, M.

    1990-01-01

    In response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) anticipated need for variances from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment requirements, a treatability variance guidance document is being prepared for use by DOE facilities and operations offices. The guidance document, although applicable to non-mixed hazardous waste streams, provides specific guidance regarding radioactive mixed-waste streams. Preparation of the guidance manual has involved developing an overview of the Land Disposal Restrictions, as well as an overview of the petition preparation process. The DOE internal review requirements are specifically addressed in the manual. Specific data requirements and engineering analyses are also described. A discussion of EPA's criteria for granting a treatability variance is also provided. A checklist for completeness of the petition is provided. Model language for use in DOE treatability variance petitions will be provided in a petition for a DOE waste stream as an appendix to the document

  11. The impact of exercise intensity on whole body and adipose tissue metabolism during energy restriction in sedentary overweight men and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Natalie C; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to establish whether vigorous-intensity exercise offers additional adipose-related health benefits and metabolic improvements compared to energy-matched moderate-intensity exercise. Thirty-eight sedentary overweight men (n = 24) and postmenopausal women (n = 14) aged 52 ± 5 years (mean ± standard deviations [SD]) were prescribed a 3-week energy deficit (29302 kJ∙week -1 ) achieved by increased isocaloric moderate or vigorous-intensity exercise (+8372 kJ∙week -1 ) and simultaneous restricted energy intake (-20930 kJ∙week -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to either an energy-matched vigorous (VIG; n = 18) or moderate (MOD; n = 20) intensity exercise group (five times per week at 70% or 50% maximal oxygen uptake, respectively). At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Body mass was reduced similarly in both groups (∆ 2.4 ± 1.1 kg and ∆ 2.4 ± 1.4 kg, respectively, P restriction provide broadly similar (positive) changes in metabolic control and adipose tissue gene expression. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from flow-induced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D-A; Ko, H-H

    2010-01-01

    A new piezoelectric energy harvester for harnessing energy from flow-induced vibration is developed. It converts flow energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric conversion with oscillation of a piezoelectric film. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the generated voltage of the piezoelectric laminate subjected to a distributed load. Prototypes of the energy harvester are fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that an open circuit output voltage of 2.2 V pp and an instantaneous output power of 0.2 µW are generated when the excitation pressure oscillates with an amplitude of 1.196 kPa and a frequency of about 26 Hz. The solution of the generated voltage based on the finite element model agrees well with the experiments. Based on the finite element model, the effects of the piezoelectric film dimensions, the fluid pressure applied to the harvester and types of piezoelectric layer on the output voltage of the harvester can be investigated.

  13. 76 FR 51026 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Highway, Seneca, SC 29672. 29223-4905. Rebekah Dobrasko, South Carolina Tyler B. Howe, Eastern Band of... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2503-147--South Carolina and North Carolina Keowee- Toxaway Hydroelectric Project] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of...

  14. Correlation-induced spectral changes and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G.S.; Wolf, E.

    1996-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for fields generated by random, statistically stationary, scalar sources of any state of coherence. It is shown that correlation-induced spectral changes are in strict agreement with this law and that, basic to the understanding of such changes, is a distinction that must be made between the spectrum of a source and the spectrum of the field that the source generates. This distinction, which is obviously relevant for spectroscopy, does not appear to have been previously recognized. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.ar; Ferron, J. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and Ar{sup +}) and Li{sup +} ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  16. Folic acid protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction through its anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates that maternal folic acid (FA supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects, but whether FA prevents preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR remains obscure. Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure induces preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR in rodent animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of FA on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR in mice. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with FA (0.6, 3 or 15 mg/kg 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, a high dose of LPS (300 μg/kg, i.p. on gestational day 15 (GD15 caused 100% of dams to deliver before GD18 and 89.3% of fetuses dead. A low dose of LPS (75 μg/kg, i.p. daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in IUGR. Interestingly, pretreatment with FA prevented LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, FA significantly attenuated LPS-induced IUGR. Further experiments showed that FA inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in mouse placentas. Moreover, FA suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation in human trophoblast cell line JEG-3. Correspondingly, FA significantly attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in mouse placentas. In addition, FA significantly reduced the levels of interleukin (IL-6 and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC in amniotic fluid of LPS-treated mice. Collectively, maternal FA supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR through its anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Mass distributions in nucleon-induced fission at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Duijvestijn, M C; Hambsch, F J

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fission barriers and fission-fragment mass distributions are calculated in the framework of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MM-RNRM). It is shown how the distinction between the different fission modes disappears at higher excitation energies, due to the melting of shell effects. The fission-fragment mass yield calculations are coupled to the nuclear reaction code ALICE-91, which takes into account the competition between the other reaction channels and fission. With the combination of the temperature-dependent MM-RNRM and ALICE-91 nucleon-induced fission is investigated at energies between 10 and 200 MeV for nuclei varying from Au to Am. (72 refs).

  18. Modeling compaction-induced energy dissipation of granular HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonthier, K.A. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-12-31

    A thermodynamically consistent model is developed for the compaction of granular solids. The model is an extension of the single phase limit of two-phase continuum models used to describe Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) experiments. The focus is on the energetics and dissipation of the compaction process. Changes in volume fraction are partitioned into reversible and irreversible components. Unlike conventional DDT models, the model is applicable from the quasi-static to dynamic compaction regimes for elastic, plastic, or brittle materials. When applied to the compaction of granular HMX (a brittle material), the model predicts results commensurate with experiments including stress relaxation, hysteresis, and energy dissipation. The model provides a suitable starting point for the development of thermal energy localization sub-scale models based on compaction-induced dissipation.

  19. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  20. Energy demand, economic growth, and energy efficiency - the Bakun dam-induced sustainable energy policy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In embarking on a dynamic course of economic development and industrial modernism, Malaysia sees the need to increase its electricity generation capacity through the development of a mega-dam project - the Bakun dam. Although hydroelectricity generation offers one of the benign options in accommodating the increasing energy consumption per capita in Malaysia, it is argued that the construction of Bakun's dam which involves a complete and irreversible destruction of 69,640 ha of old forest ecosystem remains a difficult and uncertain endeavour. It is further argued that apart from mega-dam technology, there are also other means to orchestrate a sustainable energy system in Malaysia. These include the implementation of demand and supply initiatives, such as the deployment of energy saving technology or influencing behavioral change towards a sustainable energy consumption pattern

  1. Free energy and phase equilibria for the restricted primitive model of ionic fluids from Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orkoulas, G.; Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the liquid--vapor phase transition of the restricted primitive model of ionic fluids. We show that at the low temperatures where the phase transition occurs, the system cannot be studied by conventional molecular simulation methods because convergence to equilibrium is slow. To accelerate convergence, we propose cluster Monte Carlo moves capable of moving more than one particle at a time. We then address the issue of charged particle transfers in grand canonical and Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, for which we propose a biased particle insertion/destruction scheme capable of sampling short interparticle distances. We compute the chemical potential for the restricted primitive model as a function of temperature and density from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and the phase envelope from Gibbs Monte Carlo simulations. Our calculated phase coexistence curve is in agreement with recent results of Caillol obtained on the four-dimensional hypersphere and our own earlier Gibbs ensemble simulations with single-ion transfers, with the exception of the critical temperature, which is lower in the current calculations. Our best estimates for the critical parameters are T * c =0.053, ρ * c =0.025. We conclude with possible future applications of the biased techniques developed here for phase equilibrium calculations for ionic fluids

  2. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  4. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  5. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.

  6. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. PMID:27422504

  7. Experimental Study on Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations and Wake-Induced Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached on has been tested through vortex-induced vibrations (VIV and wake-induced vibrations (WIV by installing a big cylinder fixed upstream, in order to study the influence of the different flow-induced vibrations (FIV types. The VIV test shows that the output voltage increases with the increases of load resistance; an optimal load resistance exists for the maximum output power. The WIV test shows that the vibration of the small cylinder is controlled by the vortex frequency of the large one. There is an optimal gap of the cylinders that can obtain the maximum output voltage and power. For a same energy harvesting device, WIV has higher power generation capacity; then the piezoelectric output characteristics can be effectively improved.

  8. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  9. Availability of biomass for energy production. GRAIN: Global Restrictions on biomass Availability for Import to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysen, E.H.

    2000-08-01

    The report includes reports of activities that were carried out within the GRAIN project. This evaluation shows that the (technical) potential contribution of bio-energy to the future world's energy supply could be very large. In theory, energy farming on current agricultural land could contribute over 800 EJ, without jeopardising the world's food supply. Use of degraded lands may add another 150 EJ, although this contribution will largely come from crops with a low productivity. The growing demand for bio-materials may require a biomass input equivalent to 20-50 EJ, which must be grown on plantations when existing forests are not able to supply this growing demand. Organic wastes and residues could possibly supply another 40-170 EJ, with uncertain contributions from forest residues and potentially a very significant role for organic waste, especially when bio-materials are used on a larger scale. In total, the upper limit of the bio-energy potential could be over 1000 EJ per year. This is considerably more than the current global energy use of 400 EJ. However, this contribution is by no means guaranteed: crucial factors determining biomass availability for energy are: (1) Population growth and economic development; (2) The efficiency and productivity of food production systems that must be adopted worldwide and the rate of their deployment in particular in developing countries; (3) Feasibility of the use of marginal/degraded lands; (4) Productivity of forests and sustainable harvest levels; (5) The (increased) utilisation of bio-materials. Major transitions are required to exploit this bio-energy potential. It is uncertain to what extent such transitions are feasible. Depending on the factors mentioned above, the bio-energy potential could be very low as well. At regional/local level the possibilities and potential consequences of biomass production and use can vary strongly, but the insights in possible consequences are fairly limited up to now. Bio-energy offers

  10. H-2 restriction of the T cell response to chemically induced tumors: evidence from F1 → parent chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannin, D.R.; Yu, S.; McKhann, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    It has been well established that T cells that react to tumor antigen on virus-induced tumors must share H-2D or H-2K specificities with the tumor. It has been impossible to perform similar studies with chemically induced tumors because each chemically induced tumor expresses a unique tumor antigen that cannot be studied in association with other H-2 types. This study provies evidence that H-2 recognition is also necessary for recognition of chemically induced tumors. We have found that F 1 → parent chimeras preferentially recognize chemically induced tumors of parental H-2 type. C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mice were lethally irradiated and restored with (C3H x C57BL/6) F 1 hybrid bone marrow. The F 1 → C3H chimera but not the F 1 → C57BL/6 chimera was able to respond to a C3H fibrosarcoma in mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell culture and also to neutralize the tumor in an in vivo tumor neutralization assay. On the other hand, the F 1 → C57BL/6 chimera but not the F 1 → C3H chimera was able to kill the C57BL/6 lymphoma EL4 in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Both chimeras were tolerant to C3H and C57BL/6 alloantigens but could respond normally to Con A and to BALB/c spleen cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures and cytotoxicity assay

  11. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up in the circulatory system. In time, the heart fails. What causes it? Restrictive cardiomyopathy is often caused by diseases in other parts of the body. One known cause is cardiac ... build up in the heart tissue, making the tissue stiff and thickened. Cardiac ...

  12. KRN633, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, induces intrauterine growth restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Naomichi; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Morita, Akane; Wada, Yoshiko; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Ishii, Kunio

    2013-08-01

    We previously reported that treatment with KRN633, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, during mid-pregnancy caused intrauterine growth restriction resulting from impairment of blood vessel growth in the labyrinthine zone of the placenta and fetal organs. However, the relative sensitivities of blood vessels in the placenta and fetal organs to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have not been determined. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of KRN633 on the vasculatures of organs in mother mice and their newborn pups by immunohistochemical analysis. Pregnant mice were treated daily with KRN633 (5 mg/kg) either from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to E17.5 or from E13.5 to the day of delivery. The weights of the pups of KRN633-treated mice were lower than those of the pups of vehicle-treated mothers. However, no significant difference in body weight was observed between the vehicle- and KRN633-treated mice. The vascular development in the organs (the pancreas, kidney, and intestine) and intestinal lymphatic formation of the pups of KRN633-treated mothers was markedly impaired. In contrast, the KRN633 treatment showed no significant effect on the vascular beds in the organs, including the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, of the mother mice. These results suggest that blood vessels in fetal organs are likely to be more sensitive to reduced VEGF signaling than those in the mother. A partial loss of VEGF function during pregnancy could suppress vascular growth in the fetus without affecting the vasculature in the mother mouse, thereby increasing the risk of intrauterine growth restriction. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Energy spectrum of tau leptons induced by the high energy Earth-skimming neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, J.-J.; Yeh, T.-W.; Lee, F.-F.; Lin, G.-L.; Athar, H.; Huang, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a semianalytic calculation of the tau-lepton flux emerging from the Earth induced by incident high energy neutrinos interacting inside the Earth for 10 5 ≤E ν /GeV≤10 10 . We obtain results for the energy dependence of the tau-lepton flux coming from the Earth-skimming neutrinos, because of the neutrino-nucleon charged-current scattering as well as the resonant ν(bar sign) e e - scattering. We illustrate our results for several anticipated high energy astrophysical neutrino sources such as the active galactic nuclei, the gamma-ray bursts, and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin neutrino fluxes. The tau-lepton fluxes resulting from rock-skimming and ocean-skimming neutrinos are compared. Such comparisons can render useful information about the spectral indices of incident neutrino fluxes

  14. Sepsis and mechnaical ventilation restrain translation initiation in skeletal muscle by inducing AMPK-associated TSC[2] restriction of mTOR signaling in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In skeletal muscle, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor of AMP: ATP and modulates translation by repressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis reduces muscle protein synthesis by blunting translation initiation. We hypothe...

  15. Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Study of Cloned versus Normal Pigs Fed Either Restricted or Ad Libitum High-Energy Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation...... of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted...... manner (60% of ad libitum) for 6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding...

  16. Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8-week equi-energetic energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Cyr, Marie-Josée; Doucet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    There have been reports of an inverse relationship between meal frequency (MF) and adiposity. It has been postulated that this may be explained by favourable effects of increased MF on appetite control and possibly on gut peptides as well. The main goal of the present study was to investigate whether using a high MF could lead to a greater weight loss than that obtained with a low MF under conditions of similar energy restriction. Subjects were randomised into two treatment arms (high MF = 3 meals+3 snacks/d or low MF = 3 meals/d) and subjected to the same dietary energy restriction of - 2931 kJ/d for 8 weeks. Sixteen obese adults (n 8 women and 8 men; age 34.6 (sd 9.5); BMI 37.1 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) completed the study. Overall, there was a 4.7 % decrease in body weight (P weight loss under the conditions described in the present study.

  17. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  18. Caloric restriction induces heat shock response and inhibits B16F10 cell tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelle, Marta G.; Davis, Ashley; Price, Nathan L.; Ali, Ahmed; Fürer-Galvan, Stefanie; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is one of the most consistent strategies for increasing mean and maximal lifespan and delaying the onset of age-associated diseases. Stress resistance is a common trait of many long-lived mutants and life-extending interventions, including CR. Indeed, better protection against heat shock and other genotoxic insults have helped explain the pro-survival properties of CR. In this study, both in vitro and in vivo responses to heat shock were investigated using two different models of CR. Murine B16F10 melanoma cells treated with serum from CR-fed rats showed lower proliferation, increased tolerance to heat shock and enhanced HSP-70 expression, compared to serum from ad libitum-fed animals. Similar effects were observed in B16F10 cells implanted subcutaneously in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to CR. Microarray analysis identified a number of genes and pathways whose expression profile were similar in both models. These results suggest that the use of an in vitro model could be a good alternative to study the mechanisms by which CR exerts its anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:25948793

  19. Evaluation of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Devices in Energy Cascade Systems under the Restriction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is necessary to introduce energy cascade systems into the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the refrigerating and air conditioning devices in cases of introducing both energy cascade systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. The authors have developed an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions results in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature one is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustor waste heat can reduce electric power for the turbo refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator.

  20. High energy hadron-induced errors in memory chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.J. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2001-09-01

    We have measured probabilities for proton, neutron and pion beams from accelerators to induce temporary or soft errors in a wide range of modern 16 Mb and 64 Mb dRAM memory chips, typical of those used in aircraft electronics. Relations among the cross sections for these particles are deduced, and failure rates for aircraft avionics due to cosmic rays are evaluated. Measurement of alpha pha particle yields from pions on aluminum, as a surrogate for silicon, indicate that these reaction products are the proximate cause of the charge deposition resulting in errors. Heavy ions can cause damage to solar panels and other components in satellites above the atmosphere, by the heavy ionization trails they leave. However, at the earth's surface or at aircraft altitude it is known that cosmic rays, other than heavy ions, can cause soft errors in memory circuit components. Soft errors are those confusions between ones and zeroes that cause wrong contents to be stored in the memory, but without causing permanent damage to the circuit. As modern aircraft rely increasingly upon computerized and automated systems, these soft errors are important threats to safety. Protons, neutrons and pions resulting from high energy cosmic ray bombardment of the atmosphere pervade our environment. These particles do not induce damage directly by their ionization loss, but rather by reactions in the materials of the microcircuits. We have measured many cross sections for soft error upsets (SEU) in a broad range of commercial 16 Mb and 64 Mb dRAMs with accelerator beams. Here we define {sigma} SEU = induced errors/number of sample bits x particles/cm{sup 2}. We compare {sigma} SEU to find relations among results for these beams, and relations to reaction cross sections in order to systematize effects. We have modelled cosmic ray effects upon the components we have studied. (Author)

  1. High energy hadron-induced errors in memory chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured probabilities for proton, neutron and pion beams from accelerators to induce temporary or soft errors in a wide range of modern 16 Mb and 64 Mb dRAM memory chips, typical of those used in aircraft electronics. Relations among the cross sections for these particles are deduced, and failure rates for aircraft avionics due to cosmic rays are evaluated. Measurement of alpha pha particle yields from pions on aluminum, as a surrogate for silicon, indicate that these reaction products are the proximate cause of the charge deposition resulting in errors. Heavy ions can cause damage to solar panels and other components in satellites above the atmosphere, by the heavy ionization trails they leave. However, at the earth's surface or at aircraft altitude it is known that cosmic rays, other than heavy ions, can cause soft errors in memory circuit components. Soft errors are those confusions between ones and zeroes that cause wrong contents to be stored in the memory, but without causing permanent damage to the circuit. As modern aircraft rely increasingly upon computerized and automated systems, these soft errors are important threats to safety. Protons, neutrons and pions resulting from high energy cosmic ray bombardment of the atmosphere pervade our environment. These particles do not induce damage directly by their ionization loss, but rather by reactions in the materials of the microcircuits. We have measured many cross sections for soft error upsets (SEU) in a broad range of commercial 16 Mb and 64 Mb dRAMs with accelerator beams. Here we define σ SEU = induced errors/number of sample bits x particles/cm 2 . We compare σ SEU to find relations among results for these beams, and relations to reaction cross sections in order to systematize effects. We have modelled cosmic ray effects upon the components we have studied. (Author)

  2. Center for Environmental Information's Ninth International Conference on Global Energy Strategies : Living with Restricted Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The world is getting warmer. Among scientists concerned with global climate change this is the broad consensus. How fast and by how much, are questions which cannot be answered quantitatively, but the probability of rising temperatures must be faced in a prudent manner - there is enough certainty of change so that we must anticipate and prepare before irreparable damage is done to our world. Even if it isn't going to be as bad as some people think, the actions we propose will benefit the earth and give us a kind of insurance. The root of the change is population growth, and its attendant demand for energy. While the developed world expects to hold future emissions relatively steady, the developing countries, where population growth is most rampant, will expand the use of energy as they aspire to a better quality of life. H greater energy use is inevitable it behooves us to produce that energy in the least objectionable manner, and to produce it where the cost is lowest in dollars, GNP, and environmental chang...

