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Sample records for energy release rate

  1. The surface-forming energy release rate versus the local energy release rate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Si; Wang, He-ling; Landis, Chad M; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies two ways to extract the energy (or power) flowing into a crack tip during propagation based on the power balance of areas enclosed by a stationary contour and a comoving contour. It is very interesting to find a contradiction that two corresponding energy release rates (ERRs), a surface-forming ERR and a local ERR, are different when stress singularity exists at a crack tip. Besides a rigorous mathematical interpretation, we deduce that the stress singularity leads to an...

  2. Fracture patterns and the energy release rate of phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Hong, Jiawang; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-03-14

    Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorus, has been enjoying popularity in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, it's relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure have limited its application in mechanical devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the fracture patterns and energy release rate of phosphorene. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate phosphorene's fracture mechanism. The results indicate that fracture under uniaxial tension along the armchair direction is attributed to a break in the interlayer bond angles, while failure in the zigzag direction is triggered by the break in both intra-layer angles and bonds. Furthermore, we developed a modified Griffith criterion to analyze the energy release rate of phosphorene and its dependence on the strain rates and orientations of cracks. Simulation results indicate that phosphorene's energy release rate remains almost unchanged in the armchair direction while it fluctuates intensively in the zigzag direction. Additionally, the strain rate was found to play a negligible role in the energy release rate. The geometrical factor α in the Griffith's criterion is almost constant when the crack orientation is smaller than 45 degree, regardless of the crack orientation and loading direction. Overall, these findings provide helpful insights into the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene.

  3. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  4. Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, L; Piccolroaz, A; Mishuris, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated

  5. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough

  6. Translational and extensional energy release rates (the J- and M-integrals) for a crack layer in thermoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Gommerstadt, B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of papers have been presented on the evaluation of energy release rate for thermoelasticity and corresponding J integral. Two main approaches were developed to treat energy release rate in elasticity. The first is based on direct calculation of the potential energy rate with respect to crack length. The second makes use of Lagrangian formalism. The translational and expansional energy release rates in thermoelasticity are studied by employing the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics and the Crack Layer Approach.

  7. On the energy release rate in a turbulent current sheet on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardakov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that turbulent current sheets on the Sun, realizing in the form of the Parker - Sweet flow, are in quasilinear regime of turbulence (or in the regime of instability threshold). The energy release rate in such sheets does not exceed 10 26 erg/s for typical plasma parameters in active regions

  8. Electron transfer rates and energy releases during denitrification of municipal wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Talib, S.; Ujang, Z; Vollertsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    could be simplified by a two-stage process. In the first stage, nitrate was utilised with significant accumulation of nitrite. In the second stage nitrite was utilised when nitrate depleted. Denitrification rates during the two stages were expressed in terms of electron equivalents (e-eq.) in order...... to compare the process when differennt electron acceptors namlely, nitrate and nitrite were utilised. The energy release rates during the two stages were calculated and compared....

  9. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In nonlinear applications of computational fracture mechanics, energy release rate techniques are used increasingly for computing stress intensity parameters of crack configurations. Recently, deLorenzi used the virtual-crack-extension method to derive an analytical expression for the energy release rate that is better suited for three-dimensional calculations than the well-known J-integral. Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. This combined thermo-mechanical formulation of the energy release rate is valid for general fracture, including nonplanar fracture, and applies to thermo-elastic as well as deformation plasticity material models. Two applications of the technique are described here. In the first, semi-elliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loadings

  10. Study on crack propagation of adhesively bonded DCB for aluminum foam using energy release rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Kyo; Cho, Chong Du [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ung [Kongju National University, Choenan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Aluminum foam with initial crack, which has a closed cell form adhesively bonded, is studied to compare and analyze the crack propagation behavior by using both experimental and finite element analysis techniques. The specimen is loaded in Mode I type of fracture as 15 mm/min speed of a displacement control method. The experimental results were used to accommodate the finite element analysis performed with commercial software ABAQUS 6.10. First, using a video recording, five steps of experiment were selected at random and then the energy release rate was calculated. The estimated energy release rate was then used as fracture energy into the finite element analysis. Comparing the experimental axial load-displacement graphs and the finite element analysis results, roughly equivalent peak values were observed in the cohesive strength of the aluminum foam double cantilever beam. However, force versus displacement patterns showed somewhat different: little deformation was observed in aluminum foam, whereas adhesive parts in double cantilever beam were significantly deformed.

  11. Influence of ceramic dental crown coating substrate thickness ratio on strain energy release rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Noor, S. N. F. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of coating substrate thickness ratio effect on the crown coating fracture behaviour. The bi-layer material is examined under four point bending with pre-crack at the bottom of the core material by using finite element. Three different coating thickness of core/substrate was tested which is 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. The fracture parameters are analysed based on bilayer and homogenous elastic interaction. The result shows that the ratio thickness of core/veneer provided a significant effect on energy release rate.

  12. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  13. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  14. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  15. A unified model of hydride cracking based on elasto-plastic energy release rate over a finite crack extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.J.; Metzger, D.R.; Sauve, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    A fracture criterion based on energy balance is proposed for elasto-plastic cracking at hydrides in zirconium, assuming a finite length of crack advance. The proposed elasto-plastic energy release rate is applied to the crack initiation at hydrides in smooth and notched surfaces, as well as the subsequent delayed hydride cracking (DHC) considering limited crack-tip plasticity. For a smooth or notched surface of an elastic body, the fracture parameter is related to the stress intensity factor for the initiated crack. For DHC, a unique curve relates the non-dimensionalized elasto-plastic energy release rate with the length of crack extension relative to the plastic zone size. This fracture criterion explains experimental observations concerning DHC in a qualitative manner. Quantitative comparison with experiments is made for fracture toughness and DHC tests on specimens containing certain hydride structures; very good agreement is obtained. ((orig.))

  16. An efficient and accurate method for computation of energy release rates in beam structures with longitudinal cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, efficient, and accurate framework for fracture analysis of beam structures with longitudinal cracks. The three-dimensional local stress field is determined using a high-fidelity beam model incorporating a finite element based cross section analysis tool. The Virtual...... Crack Closure Technique is used for computation of strain energy release rates. The devised framework was employed for analysis of cracks in beams with different cross section geometries. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to that of conventional three......-dimensional solid finite element models while using only a fraction of the computation time....

  17. Effects of geometric non-linearity on energy release rates in a realistic wind turbine blade cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Bitsche, Robert; Belloni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Most wind turbine rotor blades comprise several adhesively connected sub-components typically made from glass fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. It is a well-known fact that wind turbine blades are prone to fail in their adhesive joints. However, owing to the complexity...... of their structural behaviour, little is known about the root causes of adhesive joint failure. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical non-linearity on energy release rates (ERRs) of transversely oriented cracks present in the adhesive joints of a wind turbine rotor blade. Utilising a computationally...

  18. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  19. Energy release rate analysis on the interface cracks of enamel-cement-bracket fracture using virtual crack closure technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samshuri, S. F.; Daud, R.; Rojan, M. A.; Mat, F.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Hassan, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the energy method to evaluate fracture behavior of enamel-cement-bracket system based on cement thickness. Finite element (FE) model of enamel-cement-bracket was constructed by using ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). Three different thickness were used in this study, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.271 mm which assigned as thin, medium and thick for both enamel-cement and cement bracket interface cracks. Virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was implemented as a simulation method to calculated energy release rate (ERR). Simulation results were obtained for each thickness are discussed by using Griffith’s energy balance approach. ERR for thin thickness are found to be the lowest compared to medium and thick. Peak value of ERR also showed a significant different between medium and thick thickness. Therefore, weakest bonding occurred at low cement thickness because less load required to produce enough energy to detach the bracket. For medium and thick thickness, both increased rapidly in energy value at about the mid-point of the enamel-cement interface. This behavior occurred because of the increasing in mechanical and surface energy when the cracks are increasing. However, result for thick thickness are higher at mid-point compared to thin thickness. In conclusion, fracture behavior of enamel cracking process for medium most likely the safest to avoid enamel fracture and withstand bracket debonding.

  20. Effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virote Pattarajinda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman beef cattle. Fifteen Brahman cattle, 1.5 years old, with an average initial body weight of 184.8±11.1 kg were assigned to one of three treatments according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments contained 3 levels of synchrony index (0.39, 0.56 and 0.74 that were derived from laboratory chemical composition analysis and degradation kinetics using nylon bag technique. Diets were fed at the rate of 2.5% BW by separate concentrate and roughage. Average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05 with increase levels of synchrony index in the diets. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.01. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration increased linearly (P<0.05 at 6 h post feeding. Higher concentration and fluctuation of ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were observed in animals that received lower synchrony index in their diets. Rumen microbial population tended to increase with diets having higher levels of synchrony index. The results indicated that synchronized rate of dietary energy and nitrogen degradation improved ruminal fermentation and digestibility, thus this increased the growth rate in Brahman cattle fed with ricestraw- based diets.

  1. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in plates and cylinders. Volume 2. ORVIRT: a finite element program for energy release rate calculations for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional crack models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. The formulation has been implemented in the virtual-crack-extension program ORVIRT (Oak Ridge VIRTual-Crack-Extension). Program ORVIRT performs energy release rate calculations for both 2- and 3-dimensional nonlinear models of crack configurations in engineering structures. Two applications of the ORVIRT program are described. In the first, semielliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loading

  2. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  3. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E; Umeno, Y

    2017-01-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses. (paper)

  4. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  5. Experiments to determine the rate of beta energy release following fission of Pu239 andU235 in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.; Taylor, W.H.; Sweet, D.W.; March, M.R.

    1979-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate of beta energy release from Pu239 and U235 fission fragments over a period of 107 seconds following a 105 second irradiation in the zero-power fast reactor Zebra. Results are compared with predictions using the UKFPDD-1 decay data file and two different sets of fission product yield data. (author)

  6. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  7. 3D finite element analysis of stress distributions and strain energy release rates for adhesive bonded flat composite lap shear joints having pre-existing delaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-02-15

    The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.

  8. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  9. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  10. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  11. The effect of buffer-layer on the steady-state energy release rate of a tunneling crack in a wind turbine blade joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn; Sørensen, Bent F.; Kildegaard, Casper

    2018-01-01

    propagation of tunneling cracks. However, for wind turbine blade relevant material combinations it is found more effective to reduce the thickness of the adhesive layer since the stiffness mismatch between the existing laminate and the adhesive is already high. The effect of material orthotropy was found......The effect of a buffer-layer on the steady-state energy release rate of a tunneling crack in the adhesive layer of a wind turbine blade joint, loaded in tension, is investigated using a parametric 2D tri-material finite element model. The idea of embedding a buffer-layer in-between the adhesive...... and the basis glass fiber laminate to improve the existing joint design is novel, but the implications hereof need to be addressed.The results show that it is advantageous to embed a buffer-layer near the adhesive with controllable thickness-and stiffness properties in order to improve the joint design against...

  12. The energy-release rate and “self-force” of dynamically expanding spherical and plane inclusion boundaries with dilatational eigenstrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markenscoff, Xanthippi; Ni, Luqun

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the linear theory of elasticity with eigenstrains, the radiated field including inertia effects of a spherical inclusion with dilatational eigenstrain radially expanding is obtained on the basis of the dynamic Green's function, and one of the half-space inclusion boundary (with dilatational eigenstrain) moving from rest in general subsonic motion is obtained by a limiting process from the spherically expanding inclusion as the radius tends to infinity while the eigenstrain remains constrained, and this is the minimum energy solution. The global energy-release rate required to move the plane inclusion boundary and to create an incremental region of eigenstrain is defined analogously to the one for moving cracks and dislocations and represents the mechanical rate of work needed to be provide for the expansion of the inclusion. The calculated value, which is the "self-force" of the expanding inclusion, has a static component plus a dynamic one depending only on the current value of the velocity, while in the case of the spherical boundary, there is an additional contribution accounting for the jump in the strain at the farthest part at the back of the inclusion having the time to reach the front boundary, thus making the dynamic "self-force" history dependent.

  13. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.

  14. Modelling transient energy release from molten fuel coolant interaction debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.F.

    1984-05-01

    A simple model of transient energy release in a Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction is presented. A distributed heat transfer model is used to examine the effect of heat transfer coefficient, time available for rapid energy heat transfer and particle size on transient energy release. The debris is assumed to have an Upper Limit Lognormal distribution. Model predictions are compared with results from the SUW series of experiments which used thermite-generated uranium dioxide molybdenum melts released below the surface of a pool of water. Uncertainties in the physical principles involved in the calculation of energy transfer rates are discussed. (author)

  15. Heat release rate from the combustion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Fuel treatment is planned at the Argonne National Laboratory on EBR-II spent fuel. The electrochemical treatment process is carried out in a cell with an argon atmosphere to prevent any reaction. The amount of fuel processed at any time is limited by the amount of energy which could be released by metal combustion if air is inadvertently allowed into the cell since the heat release would increase the cell pressure. The cell pressure is required to be below atmospheric even if combustion occurs to ensure no cell gas/aerosol is released to the environment. Metal fires can release large amounts of heat. In certain configurations such as fine particulate, metal can be pyrophoric at room temperature. When the metal is a nuclear fuel, it is important to be able to predict the reaction/heat release rate if the metal is inadvertently exposed to air. A realistic combustion model is needed to predict heat release rates for the many different flow and transport configurations which exist in the various fuel processing steps. A model for the combustion of uranium is developed here which compares satisfactorily to experimental data

  16. H2S release rate assessment guidelines and audit forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Wilson, T.; Long, R.; Shewan, K.; Nchkalo, H.; Nelson, R.; Morand, M.

    1998-01-01

    Development of a process to evaluate and calculate potential hydrogen sulfide release has been recommended by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers' Drilling and Completion Committee, and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. To facilitate the process, CAPP has released guidelines describing a methodology and standard for the industry to calculate the potential hydrogen sulfide release rates of a well, and a standardized format for the documentation and retention of data. The Guidelines describe a four-step process, with each step having an increasing degree of complexity. Step One describes the zone hydrogen sulfide exclusion area maps, defining when reporting is to be used (based on well location and distance from inhabited areas). Step Two provides details of the recommended method for determining hydrogen sulfide release through a data search process. Step Three consists of a series of instructions in the use of geologic analogs, data editing and wellbore design to further refine the cumulative hydrogen sulfide release rate. Step Four contains information designed to assist in detailed geological and reservoir modeling. It is not necessary to use all four steps in all cases. The user, however, is advised to use sound engineering judgement and due diligence in the calculation decisions. Sample calculations are provided for a variety of different situations. Measurement techniques are described in an appendix. A completed example of an audit form is attached. 10 + 6 refs., tabs

  17. Gravitational vacuum and energy release in microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, V.N.; Nikolaev, Yu.M.; Stanyukovich, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that gravitati.onal interaction can be connected with the processes of energy release in microworld. Suggested is a planckeon model within the frames of which gradual production of the observed substance of the Universe during the whole evolution is explained. Burst processes in nuclei of the Galaxy are explained. It is concluded that the theory of gravitational vacuum creates preconditions for developing the general theory of the field explaining the basic peculiarities of the micro- and macroworld, reveals significant applications in the physics of elementary particles and atomic nucleus. The process of 235 U fission is considered for testing the hypothesis that the coefficient of energy release depends on the nature of the reaction in different processes of energy release in the micro- and macroworld [ru

  18. Heat release rate of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. M. Stark; R. H. White; C. M. Clemons

    1997-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites are becoming more important as a material that fulfills recycling needs. In this study, fire performance tests were conducted on several compositions of wood and plastic materials using the Ohio State University rate of heat release apparatus. Test results included five-minute average heat release rate in kW/m2 (HRR avg) and maximum heat release...

  19. Release rates from waste packages in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambre, P.L.; Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    In this report we present estimates of radionuclide release rates from waste packages into salt. This conservative and bounding analysis shows that release rates from waste packages in salt are well below the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's performance objectives for the engineered barrier system. 2 refs., 2 figs

  20. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  1. Energy market review releases draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Market Review Releases draft report has made recommendations consistent with the Australian Gas Association (AGA)'s submissions in a number of areas. In particular, it has endorsed: 1. the need for an independent review of the gas access regime, to address the deficiencies with current access regulation identified by the Productivity Commission's Review of the National Access Regime; 2. the need for greater upstream gas market competition; 3. the principle that significant regulatory decisions should be subject to clear merits and judicial review; and 4. the need to avoid restrictions on retail energy prices. The report also endorses the need for a 'technology neutral' approach to greenhouse emissions abatement policy. It states that 'many of the current measures employed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are poorly targeted', and that they 'target technologies or fuel types rather than greenhouse gas abatement.' Additionally, it explicitly recognises the key conclusions of the AGA's recently-released Research Paper, Reducing Greenhouse Emissions from Water Heating: Natural Gas as a Cost-effective Option. The draft report recommends the development of an economy-wide emissions trading system, to achieve a more cost-effective approach to greenhouse abatement

  2. Controlling Object Heat Release Rate using Geometrical Features

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Stefan Marc

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of complex geometries on the burning rate of materials made using additive manufacturing. Controlling heat release rate has applicability in limiting fire hazards as well as for designing fuels for optimal burning rate. The burning rate of a structure is a function of the material properties as well as the airflow through it, which is dictated by the geometry. This burning rate is generally proportional to the porosity for obj...

  3. The Dark Energy Survey Data Release 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We describe the first public data release of the Dark Energy Survey, DES DR1, consisting of reduced single epoch images, coadded images, coadded source catalogs, and associated products and services assembled over the first three years of DES science operations. DES DR1 is based on optical/near-infrared imaging from 345 distinct nights (August 2013 to February 2016) by the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4-m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. We release data from the DES wide-area survey covering ~5,000 sq. deg. of the southern Galactic cap in five broad photometric bands, grizY. DES DR1 has a median delivered point-spread function of g = 1.12, r = 0.96, i = 0.88, z = 0.84, and Y = 0.90 arcsec FWHM, a photometric precision of < 1% in all bands, and an astrometric precision of 151 mas. The median coadded catalog depth for a 1.95" diameter aperture at S/N = 10 is g = 24.33, r = 24.08, i = 23.44, z = 22.69, and Y = 21.44 mag. DES DR1 includes nearly 400M distinct astronomical objects detected in ~10,000 coadd tiles of size 0.534 sq. deg. produced from ~39,000 individual exposures. Benchmark galaxy and stellar samples contain ~310M and ~ 80M objects, respectively, following a basic object quality selection. These data are accessible through a range of interfaces, including query web clients, image cutout servers, jupyter notebooks, and an interactive coadd image visualization tool. DES DR1 constitutes the largest photometric data set to date at the achieved depth and photometric precision.

  4. The burning and smoke release rates of sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.

    1976-10-01

    The burning rates and smoke release fractions of sodium pool fires have been measured over the pool temperature range 250 0 C to 750 0 C. A theoretical model is derived which satisfactorily predicts the burning rate over the above temperature range. The theory further predicts that the burning rate should be independent of pool diameter, a prediction supported by a comparison of burning rate data from this study and available data from other studies. (author)

  5. Release rates of soluble species at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.-L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental leaching of spent fuel shows that some fission product species are preferentially released upon contact with water. We analyze the conservative case of bare spent fuel in contact with saturated tuff using diffusional mass transfer analysis. For the parameter values used, the USNRC release rate limit is not exceeded, except for 99 Tc. The presence of a container and the distribution of water contact over time will assist in meeting this criterion. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Release rate of diazinon from microcapsule based on melamine formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana Utami C., S.; Rochmadi

    2018-04-01

    The microcapsule containing diazinon as the core material and melamine formaldehyde as the membrane material have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method. The microcapsule membrane in this research is melamine formaldehyde (MF). This research aims to study the effect of pH and temperature on the release rate of diazinon from microcapsule based on melamine formaldehyde in aqueous medium. The results showed that pH and temperature has little effect on the release rate of diazinon from microcapsule based on melamine formaldehyde. This is due to the diffusion through the microcapsule membrane is not influenced by the pH and temperature of the solution outside of microcapsule.

  7. Energy reviews: the expense rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The threats against energy supplies push the prices of energy increasingly and lasting/ higher. Therefore it is important to establish the energy balance of an energy industry, which is more accurate than a too global financial balance. Life Cycle Analyses could be finely tuned using a method and tool suggested here: the T expense rate, the ratio between dissipated or spent energies, and extracted energy. T is a profitability indicator based on thermodynamics principles with 1 or 100 % as a theoretical limit. T is convenient too, because it can be broken down between the various steps or processes, and their D expenses. T also allows for a finely tuned analysis, to identify physical and technical parameters impacting the balance sheet. Uncertainties and arbitrary assumptions are explained, after having been boiled down to a minimum amount. A comparison between industries is thus possible for a given use (transportation, electrical production) depending on the form of energy extracted and the processes used. The energy balance is supplemented by the resource availability balance, different from the first one, even though availability may depend on it. (authors)

  8. Electric ignition energy evaluation and the energy distribution structure of energy released in electrostatic discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingming; Huang Jinxiang; Shao Huige; Zhang Yunming

    2017-01-01

    Ignition energy is one of the important parameters of flammable materials, and evaluating ignition energy precisely is essential to the safety of process industry and combustion science and technology. By using electric spark discharge test system, a series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor-stored energy in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The evaluation method for energy consumed by electric spark, wire, and switch during capacitor discharge process has been studied respectively. The resistance of wire, switch, and plasma between electrodes has been evaluated by different methods and an optimized evaluation method has been obtained. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch, and electric spark-induced plasma between electrodes were obtained and the energy structure of capacitor-released energy was analyzed. The dynamic process and the characteristic parameters (the maximum power, duration of discharge process) of electric spark discharge process have been analyzed. Experimental results showed that, electric spark-consumed energy only accounts for 8%–14% of the capacitor-released energy. With the increase of capacitor-released energy, the duration of discharge process becomes longer, and the energy of plasma accounts for more in the capacitor-released energy. The power of electric spark varies with time as a damped sinusoids function and the period and the maximum value increase with the capacitor-released energy. (paper)

  9. Relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency of nanomachine-based targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingying; Li, Min; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-04

    In nanomachine applications towards targeted drug delivery, drug molecules released by nanomachines propagate and chemically react with tumor cells in aqueous environment. If the nanomachines release drug molecules faster than the tumor cells react, it will result in loss and waste of drug molecules. It is a potential issue associated with the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency. This paper aims to investigate the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency based on two drug reception models. We expect to pave a way for designing a control method of drug release. We adopted two analytical methods that one is drug reception process based on collision with tumors and another is based on Michaelis Menten enzymatic kinetics. To evaluate the analytical formulations, we used the well-known simulation framework N3Sim to establish simulations. The analytical results of the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency is obtained, which match well with the numerical simulation results in a 3-D environment. Based upon two drug reception models, the results of this paper would be beneficial for designing a control method of nanomahine-based drug release.