  3. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  4. A3 adenosine receptor agonist prevents the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain by modulating spinal glial-restricted redox-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Kali; Esposito, Emanuela; Doyle, Timothy; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Tosh, Dillip K; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Salvemini, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy accompanied by chronic neuropathic pain is the major dose-limiting toxicity of several anticancer agents including the taxane paclitaxel (Taxol). A critical mechanism underlying paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain is the increased production of peroxynitrite in spinal cord generated in response to activation of the superoxide-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase. Peroxynitrite in turn contributes to the development of neuropathic pain by modulating several redox-dependent events in spinal cord. We recently reported that activation of the Gi/Gq-coupled A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) with selective A3AR agonists (ie, IB-MECA) blocked the development of chemotherapy induced-neuropathic pain evoked by distinct agents, including paclitaxel, without interfering with anticancer effects. The mechanism or mechanisms of action underlying these beneficial effects has yet to be explored. We now demonstrate that IB-MECA attenuates the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activation of spinal NADPH oxidase and two downstream redox-dependent systems. The first relies on inhibition of the redox-sensitive transcription factor (NFκB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (ERK and p38) resulting in decreased production of neuroexcitatory/proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) and increased formation of the neuroprotective/anti-inflammatory IL-10. The second involves inhibition of redox-mediated posttranslational tyrosine nitration and modification (inactivation) of glia-restricted proteins known to play key roles in regulating synaptic glutamate homeostasis: the glutamate transporter GLT-1 and glutamine synthetase. Our results unravel a mechanistic link into biomolecular signaling pathways employed by A3AR activation in neuropathic pain while providing the foundation to consider use of A3AR agonists as therapeutic agents in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2014

  5. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  6. Dynamic imaging of experimental Leishmania donovani-induced hepatic granulomas detects Kupffer cell-restricted antigen presentation to antigen-specific CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Beattie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kupffer cells (KCs represent the major phagocytic population within the liver and provide an intracellular niche for the survival of a number of important human pathogens. Although KCs have been extensively studied in vitro, little is known of their in vivo response to infection and their capacity to directly interact with antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells. Here, using a combination of approaches including whole mount and thin section confocal microscopy, adoptive cell transfer and intra-vital 2-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that KCs represent the only detectable population of mononuclear phagocytes within granulomas induced by Leishmania donovani infection that are capable of presenting parasite-derived peptide to effector CD8(+ T cells. This restriction of antigen presentation to KCs within the Leishmania granuloma has important implications for the identification of new candidate vaccine antigens and for the design of novel immuno-therapeutic interventions.

  7. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metaboli...

  8. A Generalization of Electromagnetic Fluctuation-Induced Casimir Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces responsible for adhesion and cohesion can be classified according to their origins; interactions between charges, ions, random dipole—random dipole (Keesom, random dipole—induced dipole (Debye are due to electrostatic effects; covalent bonding, London dispersion forces between fluctuating dipoles, and Lewis acid-base interactions are due to quantum mechanical effects; pressure and osmotic forces are of entropic origin. Of all these interactions, the London dispersion interaction is universal and exists between all types of atoms as well as macroscopic objects. The dispersion force between macroscopic objects is called Casimir/van der Waals force. It results from alteration of the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the electrodynamic field due to the presence of interfaces and plays a significant role in the interaction between macroscopic objects at micrometer and nanometer length scales. This paper discusses how fluctuational electrodynamics can be used to determine the Casimir energy/pressure between planar multilayer objects. Though it is confirmation of the famous work of Dzyaloshinskii, Lifshitz, and Pitaevskii (DLP, we have solved the problem without having to use methods from quantum field theory that DLP resorted to. Because of this new approach, we have been able to clarify the contributions of propagating and evanescent waves to Casimir energy/pressure in dissipative media.

  9. Pancreas and liver uptake of new radiolabeled incretins (GLP-1 and Exendin-4) in models of diet-induced and diet-restricted obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; Aparecida de Oliveira, Erica; Faintuch, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Radiolabeled GLP-1 and its analog Exendin-4, have been employed in diabetes and insulinoma. No protocol in conventional Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), and Diet-Restricted Obesity (DRO), has been identified. Aiming to assess pancreatic beta cell uptake in DIO and DRO, a protocol was designed. Methods: GLP-1-βAla-HYNIC and HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 were labeled with technetium-99m. Four Swiss mouse models were adopted: Controls (C), Alloxan Diabetes Controls (ADC), DIO and DRO. Biodistribution and ex-vivo planar imaging were documented. Results: Radiolabeling yield was in the range of 97% and both agents were hydrophilic. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) was 79.2 ± 8.2 mg/dl in C, 590.4 ± 23.3 mg/dl in ADC, 234.3 ± 66.7 mg/dl in DIO, and 96.6 ± 9.3 in DRO (p = 0.010). Biodistribution confirmed predominantly urinary excretion. DIO mice exhibited depressed uptake in liver and pancreas, for both radiomarkers, in the range of ADC. DRO only partially restored such values. 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 demonstrated better results than GLP-1-βAla-HYNIC- 99m Tc. Conclusions: 1) Diet-induced obesity remarkably depressed beta cell uptake; 2) Restriction of obesity failed to normalize uptake, despite robust improvement of FBG; 3) HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 was the most useful marker; 4) Further studies are recommended in obesity and dieting, including bariatric surgery.

  10. Proposed energy conservation contingency plan: emergency restrictions on illuminated advertising and certain gas lighting. Economic impact analysis. Environmental impact assessment. Contingency plan No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    In the event of a severe energy supply disruption or in order to fulfill obligations of the U.S. under the International Energy Program, the President may implement one or more energy conservation contingency plans provided for in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975. This report describes the economic impact of restrictions on the use of illuminated advertising and certain gas lighting. The proposed plan would reduce demand for electricity and natural gas. The reduced demand for electricity would result in reduced demand for oil, natural gas, and other fuels used to generate electricity. Since oil and natural gas would be in short supply, the reduced use of these fuels in the generation of electricity could make supplies available to other industries. By contrast, the coal supply would not be affected by these conditions. However, the substitutability of coal for fuels in short supply (especially oil for electric generation) would tend to offset the impact of reduced demand for coal to generate electricity. Advertising expenditures would shift. Expenditures for illuminated outdoor signs would fall and expenditures for advertising in other media (e.g., radio, newspapers) would rise. No significant effect upon aggregate retail sales is anticipated. In summary, microeconomic effects of the measure are negligible and all effects are minor and/or beneficial. These effects are almost lost in the projected economic effects that would result from any severe supply interruption.

  11. Utility of circulating IGF-I as a biomarker for assessing body composition changes in men during periods of high physical activity superimposed upon energy and sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Alemany, Joseph A; Kellogg, Mark D; Rood, Jennifer; Allison, Steven A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2007-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a biomarker that may have greater utility than other conventional nutritional biomarkers in assessing nutritional, health, and fitness status. We hypothesized that the IGF-I system would directionally track a short-term energy deficit and would be more related to changes in body composition than other nutritional biomarkers. Thirty-five healthy men (24 +/- 0.3 yr) underwent 8 days of exercise and energy imbalance. Total and free IGF-I, IGF binding proteins-1, -2, and -3, the acid labile subunit, transferrin, ferritin, retinol binding protein, prealbumin, testosterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and leptin responses were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessed changes in body mass and composition. Repeated-measures ANOVA, correlation analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used for statistical analyses (P losing >5% body mass. The IGF-I system is an important adjunct in the overall assessment of adaptation to stress imposed by high levels of physical activity superimposed on energy and sleep restriction and is more closely associated with losses in body mass and fat-free mass than other conventional nutritional biomarkers.

  12. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  13. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  14. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; McGlory, Chris; Damas, Felipe; Mazara, Nicole; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 ; age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1.2 g/kg/d, n = 12) or higher protein (2.4 g/kg/d, n = 12). Pre- and postintervention testing included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, primed constant infusion of ring -[ 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine, and 15 [N]phenylalanine to measure acute postabsorptive MPS and MPB; D 2 O to measure integrated MPS; and gene and protein expression. There was a decrease in acute MPS after ER (higher protein, 0.059 ± 0.006 to 0.051 ± 0.009%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.005 to 0.045 ± 0.006%/h; P resistance exercise (higher protein, 0.067 ± 0.01%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.006%/h), and integrated MPS followed a similar pattern. There was no change in MPB (energy balance, 0.080 ± 0.01%/hr; ER rested legs, 0.078 ± 0.008%/hr; ER exercised legs, 0.079 ± 0.006%/hr). We conclude that a reduction in MPS is the main mechanism that underpins LBM loss early in ER in adult men.-Hector, A. J., McGlory, C., Damas, F., Mazara, N., Baker, S. K., Phillips, S. M. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  15. The interferon-induced antiviral protein PML (TRIM19) promotes the restriction and transcriptional silencing of lentiviruses in a context-specific, isoform-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroori, Nasser; Merindol, Natacha; Berthoux, Lionel

    2016-03-22

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, a type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced gene product and a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, modulates the transcriptional activity of viruses belonging to various families. Whether PML has an impact on the replication of HIV-1 has not been fully addressed, but recent studies point to its possible involvement in the restriction of HIV-1 in human cells and in the maintenance of transcriptional latency in human cell lines in which HIV-1 is constitutively repressed. We investigated further the restriction of HIV-1 and a related lentivirus, SIVmac, by PML in murine cells and in a lymphocytic human cell line. In particular, we studied the relevance of PML to IFN-I-mediated inhibition and the role of individual human isoforms. We demonstrate that both human PML (hPML) and murine PML (mPML) inhibit the early post-entry stages of the replication of HIV-1 and a related lentivirus, SIVmac. In addition, HIV-1 was transcriptionally silenced by mPML and by hPML isoforms I, II, IV and VI in MEFs. This PML-mediated transcriptional repression was attenuated in presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. In contrast, depletion of PML had no effect on HIV-1 gene expression in a human T cell line. PML was found to contribute to the inhibition of HIV-1 by IFN-I. Specifically, IFN-α and IFN-β treatments of MEFs enhanced the PML-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 early replication stages. We show that PML can inhibit HIV-1 and other lentiviruses as part of the IFN-I-mediated response. The restriction takes place at two distinct steps, i.e. reverse transcription and transcription, and in an isoform-specific, cellular context-specific fashion. Our results support a model in which PML activates innate immune antilentiviral effectors. These data are relevant to the development of latency reversal-inducing pharmacological agents, since PML was previously proposed as a pharmacological target for such inhibitors. This study also has

  16. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Stonehouse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644 and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high were found in studies largely including women (90% women. These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate. Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate. No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects.

  17. Intermittent v. continuous energy restriction: differential effects on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss in overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2018-03-01

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (>70 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. Studies to date comparing IER to continuous energy restriction (CER) have predominantly measured fasting indices of cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to compare the effects of IER and CER on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss. In all, twenty-seven (thirteen male) overweight/obese participants (46 (sem 3) years, 30·1 (sem 1·0) kg/m2) who were randomised to either an IER intervention (2638 kJ for 2 d/week with an overall ER of 22 (sem 0·3) %, n 15) or a CER intervention (2510 kJ below requirements with overall ER of 23 (sem 0·8) %) completed the study. Postprandial responses to a test meal (over 360 min) and changes in anthropometry (fat mass, fat-free mass, circumferences) were assessed at baseline and upon attainment of 5 % weight loss, following a 7-d period of weight stabilisation. The study found no statistically significant difference in the time to attain a 5 % weight loss between groups (median 59 d (interquartile range (IQR) 41-80) and 73 d (IQR 48-128), respectively, P=0·246), or in body composition (P≥0·437). For postprandial measures, neither diet significantly altered glycaemia (P=0·266), whereas insulinaemia was reduced comparatively (P=0·903). The reduction in C-peptide tended (P=0·057) to be greater following IER (309 128 (sem23 268) to 247781 (sem20 709) pmol×360 min/l) v. CER (297 204 (sem25 112) to 301 655 (sem32 714) pmol×360 min/l). The relative reduction in TAG responses was greater (P=0·045) following IER (106 (sem30) to 68 (sem 15) mmol×360 min/l) compared with CER (117 (sem 43) to 130 (sem 31) mmol×360 min/l). In conclusion, these preliminary findings highlight underlying differences between IER and CER, including a superiority of IER in reducing postprandial lipaemia, which now warrant targeted mechanistic evaluation

  18. Adjuvanted HLA-supertype restricted subdominant peptides induce new T-cell immunity during untreated HIV-1-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Brandt, Lea; Vinner, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    . T-cell immunogenicity was examined longitudinally by a flow cytometry (CD107a, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2 and/or MIP1β expression) as well as IFNγ ELISPOT. Safety was evaluated by clinical follow up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T-cell counts and viral load. New CD4 and CD8 T......-cell responses specific for one or more vaccine epitopes were induced in 10/10 vaccinees. The responses were dominated by CD107a and MIP1β expression. There were no significant changes in HIV-1 viral load or CD4 T-cell counts. Our study demonstrates that the peptide/CAF01 vaccine is safe and that it is possible...

  19. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  20. In vivo growth-restricted and reversible malignancy induced by Human Herpesvirus-8/ KSHV: a cell and animal model of virally induced Kaposi's sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Agata D'Agostino; Cavallin, Lucas E.; Vincent, Loïc; Chiozzini, Chiara; Eroles, Pilar; Duran, Elda M.; Asgari, Zahra; Hooper, Andrea T.; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Hilsher, Chelsey; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Rafii, Shahin; Mesri, Enrique A.

    2007-01-01

    Transfection of a Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (KSHVBac36) into mouse bone marrow endothelial lineage cells generates a cell (mECK36) that forms KS-like tumors in mice. mECK36 expressed most KSHV genes and were angiogenic, but didn't form colonies in soft agar. In nude mice, mECK36 formed KSHV-harboring vascularized spindle-cell sarcomas that were LANA+/podoplanin+, overexpressed VEGF and Angiopoietin ligands and receptors, and displayed KSHV and host transcriptomes reminiscent of KS. mECK36 that lost the KSHV episome reverted to non-tumorigenicity. siRNA suppression of KSHV vGPCR, an angiogenic gene up-regulated in mECK36 tumors, inhibited angiogenicity and tumorigenicity. These results show that KSHV malignancy is in vivo growth-restricted and reversible, defining mECK36 as a biologically sensitive animal model of KSHV-dependent KS. PMID:17349582

  1. Determination of the Lowest-Energy States for the Model Distribution of Trained Restricted Boltzmann Machines Using a 1000 Qubit D-Wave 2X Quantum Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshka, Yaroslav; Perera, Dilina; Hall, Spencer; Novotny, M A

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of using a quantum computer D-Wave 2X with more than 1000 qubits to determine the global minimum of the energy landscape of trained restricted Boltzmann machines is investigated. In order to overcome the problem of limited interconnectivity in the D-Wave architecture, the proposed RBM embedding combines multiple qubits to represent a particular RBM unit. The results for the lowest-energy (the ground state) and some of the higher-energy states found by the D-Wave 2X were compared with those of the classical simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. In many cases, the D-Wave machine successfully found the same RBM lowest-energy state as that found by SA. In some examples, the D-Wave machine returned a state corresponding to one of the higher-energy local minima found by SA. The inherently nonperfect embedding of the RBM into the Chimera lattice explored in this work (i.e., multiple qubits combined into a single RBM unit were found not to be guaranteed to be all aligned) and the existence of small, persistent biases in the D-Wave hardware may cause a discrepancy between the D-Wave and the SA results. In some of the investigated cases, introduction of a small bias field into the energy function or optimization of the chain-strength parameter in the D-Wave embedding successfully addressed difficulties of the particular RBM embedding. With further development of the D-Wave hardware, the approach will be suitable for much larger numbers of RBM units.

  2. The competitiveness of nuclear energy in an era of liberalized markets and restrictions on greenhouse-gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.; Gulli, F.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on the benefits of nuclear energy revolves around the very competitiveness of this energy source. This article tries to show why it is not easy to answer unambiguously the question whether or not it is convenient to resort to nuclear power in a given country. After listing the factors on which the cost of electricity generation rests and discussing the range of probability of their value, the levelized cost of electricity generation from nuclear, coal and gas-fired plants is calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that nuclear power is likely to be competitive, especially if policies to combat Co2 emissions will continue in the coming decades. There are, however, some margins of uncertainty, mainly related, to the one hand, to the cost of nuclear plants, that depends on the socio-institutional context, and on the other, to the fossil fuels cost, that are inherently difficult to anticipate even on average. Finally it is noted that the context of liberalized electricity markets may make it more difficult for investors to accept the risk of investing in nuclear power plants and for the community to socialize some of the costs associated with this technology. [it

  3. Porcine placenta mitigates protein-energy malnutrition-induced fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Kyu-Yeop; Kim, Myong-Jo; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue can be caused by a deficiency of nutrition or immune function. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) and its constituents, amino acids (glutamic acid, glycine, arginine, and proline), on protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)-induced fatigue. Mice were administered a PEM diet and came to immunodeficient status. Simultaneously, the mice were administered PPE or amino acids and a forced swimming test (FST) was performed. We analyzed the levels of fatigue-related factors in serum, splenocytes, and muscles. In the FST, PPE or amino acids significantly decreased immobility times compared with the PEM diet. PPE or amino acids also significantly decreased the serum levels of fatigue-related factors after the FST. Additionally, PPE significantly decreased the levels of fatigue-related muscle parameters after the FST. In this in vitro study, PPE increased the mRNA and protein expression of Ki-67 and promoted the proliferation of splenocytes. PPE or amino acids significantly increased the levels of intracellular calcium and the translocation into the nucleus of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic in stimulated splenocytes. PPE or amino acids significantly decreased the production of fatigue-related inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated splenocytes. Additionally, the translocated levels of nuclear factor-κB in the nucleus and the degradation of the inhibitory protein, IκBα, in the cytosol were inhibited by PPE or amino acids. These results demonstrate that PPE and its constituents regulate PEM-induced fatigue through improving levels of immunity and decreasing fatigue-related factors. PPE may be a potential agent for a recovery from fatigue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purine restriction induces pronounced translational upregulation of the NT1 adenosine/pyrimidine nucleoside transporter in Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Diana; Valdés, Raquel; Sanchez, Marco A; Hayenga, Johanna; Elya, Carolyn; Detke, Siegfried; Landfear, Scott M

    2010-10-01

    Leishmania and other parasitic protozoa are unable to synthesize purines de novo and are reliant upon purine nucleoside and nucleobase transporters to import preformed purines from their hosts. To study the roles of the four purine permeases NT1-NT4 in Leishmania major, null mutants in each transporter gene were prepared and the effect of each gene deletion on purine uptake was monitored. Deletion of the NT3 purine nucleobase transporter gene or both NT3 and the NT2 nucleoside transporter gene resulted in pronounced upregulation of adenosine and uridine uptake mediated by the NT1 permease and also induced up to a 200-fold enhancement in the level of the NT1 protein but not mRNA. A similar level of upregulation of NT1 was achieved in wild-type promastigotes that were transferred to medium deficient in purines. Pulse labelling and treatment of cells with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide revealed that control of NT1 expression occurs primarily at the level of translation and not protein turnover. These observations imply the existence of a translational control mechanism that enhances the ability of Leishmania parasites to import essential purines when they are present at limiting concentrations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Energy efficiency in the Hellenic building sector: An assessment of the restrictions and perspectives of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkanias, C.; Boemi, S.N.; Papadopoulos, A.M.; Tsoutsos, T.D.; Karagiannidis, A.