  10. Key figures for energy. Release 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Maps, graphs and tables illustrate the share of energy in the French economy (contributions of energy industries to the GDP), the monthly and annual evolution of gas and oil prices, the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy, the energy bill evolutions (per energy type, with respect to GDP, imported crude oil price), the assessment of energy in France (production, imports, exports, consumption by different sectors, share of primary energy consumption per energy type), the French energy mix in 2011, the evolution of energy production and consumption per energy type and per sector. Then, this report addresses the different energy types: coal (production, thermal power plants, evolution of consumption per sector, of imports), oil (evolution of production, of global consumption and per sector, evolution of consumption of refined oil products and of automotive fuels, including agro-fuels, evolution of imports and bill), gas (transport, storage, compression and production sites and networks, natural gas production and consumption, imports), electricity (gross production, conventional thermal production, global assessment, consumption, nuclear sites, imports and exports, volume of radioactive wastes produced in 2010), renewable energies (total production and per sector, share in electricity consumption, evolution of wind energy, of wood consumption, of energy produced from renewable urban wastes, and solar energy), heat networks (evolution of consumption, of the number of networks). The last parts address the rational use of energy (energy intensity, evolution of GDP and energy consumption, evolution of car fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions), the evolution of energy prices, the relationship between energy and environment (CO 2 emissions)

  11. Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments

  12. Radioisotopic composition of yellowcake: an estimation of stack release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Kisieleski, W.E.; Rayno, D.R.; Sabau, C.S.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium concentrate (yellowcake) composites from four mills (Anaconda, Kerr-McGee, Highland, and Uravan) were analyzed for U-238, U-235, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210. The ratio of specific activities of U-238 to U-234 in the composites suggested that secular radioactive equilibrium exists in the ore. The average activity ratios in the yellowcake were determined to be 2.7 x 10 -3 (Th-230/U-238), 5 x 10 -4 (Ra-226/U-238) and 2 x 10 -4 (Pb-210/U-238). Based on earlier EPA measurements of the release rates from the stacks, the amount of yellowcake released was determined to be 0.1% of the amount processed

  13. Influence of Strain Rate on Heat Release under Quasi-Static Stretching of Metals. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, B. A.; Sventitskaya, V. E.; Smirnov, I. V.; Sud'enkov, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of energy dissipation during a quasi-static stretching of metals and alloys at room temperature. The strain rates varied in the range of 10-3-10-2 s-1. Samples of M1 copper, AZ31B magnesium alloy, BT6 titanium, 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel, and D16AM aluminum alloy were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated a significant dependence of the heat release on the strain rate in the absence of its influence on stress-strain diagrams for all the metals studied in this range of strain rates. The correlation of the changes in the character of heat release with the processes of structural transformations at various stages of plastic flow is shown on the qualitative level. A difference in the nature of the processes of heat release in materials with different ratios of the plasticity and strength is noted.

  14. Variation of kinetic energy release with temperature and electron energy for unimolecular ionic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabia, M.A.; Fahmy, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic energy released during seven unimolecular ionic transitions, generated from benzyl alcohol and benzyl amine have been studied as a function of ion source temperature and ionizing electron energy. Only, the kinetic energy released during H CN elimination from fragment [C 7 H 8 N]+ ion of benzyl amine displays a temperature dependence. For only two transitions, generated from benzyl alcohol, the kinetic energy released show a significant ionizing electron energy dependence. These results may reveal the role of the internal energy of reacting ions in producing the kinetic energy released some transitions produced from benzyl alcohol

  15. Specific energy released in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaritskaya, T.S.; Kiselev, G.V.; Rudik, A.P.; Tsenter, Eh.M.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of determination are described and analysis of specific energy for different methods of critically maintance of RBMK and WWER-440 reactors are conducted. Characteristics of the optimal mode of critically maintanance are determined

  16. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agust eGudmundsson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  17. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  18. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  20. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  1. Consumption of energy and release of entropy into the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, G.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term threat on humanity is not the shortage of energy but rather the contamination of the environment. The concept of entropy is useful to assess the impact of humane activities on the environment. During most of earth history the increase of entropy was more than compensated by the energy brought by the sun. Today the intensive use of fossil fuels has reversed the trend: the biosphere entropy increases as CO 2 piles up in the atmosphere. The release of entropy is linked to the amount of energy we consume and to the efficiency of the process we use to produce it. Nuclear power plants release entropy as low-temperature heat but this amount of entropy is far less than the entropy released by fossil-fuel power plants under the form of CO 2 . (A.C.)

  2. Unleashing elastic energy: dynamics of energy release in rubber bands and impulsive biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Cox, Suzanne; Egelmeers, Thijs; Patek, S. N.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    Impulsive biological systems - which include mantis shrimp, trap-jaw ants, and venus fly traps - can reach high speeds by using elastic elements to store and rapidly release energy. The material behavior and shape changes critical to achieving rapid energy release in these systems are largely unknown due to limitations of materials testing instruments operating at high speed and large displacement. In this work, we perform fundamental, proof-of-concept measurements on the tensile retraction of elastomers. Using high speed imaging, the kinematics of retraction are measured for elastomers with varying mechanical properties and geometry. Based on the kinematics, the rate of energy dissipation in the material is determined as a function of strain and strain-rate, along with a scaling relation which describes the dependence of maximum velocity on material properties. Understanding this scaling relation along with the material failure limits of the elastomer allows the prediction of material properties required for optimal performance. We demonstrate this concept experimentally by optimizing for maximum velocity in our synthetic model system, and achieve retraction velocities that exceed those in biological impulsive systems. This model system provides a foundation for future work connecting continuum performance to molecular architecture in impulsive systems.

  3. Dependence of anaphylactic histamine release from rat mast cells on cellular energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The relation between anaphylactic histamine release and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the mast cells was studied. The cells were incubated with glycolytic (2-deoxyglucose) and respiratory inhibitors (antimycin A and oligomycin) in order to decrease the ATP content of the cells prior...... to initiation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction. The secretory capacity of mast cells was less related to the cellular level of ATP at the time of activation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction than to the rate of cellular energy supply. Furthermore, mast cells were...... pretreated with 2-deoxyglucose. The release of histamine from these cells was reduced when respiratory inhibitors were added to the cell suspension 5 to 20 sec after exposure of the cells to antigen. This may indicate that the secretory process requires energy, and it seems necessary that energy should...

  4. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific.

  5. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific

  6. Coronal Flux Rope Catastrophe Associated With Internal Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Youqiu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic energy during the catastrophe was predominantly studied by the previous catastrophe works since it is believed to be the main energy supplier for the solar eruptions. However, the contribution of other types of energies during the catastrophe cannot be neglected. This paper studies the catastrophe of the coronal flux rope system in the solar wind background, with emphasis on the transformation of different types of energies during the catastrophe. The coronal flux rope is characterized by its axial and poloidal magnetic fluxes and total mass. It is shown that a catastrophe can be triggered by not only an increase but also a decrease of the axial magnetic flux. Moreover, the internal energy of the rope is found to be released during the catastrophe so as to provide energy for the upward eruption of the flux rope. As far as the magnetic energy is concerned, it provides only part of the energy release, or even increases during the catastrophe, so the internal energy may act as the dominant or even the unique energy supplier during the catastrophe.

  7. Fission-energy release for 16 fissioning nuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.

    1981-03-01

    Results are presented of a least-squares evaluation of the components of energy release per fission in 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu. For completeness, older (1978) results based on systematics are presented for these and ten other isotopes of interest. There have been recent indications that the delayed energy components may be somewhat higher than those used previously, but the LSQ results do not seem to change significantly when modest (approx. 1 MeV) increases in the total delayed energy are included in the inputs. Additional measurements of most of the energy components are still needed to resolve remaining discrepancies

  8. Determination of the sterile release rate for stopping growing age-structured populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, Hugh John

    2016-01-01

    A freely-growing age-structured population was modelled for growth and control by sterile male releases. Equilibrium populations yield critical sterile male release rates that would hold the population at equilibrium. It is shown here that these rates may be different from the release rates required to stop a growing population and bring it to an equilibrium. A computer simulation was constructed of this population and a parameter sensitivity analysis graphed the effects on the required sterile male release rate of fertility, mating delay in adult females, net juvenile survivorship, three adult survivorship curves, the time spent in the juvenile stages, and total life span. The adult survivorship curves had the greatest effect on the required sterile release rate for population elimination. The required release rate was also determined for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) using survivorship and fertility data from a laboratory strain. The concepts of over-flooding ratio and release ratio were discussed and quantified for the cases above. (author)

  9. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  10. Fragmentation and mean kinetic energy release of the nitrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.C.F.; Melo, W.S.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation of the N 2 molecule in coincidence with the final projectile charge state have been measured for the impact of 0.188-0.875 MeV/amu He + projectiles. The average kinetic energy release (KER) of the target ionic fragments is derived from the peak widths of their time-of-flight distributions. It is shown that the KER's for singly-charged products follow scaling laws irrespectively to the collision channel

  11. Safety consequences of the release of radiation induced stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1994-08-01

    Due to the disposal of HLW in a salt formation gamma energy will be deposited in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat, whilst a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. Energy is stored in the damaged crystals. Due to uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1000 J/g in the most heavily damaged crystals close to the waste containers. The amount of radiation damage decays exponentially with increasing distance from the containers and at distances larger than 0.2 m the stored energy can be neglected. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be excluded completely. Therefore the thermo-mechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. To account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures an amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appeared that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (more than 100 m), the probability of a release of radiation induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater, is extremely low. The radiological consequences of a groundwater intrusion scenario induced by this very unprobable pathway are bounded by the 'standard' groundwater intrusion

  12. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  13. Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields in continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared to the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares. (Auth.)

  14. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELEASE RATE OF A HIGHLY SOLUBLE DRUG FROM A PROGRAMMED RELEASE MEGALOPOROUS SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, C; MENGER, NR; LERK, CF

    The present study reports on the successful incorporation of a highly soluble drug, procaine HCl, in a programmed-release megaloporous system. This solid two-phase system is composed of housing phase matrix granules (HMG), controlling liquid penetration into the system, and of restraining phase

  16. Inverse modelling of radionuclide release rates using gamma dose rate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Thomas; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. Observations and dispersion modelling of the released radionuclides help to assess the regional impact of such nuclear accidents. Modelling the increase of regional radionuclide activity concentrations, which results from nuclear accidents, underlies a multiplicity of uncertainties. One of the most significant uncertainties is the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source term may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on estimates given by the operators of the nuclear power plant. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. The release rates of radionuclides at the accident site can be estimated using inverse modelling (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). The accuracy of the method depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the used observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose rates, on the other hand, are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution and provide therefore a wider basis for inverse modelling (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach, which combines an atmospheric dispersion model and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose rates to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to model the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The

  17. Tunneling and reflection in unimolecular reaction kinetic energy release distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.

    2018-02-01

    The kinetic energy release distributions in unimolecular reactions is calculated with detailed balance theory, taking into account the tunneling and the reflection coefficient in three different types of transition states; (i) a saddle point corresponding to a standard RRKM-type theory, (ii) an attachment Langevin cross section, and (iii) an absorbing sphere potential at short range, without long range interactions. Corrections are significant in the one dimensional saddle point states. Very light and lightly bound absorbing systems will show measurable effects in decays from the absorbing sphere, whereas the Langevin cross section is essentially unchanged.

  18. Measurement of semiochemical release rates with a dedicated environmental control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping Zhu; Harold W. Thistle; Christopher M. Ranger; Hongping Zhou; Brian L. Strom

    2015-01-01

    Insect semiochemical dispensers are commonly deployed under variable environmental conditions over a specified period. Predictions of their longevity are hampered by a lack of methods to accurately monitor and predict how primary variables affect semiochemical release rate. A system was constructed to precisely determine semiochemical release rates under...

  19. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration. I. Penetration rate and release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, H; Taguchi, H; Iida, K; Danjo, K

    2001-12-13

    We examined the penetration rate of lidocaine (LC) through excised oral mucosa from hamster cheek pouch and the in vitro release rate of LC from film dosage forms with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base. Addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to the HPC films increased the LC release rate almost GL-content-dependently, while an optimum GL content was observed for the LC penetration rate. No LC penetration was observed from an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.4) of LC, suggesting only unionized LC can substantially penetrate through the mucosa. A significant relationship between the penetration rate of LC and the release rate of unionized LC was found, suggesting that the in vitro dissolution study is a useful tool to predict the penetration rate taking the unionized drug fraction into consideration.