    2010-01-01

    The significance of bioclimatic architecture has become widely accepted since the 1970s and the implementation of its principles in practice is a key factor in order to achieve energy efficiency in the building sector. The way, however, from scientific acceptance to commercial utilization is not a straightforward one. This paper deals with the notion of bioclimatic architecture in buildings and investigates the aspects of this concept in Hellas. A sample of university researchers, building contractors and members of public organisations was interviewed using a standardised set of guidelines. The barriers to promoting bioclimatic design, role of the local government in the adoption process, level of environmental culture as well as perspectives of this concept in Hellas were the key areas of discussion in each of the interviews. The results from the data analysis reveal insufficient economic incentives, a lack in technical information as well as a lack in specific environmental policies that would foster the propagation of bioclimatic architecture.

  6. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  7. Effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat feeding on diet-induced thermogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellayah, Dyan; Dib, Lea; Anthony, Frederick W; Watkins, Adam J; Fleming, Tom P; Hanson, Mark A; Cagampang, Felino R

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal undernutrition followed by postweaning feeding of a high-fat diet results in obesity in the adult offspring. In this study, we investigated whether diet-induced thermogenesis is altered as a result of such nutritional mismatch. Female MF-1 mice were fed a normal protein (NP, 18% casein) or a protein-restricted (PR, 9% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both groups were fed either a high-fat diet (HF; 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 7% kcal fat) to generate the NP/C, NP/HF, PR/C and PR/HF adult offspring groups (n = 7-11 per group). PR/C and NP/C offspring have similar body weights at 30 weeks of age. Postweaning HF feeding resulted in significantly heavier NP/HF offspring (P protein-1 and β-3 adrenergic receptor in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) compared with the NP/C mice (both at P diet during pregnancy and lactation, and the postweaning diet of the offspring, can attenuate diet-induced thermogenesis in the iBAT, resulting in the development of obesity in adulthood.

  8. MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein that modulates the Rho/ROCK pathway, induces cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi; Isodono, Koji; Tagawa, Masashi; Takehara, Naofumi; Kawashima, Tsuneaki; Harada, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Shioi, Tetsuo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-05-01

    We identified a novel muscle-restricted putative coiled-coil protein, MURC, which is evolutionarily conserved from frog to human. MURC was localized to the cytoplasm with accumulation in the Z-line of the sarcomere in the murine adult heart. MURC mRNA expression in the heart increased during the developmental process from the embryonic stage to adulthood. In response to pressure overload, MURC mRNA expression increased in the hypertrophied heart. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified the serum deprivation response (SDPR) protein, a phosphatidylserine-binding protein, as a MURC-binding protein. MURC induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway, which modulated serum response factor-mediated atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression and myofibrillar organization. SDPR augmented MURC-induced transactivation of the ANP promoter in cardiomyocytes, and RNA interference of SDPR attenuated the action of MURC on the ANP promoter. Transgenic mice expressing cardiac-specific MURC (Tg-MURC) exhibited cardiac contractile dysfunction and atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances with atrial chamber enlargement, reduced thickness of the ventricular wall, and interstitial fibrosis. Spontaneous episodes of atrial fibrillation and AV block were observed in Tg-MURC mice. These findings indicate that MURC modulates RhoA signaling and that MURC plays an important role in the development of cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance with increased vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias.

  9. MURC, a Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil Protein That Modulates the Rho/ROCK Pathway, Induces Cardiac Dysfunction and Conduction Disturbance▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi; Isodono, Koji; Tagawa, Masashi; Takehara, Naofumi; Kawashima, Tsuneaki; Harada, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Shioi, Tetsuo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-01-01

    We identified a novel muscle-restricted putative coiled-coil protein, MURC, which is evolutionarily conserved from frog to human. MURC was localized to the cytoplasm with accumulation in the Z-line of the sarcomere in the murine adult heart. MURC mRNA expression in the heart increased during the developmental process from the embryonic stage to adulthood. In response to pressure overload, MURC mRNA expression increased in the hypertrophied heart. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified the serum deprivation response (SDPR) protein, a phosphatidylserine-binding protein, as a MURC-binding protein. MURC induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway, which modulated serum response factor-mediated atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression and myofibrillar organization. SDPR augmented MURC-induced transactivation of the ANP promoter in cardiomyocytes, and RNA interference of SDPR attenuated the action of MURC on the ANP promoter. Transgenic mice expressing cardiac-specific MURC (Tg-MURC) exhibited cardiac contractile dysfunction and atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances with atrial chamber enlargement, reduced thickness of the ventricular wall, and interstitial fibrosis. Spontaneous episodes of atrial fibrillation and AV block were observed in Tg-MURC mice. These findings indicate that MURC modulates RhoA signaling and that MURC plays an important role in the development of cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance with increased vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias. PMID:18332105

  10. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  11. A topological extension of GR: Black holes induce dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaans, M

    2013-01-01

    A topological extension of general relativity is presented. The superposition principle of quantum mechanics, as formulated by the Feynman path integral, is taken as a starting point. It is argued that the trajectories that enter this path integral are distinct and thus that space-time topology is multiply connected. Specifically, space-time at the Planck scale consists of a lattice of three-tori that facilitates many distinct paths for particles to travel along. To add gravity, mini black holes are attached to this lattice. These mini black holes represent Wheeler's quantum foam and result from the fact that GR is not conformally invariant. The number of such mini black holes in any time-slice through four-space is found to be equal to the number of macroscopic (so long-lived) black holes in the entire universe. This connection, by which macroscopic black holes induce mini black holes, is a topological expression of Mach's principle. The proposed topological extension of GR can be tested because, if correct, the dark energy density of the universe should be proportional the total number of macroscopic black holes in the universe at any time. This prediction, although strange, agrees with current astrophysical observations.

  12. Comparison of Physical Therapy with Energy Healing for Improving Range of Motion in Subjects with Restricted Shoulder Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Linda Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of energy healing, Reconnective Healing (RH and Reiki, which involve light or no touch, were tested for efficacy against physical therapy (PT for increasing limited range of motion (ROM of arm elevation in the scapular plane. Participants were assigned to one of 5 groups: PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, or no treatment. Except for no treatment, participants were blinded as to grouping. Range of Motion, self-reported pain, and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed before and after a 10-minute session. On average, for PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, and no treatment, respectively, ROM increased by 12°, 20°, 26°, 0.6°, and 3° and pain score decreased by 11.5%, 10.1%, 23.9%, 15.4%, and 0%. Physical therapy, Reiki, and RH were more effective than Sham Healing for increasing ROM (PT: , ; Reiki: , ; RH: , . It is possible that this improvement was not mediated by myofascial release because the subjects’ HRV did not change, suggesting no significant increase in vagal activity. Sham treatment significantly reduced pain compared to no treatment (, and was just as effective as PT, Reiki, and RH. It is the authors’ opinion that the accompanying pain relief is a placebo effect.

  13. Maternal protein restriction during lactation induces early and lasting plasma metabolomic and hepatic lipidomic signatures of the offspring in a rodent programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Agnoux, Aurore; El Ghaziri, Angélina; Moyon, Thomas; Pagniez, Anthony; David, Agnès; Simard, Gilles; Parnet, Patricia; Qannari, El Mostafa; Darmaun, Dominique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2018-05-01

    Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. However, the exact mechanisms underlying offspring metabolic adaptations are not yet fully understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the gestation or the lactation is the more vulnerable period to modify offspring metabolic flexibility. We investigated in a rodent model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal protein restriction (R) during gestation which time window of maternal undernutrition (gestation, lactation or gestation-lactation) has more impact on the male offspring metabolomics phenotype. Plasma metabolome and hepatic lipidome of offspring were characterized through suckling period and at adulthood using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of these fingerprints highlighted a persistent metabolomics signature in rats suckled by R dams, with a clear-cut discrimination from offspring fed by control (C) dams. Pups submitted to a nutritional switch at birth presented a metabolomics signature clearly distinct from that of pups nursed by dams maintained on a consistent perinatal diet. Control rats suckled by R dams presented transiently higher branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation during lactation besides increased fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation, associated with preserved insulin sensitivity and lesser fat accretion that persisted throughout their life. In contrast, IUGR rats displayed permanently impaired β-oxidation, associated to increased glucose or BCAA oxidation at adulthood, depending on the fact that pups experienced slow postnatal or catch-up growth, as suckled by R or C dams, respectively. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a significant contribution of the lactation period in metabolic programming. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; Marcotte, George R; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Breen, Leigh; von Allmen, Mark; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Higher dietary energy as protein during weight loss results in a greater loss of fat mass and retention of muscle mass; however, the impact of protein quality on the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and lipolysis, processes that are important in the maintenance of muscle and loss of fat, respectively, are unknown. We aimed to determine how the consumption of different sources of proteins (soy or whey) during a controlled short-term (14-d) hypoenergetic diet affected MPS and lipolysis. Men (n = 19) and women (n = 21) (age 35-65 y; body mass index 28-50 kg/m(2)) completed a 14-d controlled hypoenergetic diet (-750 kcal/d). Participants were randomly assigned, double blind, to receive twice-daily supplements of isolated whey (27 g/supplement) or soy (26 g/supplement), providing a total protein intake of 1.3 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d), or isoenergetic carbohydrate (25 g maltodextrin/supplement) resulting in a total protein intake of 0.7 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d). Before and after the dietary intervention, primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(2)H5]-glycerol were used to measure postabsorptive and postprandial rates of MPS and lipolysis. Preintervention, MPS was stimulated more (P whey than with soy or carbohydrate. Postintervention, postabsorptive MPS decreased similarly in all groups (all P whey group, which was less (P whey. We conclude that whey protein supplementation attenuated the decline in postprandial rates of MPS after weight loss, which may be of importance in the preservation of lean mass during longer-term weight loss interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530646. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Energy balance in MeV neutron induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, A.; Maerten, H.; Deeliger, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, general trends of energy balance changes with increasing incidence energy are described in the framework of a simple scission point model including semi-empirical temperature-dependent shell correction energies. In particular, the different behavior of the total kinetic energy (TKE) dependence for several fissioning nuclei (Th, U, Pu) is explained

  16. A randomized trial of energy-restricted high-protein versus high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Gavasso, Ilaria; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-09-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to weight loss produced by diets with different carbohydrate/protein ratio. The aim was to compare the long-term effects of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diet (HPD, HCD), combined with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In a randomized trial, 88 obese participants (mean age, 46.7; mean BMI, 45.6 kg m(-2) ) were enrolled in a 3-week inpatient and 48-week outpatient treatment, with continuous CBT during the study period. All subjects consumed a restricted diet (1,200 kcal day(-1) for women, 1,500 for men; 20% energy from fat, fat). HPD derived 34% energy from proteins, 46% from carbohydrates; HCD 17% from proteins, 64% from carbohydrates. The primary outcome was 1-year percent weight loss. Secondary outcomes were attrition rates and changes in cardiovascular risk factors and psychological profile. Attrition rates were similar between groups (25.6%). In the intention-to-treat analysis, weight loss averaged 15.0% in HPD and 13.3% in HCD at 1 year, without any difference throughout the study period. Both diets produced a similar improvement in secondary outcomes. The relative carbohydrate and protein content of the diet, when combined with intensive CBT, does not significantly affect attrition rate, weight loss and psychosocial outcome in patients with severe obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  18. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  19. A model for cell wall dissolution in mating yeast cells: polarized secretion and restricted diffusion of cell wall remodeling enzymes induces local dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Lori B; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells.

  20. A Model for Cell Wall Dissolution in Mating Yeast Cells: Polarized Secretion and Restricted Diffusion of Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Induces Local Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

  1. Human leukemia antigen-A*0201-restricted epitopes of human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope (HERV-W env) induce strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoning; Li, Shan; Zhao, Lijuan; Xiao, Ran; Wang, Xiuling; Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity. However, there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201 + restriction is involved in the immune response caused by HERV-W env in neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study, HERV-W env-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 are described with the potential for use in adoptive immunotherapy. Five peptides displaying HLA-A*0201-binding motifs were predicted using SYFEPITHI and BIMAS, and synthesized. A CCK-8 assay showed peptides W, Q and T promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A*0201 + donors with each of these peptides induced peptide-specific CD8 + T cells. High numbers of IFN-γ-secreting T cells were also detectable after several weekly stimulations with W, Q and T. Besides lysis of HERV-W env-loaded target cells, specific apoptosis was also observed. These data demonstrate that human T cells can be sensitized toward HERV-W env peptides (W, Q and T) and, moreover, pose a high killing potential toward HERV-W env-expressing U251 cells. In conclusion, peptides W Q and T, which are HERV-W env antigenic epitopes, have both antigenicity and immunogenicity, and can cause strong T cell immune responses. Our data strengthen the view that HERV-W env should be considered as an autoantigen that can induce autoimmunity in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. These data might provide an experimental foundation for a HERV-W env peptide vaccine and new insight into the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  2. Effect of resistance training and protein intake pattern on myofibrillar protein synthesis and proteome kinetics in older men in energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Li, Kelvin; King, Chelsea; Hellerstein, Marc; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-06-01

    Strategies to enhance the loss of fat while preserving muscle mass during energy restriction are of great importance to prevent sarcopenia in overweight older adults. We show for the first time that the integrated rate of synthesis of numerous individual contractile, cytosolic and mitochondrial skeletal muscle proteins was increased by resistance training (RT) and unaffected by dietary protein intake pattern during energy restriction in free-living, obese older men. We observed a correlation between the synthetic rates of skeletal muscle-derived proteins obtained in serum (creatine kinase M-type, carbonic anhydrase 3) and the synthetic rates of proteins obtained via muscle sampling; and that the synthesis rates of these proteins in serum revealed the stimulatory effects of RT. These results have ramifications for understanding the influence of RT on skeletal muscle and are consistent with the role of RT in maintaining muscle protein synthesis and potentially supporting muscle mass preservation during weight loss. We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2 weeks) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2 weeks of ER alone and 2 weeks of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein per meal × 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein per meal) pattern (n = 10 per group). Participants ingested deuterated water during the consecutive 2-week periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT. Bulk MyoPS (i.e. synthesis of the myofibrillar protein sub-fraction) and the synthetic rates of numerous individual skeletal muscle proteins were quantified. Bulk MyoPS was not affected by protein distribution during ER or ER + RT (ER: BAL = 1.24

  3. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Yang, Yichao; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Bielke, Lisa R.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg); shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h); using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results. PMID:28470003

  4. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg; shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h; using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results.

  5. Modeling the radar scatter off of high-energy neutrino-induced particle cascades in ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; van Eijndhoven, Nick; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Toscano, Simona; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radar detection method as a probe for high-energy neutrino induced particle cascades in ice. In a previous work we showed that the radar detection techniqe is a promising method to probe the high-energy cosmic neutrino flux above PeV energies. This was done by considering a simplified

  6. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  7. Inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) protects from secondhand smoke (SHS)-induced intrauterine growth restriction IUGR in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B; Mejia, Camilo; Jordan, Clinton; Monson, Troy D; Bodine, Jared S; Dunaway, Todd M; Egbert, Kaleb M; Lewis, Adam L; Wright, Tanner J; Ogden, K Connor; Broberg, Dallin S; Hall, Parker D; Nelson, Shawn M; Hirschi, Kelsey M; Reynolds, Paul R; Arroyo, Juan A

    2017-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a disease affecting 10% of all pregnancies. IUGR is associated with maternal, fetal, or placental abnormalities. Studies investigating the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and IUGR are limited. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a pro-inflammatory transmembrane receptor increased by SHS in the placenta. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of RAGE during SHS exposure protects from smoke-induced IUGR. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SHS or SHS + semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) known to inhibit RAGE signaling. Trophoblast cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with or without SAGEs in order to address the effects of RAGE inhibition during trophoblast invasion in vitro. SHS-treated mice demonstrated a significant reduction in fetal weight (7.35-fold, P ≤ 0.0001) and placental weight (1.13-fold, P ≤ 0.0001) compared with controls. Mice co-treated with SHS and SAGEs were protected from SHS-induced fetal weights decreases. SHS treatment of C57BL/6 mice activated placental extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (3.0-fold, P ≤ 0.05), JNK (2.4-fold, P ≤ 0.05) and p38 (2.1-fold, P ≤ 0.05) and the expression of inflammatory mediators including TNF-α (1.34-fold, P ≤ 0.05) and IL-1β (1.03-fold, P ≤ 0.05). SHS-mediated activation of these molecules was reduced to basal levels when SAGE was co-administered. Invasion of trophoblast cells decreased 92% (P < 0.002) when treated with CSE and CSE-mediated invasion was completely reversed by SAGEs. We conclude that RAGE inhibition protects against fetal weight loss during SHS-induced IUGR. These studies provide insight into tobacco-mediated IUGR development and clarify avenues that may be helpful in the alleviation of placental complications.

  8. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  9. Is two days of intermittent energy restriction per week a feasible weight loss approach in obese males? A randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Marguerite; Le Fevre, Lauren; Haywood, Cilla; Proietto, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    The 5:2 diet (two non-consecutive days of 2460 KJ (600 calories) and 5 days of ad libitum eating per week) is becoming increasingly popular. This pilot study aimed to determine whether the 5:2 diet can achieve ≥5% weight loss and greater improvements in weight and biochemical markers than a standard energy-restricted diet (SERD) in obese male war veterans. A total of 24 participants were randomised to consume either the 5:2 diet or a SERD (2050 KJ (500 calorie) reduction per day) for 6 months. Weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure and dietary intake were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months by a blinded investigator. After 6 months, participants in both groups significantly reduced body weight (P = fasting blood glucose or blood lipids in either dietary group. Results suggest that the 5:2 diet is a successful but not superior weight loss approach in male war veterans when compared to a SERD. Future research is needed to determine the long-term effectiveness of the 5:2 diet and its effectiveness in other population groups. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  10. Biophysical analysis of the dose-dependent overdispersion and the restricted linear energy transfer dependence expressed in dicentric chromosome data from alpha-irradiated human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, R; Harder, D

    1997-06-01

    Experimental data for the induction of dicentric chromosomes in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human T lymphocytes by 241Am alpha-particles obtained by Schmid et al. have been analyzed in the light of biophysical theory. As usual in experiments with alpha-particles, the relative variance of the intercellular distribution of the number of aberrations per cell exceeds unity, and the multiplicity of the aberrations per particle traversal through the cell is understood as the basic effect causing this overdispersion. However, the clearly expressed dose dependence of the relative variance differs from the dose-independent relative variance predicted by the multiplicity effect alone. Since such dose dependence is often observed in experiments with alpha-particles, protons, and high-energy neutrons, the interpretation of the overdispersion needs to be supplemented. In a new, more general statistical model, the distribution function of the number of aberrations is interpreted as resulting from the convolution of a Poisson distribution for the spontaneous aberrations with the overdispersed distributions for the aberrations caused by intratrack or intertrack lesion interaction, and the fluctuation of the cross-sectional area of the cellular chromatin must also be considered. Using a suitable mathematical formulation of the resulting dose-dependent over-dispersion, the mean number lambda 1 of the aberrations produced by a single particle traversal through the cell nucleus and the mean number lambda 2 of the aberrations per pairwise approach between two alpha-particle tracks could be estimated. Coefficient alpha of the dose-proportional yield component, when compared between 241Am alpha-particle irradiation and 137Cs gamma-ray exposure, is found to increase approximately in proportion to dose-mean restricted linear energy transfer, which indicates an underlying pairwise molecular lesion interaction on the nanometer scale.

  11. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

  12. The effect of whole-grain compared to refined wheat on the gut microbial composition and integrity in a colonic epithelial cell model following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.

    in postmenopausal women who were randomized to either whole-grain wheat (WW) (n=38) or refined wheat (RW) (n=34) consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet for 12-weeks following a 2-week run-in period with RW. Percentage fat mass as well as serum total and LDL cholesterol were found to differ between the two...