  20. Influence of LOD variations on seismic energy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguzzi, F.; Krumm, F.; Wang, K.; Kiszely, M.; Varga, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tidal friction causes significant time variations of geodynamical parameters, among them geometrical flattening. The axial despinning of the Earth due to tidal friction through the change of flattening generates incremental meridional and azimuthal stresses. The stress pattern in an incompressible elastic upper mantle and crust is symmetric to the equator and has its inflection points at the critical latitude close to ±45°. Consequently the distribution of seismic energy released by strong, shallow focus earthquakes should have also sharp maxima at this latitude. To investigate the influence of length of day (LOD) variations on earthquake activity an earthquake catalogue of strongest seismic events (M>7.0) was completed for the period 1900-2007. It is shown with the use of this catalogue that for the studied time-interval the catalogue is complete and consists of the seismic events responsible for more than 90% of released seismic energy. Study of the catalogue for earthquakes M>7.0 shows that the seismic energy discharged by the strongest seismic events has significant maxima at ±45°, what renders probably that the seismic activity of our planet is influenced by an external component, i.e. by the tidal friction, which acts through the variation of the hydrostatic figure of the Earth caused by it. Distribution along the latitude of earthquake numbers and energies was investigated also for the case of global linear tectonic structures, such as mid ocean ridges and subduction zones. It can be shown that the number of the shallow focus shocks has a repartition along the latitude similar to the distribution of the linear tectonic structures. This means that the position of foci of seismic events is mainly controlled by the tectonic activity.

  1. Observable Signatures of Energy Release in Braided Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontin, D. I. [University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Tiwari, S. K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Galsgaard, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, Geological Museum Østervoldgade 5-7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-03-10

    We examine the turbulent relaxation of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial field line braiding. Such field line tangling in the corona has long been postulated in the context of coronal heating models. We focus on the observational signatures of energy release in such braided magnetic structures using MHD simulations and forward modeling tools. The aim is to answer the following question: if energy release occurs in a coronal loop containing braided magnetic flux, should we expect a clearly observable signature in emissions? We demonstrate that the presence of braided magnetic field lines does not guarantee a braided appearance to the observed intensities. Observed intensities may—but need not necessarily—reveal the underlying braided nature of the magnetic field, depending on the degree and pattern of the field line tangling within the loop. However, in all cases considered, the evolution of the braided loop is accompanied by localized heating regions as the loop relaxes. Factors that may influence the observational signatures are discussed. Recent high-resolution observations from Hi-C have claimed the first direct evidence of braided magnetic fields in the corona. Here we show that both the Hi-C data and some of our simulations give the appearance of braiding at a range of scales.

  2. Carbon dioxide degassing and thermal energy release at Vesuvio (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frondini, F.; Chiodini, G.; Caliro, S.; Cardellini, C.; Granieri, D.

    2003-04-01

    At Vesuvio, basing on the data of the CO2 flux surveys carried out in April and May 2000, are discharged about 130 t d-1 of CO2 through soil diffuse degassing. In the crater area the distribution of the soil temperatures show a general correspondence between the CO2 flux anomalies and the high temperatures, suggesting that the heating of the soil is mainly due to the condensation of the rising volcanic-hydrothermal fluids. Considering that the original H2O/CO2 ratio of hydrothermal fluids is recorded by fumarolic effluents, the steam associated to the CO2 output has been computed and amount to is 475 t d-1. The energy produced by the steam condensation and cooling of the liquid phase is 1.26 1012 J d-1 (14.6 MW). The amounts of gas and energy released by Vesuvio are comparable to those released by other volcanic degassing areas of the world and their estimates, through periodical CO2 flux surveys, can constitute a powerful tool to monitor the activity of the volcano.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF RELEASE RATES FOR RADIONUCLIDES IN ACTIVATED CONCRETE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.

    2003-08-23

    The Maine Yankee (MY) nuclear power plant is undergoing the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Part of the process requires analyses that demonstrate that any radioactivity that remains after D&D will not cause exposure to radioactive contaminants to exceed acceptable limits. This requires knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the remaining material and their potential release mechanisms from the material to the contacting groundwater. In this study the concern involves radionuclide contamination in activated concrete in the ICI Sump below the containment building. Figures 1-3 are schematic representations of the ICI Sump. Figure 2 and 3 contain the relevant dimensions needed for the analysis. The key features of Figures 2 and 3 are the 3/8-inch carbon steel liner that isolates the activated concrete from the pit and the concrete wall, which is between 7 feet and 7 feet 2 inches thick. During operations, a small neutron flux from the reactor activated the carbon steel liner and the concrete outside the liner. Current MY plans call for filling the ICI sump with compacted sand.

  4. Mechanical efficiency of the energy release during a steam explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical processes during the expansion phase of a steam explosion with intimately fragmented liquid particles is investigated based on elementary principles and analytical solutions. During a short load pulse, the different densities of the water and the melted particles lead to different velocities. After the load pulse, viscosity effects lead to a slow down of the higher velocities and to a corresponding reconversion of the kinetic energy of the mixture into thermal energy. It is shown that both effects are proportional to each other. The ratio between the residual and the applied mechanical energy is defined as the mechanical efficiency of the steam explosion. Using data typical for a steam explosion in a pressurized water reactor, mechanical efficiencies of <50% are estimated. Considering that the thermodynamic efficiencies are quite limited, the very low conversion rates from thermal energy into mechanical energy observed during steam explosion experiments can be more easily understood

  5. In situ release rates of Cu and Zn from commercial antifouling paints at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, Maria; Lindgren, J Fredrik; Holmqvist, Albin; Dahlström, Mia; Ytreberg, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Antifouling paints are environmentally risk assessed based on their biocidal release rates to the water phase. In situ release rates of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were derived for five commercial paints in two recreational marinas with different salinities (5 and 14 PSU) using an X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Salinity was found to significantly affect the Cu release, with twice the amount of Cu released at the higher salinity, while its influence on the Zn release was paint-specific. Site-specific release rates for water bodies with salinity gradients, e.g. the Baltic Sea, are therefore necessary for more realistic risk assessments of antifouling paints. Furthermore, the in situ release rates were up to 8 times higher than those generated using standardized laboratory or calculation methods. The environmental risk assessment repeated with the field release rates concludes that it is questionable whether the studied products should be allowed on the Swedish market. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of olibanum and its resin as rate controlling matrix for controlled release of diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdary KPR; Mohapatra P; Murali Krishna M

    2006-01-01

    Olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions were evaluated as rate controlling matrix materials in tablets for controlled release of diclofenac. Diclofenac matrix tablets were formulated employing olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions in different concentrations and the tablets were evaluated for various tablet characters including drug release kinetics and mechanism. Olibanum and its resin component exhibited excellent retarding effect on drug release from the matrix tablet...

  7. Complexity, rate of energy exchanges and stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casartelli, M.; Sello, S.

    1987-01-01

    The complexity of trajectories in the phase of anharmonic crystal (mostly a Lennard-Jones chain) is analysed by the variance of microcanonical density and by new parameters P and chi defined, respectively, as the mean value of the time averages and the relative variance of the absolute exchange rate of energies among the normal modes. Evidence is given to the trapping action of residual invariant surfaces in low stochastic regime of motion. The parameter chi, moreover, proves efficient in exploring the border of stochasticity. A simple power law for P vs. the specific energy is obtained and proved to be independent of stochasticity and of the type of anharmonic potential

  8. Hindered disulfide bonds to regulate release rate of model drug from mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah, Peter; Maver, Uroš; Jemec, Anita; Tišler, Tatjana; Bele, Marjan; Dražić, Goran; Benčina, Mojca; Pintar, Albin; Planinšek, Odon; Gaberšček, Miran

    2013-05-01

    With the advancement of drug delivery systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), a simple and efficient method regulating the drug release kinetics is needed. We developed redox-responsive release systems with three levels of hindrance around the disulfide bond. A model drug (rhodamine B dye) was loaded into MSNs' mesoporous voids. The pore opening was capped with β-cyclodextrin in order to prevent leakage of drug. Indeed, in absence of a reducing agent the systems exhibited little leakage, while the addition of dithiothreitol cleaved the disulfide bonds and enabled the release of cargo. The release rate and the amount of released dye were tuned by the level of hindrance around disulfide bonds, with the increased hindrance causing a decrease in the release rate as well as in the amount of released drug. Thus, we demonstrated the ability of the present mesoporous systems to intrinsically control the release rate and the amount of the released cargo by only minor structural variations. Furthermore, an in vivo experiment on zebrafish confirmed that the present model delivery system is nonteratogenic.

  9. Conversion factors for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-02-01

    Conversion factors necessary for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey are presented. The conversion factors were determined based on calculation assuming a Gaussian plume model as a function of atmospheric stability, down-wind distance and flight height. First, the conversion factors for plumes emitting mono-energy gamma rays were calculated, then, conversion factors were constructed through convolution for the radionuclides essential in an accident of a nuclear reactor, and for mixtures of these radionuclides considering elapsed time after shutdown. These conversion factors are shown in figures, and also polynomial expressions of the conversion factors as a function of height have been decided with the least-squares method. A user can easily obtain proper conversion factors from data shown here. (author)

  10. Airborne release fractions/rates and respirable fractions for nonreactor nuclear facilities. Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document contains compiled data from the DOE Handbook on Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear facilities. Source data and example facilities utilized, such as the Plutonium Recovery Facility, are included

  11. Measurement of very low release rates of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.-P.; Falk, I.

    1984-01-01

    A radiotracer technique has been developed for the measurement of release rates from nuclear reactor materials and it has been tested in a number of experiments. THis article, which forms the first part in a series, describes the experimental loop, the experimental technique and the preliminary results. Experiments were carried out on 18Cr8Ni stainless steel and on Inconel X750 in BWR primary system and feed water environments. The result show that a steady state in the release rate is achieved after operation for approximately 600 h. The release rate depends on the elemental concentration in the material and on the chemical and physical environments. Typical release rates for an 18Cr8Ni stainless steel and Inconel X750 in a BWR primary system environment were found to be 5 mdm and 8 mdm respectively. (Authors)

  12. Hot neutron stars at birth and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    1994-01-01

    For the discussion of hot neutron stars at birth, it is necessary to calculate the equation of state for a so-called 'supernova matter' consisting of a neutron-rich nuclear matter and degenerated leptons. One of the aims of this paper is to obtain the realistic results for the equation of state. In 10-20s after the birth, new born hot neutron stars are cooled down by neutrino diffusion process, and gradually contract to usual cold neutron starts. It is another aim of this paper to determine how much energy is released during this cooling stage. The points to which attention was paid are explained. A three-nucleon interaction was introduced phenomenologically, as a two-nucleon interaction is insufficient to satisfy the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matters. The separation of uncertain part from well-known part has the merit to clarify the dependence of the results on the present theoretical uncertainties. The validity of the simplified calculation as an approximation for the exact calculation is discussed. The results by both calculations were compared for the case of hot symmetric nuclear matters. The comparison of the density profiles for a hot neutron star and a cold neutron star is shown. The binding energy for hot and cold neutron stars was plotted. These results are examined. (K.I.)