  13. Public perceptions and acceptance of induced earthquakes related to energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, Katherine A.; Lu, Hang; Keranen, Katie M.; Furtney, Maria A.; Song, Hwansuck

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of the potential for some energy-related activities to induce earthquakes has created a need to understand how the public evaluates the risks of induced earthquakes versus the benefits of energy development. To address this need, this study presents a web survey that used a between-subjects factorial experimental design to explore the views of 325 U.S. adults, who were asked about their experiences with earthquakes; risk perceptions related to different causes of earthquakes (e.g., natural versus induced); and acceptability of earthquakes depending on the benefits, beneficiaries, and decision making process. The results found that participants had more negative feelings toward induced versus naturally occurring earthquakes. Although they judged no earthquake as “acceptable,” participants rated induced earthquakes significantly less acceptable than naturally occurring ones. Attributing the benefits to the provision of renewable energy or climate change mitigation did not increase induced earthquake acceptability, and no particular beneficiary made earthquakes more acceptable, although private companies as beneficiaries made earthquakes less acceptable. Finally, induced earthquake acceptability was significantly higher when people believed that people like them had a voice in the decision to implement the technology that caused the earthquake, underscoring the importance of public engagement in the development of energy technologies. - Highlights: • Human induced earthquakes were perceived as more negative than natural earthquakes. • Attributing benefits to renewable energy did not increase earthquake acceptability. • Acceptability was highest after a procedurally fair decision making process. • Acceptability was lowest following an expert-driven decision.

  14. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied sulfuric acid aerosol nucleation in an atmospheric pressure reaction chamber using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear contribution from ion-induced nucleation and consider this to be the first unambiguous observation of the ion......-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...... ionization sources - as opposed to expensive accelerator beams - can be used for investigations of ion-induced nucleation....

  15. Energy, target, projectile and multiplicity dependences of intermittency behaviour in high energy O(Si,S) induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Larionova, V.G.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Ameeva, Z.U.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anzon, Z.V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, G.Z.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Skakhova, C.I.; Bhalla, K.B.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Lokanathan, S.; Mookerjee, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Burnett, T.H.; Grote, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Skelding, D.; Strausz, S.C.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cai, X.; Huang, H.; Liu, L.S.; Qian, W.Y.; Wang, H.Q.; Zhou, D.C.; Zhou, J.C.; Chernova, L.P.; Gadzhieva, S.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Kadyrov, F.G.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Navotny, V.S.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Friedlander, E.M.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Garpman, S.; Jakobsson, B.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Soederstroem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Judek, B.; Nasyrov, S.H.; Petrov, N.V.; Xu, G.F.; Zheng, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuations of charged particles in high energy oxygen, silicon and sulphur induced interactions are investigated with the method of scaled factorial moments. It is found that for decreasing bin size down to δη∝0.1 the EMU01 data exhibits intermittent behaviour. The intermittency indexes are found to decrease with increasing incident energy and multiplicity and to increase with increasing target mass. It seems also to increase as the projectile mass increases. (orig.)

  16. Fragment mass distribution of proton-induced spallation reaction with intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Sheng; Ye Yanlin; Xu Chuncheng; Chen Tao; Sobolevsky, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The test of part benchmark of SHIELD code is finished. The fragment cross section and mass distribution and excitation function of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thin Pb target with intermediate energy have been calculated by SHIELD code. And the results are in good agreement with measured data. The fragment mass distribution of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thick Pb target with incident energy 1.6 GeV have been simulated

  17. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  18. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  19. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings. PMID:24914544

  20. Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Mehus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3 sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient. Fatty acids (FA and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3 and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2 and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50% and cerebral cortex (23%. In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors.

  1. Low-energy deuteron-induced reactions on Nb-93

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, Pavel; Fischer, U.; Honusek, Milan; Koning, A.J.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Šimečková, Eva; Štefánik, Milan; Závorka, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), 014612 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron-induced reactions * cross sections * breakup mechanism Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.881, year: 2013 http://prc.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v88/i1/e014612

  2. An Energy Conservation Approach to Adsorbate-Induced Surface Stress and the Extraction of Binding Energy Using Nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [ORNL; Fernando, G. W. [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Hawk, J. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wijewardhana, L.C. R. [University of Cincinnati; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers are ideally-suited for the study of surface phenomena due to their large surface-to-volume ratios, which amplify surface effects. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. When the excess energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such experiments were conducted for three binding processes in vapor phase experiments: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. To our knowledge, such an energy conservation approach has not been taken into account in adsorbate-induced surface effect investigations. Furthermore, these experiments illustrate that detailed molecular-level information on binding energies can be extracted from this simple micromechanical sensor.

  3. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits

  4. Cluster induced ignition - A new approach to inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, T.; Mendonca, J.T.; Batani, D.; Bernardinello, A.

    2001-01-01

    An ultra intense laser interaction with clusters produce energetic ions and electrons in MeV range due to cluster explosion. Here we discuss the possibility of harnessing these particle energies to heat a part of the pre compressed DT fuel to ignition condition. In this article we are striving to present the principle concept and the preliminary results are discussed. (author)

  5. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    paper is devoted to delineating the unifying features and to an overall synthesis of .... reaction e− + p → n + νe for electrons and protons of very low kinetic energy ..... of Z protons and N = (A − Z) neutrons where A is the total number of nucleons.

  6. A nonlinear flow-induced energy harvester by considering effects of fictitious springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangcheng; Lin, Yueh-Jaw

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a newly proposed energy harvesting approach involving nonlinear coupling effects is demonstrated by utilizing a pair of inducing bluff bodies that are put on both sides of the flag-shaped cantilever beam, and placed in a side-by-side configuration to harvest the energy of the flow. One patch of macro fiber composite is attached to the fixed end of the cantilever beam to facilitate converting the kinetic energy into electric power. It is the first time in recent literature that two fluid dynamic phenomena (i.e. the vortex shedding and the Bernoulli effect) are considered simultaneously in the flow-induced energy harvesting field. The fictitious springs are introduced to explain the nonlinear characteristics of the proposed structure. With the effect of the fictitious springs, the speed range of the flow-induced energy harvester is extended. The proposed structure not only improves the output of the induced-based energy harvester compared to one that has just one cylinder, but can also be utilized in an actual hostile ambient environment. The experimental results for the energy harvester prototype are also investigated. The output power of the energy harvester with two cylinders (D = 25 mm) is measured to be 1.12 μW when the flow speed is 0.325 m s-1 and the center-to-center transverse spacing is 45 mm. This research also delves into the geometric variations of the proposed structure and its optimization.

  7. Surface characterization by energy distribution measurements of secondary electrons and of ion-induced electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.E.; Seiler, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instruments for surface microanalysis (e.g. scanning electron or ion microprobes, emission electron or ion microscopes) use the current of emitted secondary electrons or of emitted ion-induced electrons for imaging of the analysed surface. These currents, integrating over all energies of the emitted low energy electrons, are however, not well suited to surface analytical purposes. On the contrary, the energy distribution of these electrons is extremely surface-sensitive with respect to shape, size, width, most probable energy, and cut-off energy. The energy distribution measurements were performed with a cylindrical mirror analyser and converted into N(E), if necessary. Presented are energy spectra of electrons released by electrons and argon ions of some contaminated and sputter cleaned metals, the change of the secondary electron energy distribution from oxidized aluminium to clean aluminium, and the change of the cut-off energy due to work function change of oxidized aluminium, and of a silver layer on a platinum sample. The energy distribution of the secondary electrons often shows detailed structures, probably due to low-energy Auger electrons, and is broader than the energy distribution of ion-induced electrons of the same object point. (author)

  8. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Boiadjiev, Vassil I.; Hawk, John E.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2008-03-01

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  9. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Boiadjiev, Vassil I; Hawk, John E; Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6122 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Wijewardhana, L C Rohana [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2008-03-12

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  10. Inducement and responsibility in the energy turnaround; Veranlassung und Verantwortung bei der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewer, Wolfgang (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    The book includes several contributions concerning the Bonn discussion on energy legislation (volume 7): inducement and responsibility -in terms of constitutional law; between Europe and re-regulation - what is the regulation framework? Continuity requirement as legislative action directive; the future of the nuclear fuel tax after the nuclear phaseout - problems of the constitutional finance and the European tax legislation, strategy and energy markets; regulatory challenges in the realization of the energy turnaround policy.

  11. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1979-01-01

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  12. Effects of induced energy deficiency on lactoferrin concentration in milk and the lactoferrin reaction of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, K; Gross, J J; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

    2013-08-01

    A dietary energy restriction to 49% of total energy requirements was conducted with Red Holstein cows for three weeks in mid-lactation. At the last day of the restriction phase, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) of eight restriction (RF) and seven control-fed (CF) cows were extracted out of one litre of milk and cultured. In their third passage, an immune challenge with the most prevalent, heat-inactivated mastitis pathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was conducted. Lactoferrin (LF) was determined on gene expression and protein level. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine LF in milk samples taken twice weekly throughout the animal trial, beginning on day 20 pp (post-partum) until day 150 pp, in cell culture total protein and in cell culture supernatant. Milk LF increased throughout the lactation and decreased significantly during the induced energy deficiency in the RF group. At the beginning of realimentation, LF concentration increased immediately in the RF group and reached higher levels than before the induced deficit following the upward trend seen in the CF group. Cell culture data revealed higher levels (up to sevenfold up-regulation in gene expression) and significant higher LF protein concentration in the RF compared to the CF group cells. A further emphasized effect was found in E. coli compared to S. aureus exposed cells. The general elevated LF levels in the RF pbMEC group and the further increase owing to the immune challenge indicate an unexpected memory ability of milk-extracted mammary cells that were transposed into in vitro conditions and even displayed in the third passage of cultivation. The study confirms the suitability of the non-invasive milk-extracted pbMEC culture model to monitor the influence of feeding experiments on immunological situations in vivo. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Nucleus fragmentation induced by a high-energy hadron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, P.

    1982-10-01

    The author presents a review about the spallation in hadron reactions. Especially he considers proton-proton correlations at low relative momentum, angular distributions of 30-100 MeV protons, emission of fast deuterons, the vanishing of the Coulomb barrier, fission-like processes, the rise of the heavy fragment yield with energy transfer, proton-deuteron breakup reactions, and the backward emission of fast protons. (HSI)

  14. High energy instanton induced processes in electroweak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that in electroweak theory, baryon plus lepton number is conserved by the classical equations of motion. This is of course consistent with the lack of experimental observation of such processes. It is a little less well known that when quantum corrections are included in electroweak theory, baryon plus lepton number is not conserved. This was first discovered as a consequence of the Adler-Bardeen-Bell-Jackiw triangle anomaly. It is perhaps most easily understood as a consequence of vacuum degeneracy, fermion energy level crossing and filling of the negative energy Dirac sea upon second quantization. To understand how baryon plus lepton number is not conserved upon second quantization, consider the situation shown in the energy of the system is shown as a function of a parameter which characterizes the gauge fields, the Chern-Simons charge. The Chern-Simons charge is a function only of the gauge fields, and the B + L change is equal to the change in Chern-Simons charge, ΔQ B+L = ΔQ CS

  15. Fragment formation in GeV-energy proton and light heavy-ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Haga, M.; Haseno, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated similarities and differences among the fragment formation processes in GeV-energy light-ion and light heavy-ion induced reactions. We have newly measured inclusive and exclusive energy spectra of intermediate mass fragments (3 ≤ Z ≤ 30; IMFs) for 8-GeV 16 O and 20 Ne and 12-GeV 20 Ne induced target multifragmentations (TMFs) in order to compare them with those previously measured for 8- and 12-GeV proton induced TMFs. We fond noticeable difference in their spectrum shapes and magnitudes but all of them clearly indicate the existence of sideward-peaked components, indicating fragment formations are mainly dictated not by a incident energy per nucleon but by a total energy of the projectile. (author)

  16. Nucleation mechanisms in high energy ion beam induced dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Michael; Garmatter, Daniel; Ferhati, Redi; Amirthapandian, Sankarakumar; Bolse, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Solid coatings, when heated above their melting points, often break up by forming small round holes, which then grow, coalesce and finally turn the initially contiguous film into a pattern of isolated droplets. Such dewetting has been intensively studied using thin polymer films on Si. Three different hole nucleation mechanisms were discovered: homogeneous (spontaneous) nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation at defects, and spinodal dewetting by self-amplifying capillary waves. We have recently found that swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of thin oxide films on Si results in similar dewetting patterns, even though the films were kept far below their melting points. Using our new in-situ SEM at the UNILAC accelerator of GSI, we were now able to identify the mechanisms behind this SHI induced dewetting phenomenon. By varying the film thickness and introducing defects at the interface, we can directly address the hole nucleation processes. Besides homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, we also found a process, which very much resembles the spinodal mechanism found for liquid polymers, although in the present case the instable wavy surface is not generated by capillary waves, but by ion beam induced stresses.

  17. Effects of a 6-month caloric restriction induced-weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome: a MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghachem, Ahmed; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of a caloric restriction (CR) on body composition, lipid profile, and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Secondary analyses were performed on 73 inactive obese postmenopausal women (age 57.7 ± 4.8 years; body mass index 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m) who participated in the 6-month CR arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorize participants with MetS (n = 20, 27.39%) and without MetS (n = 53, 72.61%). Variables of interest were: body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), glucose homeostasis at fasting state and during a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp, fasting lipids, and resting blood pressure. By design, the MetS group had a worse cardiometabolic profile, whereas both groups were comparable for age. Fifty-five participants out of 73 displayed no change in MetS status after the intervention. Twelve participants out of 20 (or 60.0%) in the MetS group had no more MetS after weight loss (P = NS), whereas 6 participants out of 53 (or 11.3%) in the other group developed the MetS after the intervention (P = NS). Overall, indices of body composition and body fat distribution improved significantly and similarly in both groups (P between 0.03 and 0.0001). Furthermore, with the exception of triglyceride levels and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, which decrease significantly more in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05), no difference was observed between groups for the other variables of the cardiometabolic profile. Despite no overall significant effects on MetS, heteregeneous results were obtained in response to weight loss in the present study, with some improving the MetS, whereas other displaying deteriorations. Further studies are needed to identify factors and phenotypes associated with positive and negative cardiometabolic

  18. Transformation between divacancy defects induced by an energy pulse in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Liu, XiaoYi; Zhou, Wei; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2016-07-08

    The mutual transformations among the four typical divacancy defects induced by a high-energy pulse were studied via molecular dynamics simulation. Our study revealed all six possible mutual transformations and found that defects transformed by absorbing energy to overcome the energy barrier with bonding, debonding, and bond rotations. The reversibility of defect transformations was also investigated by potential energy analysis. The energy difference was found to greatly influence the transformation reversibility. The direct transformation path was irreversible if the energy difference was too large. We also studied the correlation between the transformation probability and the input energy. It was found that the transformation probability had a local maxima at an optimal input energy. The introduction of defects and their structural evolutions are important for tailoring the exceptional properties and thereby performances of graphene-based devices, such as nanoporous membranes for the filtration and desalination of water.

  19. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411316-09$15.00/0.

  20. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  1. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    The effect of ions in aerosol nucleation is a subject where much remains to be discovered. That ions can enhance nucleation has been shown by theory, observations, and experiments. However, the exact mechanism still remains to be determined. One question is if the nature of the ionization affects...... the nucleation. This is an essential question since many experiments have been performed using radioactive sources that ionize differently than the cosmic rays which are responsible for the majority of atmospheric ionization. Here we report on an experimental study of sulphuric acid aerosol nucleation under near...... atmospheric conditions using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear and significant contribution from ion induced nucleation and consider this to be an unambiguous observation of the ion-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions not far...

  2. Dissociation energies of six NO2 isotopologues by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and zero point energy of some triatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G; Jost, R; Sugny, D; Joyeux, M; Thiemens, M

    2004-10-15

    We have measured the rotationless photodissociation threshold of six isotopologues of NO2 containing 14N, 15N, 16O, and 18O isotopes using laser induced fluorescence detection and jet cooled NO2 (to avoid rotational congestion). For each isotopologue, the spectrum is very dense below the dissociation energy while fluorescence disappears abruptly above it. The six dissociation energies ranged from 25 128.56 cm(-1) for 14N16O2 to 25 171.80 cm(-1) for 15N18O2. The zero point energy for the NO2 isotopologues was determined from experimental vibrational energies, application of the Dunham expansion, and from canonical perturbation theory using several potential energy surfaces. Using the experimentally determined dissociation energies and the calculated zero point energies of the parent NO2 isotopologue and of the NO product(s) we determined that there is a common De = 26 051.17+/-0.70 cm(-1) using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The canonical perturbation theory was then used to calculate the zero point energy of all stable isotopologues of SO2, CO2, and O3, which are compared with previous determinations.

  3. Peripheral collisions of heavy ions induced by 40Ar at intermediate energies: giant resonance high energy structures and projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.

    1987-09-01

    The results obtained in similar studies at low incident energies are first of all reviewed. The time of flight spectrometer built for the experiments is then described. A study of the properties of the projectile-like fragments shows numerous deviations from the relativistic energy fragmentation model. Evidence for a strong surface transfer reaction component is given and the persistence of mean field effects at intermediate energies is stressed. A calculation of the contribution of the transfer evaporation mechanism to the inelastic spectra shows that this mechanism is responible for the major part of the background measured at high excitation energy and can in some cases induce narrow structures in the spectra. The inelastic spectra shows a strong excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance. In the region between 20 and 80 MeV excitation energy narrow structures are present for all the studied systems. Statistical and Fourier analysises allow to quantify the probabilities of existence, the widths and the excitation energies of these structures. A transfer evaporation hypothesis cannot consistently reproduce all the observed structures. The excitation energies of the structures can be well described by phenomenological laws where the energies are proportional to the -1/3 power of the target mass. Complete calculations of the excitation probabilities of giant resonances and multiphonon states are performed within a model where the nuclear excitation are calculated microscopically in the Random Phase Approximation. It is shown that a possible interpretation of the structures is the excitation of multiphonon states built with 2 + giant resonances [fr

  4. Ion induced fragmentation of biomolecular systems at low collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernigaud, V; Adoui, L; Chesnel, J Y; Rangama, J; Huber, B A; Manil, B; Alvarado, F; Bari, S; Hoekstra, R; Postma, J; Schlathoelter, T

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of different collision experiments between multiply charged ions at low collision energies (in the keV-region) and biomolecular systems. This kind of interaction allows to remove electrons form the biomolecule without transferring a large amount of vibrational excitation energy. Nevertheless, following the ionization of the target, fragmentation of biomolecular species may occur. It is the main objective of this work to study the physical processes involved in the dissociation of highly electronically excited systems. In order to elucidate the intrinsic properties of certain biomolecules (porphyrins and amino acids) we have performed experiments in the gas phase with isolated systems. The obtained results demonstrate the high stability of porphyrins after electron removal. Furthermore, a dependence of the fragmentation pattern produced by multiply charged ions on the isomeric structure of the alanine molecule has been shown. By considering the presence of other surrounding biomolecules (clusters of nucleobases), a strong influence of the environment of the biomolecule on the fragmentation channels and their modification, has been clearly proven. This result is explained, in the thymine and uracil case, by the formation of hydrogen bonds between O and H atoms, which is known to favor planar cluster geometries.