  13. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur regional energy observatory - Assessment 2002, Assessment 2003, Assessment 2004, Assessment 2005, Release 2007, Release 2008, Release 2009, Release 2010, Release 2011, Assessment 2011/Release 2012, Release 2013; Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Energy, Climate and Air regional observatory - 2013-Release 2014, 2014-Release 2015, 2015-Release 2016, 2016-Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabannes, Carole; Pamelle, Yohann; Le Maitre, Stephanie; Lyant, Valentin; Gondolo, Philippe; Belhcen, Ludovic; Laverdiere, Folco; Moynet, Matthieu; Luneau, Gaelle; Borel, F.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs, maps and tables, this set of documents provides and comments (sometimes in a rather developed way for some issues, depending on the publication year), for years between 2002 and 2016, information and data related to regional energy consumption (in terms of consuming sector and in terms of energy source), energy production (from different sources: wood, coal, hydraulic, wastes, solar photovoltaic and thermal), greenhouse gas emissions, electric power production and demand (with a focus on some specific sectors). Issues addressed in these documents evolve in time as the concept of renewable energy emerged, as important consuming sector are identified (transports, buildings, for example), and also as the issue of energy saving is more precisely studied. Activities of the regional energy observatory are also mentioned. From 2013, issues related to climate and air quality are also addressed at the same level as power production, solar photovoltaic and thermal energy, wind energy, wood-energy, energy savings, energy prices, studies performed by the observatory, and issues related to transports

  14. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  15. Volatiles and energy released by Puracé volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Luisa Fernanda Meza; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Jaramillo, Marco Tulio; Valencia, Gustavo Garzón; Mazot, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    Total CO2 output of Puracé volcano (Colombia) was estimated on the basis of fluids discharged by fumaroles, soil gases, and dissolved carbon species in the aquifer. The soil CO2 emission was computed from a field survey of 512 points of CO2 soil flux measurements at the main degassing areas of Puracé volcano. The CO2 flux from Puracé's plume was estimated using an indirect method, that used the SO2 plume flux and CO2/SO2 ratio of the main high temperature fumarole. The total output of CO2 was estimated at ≅ 1500 t/day. The main contribution of CO2 comes from the plume (summit degassing) and from soil degassing that emit 673 and 812 t/day, respectively. The contributions of summit and soil degassing areas are comparable, indicating an intermediate degassing style partitioned between closed and open conduit systems. The estimated water vapor discharge (as derived from the chemical composition of the fumaroles, the H2O/CO2 ratio, and the SO2 plume flux) allowed calculation of the total thermal energy (fumarolic, soil degassing, and aquifer) released from the Puracé volcanic system. This was 360 MW.

  16. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the electric power in the current-carrying conductors (so-called Joule’s heat or the energy radiation penetrating into the body of a semitransparent material, etc. The volume power release characterizes an intensity of these processes.The extensive list of references to the theory of heat conductivity of solids offers solutions to problems to determine a stationary (steady over time and non-stationary temperature state of the solids (as a rule, of the canonical form, which act as the sources of volume power release. Thus, in general case, a possibility for changing power release according to the body volume and in solving the nonstationary problems also a possible dependence of this value on the time are taken into consideration.However, in real conditions the volume power release often also depends on the local temperature, and such dependence can be nonlinear. For example, with chemical reactions the intensity of heat release or absorption is in proportion to their rate, which, in turn, is sensitive to the temperature value, and a dependence on the temperature is exponential. A further factor that in such cases makes the analysis of the solid temperature state complicated, is dependence on the temperature and the thermal conductivity of this body material, especially when temperature distribution therein  is significantly non-uniform. Taking into account the influence of these factors requires the mathematical modeling methods, which allow us to build an adequate

  17. Thermal desorption and bombardment-induced release of deuterium implanted into stainless steels at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, G.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectra have been obtained for low energy (15-750 eV) deuterons implanted into types 321 and 304 stainless steel, to total fluences in the range 10 13 - 10 17 deuterons/cm 2 . In each case the spectra show a peak at about 350 K, but in the 321 steel there is a second peak in the region of 900 K, the population and peak temperature of which increase with energy. Activation energies of 0.99 and 2.39 eV and a rate constant of 7 x 10 15 /s have been derived for the peaks and it is thought that the first peak corresponds to release from sites close to the surface, while the second peak may be related to trapping at impurities such as Ti. Measurements have also been made of the release of deuterium resulting from post-implantation bombardment with hydrogen ions. It is found that depletion of the first peak in the 321 steel is the result of gas sputtering, but depletion of the second peak is the result of the formation of HD during desorption, while depletion of the peak in the 304 stainless steel also results from HD formation even though this peak is the same as the first peak in the 321 steel. Estimates have also been made of the deuterium self-sputtering cross section at various energies, which show a monotonic decrease as energy increases. (Auth.)

  18. Evaluation of rate of swelling and erosion of verapamil (VRP) sustained-release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanga, Sandile M; Walker, Roderick B

    2006-01-01

    Tablets manufactured in-house were compared to a marketed sustained-release product of verapamil to investigate the rate of hydration, erosion, and drug-release mechanism by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of the products. Swelling and erosion rates depended on the polymer and granulating fluid used, which ultimately pointed to their permeability characteristics. Erosion rate of the marketed product was highest, which suggests that the gel layer that formed around these tablets was weak as opposed to the robust and resistant layers of test products. Anomalous and near zero-order transport mechanisms were dominant in tests and commercial product, respectively.

  19. Preliminary calculations of release rates from spent fuel in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; O'Connell, W.J.; Lee, K.H.; MacIntyre, A.T.; Ueng, T.S.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Time-dependent release rates of Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135, and Np-237 have been calculated for wet-drip and moist-continuous release modes from the engineered barrier system of a potential nuclear waste repository in unsaturated tuff, representative of a possible repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. We describe the modes of water contact and of release of dissolved radionuclides to the surrounding intact rock, and the corresponding calculational models. We list the parameter values adopted, and then present numerical results, conclusions, and recommendations. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Advancing Knowledge on Fugitive Natural Gas from Energy Resource Development at a Controlled Release Field Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, A. G.; Chao, J.; Forde, O.; Prystupa, E.; Mayer, K. U.; Black, T. A.; Tannant, D. D.; Crowe, S.; Hallam, S.; Mayer, B.; Lauer, R. M.; van Geloven, C.; Welch, L. A.; Salas, C.; Levson, V.; Risk, D. A.; Beckie, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Fugitive gas, comprised primarily of methane, can be unintentionally released from upstream oil and gas development either at surface from leaky infrastructure or in the subsurface through failure of energy well bore integrity. For the latter, defective cement seals around energy well casings may permit buoyant flow of natural gas from the deeper subsurface towards shallow aquifers, the ground surface and potentially into the atmosphere. Concerns associated with fugitive gas release at surface and in the subsurface include contributions to greenhouse gas emissions, subsurface migration leading to accumulation in nearby infrastructure and impacts to groundwater quality. Current knowledge of the extent of fugitive gas leakage including how to best detect and monitor over time, and particularly its migration and fate in the subsurface, is incomplete. We have established an experimental field observatory for evaluating fugitive gas leakage in an area of historic and ongoing hydrocarbon resource development within the Montney Resource Play of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Natural gas will be intentionally released at surface and up to 25 m below surface at various rates and durations. Resulting migration patterns and impacts will be evaluated through examination of the geology, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, hydro-geophysics, vadose zone and soil gas processes, microbiology, and atmospheric conditions. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles and remote sensors for monitoring and detection of methane will also be assessed for suitability as environmental monitoring tools. Here we outline the experimental design and describe initial research conducted to develop a detailed site conceptual model of the field observatory. Subsequently, results attained from pilot surface and sub-surface controlled natural gas releases conducted in late summer 2017 will be presented as well as results of numerical modelling conducted

  1. Calcium release rates from tooth enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents and abrasives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; de Araujo, Roberto Paulo Correia

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening agents containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide are used frequently in esthetic dental procedures. However, lesions on the enamel surface have been attributed to the action of these products. Using conventional procedures for separating and isolating biological structures, powdered enamel was obtained and treated with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate, ingredients typically found in dentifrices. The enamel was exposed to different pH levels, and atomic emission spectrometry was used to determine calcium release rates. As the pH level increased, the rate of calcium release from enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents decreased. Carbamide peroxide produced the lowest amount of decalcification, while sodium bicarbonate produced the highest release rates at all pH levels.

  2. Liability aspects of home energy-rating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Liability aspects of home energy rating systems are discussed. An introduction to the rating system concept, including types of rating systems, implementation efforts to date, and possible groups to conduct ratings, is also included. The home energy rating system concept involves the periodic rating of the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The rating can provide a relative indication of a home's energy efficiency and also a quantitative estimate of consumption, fuel cost, or both. Primary attention is given to liability issues associated with developing and performing ratings. Secondary attention is given to possible liability associated with misuse of a rating once it has been performed.

  3. Radionuclide release rate inversion of nuclear accidents in nuclear facility based on Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiuhuan; Bao Lihong; Li Hua; Wan Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly and continually back-calculating source term is important for nuclear emergency response. The Gaussian multi-puff atmospheric dispersion model was used to produce regional environment monitoring data virtually, and then a Kalman filter was designed to inverse radionuclide release rate of nuclear accidents in nuclear facility and the release rate tracking in real time was achieved. The results show that the Kalman filter combined with Gaussian multi-puff atmospheric dispersion model can successfully track the virtually stable, linear or nonlinear release rate after being iterated about 10 times. The standard error of inversion results increases with the true value. Meanwhile extended Kalman filter cannot inverse the height parameter of accident release as interceptive error is too large to converge. Kalman filter constructed from environment monitoring data and Gaussian multi-puff atmospheric dispersion model can be applied to source inversion in nuclear accident which is characterized by static height and position, short and continual release in nuclear facility. Hence it turns out to be an alternative source inversion method in nuclear emergency response. (authors)

  4. The Midi-Pyrenees regional energy observatory - Release 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, Martin; Daubigny, Jean; Fraysse, Jean-Marie; Dedieu-Casties, Francoise; RIEY, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Illustrated with maps and graphs, this publication proposes a synthetic and brief energy assessment for the Midi-Pyrenees region. It briefly presents the regional energy situation in terms of final energy consumption between 1990 and 2003, of primary energy production during the same period, of inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, and of CO 2 emissions by the energy sector. It also proposes an overview of the situation, evolution and production of various energy sources: hydroelectricity, wood, wind, solar photovoltaic, solar and thermal energy, co-generation, and other types of energy valorisation modes (biogas, combustion). It proposes a focus on two important sectors, transports and housing

  5. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  6. Tritium breeding and release-rate kinetics from neutron-irradiated lithium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quanci, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The research encompasses the measurement of the tritium breeding and release-rate kinetics from lithium oxide, a ceramic tritium-breeding material. A thermal extraction apparatus which allows the accurate measurement of the total tritium inventory and release rate from lithium oxide samples under different temperatures, pressures and carrier-gas compositions with an uncertainty not exceeding 3% was developed. The goal of the Lithium Blanket Module program was to determine if advanced computer codes could accurately predict the tritium production in the lithium oxide blanket of a fusion power plant. A fusion blanket module prototype, was built and irradiated with a deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron source. The tritium production throughout the module was modeled with the MCNP three dimensional Monte Carlo code and was compared to the assay of the tritium bred in the module. The MCNP code accurately predicted tritium-breeding trends but underestimated the overall tritium breeding by 30%. The release rate of tritium from small grain polycrystalline sintered lithium oxide with a helium carrier gas from 300 to 450 C was found to be controlled by the first order surface desorption of mono-tritiated water. When small amounts of hydrogen were added to the helium carrier gas, the first order rate constant increased from the isotopic exchange of hydrogen for tritium at the lithium oxide surface occurring in parallel with the first order desorption process. The isotopic-exchange first order rate constant temperature dependence and hydrogen partial pressure dependence were evaluated. Large single crystals of lithium oxide were fabricated by the vacuum fusion technique. The release rate of tritium from the large single crystals was found to be controlled by diffusion, and the mixed diffusion-desorption controlled release regime

  7. ENERGY RELEASE AND TRANSFER IN SOLAR FLARES: SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Fletcher, L.; Hesse, M.; Neukirch, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations we investigate energy release and transfer in a three-dimensional extension of the standard two-ribbon flare picture. In this scenario, reconnection is initiated in a thin current sheet (suggested to form below a departing coronal mass ejection) above a bipolar magnetic field. Two cases are contrasted: an initially force-free current sheet (low beta) and a finite-pressure current sheet (high beta), where beta represents the ratio between gas (plasma) and magnetic pressure. The energy conversion process from reconnection consists of incoming Poynting flux turned into up- and downgoing Poynting flux, enthalpy flux, and bulk kinetic energy flux. In the low-beta case, the outgoing Poynting flux is the dominant contribution, whereas the outgoing enthalpy flux dominates in the high-beta case. The bulk kinetic energy flux is only a minor contribution in the downward direction. The dominance of the downgoing Poynting flux in the low-beta case is consistent with an alternative to the thick target electron beam model for solar flare energy transport, suggested recently by Fletcher and Hudson, whereas the enthalpy flux may act as an alternative transport mechanism. For plausible characteristic parameters of the reconnecting field configuration, we obtain energy release timescales and energy output rates that compare favorably with those inferred from observations for the impulsive phase of flares. Significant enthalpy flux and heating are found even in the initially force-free case with very small background beta, resulting mostly from adiabatic compression rather than Ohmic dissipation. The energy conversion mechanism is most easily understood as a two-step process (although the two steps may occur essentially simultaneously): the first step is the acceleration of the plasma by Lorentz forces in layers akin to the slow shocks in the Petschek reconnection model, involving the conversion of magnetic energy to bulk kinetic

  8. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  9. Release rates of Al from inorganic and organic compounds in a sandy podzol, during laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Westerveld, J.W.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Research with respect to release rates of Al and Al concentrations in the soil solution has led to two contrasting hypotheses, stressing either the importance of kinetically constrained dissolution reactions or the role of complexation of Al to soil organic matter. The existence of two contrasting

  10. MIGRATIONS OF RELEASED SEISMIC ENERGY IN VARIOUS GEODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Novopashina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of slow seismic activity migration have been revealed by the space-time analysis of the total earthquake energy (LgEsum. Our study of seismic activity covers the fragments of  the Central Asian, Pacific and Alpine seismic belts: the Baikal rift system (BRS, Russia, the San Andreas fault zone (California, USA, the Christchurch fault (New Zealand, the North and East Anatolian faults (Turkey, the Philippine subduction zone, and the central fragment of the Mid-Atlantic oceanic ridge. The chains of LgEsum clusters mark the propagation of the maximum stresses front in the weaker crust areas, the zones of fault dynamic influence, and the regions of conjugated tectonic structures. The migration process is characterized by a periodicity, changes in direction, and similar modular values of the migration rates within a single fault segment (or a fault zone, which is probably related to the mechanical and rheological crust and upper mantle properties. The data analysis shows that a strong earthquake source may occur at a location wherein the front of seismic activity propagates with periodical changes in direction, and such a source can develop within a period that is multiple of the migration fluctuations, probably associated with the influence of external periodic factors. The main periods of migration fluctuations (2–4 years, and 9–13 years, in different ratios are present in the seismic regimes of different seismic belts. The migration rate, as well as the propagation velocity of the maximum stresses front, directly depends on the velocity of movements between the plates in the region.

  11. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    The first model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the ''failed'' waste package and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the package (because of corrosion products plugging the perforations), thereby being prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to diffuse through the perforations, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had lower peak EBS release rates than with the first model. Impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with low solubility. The analysis indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a ''failed'' waste package (the first model) may be too conservative; thus a ''failed'' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be an important barrier to radionuclide release

  12. Phenazopyridine-phthalimide nano-cocrystal: Release rate and oral bioavailability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Li, Jin-Mei; Lai, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu; Chen, Jia-Mei

    2017-11-15

    Both cocrystal and nanocrystal technologies have been widely used in the pharmaceutical development for poorly soluble drugs. However, the synergistic effects due to the integration of these two technologies have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to develop a nano-sized cocrystal of phenazopyridine (PAP) with phthalimide (PI) to enhance the release rate and oral bioavailability of PAP. A PAP-PI nano-cocrystal with particle diameter of 21.4±0.1nm was successfully prepared via a sonochemical approach and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. An in vitro release study revealed a significant release rate enhancement for PAP-PI nano-cocrystal as compared to PAP-PI cocrystal and PAP hydrochloride salt. Further, a comparative oral bioavailability study in rats indicated significant improvement in C max and oral bioavailability (AUC 0-∞ ) by 1.39- and 2.44-fold, respectively. This study demonstrated that this novel nano-cocrystal technology can be a new promising option to improve release rate and absorption of poorly soluble compounds in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  14. Tritium breeding and release-rate kinetics from neutron-irradiated lithium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quanci, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The research encompasses the measurement of the tritium breeding and release-rate kinetics from lithium oxide, a ceramic tritium-breeding material. A thermal extraction apparatus which allows the accurate measurement of the total tritium inventory and release rate from lithium oxide samples under different temperatures, pressures and carrier-gas compositions with an uncertainty not exceeding 3% was developed. The goal of the Lithium Blanket Module program was to determine if advanced computer codes could accurately predict the tritium production in the lithium oxide blanket of a fusion power plant. A fusion blanket module prototype was built and irradiated with a deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron source. The tritium production throughout the module was modeled with the MCNP three dimensional Monte Carlo code and was compared to the assay of the tritium bred in the module. The MCNP code accurately predicted tritium-breeding trends but underestimated the overall tritium breeding by 30%. The release rate of tritium from small grain polycrystalline sintered lithium oxides with a helium carrier gas from 300 to 450 C was found to be controlled by the first order surface desorption of monotritiated water. When small amounts of hydrogen were added to the helium carrier gas, the first order rate constant increased from the isotopic exchange of hydrogen for tritium at the lithium oxide surface occurring in parallel with the first order desorption process. The isotopic-exchange first order rate constant temperature dependence and hydrogen partial pressure dependence were evaluated

  15. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  16. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  17. Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release rate after fatiguing stimulation in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Sjøgaard, G; Madsen, Klavs

    2000-01-01

    during the first 0.5-1 h the metabolic state recovered to resting levels, and a slow phase from 1-3 h characterized by a rather slow recovery of the mechanical properties. The recovery of SR Ca(2+) release rate was closely correlated to +dF/dt during the slow phase of recovery (r(2) = 0.51; P ... to 66% that persisted for 1 h, followed by a gradual recovery to 87% of prefatigue release rate at 3 h recovery. Tetanic force and rate of force development (+dF/dt) and relaxation (-dF/dt) were depressed by approximately 80% after stimulation. Recovery occurred in two phases: an initial phase, in which......The purpose of the study was to characterize the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and contractile properties before and during recovery from fatigue in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. Fatiguing contractions (60 Hz, 150 ms/s for 4 min) induced a reduction of the SR Ca(2+) release rate...

  18. Mechanical energy release in CABRI-2 experiments with Viggen-4 fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    1993-07-01

    The results of mechanical energy release evaluations in CABRI-2 experiments with Viggen-4 fuel pins (12 atom % burnup) are described. In general the experience gained by the CABRI-1 experiments is confirmed. Those physical phenomena are enhanced which are influenced by the release of fission products. Especially the late blow-out of pressurized fission gases from the lower test pin plenum led to large flow variations. The corresponding mechanical power releases are low

  19. Supporting the Energy Transition: the Role of Low Interest Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Low interest rates tend to favor 'green technologies' competitiveness while also increasing their cost volatility. Our analysis of the impact of interest rates on green energy technologies costs points to three key conclusions: - A low interest rate environment makes green energy technologies more competitive. Hydroelectric power is less expensive than any other technology across the entire spectrum of interest rate levels that we analyzed in this paper. Wind on-shore is competitive with all other technologies up until interest rates of about 8%. - Green energy technologies' LCOEs react more significantly to a change in interest rates than the LCOEs of brown energy technologies, implying a greater volatility for green energy technologies' costs in response to interest rate volatility. A higher volatility is damaging because it brings more uncertainty in investment decisions. As a result, stable interest rates are more beneficial for green energy investments than for brown energy investments. - In order to increase the ratio of green to brown energy investments, we can consider a discount on the interest rates for the former or a premium on interest rates for the latter. Our estimations indicate that, because interest rate changes have a greater impact on the costs of green energy technologies, a discount on green investments' interest rates would be more efficient than a premium on brown investments' interest rates. (author)

  20. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)

  1. Overview on phenomena of mechanical energy release in the CABRI-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical energy release phenomena observed in the CABRI-experiments are overviewed and discussed. Intensifying and mitigating effects are identified. They are caused by fission gases, inertia effects, pressure dissipation and fissile power

  2. Identification of energy storage rate components. Theoretical and experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliferuk, W; Maj, M

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is decomposition of energy storage rate into terms related to different mode of deformation. The stored energy is the change in internal energy due to plastic deformation after specimen unloading. Hence, this energy describes the state of the cold-worked material. Whereas, the ratio of the stored energy increment to the appropriate increment of plastic work is the measure of energy conversion process. This ratio is called the energy storage rate. Experimental results show that the energy storage rate is dependent on plastic strain. This dependence is influenced by different microscopic deformation mechanisms. It has been shown that the energy storage rate can be presented as a sum of particular components. Each of them is related to the separate internal microscopic mechanism. Two of the components are identified. One of them is the storage rate of statistically stored dislocation energy related to uniform deformation. Another one is connected with non-uniform deformation at the grain level. It is the storage rate of the long range stresses energy and geometrically necessary dislocation energy. The maximum of energy storage rate, that appeared at initial stage of plastic deformation is discussed in terms of internal micro-stresses.

  3. Costs of renewable energies in France. Release 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Marchal, David; Gerson, Raphael; Berrou, Yolene; Grouzard, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    For each renewable energy, this study reports the assessment of the range of the theoretical variation of costs with respect to the most important parameters of the concerned sector. Low range notably corresponds to particularly favourable financing modalities added to a good field quality and to low investment costs. At the opposite, the capital cost is particularly high for high ranges. Thus, after a presentation of the adopted methodology, the report addresses the costs of electric power generation for on-shore wind energy, offshore wind energy, sea hydraulics, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, and geothermal energy. The next part addresses heat production costs in the case of individuals (biomass, individual thermal solar, individual heat pumps) and of collective housing and office and industrial buildings (collective biomass with or without heat network, industrial biomass, thermal solar in collective housing of in network, collective geothermal heat pumps, deep geothermal energy). The fourth chapter addresses the cost of power and heat production by co-generation (biomass co-generation, methanization). Appendices provide computation hypotheses, and reference data

  4. Development of novel diclofenac potassium controlled release tablets by wet granulation technique and the effect of co-excipients on in vitro drug release rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shefaatullah; Khan, Gul Majid; Jan, Syed Umer; Shah, Kifayatullah; Hussain, Abid; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Kamran Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the formulation and evaluation of controlled release polymeric tablets of Diclofenac Potassium by wet granulation method for the release rate, release pattern and the mechanism involved in drug release. Formulations having three grades of polymer Ethocel (7P; 7FP, 10P, 10FP, 100P, 100FP) in several drugs to polymer ratios (10:3 and 10:1) were compressed into tablets using wet granulation method. Co-excipients were added to some selected formulations to investigate their enhancement effect on in vitro drug release patterns. In vitro drug release studies were performed using USP Method-1 (Rotating Basket method) and Phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was used as a dissolution medium. The similarities and dissimilarities of release profiles of test formulations with reference standard were checked using f2 similarity factor and f1 dissimilarity factor. Mathematical/Kinetic models were employed to determine the release mechanism and drug release kinetics.