  5. A randomised controlled intervention study investigating the efficacy of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and extra-virgin olive oil on attenuating sarcopenic symptomology in overweight and obese older adults during energy intake restriction: protocol paper

    OpenAIRE

    Villani, Anthony; Wright, Hattie; Slater, Gary; Buckley, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Background Weight loss interventions have not been advocated for overweight/obese older adults due to potential loss of skeletal muscle and strength impacting on physical function with potential loss of independence. Carotenoids and polyphenols are inversely associated with sarcopenic symptomology. This paper reports the protocol of a study evaluating the efficacy of a high-protein, energy restricted diet rich in carotenoids and polyphenols on body composition, muscle strength, physical perfo...

  6. Differential effects of calorie restriction and involuntary wheel running on body composition and bone structure in diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight reduction is recommended to reduce obesity-related health disorders. This study investigated the differential effects of weight reduction through caloric restriction and/or physical activity on bone structure and molecular characteristics of bone metabolism in an obese rat model. We tested th...

  7. Increased Protein Consumption during the Day from an Energy-Restricted Diet Augments Satiety but Does Not Reduce Daily Fat or Carbohydrate Intake on a Free-Living Test Day in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Jess A; Maki, Kevin C; Leidy, Heather J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety. Methods: Seventeen overweight women [mean ± SEM age: 36 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 28.4 ± 0.1] completed a randomized, controlled-feeding crossover study. Participants were provided with the following ∼1250-kcal/d energy-restricted (-750-kcal/d deficit) diets, each for 6 d: HP [124 g protein/d; 60% from beef and 40% from plant sources (HP-BEEF)] or NP (48 g protein/d) that was protein-type matched (NP-BEEF) or unmatched [100% from plant-based sources (NP-PLANT)]. On day 6 of each diet period, participants completed a 12-h testing day containing repetitive appetite, satiety, and food-craving questionnaires. On day 7, the participants were asked to consume their protein requirement within each respective diet but were provided with a surplus of carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods to consume, ad libitum, at each eating occasion across the day. All outcomes reported were primary study outcomes. Results: The HP-BEEF diet reduced daily hunger by 16%, desire to eat by 15%, prospective food consumption by 14%, and fast-food cravings by 15% but increased daily fullness by 25% compared with the NP-BEEF and NP-PLANT diets (all P protein throughout the day did not reduce the energy consumed ad libitum from the fat- and carbohydrate-rich foods (HP-BEEF: 2000 ± 180 kcal/d; NP-BEEF: 2120 ± 190 kcal/d; NP-PLANT: 2070 ± 180 kcal/d). None of the outcomes differed

  8. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  9. The Smc5/6 Complex Restricts HBV when Localized to ND10 without Inducing an Innate Immune Response and Is Counteracted by the HBV X Protein Shortly after Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffis, Stephane; Ramakrishnan, Dhivya; Burdette, Dara; Peiser, Leanne; Salas, Eduardo; Ramos, Hilario; Yu, Mei; Cheng, Guofeng; Strubin, Michel; Delaney IV, William E.; Fletcher, Simon P.

    2017-01-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (Smc5/6) is a restriction factor that represses hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription. HBV counters this restriction by expressing HBV X protein (HBx), which targets Smc5/6 for degradation. However, the mechanism by which Smc5/6 suppresses HBV transcription and how HBx is initially expressed is not known. In this study we characterized viral kinetics and the host response during HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) to address these unresolved questions. We determined that Smc5/6 localizes with Nuclear Domain 10 (ND10) in PHH. Co-localization has functional implications since depletion of ND10 structural components alters the nuclear distribution of Smc6 and induces HBV gene expression in the absence of HBx. We also found that HBV infection and replication does not induce a prominent global host transcriptional response in PHH, either shortly after infection when Smc5/6 is present, or at later times post-infection when Smc5/6 has been degraded. Notably, HBV and an HBx-negative virus establish high level infection in PHH without inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes or production of interferons or other cytokines. Our study also revealed that Smc5/6 is degraded in the majority of infected PHH by the time cccDNA transcription could be detected and that HBx RNA is present in cell culture-derived virus preparations as well as HBV patient plasma. Collectively, these data indicate that Smc5/6 is an intrinsic antiviral restriction factor that suppresses HBV transcription when localized to ND10 without inducing a detectable innate immune response. Our data also suggest that HBx protein may be initially expressed by delivery of extracellular HBx RNA into HBV-infected cells. PMID:28095508

  10. Chemical modification of polypropylene induced by high energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-06-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energy using 3 MV Pelletron. The spectral changes owing to ion bombardment were investigated by UV-VIS and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A gradual increase in absorbance was observed around visible and near visible region with increase in fluence of bombarding ions. The difference absorption spectra show formation of chromophoric groups with wavelength maximum near 380 nm at lower fluence, but at high fluence a shift in peak is observed. The chromophoric groups are likely to be the extended conjugated polyene system and the red shift in peak position at high fluence may be attributed to the greater degree of conjugation. The formation of unsaturated linkage is confirmed by the FTIR spectra with observed stretching band around 1650 cm{sup -1} and its intensity was found to increase with increase in ion fluence studied. The gases (in the range 2-80 amu) which were evolved due to interaction of polypropylene with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions were measured with Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). A large number of gaseous components were detected. This shows that polymer chains break into some smaller fragments which concomitantly leads to extended conjugation.

  11. New concept for energy storage: Microwave-induced carbon gasification with CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermúdez, J.M.; Ruisánchez, E.; Arenillas, A.; Moreno, A.H.; Menéndez, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new system for energy storage based in microwave-induced gasification is proposed. • From the carbonaceous materials tested, charcoal yielded the best results. • The systems achieved energy efficiencies of about 45% without any optimization. • The system is competitive in terms of efficiency with some conventional systems. - Abstract: Energy storage is a topic of great importance for the development of renewable energy, since it appears to be the only solution to the problem of intermittency of production, inherent to such technologies. In this paper, a new technology for energy storage, based on microwave-induced CO 2 gasification of carbon materials is proposed. The tests carried out in this study on different carbon materials showed that charcoal consumes the least amount of energy. Two microwave heating mechanisms, a single-mode oven and a multimode device, were evaluated with the latter proving itself to be the more efficient in terms of energy consumption and recovery. The initial results obtained showed that this technology is able to achieve energy efficiencies of 45% at laboratory scale with every indication that these results can be improved upon to make this approach highly competitive against other energy storage technologies

  12. High-energy limit of collision-induced false vacuum decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Sergei; Levkov, Dmitry [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-17

    We develop a consistent semiclassical description of field-theoretic collision-induced tunneling at arbitrary high collision energies. As a playground we consider a (1+1)-dimensional false vacuum decay initiated by a collision of N particles at energy E, paying special attention to the realistic case of N=2 particles. We demonstrate that the cross section of this process is exponentially suppressed at all energies. Moreover, the respective suppressesion exponent F{sub N}(E) exhibits a specific behavior which is significant for our semiclassical method and assumed to be general: it decreases with energy, reaches absolute minimum F=F{sub min}(N) at a certain threshold energy E=E{sub rt}(N), and stays constant at higher energies. We show that the minimal suppression F{sub min}(N) and threshold energy can be evaluated using a special class of semiclassical solutions which describe exponentially suppressed transitions but nevertheless evolve in real time. Importantly, we argue that the cross section at energies above E{sub rt}(N) is computed perturbatively in the background of the latter solutions, and the terms of this perturbative expansion stay bounded in the infinite-energy limit. Transitions in the high-energy regime proceed via emission of many soft quanta with total energy E{sub rt}; the energy excess E−E{sub rt} remains in the colliding particles till the end of the process.

  13. Unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Osamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    For an accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation system, it is very important to estimate sub-criticality of core system for feasibility and design study of the system. The fission cross section in the intermediate energy range has an important role. A program FISCAL has been developed to calculate neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in the energy region from several tens of MeV to 3 GeV. FISCAL adopts the systematics considering experimental data for Ag- 243 Am. It is found that unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections is available. (author)

  14. The nanostructure formation on muscovite mica surface induced by intermediate-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Zhang, HQ., E-mail: zhanghq@lzu.edu.cn; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Guan, S.; Wang, G.; Zhou, C.; Jia, J.; Lv, X.; Shao, J.; Cui, Y.; Chen, L.; Chen, X., E-mail: chenxm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-07-15

    Muscovite mica sheets were bombarded by lithium, carbon and oxygen ions in the energy range from several hundred keV to several MeV. The induced surface structures were measured in the air with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The hillock-like structure on the mica surface was observed. The height of the hillock increases linearly when the energy loss is above 1.2 keV/nm. The induced structures are similar with the similar electronic stopping powers but different projectiles for muscovite mica.

  15. Investigation on the correlation between energy deposition and clustered DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liming; Champion, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the correlation between energy deposition and clustered DNA damage, based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrum of direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons including the dissociative electron attachment. Clustered DNA damage is classified as simple and complex in terms of the combination of single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs) and adjacent base damage (BD). The results show that the energy depositions associated with about 90% of total clustered DNA damage are below 150 eV. The simple clustered DNA damage, which is constituted of the combination of SSBs and adjacent BD, is dominant, accounting for 90% of all clustered DNA damage, and the spectra of the energy depositions correlating with them are similar for different primary energies. One type of simple clustered DNA damage is the combination of a SSB and 1-5 BD, which is denoted as SSB + BD. The average contribution of SSB + BD to total simple clustered DNA damage reaches up to about 84% for the considered primary energies. In all forms of SSB + BD, the SSB + BD including only one base damage is dominant (above 80%). In addition, for the considered primary energies, there is no obvious difference between the average energy depositions for a fixed complexity of SSB + BD determined by the number of base damage, but average energy depositions increase with the complexity of SSB + BD. In the complex clustered DNA damage constituted by the combination of DSBs and BD around them, a relatively simple type is a DSB combining adjacent BD, marked as DSB + BD, and it is of substantial contribution (on average up to about 82%). The spectrum of DSB + BD is given mainly by the DSB in combination with different numbers of base damage, from 1 to 5. For the considered primary energies, the DSB combined with only one base damage contributes about 83% of total DSB + BD, and the average energy deposition is about 106 eV. However, the

  16. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  17. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Tong, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  18. Beam energy spread in FERMI(at)elettra gun and linac induced by intrabeam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, Alexander A; Zholents, Alexander A; Zolotorev, Max S.; Penco, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Intrabeam scattering (IBS) of electrons in the pre-cathode area in the electron guns know in the literature as Boersh effect is responsible for a growth of the electron beam energy spread there. Albeit most visible within the electron gun where the electron beam density is large and the energy spread is small, the IBS acts all along the entire electron beam pass through the Linac. In this report we calculate the energy spread induced by IBS in the FERMI(at)elettra electron gun

  19. Nucleus fragmentation induced by a high-energy hadron. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, P.

    1981-09-01

    The author compares some experimental results concerning the emission of 8 Li nuclei in hadron induced reactions from nuclear emulsions. Especially he considers the vanishing of the Coulomb barrier, fission-like processes, and the rise of the heavy fragment yield with energy-transfer. (HSI) [de

  20. An Energy Balanced Double Oscillator Model for Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    A model consisting of two couple oscillators is developed for the representation of vortex-induced oscillations of structural elements. The mutual forcing terms are different from previous models and based on exact transfer of energy from the fluid to the structural oscillator. This leads...

  1. Vacuum energy induced by an external magnetic field in a curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, Yu.A.; Rakityansky, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The asymptotic expansion of the product of an operator raised to an arbitrary power and an exponential function of this operator is obtained. With the aid of this expansion, the density of vacuum energy induced by a static external magnetic field of an Abelian or a non-Abelian nature is expressed in terms of the DeWitt-Seeley-Gilkey coefficients

  2. Hollow optical fiber induced solar cells with optical energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-09

    Hollow optical fiber induced dye-sensitized solar cells are made by twisting Ti wire/N719-TiO 2 nanotube photoanodes and Ti wire/Pt (CoSe, Pt 3 Ni) counter electrodes, yielding a maximized efficiency of 0.7% and good stability. Arising from optical energy storage ability, the solar cells can generate electricity without laser illumination.

  3. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.01). However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  4. A climate-change policy induced shift from innovations in carbon-energy production to carbon-energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    2008-01-01

    We develop an endogenous growth model with capital, labor and carbon-energy as production factors and three technology variables that measure accumulated innovations for carbon-energy production, carbon-energy savings, and neutral growth. All markets are complete and perfect, except for research, for which we assume that the marginal social benefits exceed the marginal private benefits by factor four. The model constants are calibrated so that the model reproduces the relevant global trends over the 1970-2000 period. The model contains a simple climate module, and is used to assess the impact of Induced Technological Change (ITC) for a policy that aims at a maximum level of atmospheric CO 2 concentration (450 ppmv). ITC is shown to reduce the required carbon tax by more than a factor 2, and to reduce costs of such a policy by half. When we do not constrain aggregate R and D expenditures to benchmark levels, costs are further reduced. Numerical simulations show that knowledge accumulation shifts from energy production to energy saving technology. We discuss reasons for differences between our results and earlier results reported in the literature. (author)

  5. Adaptation to climate-induced regional water constraints in the Spanish energy sector: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zarrar; Linares, Pedro; García-González, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector depends on water in all phases of its life-cycle, including raw material extraction, power plant cooling, irrigation of biofuel crops and directly in hydropower generation. In the coming decades, several regions of the world are expected to experience a decrease in water resource availability, in part due to climate change. The dependence of the energy sector on water resources calls for an active effort to adapt to the possible scenarios. This paper presents a novel model that addresses the direct impacts of regional and temporal water shortages on energy operation and investment decisions. The paper investigates the costs and benefits of adapting the energy sector to climate-induced water scarcity. The results show that the increase in costs for an energy plan that considers future water stress is relatively small as compared to one which ignores it. A plan which ignores water constraints, however, may lead to significant economic damages when actually exposed to water shortages. The results also highlight the value of the availability of water for the energy sector, which is significantly higher than existing prices. The paper concludes that the potential benefits to be gained by integrating energy and water models can be considerable. - Highlights: • Spatial and temporal water constraints are added to an energy planning model. • Integrated water-energy planning can lead to significant savings in future water-stressed scenarios. • Actual value of water for the energy sector may be much higher than existing prices.

  6. Low-energy neutron-induced single-event upsets in static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoqiang; Guo Hongxia; Wang Guizhen; Ling Dongsheng; Chen Wei; Bai Xiaoyan; Yang Shanchao; Liu Yan

    2009-01-01

    The visual analysis method of data process was provided for neutron-induced single-event upset(SEU) in static random access memory(SRAM). The SEU effects of six CMOS SRAMs with different feature size(from 0.13 μm to 1.50 μm) were studied. The SEU experiments were performed using the neutron radiation environment at Xi'an pulsed reactor. And the dependence of low-energy neutron-induced SEU cross section on SRAM's feature size was given. The results indicate that the decreased critical charge is the dominant factor for the increase of single event effect sensitivity of SRAM devices with decreased feature size. Small-sized SRAM devices are more sensitive than large-sized ones to single event effect induced by low-energy neutrons. (authors)

  7. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  8. Investigation of nucleon-induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain within the microscopic DYWAN model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebille, F.; Bonilla, C. [SUBATECH, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, 44 - Nantes (France); Blideanu, V.; Lecolley, J.F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France)

    2004-06-01

    A microscopic investigation of nucleon-induced reactions is addressed within the DYWAN model, which is based on the projection methods of out of equilibrium statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Due to a strongly compressed representation of the fermionic wave-functions, the numerical simulations of the nucleon transport in target are therefore able to preserve the quantum nature of the colliding system, as well as a least biased many-body information needed to keep track of the cluster formation. A special attention is devoted to the fingerprints of the phase space topology induced by the fluctuations of the self-consistent mean-field. Comparisons be ween theoretical results and experimental data point out that ETDHF type approaches are well suited to describe reaction mechanisms in the Fermi energy domain. The observed sensitivity to physical effects shows that the nucleon-induced reactions provide a valuable probe of the nuclear interaction in this range of energy. (authors)

  9. Pre-equilibrium emission of nucleons from reactions induced by medium-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolija, M.; Holuh, E.; Cindro, N.; Hilscher, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent data on fast-nucleon emission in heavy-ion-induced reactions are analysed successfully in terms of pre-equilibrium models; it is shown that the relevant parameters of those models preserve the physical meaning they have in light-ion-induced reactions. The initial exciton number obtained from a Griffin-plot analysis and the initial number of degrees of freedom, which is the relevant parameter of the modified HMB model, appear to be approximately equal for a given reaction at a given energy. It is inferred that, for heavy-ion reactions, the determination of such a parameter is substantially dominated by the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon above the Coulomb barrier, in contrast with the results of nucleon-induced reactions

  10. Basal and β-Adrenergic Cardiomyocytes Contractility Dysfunction Induced by Dietary Protein Restriction is Associated with Downregulation of SERCA2a Expression and Disturbance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Regulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete R. Penitente

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms responsible for the cardiac dysfunction associated with dietary protein restriction (PR are poorly understood. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of PR on calcium kinetics, basal and β-adrenergic contractility in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Methods: After breastfeeding male Fisher rats were distributed into a control group (CG, n = 20 and a protein-restricted group (PRG, n = 20, receiving isocaloric diets for 35 days containing 15% and 6% protein, respectively. Biometric and hemodynamic variables were measured. After euthanasia left ventricles (LV were collected for histopathological evaluation, SERCA2a expression, cardiomyocytes contractility and Ca2+sparks analysis. Results: PRG animals showed reduced general growth, increased heart rate and arterial pressure. These animals presented extracellular matrix expansion and disorganization, cardiomyocytes hypotrophy, reduced amplitudes of shortening and maximum velocity of contraction and relaxation at baseline and after β-adrenergic stimulation. Reduced SERCA2a expression as well as higher frequency and lower amplitude of Ca2+sparks were observed in PRG cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: The observations reveal that protein restriction induces marked myocardial morphofunctional damage. The pathological changes of cardiomyocyte mechanics suggest the potential involvement of the β-adrenergic system, which is possibly associated with changes in SERCA2a expression and disturbances in Ca2+ intracellular kinetics.

  11. Measurement of the energy dependence of X-ray-induced decomposition of potassium chlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong

    2013-03-21

    We report the first measurements of the X-ray induced decomposition of KClO3 as a function of energy in two experiments. KClO3 was pressurized to 3.5 GPa and irradiated with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays ranging in energy from 15 to 35 keV in 5 keV increments. A systematic increase in the decomposition rate as the energy was decreased was observed, which agrees with the 1/E(3) trend for the photoelectric process, except at the lowest energy studied. A second experiment was performed to access lower energies (10 and 12 keV) using a beryllium gasket; suggesting an apparent resonance near 15 keV or 0.83 Ǻ maximizing the chemical decomposition rate. A third experiment was performed using KIO3 to ascertain the anionic dependence of the decomposition rate, which was observed to be far slower than in KClO3, suggesting that the O-O distance is the critical factor in chemical reactions. These results will be important for more efficiently initiating chemical decomposition in materials using selected X-ray wavelengths that maximize decomposition to aid useful hard X-ray-induced chemistry and contribute understanding of the mechanism of X-ray-induced decomposition of the chlorates.

  12. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  13. Peripheral heavy-ion induced reactions at intermediate energies 20MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.; Berthier, B.; Chavez, E.

    1984-03-01

    Inclusive energy spectra and angular distributions of projectile like fragments in reactions induced by a 44 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar beam bombarding 27 Al and sup(nat)Ti targets show many of the features of high energy fragmentation. However, several aspects such as energy dissipation and production of fragments heavier than the projectile are reminiscent of a low energy behaviour

  14. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Sun Youmei; Liu Changlong; Liu Jie; Jin Yunfan

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u 40 Ar, 25 MeV/u 84 Kr, 15.1 MeV/u 136 Xe and 11.4 MeV/u 238 U to fluences ranging from 9x10 9 to 5.5x10 12 ions/cm 2 . The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer

  15. Effects of induced placental and fetal growth restriction, size at birth and early neonatal growth on behavioural and brain structural lateralization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Damien Seth; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Liu, Hong; Marini, Danila; Giles, Lynne C; De Blasio, Miles J; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2017-09-01

    Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F). PR did not affect lateralization direction, but 40-week-old PR females had greater lateralization strength than CON (P = .021). Behavioural lateralization measures were not correlated with perinatal growth. PR did not alter brain morphology. In males, cross-sectional areas of the prefrontal cortex and left hemisphere correlated positively with skull width at birth, and white matter area correlated positively with neonatal growth rate of the skull (all P programming, and suggest that restricting in utero growth has relatively mild effects on gross brain structural or behavioural lateralization in sheep.

  16. Summary and presentation of the international workshop on beam induced energy deposition (issues, concerns, solutions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundranayagam, R.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses: energy deposition and radiation shielding in antriproton source at FNAL; radiation issues/problems at RHIC; radiation damage to polymers; radiation effects on optical fibre in the SSC tunnel; capabilities of the Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility; the SSC interaction region; the FLUKA code system, modifications, recent extension and experimental verification; energy particle transport calculations and comparisons with experimental data; Los Alamos High Energy Transport code system; MCNP features and applications; intercomparison of Monte Carlo codes designed for simulation of high energy hadronic cascades; event generator, DTUJET-90 and DTUNUC; Preliminary hydrodynamic calculations of beam energy deposition; MESA code calculations of material response to explosive energy deposition; Smooth particle hydrodynamic; hydrodynamic effects and mass depletion phenomena in targets; beam dump: Beam sweeping and spoilers; Design considerations to mitigate effects of accidental beam dump; SSC beam abort and absorbed; beam abort system of SSC options; unconventional scheme for beam spoilers; low β quadrupoles: Energy deposition and radioactivation; beam induces energy deposition in the SSC components; extension of SSC-SR-1033 approach to radioactivation in LHC and SSC detectors; energy deposition in the SSC low-β IR-quads; beam losses and collimation in the LHC; and radiation shielding around scrapers

  17. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  18. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  19. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  20. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profile in obese boys who followed a moderate energy-restricted diet: differences between high and low responders at baseline and after the intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendo-Urteaga, Tara; García-Calzón, Sonia; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Milagro, Fermín I; Chueca, María; Oyarzabal, Mirentxu; Azcona-Sanjulián, M Cristina; Martínez, J Alfredo; Marti, Amelia

    2015-01-28

    The present study analyses the gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from obese boys. The aims of the present study were to identify baseline differences between low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) after 10 weeks of a moderate energy-restricted dietary intervention, and to compare the gene expression profile between the baseline and the endpoint of the nutritional intervention. Spanish obese boys (age 10-14 years) were advised to follow a 10-week moderate energy-restricted diet. Participants were classified into two groups based on the association between the response to the nutritional intervention and the changes in BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS): HR group (n 6), who had a more decreased BMI-SDS; LR group (n 6), who either maintained or had an even increased BMI-SDS. The expression of 28,869 genes was analysed in PBMC from both groups at baseline and after the nutritional intervention, using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST 24-Array plate microarray. At baseline, the HR group showed a lower expression of inflammation and immune response-related pathways, which suggests that the LR group could have a more developed pro-inflammatory phenotype. Concomitantly, LEPR and SIRPB1 genes were highly expressed in the LR group, indicating a tendency towards an impaired immune response and leptin resistance. Moreover, the moderate energy-restricted diet was able to down-regulate the inflammatory 'mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway' in the HR group, as well as some inflammatory genes (AREG and TNFAIP3). The present study confirms that changes in the gene expression profile of PBMC in obese boys may help to understand the weight-loss response. However, further research is required to confirm these findings.

  1. A randomised controlled intervention study investigating the efficacy of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and extra-virgin olive oil on attenuating sarcopenic symptomology in overweight and obese older adults during energy intake restriction: protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Anthony; Wright, Hattie; Slater, Gary; Buckley, Jonathan

    2018-01-05

    Weight loss interventions have not been advocated for overweight/obese older adults due to potential loss of skeletal muscle and strength impacting on physical function with potential loss of independence. Carotenoids and polyphenols are inversely associated with sarcopenic symptomology. This paper reports the protocol of a study evaluating the efficacy of a high-protein, energy restricted diet rich in carotenoids and polyphenols on body composition, muscle strength, physical performance and quality of life in overweight and obese older adults. This randomised controlled clinical trial will recruit community-dwelling, healthy overweight and obese older adults (≥60 years) for a 12-week weight loss intervention. Seventy-three participants will be recruited and randomized to an energy restricted (~30% restriction), isocaloric diet (30% protein; 30% carbohydrate; 40% fat) enriched with either: a) 375 g/d of high carotenoid vegetables, 300 g/d high carotenoid fruit, and 40-60 ml extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO); or b) 375 g/d of lower carotenoid vegetables, 300 g/d lower carotenoid fruit, and 40-60 ml Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) based oil. All participants will receive individual dietary counselling each fortnight for the duration of the study and will be asked to maintain their habitual level of physical activity throughout the study. The primary outcome will be appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes will include body weight, fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), muscle strength (Isometric hand-grip strength), physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and health related quality of life (SF-36). Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at week 12. The results of this study will provide a novel insight relating to the potential influence of high carotenoid and polyphenol intakes on attenuation of ASM during

  2. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangwijit, K. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Bang Khen, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Pitakrattananukool, S. [School of Science, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  3. Has renewable energy induced competitive behavior in the Spanish electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Recent energy policy has favored a massive introduction of Renewable Energy Sources on electricity markets, which has greatly impacted their performance. First, the electricity price has decreased as a consequence of the so-called merit-order effect. Another relevant effect is associated to the intermittent nature of Renewable Energy, which has increased the cost of ancillary services. A third and important aspect, less addressed in the literature, is the induced change in the strategic behavior of the conventional electricity producers. In principle, the entry of new generators in a concentrated market would make it more competitive and change the strategic behavior of the incumbents. We test this hypothesis for the Spanish wholesale market. While we find no significant change in behavior for Nuclear, Hydropower and Coal, a change is observed in Combined Cycle bidding strategies after the entry of renewable generators. Our analysis shows that the massive entry of Renewable Energy Sources made other generators' behavior more competitive in the short run, but the effect was not persistent. - Highlights: • The indirect effects of RES affect prices in electricity markets. • RES induced little change in Nuclear, Coal and Hydropower generation. • Combined Cycle bidding strategies have evolved to adapt to the introduction of RES. • RES made Combined Cycle's behavior more competitive in the short run. • The competitive effect induced by RES is not persistent in the long run.

  4. Energy industry law in the field of tension between freedom of the market and governmental restrictions; Energiewirtschaftrecht im Spannungsfeld von marktlicher Freiheit und hoheitlichen Einschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, Ulrich (ed.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer das Recht der Europaeischen Union; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2011-07-01

    The book contains the papers presented at the 39th annual meeting on energy law of the Institute of Energy Law of Cologne University, held on 4 November 2010: Problems of recommunalisation from the view of the communities as illustrated by the example of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg; The development of market definition in the light of the market dynamics of the electricity and gas markets; Legal problems of long-term capacity bookings in the gas infrastructure; Interconnection of the European electricity markets, reality or chimera?; The European energy stock exchange in the point of intersection of energy regulation and bank supervision - current information on the development of the supervision regime for the energy market; Problems of the new energy competence title in Art. 194A EnV; Current rulings of the 3th cartel senate of the Duesseldorf Higher Regional Court on energy law; New lines for environmental protection: Obstacles to the grid integration of renewable energy sources. (orig./RHM)

  5. Monitoring of antibiotic-induced alterations in the human intestinal microflora and detection of probiotic strains by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Cecilia; Sullivan, Asa; Edlund, Charlotta; Jansson, Janet K

    2005-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was investigated as a tool for monitoring the human intestinal microflora during antibiotic treatment and during ingestion of a probiotic product. Fecal samples from eight healthy volunteers were taken before, during, and after administration of clindamycin. During treatment, four subjects were given a probiotic, and four subjects were given a placebo. Changes in the microbial intestinal community composition and relative abundance of specific microbial populations in each subject were monitored by using viable counts and T-RFLP fingerprints. T-RFLP was also used to monitor specific bacterial populations that were either positively or negatively affected by clindamycin. Some dominant bacterial groups, such as Eubacterium spp., were easily monitored by T-RFLP, while they were hard to recover by cultivation. Furthermore, the two probiotic Lactobacillus strains were easily tracked by T-RFLP and were shown to be the dominant Lactobacillus community members in the intestinal microflora of subjects who received the probiotic.

  6. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy and its implementation at accelerator based low energy positron factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.; Koeymen, A.R.; Mehl, D.; Lee, K.H.; Yang Gimo; Jensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) makes use of a beam of low energy positrons to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons. The large secondary electron background usually present in Auger spectra can be eliminated by setting the positron beam energy well below the Auger electron energy. This allows true Auger lineshapes to be obtained. Further, because the positron is localized just outside the surface before it annihilates, PAES is extremely sensitive to the topmost atomic layer. Recent PAES results obtained at the University of Texas at Arlington will be presented. In addition, the use of high resolution energy analyzers with multichannel particle detection schemes to prevent problems due to the high data rates associated with accelerator based positron beams will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. The synthesis of nucleotide in the aqueous solution induced by low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Wang Xiangqin; Yu Zengliang

    2000-08-01

    A new apparatus was designed to induce reactions in aqueous solution by introducing low energy ions into the aqueous solution, this apparatus overcome the defaults of the old ones which demanded vacuum and made it possible to study the action among solutions, it also expanded the ion implantation biology. The role of low energy ions was introduced into the study of the origin of life, primitive earth conditions were imitated to study prior-life synthesis of nucleotide by introducing low energy ions into aqueous solution, low energy N + was implanted into adenine supersaturation solution including D-ribose and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , it was confirmed that 5'-AMP was gained by HPLC analysis of the products. In comparison with other methods in this field, this one is simpler and nearer to the primitive earth conditions, thus it provided a new try for the studying of the origin of life

  8. Measurements of the antineutrino spin asymmetry in beta decay of the neutron and restrictions on the male scattering at microelectronvolt energies using very-high-n Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Serebrov, A.P.; Stepanenko, I.V.; Alduschenkov, A.V.; Lasakov, M.S.; Kokin, A.A.; Mostovoi, Y.A.; Yerozolimsky, B.G.; Dewey, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Atoms in very high Rydberg states, 100 approx-lt n approx-lt 1100, are used to investigate electron-molecule interactions at electron energies extending down to a few microelectronvolts. At such energies the cross section for electron capture by CCl 4 is observed to vary inversely with electron velocity, indicative of an s-wave process. Studies with the polar target CH 3 Cl suggest that dipole-supported states may be important in inelastic electron-polar molecule scattering at very low electron energies

  9. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  10. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses. (paper)

  11. Defects in CdSe thin films, induced by high energy electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, L.; Antohe, S.; Tutuc, D.; Antohe, V.A.; Tazlaoanu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Defects induced in CdSe thin films by high energy electron irradiation are investigated by means of thermally stimulated currents (TSC) spectroscopy. Films were obtained by vacuum deposition from a single source and irradiated with a 5 x 10 13 electrons/cm 2 s -1 beam of 6-MeV energy. It was found that electrical properties of the films are controlled by a deep donor state, located at 0.38 eV below the bottom edge of the conduction band. Parameters of the traps responsible for the recorded TSC peaks were determined. (authors)

  12. Feeding mink (Neovison vison) a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy induces higher birth weight and altered hepatic gene expression in the F2 offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, Dominique; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition during foetal life can induce modifications in the phenotype of an individual. The present study aimed to observe effects of low foetal life protein provision on modifications of the phenotype and changes in the progeny of 1-year-old female mink (F1 generation) offspring of mothers f...

  13. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  14. Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-II E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on 241Am, 238U, and 237Np targets and the Bremmstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on 232Th and 238U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments.

  15. Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-II, E.; Karapetyan, G.S.; Deppman, A.; Guimaraes, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Balabekyan, A.R. [Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian 1, Yerevan (Armenia); Demekhina, N.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanyan Brothers 2, Yerevan (Armenia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (LNR), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}U, and {sup 237}Np targets and the Bremsstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments. (author)

  16. Effect of laser spot size on energy balance in laser induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.C.; Sharma, S.; Bhawalkar, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the laser spot size on laser light absorption in laser induced plasmas from solid targets was studied. It was found that at a constant laser intensity on the target, reduction in the laser spot size enhances the net laser energy absorption. It was also observed that the laser light reflection from the target becomes more diffused when the focal spot size is reduced

  17. Defect production and subsequent effects induced by electronic energy loss of swift heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Sun Youmei; Yin Jingmin; Yao Huijun; Duan Jinglai; Mo Dan; Zhang Ling; Chen Yanfeng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2008-01-01

    Swift heavy ion in matter is one of forfront fields of nuclear physics in the world. A series of new phenomena were discovered in recent years. The history and sta- tus on the development of this field were reviewed. Electronic energy loss effects induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, such as defect production and evolution, ion latent track formation, phase transformation and anisotropy plastic deformation were introduced emphatically. A trend of future investigation was explored. (authors)

  18. Time and energy resolved runaway measurements in TFR from induced radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    A time and energy resolved measurement of the radioactivity induced by runaway electrons in proper samples has been developped in TFR. The data give an information on the confinement time of these electrons, which appears to be strongly dependent on the toroidal field, suggesting the onset of a magnetic turbulence at lower fields. Observations showing that the runaway electrons deeply penetrate into the limiter shadow are also reported

  19. Leptin: A Link Between Energy Imbalance and Exercise-Induced Amenorrhea in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Up to a quarter of female athletes may experience exercise-induced amenorrhea, depending on the type of sport and the level of competition. This amenorrhea is a component of the Female Athlete Triad, a term used to describe three interrelated conditions commonly seen together in the elite female athlete: chronic dieting and/or disordered eating, amenorrhea, and decreased bone mass. Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and believed to play a central role in eating behaviors and energy ...

  20. Projectile like fragment production in Ar induced reactions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.; Gatty, B.; Jacquet, D.; Galin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The production of projectile like fragments (PLF) has been studied in Ar induced reactions on various targets. It shows very clearly, that besides the predominance of fragmentation for most of the products, the transfer process is still a very strong component for products nearby the projectile. The influence of the target neutron excess on the PLF production is investigated as well as the evolution with incident energy of the characteristics of the different competing processes

  1. Heavy Ion Induced Degradation in SiC Schottky Diodes: Bias and Energy Deposition Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanainen, Arto; Galloway, Kenneth F.; Nicklaw, Christopher; Bosser, Alexandre L.; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Pintacuda, Francesco; Reed, Robert A.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Weller, Robert A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results on ion-induced leakage current increase in 4H-SiC Schottky power diodes are presented. Monte Carlo and TCAD simulations show that degradation is due to the synergy between applied bias and ion energy deposition. This degradation is possibly related to thermal spot annealing at the metal semiconductor interface. This thermal annealing leads to an inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier that could be responsible for the increase leakage current as a function of fluence.

  2. Study of measurement method of tritium induced in concrete of high-energy proton accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, N.; Ishihama, S.; Kunifuda, T.; Hayasaka, N.; Miura, T.

    2001-01-01

    Various long-loved radionuclides, 3 H, 7 Be, 22 Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Co, 57 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 152 Eu and 154 Eu, have been produced in the shielding concrete of high energy proton accelerator facility through both nuclear spallation reactions and thermal neutron capture reactions of concrete elements, during machine operation. Tritium is the most important nuclide from the radiation protection. There were, however, few measurements of tritium concentration induced in the shielding concrete. In this study, the conditions of measurement method of tritium concentration induced in shielding concrete have been investigated using the activated shielding concrete of the 12 GeV proton beam-line tunnel at KEK and the standard rock (JG-1) irradiated of thermal neutron at the reactor. And the depth profiles of tritium induced in the shielding concrete of slow extracted proton beam line at KEK were determined using this method. (author)

  3. Preparation and characterization of intrinsically coloured polymers using high energy radiation induced processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, J.T.

    1978-07-01

    Information on the development in research is given in the utilization of high energy radiation sources in polymerizations and on polymer characterization in the following three areas: studies on the nitrile-styrene system, studies on the radiation induced polymerization of 2-vinyl anthraquinone and the graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto cellulose in the DMSO/HCHO/cellulose system. Within the framework of research in radiation induced polymerization, samples of 2-vinyl anthraquinone were subjected to X-ray diffraction and e.s.r. examinations and the kinetics and mechanism of γ-ray induced solution polymerization of 2-vinyl anthraquinone in methylene chloride and dimethyl sulfoxide was investigated. Methylene chloride was found to be an efficient solvent for poly(2-vinyl anthraquinone). The rate of polymerization in methylene chloride was 10 3 times greater than that obtained using dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent

  4. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  5. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  6. Preliminary results of total kinetic energy modelling for neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visan, I.; Giubega, G.; Tudora, A.

    2015-01-01

    The total kinetic energy as a function of fission fragments mass TKE(A) is an important quantity entering in prompt emission calculations. The experimentally distributions of TKE(A) are referring to a limited number of fission systems and incident energies. In the present paper, a preliminary model for TKE calculation in neutron induced fission system is presented. The range of fission fragments is chosen as in the Point by Point treatment. The model needs as input only mass excesses and deformation parameters taken from available nuclear databases being based on the following approximations: total excitation energy of fully accelerated fission fragments TXE is calculated from energy balance of neutron-induced fission systems as sum of the total excitation energy at scission E*sciss and deformation energy Edef. The deformation energy at scission is given by minimizing the potential energy at the scission configuration. At the scission point, the fission system is described by two spheroidal fragments nearly touching by a pre-scission distance or neck caused by the nuclear forces between fragments. Therefore, the Columbian repulsion depending on neck and, consequently, on the fragments deformation at scission, is essentially in TKE determination. An approximation is made based on the fission modes. For the very symmetric fission, the dominant super long channel is characterized by long distance between fragments leading to low TKE values. Due to magic and double-magic shells closure, the dominant S1 fission mode for pairs with heavy fragment mass AH around 130-134 is characterized by spherical heavy fragment shape and easily deformed light fragment. The nearly spherical shape of the complementary fragments are characterized by minimum distance, and consequently to maximum TKE values. The results obtained for TKE(A) are in good agreement with existing experimental data for many neutron induced fission systems, e.g. ''2''3''3&apos

  7. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Jiang, Jian; Han, Xianwei; Tan, Chang; Wei, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  8. High energy diets-induced metabolic and prediabetic painful polyneuropathy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xie

    Full Text Available To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals.