  5. Geological Structure, Seismic energy Release and Forecasting of Rockburst Occurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, Radim; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 16 (2000), s. 171-173 ISSN 1211-1910. [Czech - Polish - Slovak Symposium on Mining Geophysics /27./. Ramzová, 05.10.1999-07.10.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : seismoacustic emission * energy -frequency distribution * multichannel statistic extrapolation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  6. WATER HYACINTH: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE RATE RETARDING NATURAL POLYMER USED IN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabera eKhatun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural polymers have been widely used, because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr’s Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37oC ± 0.5 temperature, for 8 hours. All the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, but among all the formulations F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  7. Water hyacinth: a possible alternative rate retarding natural polymer used in sustained release tablet design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Sabera; Sutradhar, Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In recent years natural polymers have been widely used because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr's Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37°C ± 0.5 temperature for 8 h. Though all the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, formulation F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth) was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell, and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  8. Aerosol material release rates from zircaloy-4 at temperatures from 2000 to 22000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulpuru, S.R.; Wren, D.J.; Rondeau, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    During some postulated severe accidents involving loss of coolant and loss of emergency coolant injection, the temperatures in a CANDU reactor fuel channel become high enough to cause failure and melting of the Zircaloy fuel cladding. At such high temperatures, vapors of fission products and structural (fuel and cladding) materials will be released into the coolant steam and hydrogen mixture. These vapors will condense as cooler conditions are encountered downstream. The vapors from structural materials are relatively involatile; therefore, they will condense readily into aerosol particles. These particles, in turn, will provide sites for the condensation of the more volatile fission products. The aerosol transport of fission products in the primary heat transport system (PHTS) will thus be influenced by the structural material release rates. As part of an ongoing program to develop predictive tools for aerosol and associated fission product transport through the PHTS, experiments have been conducted to measure the vapor mass release rates of the alloying elements from Zircaloy-4 at high temperatures. The paper presents the results and analysis of these experiments

  9. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of fuel release rate and mechanism tests under RBCB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    This task includes theoretical evaluation of fuel/fission product release behavior from failed LMFBR fuel elements as well as an on-going experimental investigation of the mechanism of oxide fuel dispersal into flowing liquid sodium. The primary objectives of this work are to develop a fuel source term that can be used in predictive models for primary heat transfer system contamination and to understand the separate influences of important system variables (such as flow rate, oxygen impurity level) on this source term. The present report is written in two parts: the first, in condensed form, is an updated evaluation of fuel (U,Pu) and fission product release data, and the second describes the current status of supporting experimental work at General Electric's Vallecitos Laboratory

  11. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  13. Liquid-Phase Heat-Release Rates of the Systems Hydrazine-Nitric Acid and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine-Nitric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Dezso; Feiler, Charles E.

    1960-01-01

    The initial rates of heat release produced by the reactions of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with nitric acid were determined in a bomb calorimeter under conditions of forced mixing. Fuel-oxidant weight ratio and injection velocity were varied. The rate of heat release apparently depended on the interfacial area between the propellants. Above a narrow range of injection velocities representing a critical amount of interfacial area, the rates reached a maximum and were almost constant with injection velocity. The maximum rate for hydrazine was about 70 percent greater than that for unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The total heat released did not vary with mixture ratio over the range studied.

  14. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2000-01-01

    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  15. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 1: biomechanical analysis related to user benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Eisma, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The energy storing and releasing behaviour of 2 energy storing feet (ESF) and 2 conventional prosthetic feet (CF) were compared (ESF: Otto Bock Dynamic Pro and Hanger Quantum; CF: Otto Bock Multi Axial and Otto Bock Lager). Ten trans-tibial amputees were selected. The study was designed as a

  16. Theoretical energy release of thermites, intermetallics, and combustible metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1998-06-01

    Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, the authors review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  17. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report

  18. Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed

  19. Energy rating procedure for PV-modules; Energy rating procedure voor PV-modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Jansen, M.J. [ECN Zon, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The performance of PV-modules is usually characterized by the nominal power at standard test conditions. However more relevant for the end-user is the energy production. To arrive at a so-called energy rating procedure the P(G{sub i},T{sub m}) matrix is defined, which makes it possible to calculate the expected annual energy production of a PV-module at any given location with known frequency distribution of horizontal irradiation and ambient temperature. In order to make the de P(G{sub i},T{sub m}) independent of the time and location of the tests the effective irradiation (G{sub i}) is measured with a device with the same characteristics as the module under test. Such a device can be a suitable reference cell or, even better, the module under test itself. The latter, however, is only possible in case the module under test is stable in time. Measurements were performed to test the applicability of the so-called self-reference for a-Si modules. Furthermore the difference between the effective irradiance and the real irradiance (measured with a pyranometer) was quantified for the test location Petten, the Netherlands. The conclusions are: Self-reference is not applicable for a-Si modules because of the time instability, even after 1 full year of degradation; Self-reference signals (the short circuit current of the module under test) can be calibrated outdoor by comparison with a pyranometer at irradiance levels above 800 W/m{sup 2}. The uncertainty of such a calibration is within 3%; The difference between the effective irradiance and the real irradiance on annual basis at Petten is virtually zero for x-Si modules and about 1% for a-Si modules. [Dutch] Het is gebruikelijk om de prestatie van PV-modules te karakteriseren met het nominale vermogen onder standaard testcondities (STC). Echter dit nominaal vermogen geeft geen directe indicatie voor de energieopbrengst. Om tot een karakteristiek voor de energie-opbrengst (energy rating) te komen wordt de prestatie van de

  20. Effect of temperature and ph on the drug release rate from a polymer conjugate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, E.; Abdel-Hay, F.I.; El-Newehy, M.H.; Ottenbrite, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroximide and A-methylhydroxamic acid of poly(ethylene-altmaleic anhydride) (average MW 100-500 k) were used as a carrier for a new drug delivery system. The synthesis of the hydroximide and N methylhydroxamic acid of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) were carried out by chemical modification of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) with hydroxylamine and N-methyl hydroxylamine, respectively, in N,N- dimethylformamide at room temperature to yield water soluble copolymer. Ketoprofen was reacted with hydroximide and N-methylhydroxamic acid derivatives of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as condensation agent at -5 degree C to yield water insoluble ketoprofen conjugates. All products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1HNMR spectra. The in-vitro ketoprofen release was carried out by UV spectrophotometer at max =260 nm. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of hydroximide and N-methylhydroxamic acid of polyethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a drug delivery system. The release rates were studied at various ph and temperatures. The copolymer-drug adducts released the drug very slowly at the low ph found in the stomach thus protecting the drug from the action of high concentrations of digestive acids. These results showed the usefulness of hydroxamic acid polymer-drug conjugates as a new drug delivery system for drugs to be targeted to sites in the GI system

  1. Additive effects on the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion cause supralinear effects on the vesicle fusion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schotten, Sebastiaan; Meijer, Marieke; Walter, Alexander Matthias

    2015-01-01

    supralinear effects on the fusion rate. To test this prediction experimentally, we developed a method to assess the number of releasable vesicles, rate constants for vesicle priming, unpriming, and fusion, and the activation energy for fusion by fitting a vesicle state model to synaptic responses induced......-linear effects of genetic/pharmacological perturbations on synaptic transmission and a novel interpretation of the cooperative nature of Ca2+-dependent release....

  2. Lifetime and kinetic energy release of metastable dications dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagia, M.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Mundim, K.C.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Pirani, F.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A statistical method is proposed for extracting dynamics information from coincidence data in double photoionization of molecules. Highlights: ► When a photon, with sufficient energy, hits a molecule, a doubly charged ion can be formed. This dication has often a large probability of dissociate in two positive singly charged ions. ► Experiments of photoelectron–photoion–photoion coincidence can provide valuable information about the dynamics of such dissociation processes. ► A statistical method is proposed for extracting such information from the coincidence data. - Abstract: A new method for the determination of dynamical features of the molecular dication dissociation processes, following the single photon double ionization, investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique has been developed. The method is based on an extension of the generalized simulated annealing statistical methodology, previously applied in other fields. Here it is described and applied, as an example, to the case of the dissociation of the CO 2 2+ dication giving CO + + O + ion fragments. The results are consistent with previous determination of the metastable lifetime of the dication, but the analysis also provides additional information about the dynamics of the reaction.

  3. Theoretical Energy Release of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-05-14

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  4. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  5. Study on reasonable curtailment rate of large scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    Energy curtailment rate of renewable energy generation is an important indicator to measure renewable energy consumption, it is also an important parameters to determine the other power sources and grids arrangement in the planning stage. In general, to consume the spike power of the renewable energy which is just a small proportion, it is necessary to dispatch a large number of peaking resources, which will reduce the safety and stability of the system. In planning aspect, if it is allowed to give up a certain amount of renewable energy, overall peaking demand of the system will be reduced, the peak power supply construction can be put off to avoid the expensive cost of marginal absorption. In this paper, we introduce the reasonable energy curtailment rate into the power system planning, and use the GESP power planning software, conclude that the reasonable energy curtailment rate of the regional grids in China is 3% -10% in 2020.

  6. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  7. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  8. Reaction rate and energy-loss rate for photopair production by relativistic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Michal J.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Sikora, Marek

    1992-01-01

    The process of e(+/-) pair production by relativistic nuclei on ambient photons is considered. The process is important for cosmic-ray nuclei in interstellar and intergalactic space as well as in galactic and extragalactic compact objects. The rate of this process is given by an integral of the cross section over the photon angular and energy distribution. In the case of isotropic photons, the angular integration is performed to provide an expression for the rate at given photon energy in the nucleus rest frame. The total rate then becomes a single integral of that rate over the photon energy distribution. Formulas are also given for the fractional energy loss of a relativistic nucleus colliding with a photon of a given energy in the rest frame. The nucleus energy-loss rate is integrated over the photon angular distribution in the case of isotropic photons, and simple fits are provided.

  9. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent

  10. Window Energy Rating System and Calculation of Energy Performance of Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    The goal of reducing the energy consumption in buildings is the background for the introduction of an energy rating system of fenestration products in Denmark. The energy rating system requires that producers declare, among other things, the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy...... development, e.g. when the resulting effects of a reduced frame area are evaluated....

  11. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  12. Releasable Kinetic Energy-Based Inertial Control of a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jinsik; Muljadi, Eduard; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) in a wind power plant (WPP) contain different levels of releasable kinetic energy (KE) because of the wake effects. This paper proposes a releasable KE-based inertial control scheme for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) WPP that differentiates the contributions....... The proposed scheme adjusts the two loop gains in a DFIG controller depending on its rotor speed so that a DFIG operating at a higher rotor speed releases more KE. The performance of the proposed scheme was investigated under various wind conditions. The results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme...

  13. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  14. Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferter, Keno; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Strehlow, Harry Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: .While catch-and-release (C&R) is a well-known practice in several European freshwater recreational fisheries, studies on the magnitu...

  15. Development of analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Sook Kwan

    1995-04-01

    A study for the development of an analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release is performed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A methodology is suggested. For the post blowdown period a modified CONTRAST boil-off model is suggested. By using these computer code improved mass and energy release data are generated. Also, a RELAP5/MOD3 analysis for finally the FLOOD-3 computer code has been modified for use in the analysis of hot leg break. The results of analysis using modified FLOOD-3 are reasonable as we expected and their trends are good. 66 figs., 8 tabs. (Author) .new

  16. Influence of Groundwater Flow Rate on Nuclide Releases from Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 2000s several template programs for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository as well as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository systems have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. Very recently, another template program for a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels has been developed and are to be disposed of by separate disposal strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and 500m depth, believed to be in the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste package and canister. To quantify a nuclide release and transport through the possible various pathways especially in the near-fields of the A-KRS repository system, some illustrative evaluations have been made through the study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  17. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  18. Combustion Heat Release Rate Comparison of Algae Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel to F-76 in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was recorded. Figure 14 shows the gauge on the rocker arm during calibration . Figure 14. Mechanical Injector Rocker Arm Strain Gauge. D. DATA...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE by John H. Petersen June 2013 Thesis...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John H

  19. Sensitivity of performance assessment of the engineered barriers to nuances of release rate criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, D.L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established criteria for the long-term performance of proposed high-level waste repositories. As with any regulation, the criteria may be interpreted in several ways. Due to the high capital costs and the emotional political climate associated with any high-level radioactive waste repository, it is important that there be an early consensus regarding interpretations of the criteria, and what assumptions may be used to demonstrate compliance with them. This work uses analytic solutions of mass transport theory to demonstrate how sensitive performance analyses are to various nuances of the NRC release rate criterion for the engineered barriers. The analysis is directed at the proposed repository in basalt at the Hanford site in Washington State

  20. The critical release rates for the dissociating gas N204/N02/N0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1979-03-01

    Dissociating vapour systems have certain characteristics which make them attractive as coolants, notably a large effective specific heat which is significantly greater than that for the individual components of the gas mixture, and also an enhanced boundary layer heat transfer coefficient resulting from the physical characteristics of thermal dissociation. In part these effects ensure that a dissociating gas has a greatly improved thermal capacity and heat transfer capability when compared with most inert gases. In this report the critical release rates for the dissociating vapour system N 2 0 4 -N0 2 -N0 are established, principally in the two phase region, and the thermodynamics of nitrogen tetroxide are examined. (U.K.)