  9. High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt) deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals. PMID:23451227

  10. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research

  11. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  12. Forecasting of Energy Expenditure of Induced Seismicity with Use of Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Tomasz; Banka, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Coal mining in many Polish mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is accompanied by high levels of induced seismicity. In mining plants, the methods of shock monitoring are improved, allowing for more accurate localization of the occurring phenomena and determining their seismic energy. Equally important is the development of ways of forecasting seismic hazards that may occur while implementing mine design projects. These methods, depending on the length of time for which the forecasts are made, can be divided into: longterm, medium-term, short-term and so-called alarm. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful for the design of seam exploitations. The paper presents a method of predicting changes in energy expenditure of shock using a properly trained artificial neural network. This method allows to make long-term forecasts at the stage of the mine’s exploitation design, thus enabling the mining work plans to be reviewed to minimize the potential for tremors. The information given at the input of the neural network is indicative of the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation occurring in the selected, thick, resistant rock layers (tremor-prone layers). Energy changes, taking place in one or more tremor-prone layers are considered. These indicators describe only the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation accumulating in the rock as a consequence of the mining operation, but does not determine the amount of energy released during the destruction of a given volume of rock. In this process, the potential energy of elastic strain transforms into other, non-measurable energy types, including the seismic energy of recorded tremors. In this way, potential energy changes affect the observed induced seismicity. The parameters used are characterized by increases (declines) of specific energy with separation to occur before the hypothetical destruction of the rock and after it. Additional input information is an index characterizing the rate of

  13. Recipient micro-environment does not dictate the Igh-V restriction specificity of T cell suppressor inducer factor (TsiF) from allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.; Ogasawara, M.; Iwabuchi, K.; Osgasawara, K.; Ishihara, T.; Good, R.A.; Morikawa, K.; Onoe, K.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have ascertained previously from a study of fully allogeneic irradiation chimeras in mice that the H-2 restriction of the suppressor factor (Ly-2 T suppressor factor) is determined by the post-thymic environment protected by the donor cells, rather than by the thymic environment of the recipient. In the present study, the author analyzed differentiation influences that determine the Igh restriction specificities of the suppressor inducer T cell factor(s) (TsiF) that are produced by Ly-1+ splenic T cells in fully allogeneic bone marrow chimeras in mice. AKR mice that had been lethally irradiated and reconstituted with B10 marrow cells, [B10----AKR] chimeras, produced Ly-1 TsiF after hyper-immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) which suppressed antigen--specifically the primary antibody responses to SRBC that were generated in cells of the same Igh-Vb haplotype of donor strain and not those generated in cells of the recipient Igh-Va type. Similar results were obtained when Ly-1 TsiF from [B6----BALB/c] and [BALB/c----B6] chimeras were analyzed. Furthermore, the Ly-1 TsiF from [BALB/c----B6] chimeras suppressed the primary antibody responses of both BALB/c [H-2d, Igh-Va, Igh-Ca] and BAB-14 (H-2d, Igh-Va, Igh-Cb), but not those of CAL-20 (H-2d, Igh-Vd, Igh-Cd). These results demonstrate clearly that the Ly-1 TsiF from allogeneic bone marrow chimeras are donor Igh-V-restricted and are not influenced by the recipient micro-environment, presumably that were provided by the thymuses of the recipient mice

  14. Electrophoresis examination of strand breaks in plasmid DNA induced by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Tan Zheng; Du Yanhua; Qiu Guanying

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect on plasmid DNA of heavy ion in the energy range of keV where nuclear stopping interaction becomes more important or even predominant, thin film of plasmid pGEM-3Zf(-) DNA was prepared on aluminum surface and irradiated in vacuum ( -3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with energy of 30 keV (LET=285 keV/μm) at various fluence ranging from 2 x 10 10 to 8.2 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. Low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation induced single-, double- and multiple double-strand breaks (DSB) and multiple DSB as the dominating form of DNA damages. Moreover, the linear fluence-response relationship at a low fluence range suggests that DSBs are induced predominantly by single ion track. However, strand break production is limited to a short range in the irradiated samples

  15. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  16. Loss of Akt1 in mice increases energy expenditure and protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Easton, Rachael M; Gleason, Catherine E; Monks, Bobby R; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C Ronald; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2012-01-01

    Akt is encoded by a gene family for which each isoform serves distinct but overlapping functions. Based on the phenotypes of the germ line gene disruptions, Akt1 has been associated with control of growth, whereas Akt2 has been linked to metabolic regulation. Here we show that Akt1 serves an unexpected role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as mice deficient for Akt1 exhibit protection from diet-induced obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Although skeletal muscle contributes most of the resting and exercising energy expenditure, muscle-specific deletion of Akt1 does not recapitulate the phenotype, indicating that the role of Akt1 in skeletal muscle is cell nonautonomous. These data indicate a previously unknown function of Akt1 in energy metabolism and provide a novel target for treatment of obesity.

  17. Method of measurement of cross sections of heavy nuclei fission induced by intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, Alexander; Chtchetkovski, Alexander; Fedorov, Oleg; Gavrikov, Yuri; Chestnov, Yuri; Poliakov, Vladimir; Vaishnene, Larissa; Vovchenko, Vil; Fukahori, Tokio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is experimental studies of the energy dependence of the fission cross sections of heavy nuclei, nat Pb, 209 Bi, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu, by protons at the energies from 200 to 1000 MeV. At present experiment the method based on use of the gas parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) for registration of complementary fission fragments in coincidence and the telescope of scintillation counters for direct counting of the incident protons on the target has been used. First preliminary results of the energy dependences of proton induced fission cross sections for nat Pb, 209 Bi, 235 U and 238 U are reported. (author)

  18. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  19. Determination of low-energy ion-induced electron yields from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, Frederic; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Wurz, Peter; Bochsler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ion beams crossing thin carbon foils can cause electron emission from the entrance and exit surface. Thin carbon foils are used in various types of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers to produce start pulses for TOF measurements. The yield of emitted electrons depends, among other parameters, on the energy of the incoming ion and its mass, and it has been experimentally determined for a few projectile elements. The electron emission yield is of great importance for deriving abundance ratios of elements and isotopes in space plasmas using TOF mass spectrometers. We have developed a detector for measuring ion-induced electron yields, and we have extended the electron yield measurements for oxygen to energies relevant for solar wind research. We also present first measurements of the carbon foil electron emission yield for argon and iron in the solar wind energy range

  20. Middle-aged overweight South Asian men exhibit a different metabolic adaptation to short-term energy restriction compared with Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.E.; Guigas, B.; Schinkel, L.D. van; Zon, G.C. van der; Streefland, T.C.; Klinken, J.B. van; Jonker, J.T.; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Pijl, H.; Meinders, A.E.; Jazet, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asians have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than Europeans. The underlying cause of this excess risk is still poorly understood but might be related to differences in the regulation of energy/nutrient-sensing pathways in metabolic tissues and subsequent changes in

  1. Lipid metabolism and mitochondrial energy production are key pathways involved in adipose tissue of cows transitioning from feed restriction to ad libitum diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. The majority of the nutrients are used to support the cow’s maintenance requirements and substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward this type of energy expenditure. The objective of ...

  2. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  3. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  4. Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2016-03-09

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.

  5. Mast cell-restricted, tetramer-forming tryptases induce aggrecanolysis in articular cartilage by activating matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 zymogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarinos, Natalia J; Bryant, Katherine J; Fosang, Amanda J; Adachi, Roberto; Stevens, Richard L; McNeil, H Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-6-null C57BL/6 mice lost less aggrecan proteoglycan from the extracellular matrix of their articular cartilage during inflammatory arthritis than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that this mast cell (MC)-specific mouse tryptase plays prominent roles in articular cartilage catabolism. We used ex vivo mouse femoral head explants to determine how mMCP-6 and its human ortholog hTryptase-β mediate aggrecanolysis. Exposure of the explants to recombinant hTryptase-β, recombinant mMCP-6, or lysates harvested from WT mouse peritoneal MCs (PMCs) significantly increased the levels of enzymatically active matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in cartilage and significantly induced aggrecan loss into the conditioned media, relative to replicate explants exposed to medium alone or lysates collected from mMCP-6-null PMCs. Treatment of cartilage explants with tetramer-forming tryptases generated aggrecan fragments that contained C-terminal DIPEN and N-terminal FFGVG neoepitopes, consistent with MMP-dependent aggrecanolysis. In support of these data, hTryptase-β was unable to induce aggrecan release from the femoral head explants obtained from Chloe mice that resist MMP cleavage at the DIPEN↓FFGVG site in the interglobular domain of aggrecan. In addition, the abilities of mMCP-6-containing lysates from WT PMCs to induce aggrecanolysis were prevented by inhibitors of MMP-3 and MMP-13. Finally, recombinant hTryptase-β was able to activate latent pro-MMP-3 and pro-MMP-13 in vitro. The accumulated data suggest that human and mouse tetramer-forming tryptases are MMP convertases that mediate cartilage damage and the proteolytic loss of aggrecan proteoglycans in arthritis, in part, by activating the zymogen forms of MMP-3 and MMP-13, which are constitutively present in articular cartilage.

  6. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to ΔE/E∼10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION registered ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to ΔE/E 2,3 VV-transition with PAES. Thus, within this thesis two objectives were achieved: Firstly, the PAES spectrometer was renewed and improved by at least one order of magnitude with respect to the signal to noise ratio, the measurement time and the energy resolution. Secondly, several measurements have been carried out, demonstrating the high performance of the spectrometer. Amongst them are first dynamic PAES measurements and a high resolution measurement of the CuM 2,3 VV

  7. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall maintain...

  8. A highly intensified ART regimen induces long-term viral suppression and restriction of the viral reservoir in a simian AIDS model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iart Luca Shytaj

    Full Text Available Stably suppressed viremia during ART is essential for establishing reliable simian models for HIV/AIDS. We tested the efficacy of a multidrug ART (highly intensified ART in a wide range of viremic conditions (10³-10⁷ viral RNA copies/mL in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques, and its impact on the viral reservoir. Eleven macaques in the pre-AIDS stage of the disease were treated with a multidrug combination (highly intensified ART consisting of two nucleosidic/nucleotidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (emtricitabine and tenofovir, an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir, a protease inhibitor (ritonavir-boosted darunavir and the CCR5 blocker maraviroc. All animals stably displayed viral loads below the limit of detection of the assay (i.e. <40 RNA copies/mL after starting highly intensified ART. By increasing the sensitivity of the assay to 3 RNA copies/mL, viral load was still below the limit of detection in all subjects tested. Importantly, viral DNA resulted below the assay detection limit (<2 copies of DNA/5*10⁵ cells in PBMCs and rectal biopsies of all animals at the end of the follow-up, and in lymph node biopsies from the majority of the study subjects. Moreover, highly intensified ART decreased central/transitional memory, effector memory and activated (HLA-DR⁺ effector memory CD4⁺ T-cells in vivo, in line with the role of these subsets as the main cell subpopulations harbouring the virus. Finally, treatment with highly intensified ART at viral load rebound following suspension of a previous anti-reservoir therapy eventually improved the spontaneous containment of viral load following suspension of the second therapeutic cycle, thus leading to a persistent suppression of viremia in the absence of ART. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, complete suppression of viral load by highly intensified ART and a likely associated restriction of the viral reservoir in the macaque AIDS model, making it a useful platform for testing

  9. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, Kin.

    1996-05-01

    The 129 Xe-induced reactions on nat Cu, 89 Y, 165 Ho, and 197 Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 ampersand 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129 Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied

  10. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  11. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliate restrictions. 35.39 Section 35.39 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate...

  12. Low-energy electron diffraction and induced damage in hydrated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Oh, Doogie; Chen Yanfeng; Aleksandrov, Alexandr B.

    2008-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 5-30 eV electrons within the B-DNA 5 ' -CCGGCGCCGG-3 ' and A-DNA 5 ' -CGCGAATTCGCG-3 ' DNA sequences is calculated using the separable representation of a free-space electron propagator and a curved wave multiple scattering formalism. The disorder brought about by the surrounding water and helical base stacking leads to a featureless amplitude buildup of elastically scattered electrons on the sugar and phosphate groups for all energies between 5 and 30 eV. However, some constructive interference features arising from diffraction are revealed when examining the structural waters within the major groove. These appear at 5-10, 12-18, and 22-28 eV for the B-DNA target and at 7-11, 12-18, and 18-25 eV for the A-DNA target. Although the diffraction depends on the base-pair sequence, the energy dependent elastic scattering features are primarily associated with the structural water molecules localized within 8-10 A spheres surrounding the bases and/or the sugar-phosphate backbone. The electron density buildup occurs in energy regimes associated with dissociative electron attachment resonances, direct electronic excitation, and dissociative ionization. Since diffraction intensity can be localized on structural water, compound H 2 O:DNA states may contribute to energy dependent low-energy electron induced single and double strand breaks

  13. Changes in brain amino acid content induced by hyposmolar stress and energy deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, T S; Valø, E T; Langmoen, I A

    1995-12-01

    The changes in endogenous amino acids in brain extracellular and intracellular compartments evoked by hyposmotic stress and energy deprivation were compared. Tissue content and release of ten amino acids were measured simultaneously in rat hippocampal slices by means of high performance liquid chromatography. Hyposmotic stress induced a large release of taurine (25568 pmol mg-1 protein), and a smaller release of glutamate, accompanied by an inverse change in tissue content. Adding mannitol to correct osmolarity, blocked these changes. Energy deprivation caused an increase in the release of all amino acids except glutamine. The release was particularly large for glutamate and GABA (31141 and 13282 pmol mg-1, respectively). The intracellular concentrations were generally reduced, but the total amount of the released amino acids increased In contrast to the effect seen during hyposmolar stress, mannitol enhanced the changes due to energy deprivation. The results show that hyposmolar stress and energy deprivation cause different content and release profiles, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in the two situations are either different or modulated in different ways. The intracellular amino acid depletion seen during energy deprivation shows that increased outward transport is probably a primary event, and increased amino acid formation likely secondary to this release.

  14. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10 24 –1.6 × 10 25 ions m −2 ), and flux (2.0 × 10 20 –5.5 × 10 20 ion m −2 s −1 ). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  15. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlony, A., E-mail: montaserajlony@yahoo.com; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-05-15

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10{sup 24}–1.6 × 10{sup 25} ions m{sup −2}), and flux (2.0 × 10{sup 20}–5.5 × 10{sup 20} ion m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  16. Energy utilization of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte in Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Jie; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Wen-Yeh; Chang, Wei-Chao; Chien, Yueh; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Liu, Yung-Yang; Chen, Shih-Jen; Wang, Chien-Ying; Chen, Yu-Han; Niu, Dau-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Leu, Hsin-Bang

    2017-04-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disease in which glycosphingolipids (GB3) accumulate in organs of the human body, leading to idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and target organ damage. Its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. We aimed to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from FD patients presenting cardiomyopathy to determine whether the model could recapitulate key features of the disease phenotype and to investigate the energy metabolism in Fabry disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a 30-year-old Chinese man with a diagnosis of Fabry disease, GLA gene (IVS4+919G>A) mutation were reprogrammed into iPSCs and differentiated into iPSC-CMs and energy metabolism was analyzed in iPSC-CMs. The FD-iPSC-CMs recapitulated numerous aspects of the FD phenotype including reduced GLA activity, cellular hypertrophy, GB3 accumulation and impaired contractility. Decreased energy metabolism with energy utilization shift to glycolysis was observed, but the decreased energy metabolism was not modified by enzyme rescue replacement (ERT) in FD-iPSCs-CMs. This model provided a promising in vitro model for the investigation of the underlying disease mechanism and development of novel therapeutic strategies for FD. This potential remedy for enhancing the energetic network and utility efficiency warrants further study to identify novel therapies for the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation-induced energy migration within solid DNA: The role of misonidazole as an electron trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kazwini, A.T.; O'Neill, P.; Adams, G.E.; Fielden, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The in-pulse luminescence emission from solid DNA produced upon irradiation with electron pulses of energy below 260 keV has been investigated in vacuo at 293 K to gain an insight into the existence of radiation-induced charge/energy migration within DNA. The DNA samples contained misonidazole in the range 3 to 330 base pairs per misonidazole molecule. Under these conditions greater than 90% of the total energy is deposited in the DNA. The in-pulse radiation-induced luminescence spectrum of DNA was found to be critically dependent upon the misonidazole content of DNA. The luminescence intensity from the mixtures decreases with increasing content of misonidazole, and at the highest concentration, the intensity at 550 nm is reduced to 50% of that from DNA only. In the presence of 1 atm of oxygen, the observed emission intensity from DNA in the wavelength region 350-575 was reduced by 35-40% compared to that from DNA in vacuo. It is concluded that electron migration can occur in solid mixtures of DNA over a distance of up to about 100 base pairs

  18. Birth weight predicted baseline muscular efficiency, but not response of energy expenditure to calorie restriction: An empirical test of the predictive adaptive response hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Megan; Baker, Jack; Lancaster, Jane B; Mermier, Christine; Alcock, Joe

    2016-07-01

    Aiming to test the evolutionary significance of relationships linking prenatal growth conditions to adult phenotypes, this study examined whether birth size predicts energetic savings during fasting. We specifically tested a Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR) model that predicts greater energetic saving among adults who were born small. Data were collected from a convenience sample of young adults living in Albuquerque, NM (n = 34). Indirect calorimetry quantified changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) and active muscular efficiency that occurred in response to a 29-h fast. Multiple regression analyses linked birth weight to baseline and postfast metabolic values while controlling for appropriate confounders (e.g., sex, body mass). Birth weight did not moderate the relationship between body size and energy expenditure, nor did it predict the magnitude change in REE or muscular efficiency observed from baseline to after fasting. Alternative indicators of birth size were also examined (e.g., low v. normal birth weight, comparison of tertiles), with no effects found. However, baseline muscular efficiency improved by 1.1% per 725 g (S.D.) increase in birth weight (P = 0.037). Birth size did not influence the sensitivity of metabolic demands to fasting-neither at rest nor during activity. Moreover, small birth size predicted a reduction in the efficiency with which muscles convert energy expended into work accomplished. These results do not support the ascription of adaptive function to phenotypes associated with small birth size. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:484-492, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal VLDL-TG metabolism in women. Eleven healthy women (age = 23.5 ± 2.7 yr, body mass index = 21.6 ± 1.4 kg·m-2; mean ± SD) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: (i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123 ± 18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06 ± 0.39 MJ, ∼500 kcal), (ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10 ± 0.41 MJ, and (iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was approximately 30% lower after the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P restriction trial (P = 0.297 vs control). Relative to the control condition, exercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P = 0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by approximately 17% (P = 0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P > 0.2). (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction.

  20. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkaline. Stored energy, thermoluminescence and coloration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminescence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminescence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KC1 samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose.Capacity of alkali halides to store energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. (Author) 51 refs

  1. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J T; Rungger, I; Sanvito, S; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-05-21

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.

  2. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in coupling-chamber excited by the vortex-induced pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tinghai; Wang, Yingting; Qin, Feng; Song, Zhaoyang; Lu, Xiaohui; Bao, Gang; Zhao, Xilu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester with a coupling chamber was investigated under vortex-induced pressure. The harvester consisted of a power chamber, a buffer, and a storage chamber. Different types of vortex (i.e., clockwise or counter-clockwise) could be induced by changing the volume ratio between the power chamber and the storage chamber. The peak voltage of the harvester could be tuned by changing the volume ratio. For example, under a pressure of 0.30 MPa, input cycle of 2.0 s, and flow rate of 200 l/min, the peak voltage decreased from 79.20 to 70.80 V with increasing volume ratio. The optimal volume ratio was 2.03, which resulted in the formation of a clockwise vortex. The corresponding effective power through a 600 kΩ resistor was 1.97 mW.

  4. Energy budgets of mining-induced earthquakes and their interactions with nearby stopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1960's, N.G.W. Cook, using an underground network of geophones, demonstrated that most Witwatersrand tremors are closely associated with deep level gold mining operations. He also showed that the energy released by the closure of the tabular stopes at depths of the order of 2 km was more than sufficient to account for the mining-induced earthquakes. I report here updated versions of these two results based on more modern underground data acquired in the Witwatersrand gold fields. Firstly, an extensive suite of in situ stress data indicate that the ambient state of crustal stress here is close to the failure state in the absence of mining even though the tectonic setting is thoroughly stable. Mining initially stabilizes the rock mass by reducing the pore fluid pressure from its initial hydrostatic state to nearly zero. The extensive mine excavations, as Cook showed, concentrate the deviatoric stresses, in localized regions of the abutments, back into a failure state resulting in seismicity. Secondly, there appears to be two distinct types of mining-induced earthquakes: the first is strongly coupled to the mining and involves shear failure plus a coseismic volume reduction; the second type is not evidently coupled to any particular mine face, shows purely deviatoric failure, and is presumably caused by more regional changes in the state of stress due to mining. Thirdly, energy budgets for mining induced earthquakes of both types indicate that, of the available released energy, only a few per cent is radiated by the seismic waves with the majority being consumed in overcoming fault friction. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.In the early 1960's, N.G.W. Cook, using an underground network of geophones, demonstrated that most Witwatersrand tremors are closely associated with deep level gold mining operations. He also showed that the energy released by the closure of the tabular stopes at depths of the order of 2 km was more than sufficient to account for the

  5. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J. T.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00534A

  6. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three essays is to posit

  7. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-15

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three

  8. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  9. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkali halides. Stored energy, thermoluminiscence and colouration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminiscence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminiscence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KCl samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose. Capacity of alkali halides to sotore energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. It appears that most of the observed release is not related to annealing processes of the radiation induced anion Frenkel pairs. The existence of damage in the cation sublattice with which this energy release might be related is considered. (auth.)

  10. Performance-related increases in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induced by spatial navigation training are restricted to BDNF Val homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Schaefer, Sabine; Noack, Hannes; Kanowski, Martin; Kaufmann, Jörn; Tempelmann, Claus; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Kühn, Simone; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Düzel, Emrah; Bäckman, Lars

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates experience-dependent brain volume changes in humans, but the functional and histological nature of such changes is unknown. Here, we report that adult men performing a cognitively demanding spatial navigation task every other day over 4 months display increases in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Unlike measures of brain volume, changes in NAA are sensitive to metabolic and functional aspects of neural and glia tissue and unlikely to reflect changes in microvasculature. Training-induced changes in NAA were, however, absent in carriers of the Met substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is known to reduce activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. Among BDNF Val homozygotes, increases in NAA were strongly related to the degree of practice-related improvement in navigation performance and normalized to pretraining levels 4 months after the last training session. We conclude that changes in demands on spatial navigation can alter hippocampal NAA concentrations, confirming epidemiological studies suggesting that mental experience may have direct effects on neural integrity and cognitive performance. BDNF genotype moderates these plastic changes, in line with the contention that gene-context interactions shape the ontogeny of complex phenotypes.

  11. Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monoatomic solids at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Tawara, Hiro.

    1995-03-01

    The yields of the ion-induced sputtering from monoatomic solids at normal incidence for various ion-target combinations are presented graphically as a function of the incident ion energy. In order to fill the lack of the experimental data, the sputtering yields are also calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows available experimental data points and the ACAT data, together with the sputtering yields calculated by the present empirical formula, whose parameters are determined by the best-fit to available data. (author)

  12. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, B.; Mignerey, A.C.; Madani, H.; Marchetti, A.A.; Colonna, M.; DiToro, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in lanthanum-induced reactions utilizing inverse kinematics has been studied from E/A = 35 to 55 MeV. At each bombarding energy studied, the probability for the multiple emission of complex fragments has been found to be independent of target. Global features (total charge, source velocity) of the reaction La + Al at E/A = 45 MeV have been reproduced by coupling a dynamical model to study the collision stage of the reaction to a statistical model of nuclear decay

  13. Measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections of Pb and Bi at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhov, Igor; Tutin, Gennady; Eismont, Vilen; Mitryukhin, Andrey; Oplavin, Valery; Soloviev, Sergey; Conde, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Renberg, Per-Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of nat Pb and 209 Bi have been measured relative to the 238 U(n.f) cross section at energies 96 MeV for lead and 133 MeV for bismuth. The measurements were performed at the quasi-mono-energetic neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala using Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The results obtained are compared with other experimental data. The present state of the Bi standard recommended by IAEA is discussed. (author)

  14. High energy proton-induced radioactivity in HgI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, E.; Ferrero, J.L.; Sanchez, F.; Ruiz, J.A.; Lei, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) semiconductor crystals are generating a lot of interest as room temperature solid state detectors for hard X-ray astronomy observations. For these applications one of the most important background sources is the cosmic proton induced radioactivity in the detector material. In order to study this background noise contribution a 1x1x1 cm HgI 2 crystal was irradiated with high energy protons. The resulting long-lived unstable isotopes and their production rates have been identified and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. ((orig.))

  15. Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string

    OpenAIRE

    Sitenko, Yu. A.; Vlasii, N. D.

    2011-01-01

    A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional space-time. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the space-time curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decr...

  16. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  17. Low-energy electron irradiation induced top-surface nanocrystallization of amorphous carbon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Xue; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-10-01

    We report a low-energy electron irradiation method to nanocrystallize the top-surface of amorphous carbon film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. The nanostructure evolution of the carbon film as a function of electron irradiation density and time was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the electron irradiation gave rise to the formation of sp2 nanocrystallites in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. The formation of sp2 nanocrystallite was ascribed to the inelastic electron scattering in the top-surface of carbon film. The frictional property of low-energy electron irradiated film was measured by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The sp2 nanocrystallized top-surface induced a lower friction coefficient than that of the original pure amorphous film. This method enables a convenient nanocrystallization of amorphous surface.

  18. Determination of the nuclear induced electrical conductivity of 3He for magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitteker, L.; Scheuer, J.; Howe, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report for a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The continual need for more efficient, high-output energy conversion techniques has renewed interest in nuclear-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. To provide the fundamental knowledge required to evaluate the potential value of this concept, a one-year project aimed at measuring the nuclear-induced electrical conductivity of a 3 He/ 4 He gas mixture under thermodynamic conditions consistent with the MHD flow conditions was carried out. The range of bulk gas conditions to be considered were: pressure = 0.1 to 3800 Torr and temperature = 300 to 1500 K. The maximum neutron flux to be considered was 10 16 /cm 2 sec. The range of parameters considered surpassed previous experiments in all aspects

  19. Ion peening and stress relaxation induced by low-energy atom bombardment of covalent solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, Monika; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2001-01-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the buildup and relaxation of stress induced by low-energy (≤150 eV) atom bombardment of a target material. The effect is brought out most clearly by using an initially compressed specimen. As target material, we employ Si, based on the Tersoff potential. By varying the bond strength in the potential, we can specifically study its effect on damage production and stress changes. We find that in general, stress is relaxed by the atom bombardment; only for low bombarding energies and strong bonds, atom bombardment increases stress. We rationalize this behavior by considering the role of energized atoms and of recoil-implanted target atoms

  20. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  1. Effect of free-particle collisions in high energy proton and pion-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of free-particle collisions in simple ''knockout'' reactions of the form (a,aN) and in more complex nuclear reactions of the form (a,X) was investigated by using protons and pions. Cross sections for the 48 Ti(p,2p) 47 Sc and the 74 Ge(p,2p) 73 Ga reactions were measured from 0.3 to 4.6 GeV incident energy. The results indicate a rise in (p,2p) cross section for each reaction of about (25 +- 3) percent between the energies 0.3 and 1.0 GeV, and are correlated to a large increase in the total free-particle pp scattering cross sections over the same energy region. Results are compared to previous (p,2p) excitation functions in the GeV energy region and to (p,2p) cross section calculations based on a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation model. Cross section measurements for (π/sup +-/, πN) and other more complex pion-induced spallation reactions were measured for the light target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F from 45 to 550 MeV incident pion energy. These measurements indicate a broad peak in the excitation functions for both (π,πN) and (π,X) reactions near 180 MeV incident energy. This corresponds to the large resonances observed in the free-particle π + p and π - p cross sections at the same energy. Striking differences in (π,πN) cross section magnitudes are observed among the light nuclei targets. The experimental cross section ratio sigma(π - ,π - n)/sigma(π + ,πN) at 180 MeV is 1.7 +- 0.2 for all three targets. The experimental results are compared to previous pion and analogous proton-induced reactions, to Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semi-classical nucleon charge exchange model. (108 references) (auth)

  2. Clinically suspected anaphylaxis induced by sugammadex in a patient with Weaver syndrome undergoing restrictive mammoplasty surgery: A case report with the literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedirli, Nurdan; Işık, Berrin; Bashiri, Mehrnoosh; Pampal, Kutluk; Kurtipek, Ömer

    2018-01-01

    Sugammadex is a cylodextrin derivate that encapsulates steroidal neuromuscular blocker agents and is reported as a safe and well-tolerated drug. In this case report, we present a patient who developed grade 3 anaphylaxis just after sugammadex administration. A 22-year-old woman with diagnosis of Weaver syndrome was scheduled for bilateral mammoplasty and resection of unilateral accessory breast tissue resection. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by propofol, rocuronium, and remifentanil. At the end of the operation, sugammadex was administered and resulted in initially hypotension and bradycardia then the situation worsened by premature ventricular contraction and bigeminy with tachycardia, bronchospasm, and hypoxia. The Ring and Messmer clinical severity scale grade 3 anaphylactic reaction occurred just after sugammadex injection and the patient developed prolonged hypotension with recurrent cardiac arrhythmias in postoperative 12 hours. Treatment was initiated bolus injections of ephedrine, epinephrine, lidocaine, steroids and antihistaminic and continued with lidocaine bolus dosages and norepinephrine infusion for the postoperative period. The general condition of the patient improved to normal 3 hours after the sugammadex injection, and she was moved to the intensive care unit. At 2nd and 8th hours of intensive care unit follow-up, she developed premature ventricular contraction and bigeminy with the heart rate of 130 to 135 beats/min, which returned to sinus rhythm with 50 mg lidocaine. After that, no symptoms were observed and the patient was discharged to plastic surgery clinic at the following day. Sugammadex may result in life-treating anaphylactic reaction even in a patient who did not previously expose to drug. Moreover, prolonged cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrhythmias may occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Selective Antagonist TXX-522 with Prominent Weight-Loss Efficacy in Diet Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects. In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522 was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A. Docking assays indicate that TXX-522 was bound with the CB1R in a mode similar to that of SR141716A. TXX-522 showed good binding, CB1R-selectivity (over the CB2R, and functional antagonist activities in a range of in vitro molecular and cellular assays. In vivo analysis of the steady state distribution of TXX-522 in the rat brain and blood tissues and the assay of its functional effects on CB1R activity collectively showed that TXX-522 showed minimal brain penetration. Moreover, the in vivo pharmacodynamic study further revealed that TXX-522 had good oral bioavailability and a potent anti-obesity effect, and ameliorated insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. No impact on food intake was observed in this model, confirming the limited brain penetration of this compound. Thus, the current study indicates that TXX-522 is a novel and potent peripherally acting selective CB1R antagonist with the potential to control obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  4. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Prince

    Full Text Available The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states.

  5. High energy nuclear data evaluations for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Chang, Jong Hwa; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jeong Yeon; Han, Yinlu; Sukhovitski, Efrem Sh.

    2001-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is building high energy neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced nuclear data libraries for energies up to hundreds MeV in response to nuclear data needs from various R and Ds and applications. The librares provide nuclear data needed for the accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste and radiation transport simulations of cancer radiotherapy. The neutron library currently has 10 isotopes such as C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Fe-56, Ni-58, Zr-90, Sn-120, and Pb-208 for energies from 20 up to 400 MeV. The proton nuclear data were evaluated in a consistent manner with the neutron case, using the same nuclear model parameters. In addition to the same isotopes included in the neutron library, the proton library has 70 extra isotopes of 24 elements ranging from nitrogen to lead up to 150 MeV for which the evaluations are focused on the medical and activation analyses applications. The photonuclear data library has been built along with international collaboration by participating in the IAEA's Coordinated Research Project (CRP) which ended last year. Currently the KAERI photonuclear library includes 143 isotopes of 39 elements

  6. Design and experimental analysis of broadband energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. B.; Abdelkefi, A.; Dai, H. L.; Naseer, R.; Wang, L.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an operable strategy to enhance the output power of piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibration (VIV) using nonlinear magnetic forces is proposed for the first time. Two introduced small magnets with a repulsive force are, respectively, attached on a lower support and the bottom of a circular cylinder which is subjected to a uniform wind speed. Experiments show that the natural frequency of the VIV-based energy harvester is significantly changed by varying the relative position of the two magnets and hence the synchronization region is shifted. It is observed that the proposed energy harvester displays a softening behavior due to the impact of nonlinear magnetic forces, which greatly increases the performance of the VIV-based energy harvesting system, showing a wider synchronization region and a higher level of the harvested power by 138% and 29%, respectively, compared to the classical configuration. This proposed design can provide the groundwork to promote the output power of conventional VIV-based piezoelectric generators, further enabling to realize self-powered systems.

  7. Influence of Energy and Temperature in Cluster Coalescence Induced by Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jiménez-Sáez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence induced by deposition of different Cu clusters on an epitaxial Co cluster supported on a Cu(001 substrate is studied by constant-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. The degree of epitaxy of the final system increases with increasing separation between the centres of mass of the projectile and target clusters during the collision. Structure, roughness, and epitaxial order of the supported cluster also influence the degree of epitaxy. The effect of energy and temperature is determinant on the epitaxial condition of the coalesced cluster, especially both factors modify the generation, growth and interaction among grains. A higher temperature favours the epitaxial growth for low impact parameters. A higher energy contributes to the epitaxial coalescence for any initial separation between the projectile and target clusters. The influence of projectile energy is notably greater than the influence of temperature since higher energies allow greater and instantaneous atomic reorganizations, so that the number of arisen grains just after the collision becomes smaller. The appearance of grain boundary dislocations is, therefore, a decisive factor in the epitaxial growth of the coalesced cluster.

  8. Mechanically Induced Graphite-Nanodiamonds-Phase Transformations During High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2017-05-01

    Due to their unusual mechanical, chemical, physical, optical, and biological properties, nearly spherical-like nanodiamonds have received much attention as desirable advanced nanomaterials for use in a wide spectrum of applications. Although, nanodiamonds can be successfully synthesized by several approaches, applications of high temperature and/or high pressure may restrict the real applications of such strategic nanomaterials. Distinct from the current preparation approaches used for nanodiamonds preparation, here we show a new process for preparing ultrafine nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) embedded in a homogeneous amorphous-carbon matrix. Our process started from high-energy ball milling of commercial graphite powders at ambient temperature under normal atmospheric helium gas pressure. The results have demonstrated graphite-single wall carbon nanotubes-amorphous-carbon-nanodiamonds phase transformations carried out through three subsequent stages of ball milling. Based on XRD and RAMAN analyses, the percentage of nanodiamond phase + C60 (crystalline phase) produced by ball milling was approximately 81%, while the amorphous phase amount was 19%. The pressure generated on the powder together the with temperature increase upon the ball-powder-ball collision is responsible for the phase transformations occurring in graphite powders.

  9. Energy-imbalance mechanism of domain wall motion induced by propagation spin waves in finite magnetic nanostripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jinrong; Han, Zhaoyan; Su, Yuanchang; Hu, Jingguo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of the domain wall (DW) motions induced by spin wave in finite magnetic nanostripe is studied by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-wave induced DM motions are always accompanied by an energy imbalance between two sides of the DW. The DW motion can be attributed to the expansion of the low-energy-density area and the contraction of the high-energy-density area. The energy imbalance strongly depends on whether the spin wave passes through the DW or is reflected by the DW. In the area of the spin wave propagation, the energy density increases with the time. However, in the superposition area of the incident spin wave and the reflected spin wave, the energy density decreases with the increasing of the time. It shows that this energy imbalance can be controlled by tuning the frequency of the spin wave. Finally, the effect of the damping parameter value is discussed. - Highlights: • The mechanism of the spin-wave induced DW motions is studied. • The spin-wave induced DW motions and the energy imbalance mechanism are given. • The DW motion with the same direction to that of SW is explained. • The DW motion with the opposite direction to that of SW is explained

  10. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  11. Metabolic changes and induction of hepatic lipidosis during feed restriction in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Cebra, C K; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Mattoon, J S

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether feed restriction induces hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and to evaluate the metabolic changes that develop during feed restriction. 8 healthy adult female llamas. Llamas were fed grass hay at a rate of 0.25% of their body weight per day for 13 to 28 days. Llamas were monitored by use of clinical observation, serum biochemical analyses, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsies. All 8 llamas lost weight and mobilized fat. Five llamas developed HL, including 4 that were nursing crias. During the period of feed restriction, mean serum concentration of bile acids and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly higher in llamas that developed HL, compared with llamas that did not. Mean insulin-to-cortisol concentration ratios were lower in llamas with HL before and up to 7 days of feed restriction, compared with those that did not develop HL. HL in llamas may be induced by severe feed restriction, particularly in the face of increased energy demand. Llamas with weight loss attributable to inadequate dietary intake may develop biochemical evidence of hepatopathy and HL. Increases in serum concentration of bile acids and activities of GGT, AST, and SDH may indicate the development of HL in llamas and identify affected animals for aggressive therapeutic intervention.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor directs POMC gene to mediate hypothalamic glucose sensing and energy balance regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF is a nuclear transcription factor that responds to environmental and pathological hypoxia to induce metabolic adaptation, vascular growth, and cell survival. Here we found that HIF subunits and HIF2α in particular were normally expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus of mice. Hypothalamic HIF was up-regulated by glucose to mediate the feeding control of hypothalamic glucose sensing. Two underlying molecular pathways were identified, including suppression of PHDs by glucose metabolites to prevent HIF2α degradation and the recruitment of AMPK and mTOR/S6K to regulate HIF2α protein synthesis. HIF activation was found to directly control the transcription of POMC gene. Genetic approach was then employed to develop conditional knockout mice with HIF inhibition in POMC neurons, revealing that HIF loss-of-function in POMC neurons impaired hypothalamic glucose sensing and caused energy imbalance to promote obesity development. The metabolic effects of HIF in hypothalamic POMC neurons were independent of leptin signaling or pituitary ACTH pathway. Hypothalamic gene delivery of HIF counteracted overeating and obesity under conditions of nutritional excess. In conclusion, HIF controls hypothalamic POMC gene to direct the central nutrient sensing in regulation of energy and body weight balance.

  13. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Directs POMC Gene to Mediate Hypothalamic Glucose Sensing and Energy Balance Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Guo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Park, Sung-min; Cai, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a nuclear transcription factor that responds to environmental and pathological hypoxia to induce metabolic adaptation, vascular growth, and cell survival. Here we found that HIF subunits and HIF2α in particular were normally expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus of mice. Hypothalamic HIF was up-regulated by glucose to mediate the feeding control of hypothalamic glucose sensing. Two underlying molecular pathways were identified, including suppression of PHDs by glucose metabolites to prevent HIF2α degradation and the recruitment of AMPK and mTOR/S6K to regulate HIF2α protein synthesis. HIF activation was found to directly control the transcription of POMC gene. Genetic approach was then employed to develop conditional knockout mice with HIF inhibition in POMC neurons, revealing that HIF loss-of-function in POMC neurons impaired hypothalamic glucose sensing and caused energy imbalance to promote obesity development. The metabolic effects of HIF in hypothalamic POMC neurons were independent of leptin signaling or pituitary ACTH pathway. Hypothalamic gene delivery of HIF counteracted overeating and obesity under conditions of nutritional excess. In conclusion, HIF controls hypothalamic POMC gene to direct the central nutrient sensing in regulation of energy and body weight balance. PMID:21814490

  14. Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Li

    2008-01-01

    Within the realm of classical electrodynamics, the curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. As an application of this canonical formulation, in this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of the particles in the distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particles in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase-space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions. Our study demonstrates clearly the time delay (or retardation) of the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force on a bunch in responding to the change of the bunch length in a magnetic bend. Our result also shows that the effective longitudinal CSR force for a bunch under full compression can have sensitive dependence on the transverse position of the test particle in the bunch for certain parameter regimes