  1. Numerical Studies on Heat Release Rate in Room Fire on Liquid Fuel under Different Ventilation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat release rate (HRR of the design fire is the most important parameter in assessing building fire hazards. However, HRR in room fire was only studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD in most of the projects determining fire safety provisions by performance-based design. In contrast to ten years ago, officers in the Far East are now having better knowledge of CFD. Two common questions are raised on CFD-predicted results on describing free boundaries; and on computing grid size. In this work, predicting HRR by the CFD model was justified with experimental room pool fire data reported earlier. The software fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 5 was selected as the CFD simulation tool. Prescribed input heating rate based on the experimental results was used with the liquid fuel model in FDS. Five different free boundary conditions were investigated to predict HRR. Grid sensitivity study was carried out using one stretched mesh and multiple uniform meshes with different grid sizes. As it is difficult to have the entire set of CFD predicted results agreed with experiments, macroscopic flow parameters on the mass flow rate through door opening predicted by CFD were also justified by another four conditions with different ventilation factors.

  2. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  3. Process for the transport of heat energy released by a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, H.W.; Wolff, G.

    1978-01-01

    The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is converted into latent chemical binding energy. The heat can be released again below 400 0 C by recombination after transport by decomposition of ethane or propane into ethylene or propylene and hydrogen. (TK) [de

  4. Regional distribution of released earthquake energy in northern Egypt along with Inahass area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-hemamy, S.T.; Adel, A.A. Othman

    1999-01-01

    A review of the seismic history of Egypt indicates sone areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. There are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. Form the tectonic map of Egypt, distribution of Intensity and magnitude show strong activity along Nile Delta. This due to the presence of a thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energy of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area . Its effect on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site is considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy reveals that Inshas site is affected by seismic activity from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-Faiyum, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba seismo-tectonic zones. El-Faiyum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 5.4E +2 1 erg

  5. International Energy Prices(Exchange Rate and PPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Han; Yoo, Dong Heon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Energy is to be specially important to the Korean economy. In the past the major purpose of Korea's energy policies was to ensure that the energy was supplied at the low cost to encourage and sustain economic development and growth. Therefore, energy prices are distorted by government intervention. And this was the cause of inefficiency in usage of energy. In order to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of energy consumption, new energy pricing should be needed to the energy industry and the Korean economy. It is necessary to compare the domestic energy prices with other countries to improve the energy pricing system including tax, the relative structure of energy price, etc. In order to compare the domestic energy prices to those of other countries, the exchange rate, purchasing power parity and Big Mac index are used for calculation of common currency. We select 12 countries, which are Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Mexico and England. The oil products(gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil and light fuel oil), natural gas and electricity are selected to compare the price. (author). 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  6. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  7. The empirical relationship between energy futures prices and exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between energy futures prices and exchange rates. Results are presented to show that futures prices for crude oil, heating oil and unleaded gasoline are co-integrated with a trade-weighted index of exchange rates. This is important because it means that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between these four variables. Granger causality results for both the long- and short-run are presented. Evidence is also presented that suggests exchange rates transmit exogenous shocks to energy futures prices. 22 refs

  8. Forecasting of future earthquakes in the northeast region of India considering energy released concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarola, Amit; Sil, Arjun

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the forecasting of time and magnitude size of the next earthquake in the northeast India, using four probability distribution models (Gamma, Lognormal, Weibull and Log-logistic) considering updated earthquake catalog of magnitude Mw ≥ 6.0 that occurred from year 1737-2015 in the study area. On the basis of past seismicity of the region, two types of conditional probabilities have been estimated using their best fit model and respective model parameters. The first conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (e × 1020 ergs), which is expected to release in the future earthquake, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy (E × 1020 ergs). And the second conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (a × 1020 ergs/year), which is expected to release per year, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy per year (A × 1020 ergs/year). The logarithm likelihood functions (ln L) were also estimated for all four probability distribution models. A higher value of ln L suggests a better model and a lower value shows a worse model. The time of the future earthquake is forecasted by dividing the total seismic energy expected to release in the future earthquake with the total seismic energy expected to release per year. The epicentre of recently occurred 4 January 2016 Manipur earthquake (M 6.7), 13 April 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.9) and the 24 August 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.8) are located in zone Z.12, zone Z.16 and zone Z.15, respectively and that are the identified seismic source zones in the study area which show that the proposed techniques and models yield good forecasting accuracy.

  9. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan

    2017-11-22

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  10. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland > W–L (lake wetland > W–M (grassy marsh wetland > W–A (reservoir wetland. The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144, where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  11. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  12. The Influence of Polyethylene Glycol Solution on the Dissolution Rate of Sustained Release Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Michael; Holland, Michael G; Englich, Ulrich; Wojcik, Susan M; Grant, William D; Leitner, Erich

    2016-12-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a management option for overdose of medications poorly adsorbed to activated charcoal, with modified release properties, or for body packers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a mixture of ethylene oxide polymers of varying molecular weight. PEG with an average molecular weight of 3350 g/mol is used for WBI. PEG electrolyte lavage solution has been shown in vitro to hasten the dissolution of acetaminophen. The impact of PEG on the pharmacokinetics of extended release pharmaceuticals is unknown. Lower average molecular weight PEG mixtures are used as solvents and excipients. We sought to investigate the impact of PEG on the release of morphine from several extended release morphine formulations. An in vitro gastric model was developed. To test the validity of our model, we first investigated the previously described interaction of ethanol and Avinza®. Once demonstrated, we then investigated the effect of PEG with several extended release morphine formulations. In the validation portion of our study, we confirmed an ethanol Avinza® interaction. Subsequently, we did not observe accelerated release of morphine from Avinza® or generic extended release morphine in the presence of PEG. The use of PEG for gastric decontamination following ingestion of these extended release morphine formulations is unlikely to accelerate morphine release and aggravate intoxication.

  13. Which research for tomorrow's energy? 2012 Energy Colloquium 2. release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Gerard; Arrif, Teddy; Bain, Pascal; Beguin, Francois; Bruneaux, Gilles; Cetin, Derya; Czernichowski, Isabelle; Escudie, Dany; Folacci, Marie-Ange; Gosse, Kevin; Hareux, Sylvie; Metaye, Romain; Morel, Herve; Odru, Pierre; Oukacine, Linda; Pons, Liz; Tournier, Aline; Corgier, David; Thollin, Jacques; Barret, Mickael; Mosdale, Renaut; Hervouet, Veronique; Pourcelly, Gerald; Brousse, Thierry; Lincot, Daniel; Schmidt-Laine, Claudine; Artero, Vincent; Robinson, Darren; Bigot, Bernard; Salha, Bernard; Minster, Jean-Francois; Hauet, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This huge publication gathers interventions and contributions of a colloquium which notably addressed the following issues: bio-energies, hydrogen and fuel cells, energy storage, photovoltaic solar energy, energy efficiency in buildings, transports and industry, CO 2 capture and storage. On the first day, after two interventions on Energies Programmes at the ANR and an overview of R and D world challenges regarding energy, the contributions addressed the above mentioned issues. During the next day, besides these issues, contributions addressed challenges for tomorrow's society and perspectives for research. Thematic sessions addressed bio-energies (optimized production of cellulose ethanol, the third generation, technological deadlocks for the thermal-chemical route), photovoltaic solar energy (new concepts, massive crystalline silicon and photovoltaic thin layers), high energy efficiency buildings, energetic equipment and climate engineering, CO 2 storage, CO 2 capture, fuel cells, hydrogen production, transport and storage, electrochemical and non-electrochemical storage of energy, transports (internal combustion engine and power units, electric transports)

  14. Magnetospheric storm dynamics in terms of energy output rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigancova, A.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Using hourly values of both the global magnetospheric disturbance characteristic DR, and AE index of auroral ionospheric currents during magnetic storm intervals, the energy output rate dynamics is evaluated for a magnetic storm main/recovery phase and a whole storm interval. The magnetospheric response to the solar wind energy input rate under varying interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions is considered from the temporal variability point of view. The peculiarities of the response are traced separately. As far as quantitative characteristics of energy output rate are concerned, the time dependence pattern of the ring current decay parameter is emphasized to be fairly important. It is pointed out that more insight into the plasma processes, especially at L = 3 - 5, is needed for adequate evidence of the dependence. (Author)

  15. Comminution of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C

    2013-11-26

    Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic comminution or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of comminution under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the comminution process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  16. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  17. The energy distribution structure and dynamic characteristics of energy release in electrostatic discharge process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingming; Shao, Huige; Zhang, Yunming

    2015-01-01

    The detail structure of energy output and the dynamic characteristics of electric spark discharge process have been studied to calculate the energy of electric spark induced plasma under different discharge condition accurately. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor stored energy in the range of 10J 100J and 1000J respectively. And the resistance of wire, switch and plasma between electrodes were evaluated by different methods. An optimized method ...

  18. Scaling the energy conversion rate from magnetic field reconnection to different bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field reconnection is often invoked to explain electromagnetic energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres, stellar coronae, and other astrophysical objects. Because of the huge dynamic range of magnetic fields in these bodies, it is important to understand energy conversion as a function of magnetic field strength and related parameters. It is conjectured theoretically and shown experimentally that the energy conversion rate per unit area in reconnection scales as the cube of an appropriately weighted magnetic field strength divided by the square root of an appropriately weighted density. With this functional dependence, the energy release in flares on the Sun, the large and rapid variation of the magnetic flux in the tail of Mercury, and the apparent absence of reconnection on Jupiter and Saturn, may be understood. Electric fields at the perihelion of the Solar Probe Plus mission may be tens of V/m.

  19. Data Analysis of Transient Energy Releases in the LHC Superconducting Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Bottura, L; Di Castro, M; Masi, A; Siemko, A

    2007-01-01

    Premature training quenches are caused by transient energy released within the LHC dipole magnet coils while it is energized. Voltage signals recorded across the magnet coils and on the so-called quench antenna carry information about these disturbances. The transitory events correlated to transient energy released are extracted making use of continuous wavelet transform. Several analyses are performed to understand their relevance to the so called training phenomenon. The statistical distribution of the signals amplitude, the number of events occurring at a given current level, the average frequency content of the events are the main parameters on which the analysis have been focalized. Comparisons among different regions of the magnet, among different quenches in the same magnet and among magnets made by different builders are reported. Conclusions about the efficiency of the raw data treatment and the relevance of the parameters developed with respect to the magnet global behavior are finally given.

  20. Energy Dissipation Rate in an Agitated Crucible Containing Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Shimasaki, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2017-10-01

    The energy dissipation rate (EDR) is an important parameter for characterizing the behavior of inclusion coagulation in agitated molten metal. To clarify the inclusion coagulation mechanism, we review previous water model studies by particularly focusing on the relation between the impeller torque and the EDR of the fluid, which indicates the ratio of energy dissipated in the viscous medium to the energy inputted by the rotating impeller. In the present study, simulations coupled with experiments were performed to determine the relation between the torque and the effective EDR for water and liquid Al in crucibles with and without baffles.

  1. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  2. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secondly, a new high -order (4 th -order) convective flux formulation was developed that uses the tabulated information, yet produces a fully consistent...Klippenstein 2012 Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High - Pressure Combustion. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 44:444-474. Cabot, W.H., A.W. Cook, P.L. Miller, D.E...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0054 Energy Transformation, Transfer, and Release Dynamics in High -Speed Turbulent Flows Paul Dimotakis CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE

  3. Energy release and its containment within thin-walled, backed vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    The problem adressed is the containment of a sudden release of energy of a magnitude up to 4 x 10 11 joules in a reusable vessel. The design process began by formulating dynamic models for both the input to such a vessel and the vessel itself and using these models to generate a general response. Modifications to the input and a more specific response are discussed. Computer codes used in calculations are described and listed

  4. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saeedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Ocimum basilicum L. (family Lamiaceae was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Basil mucilage was extracted and several tablets were formulated. The effect of mucilage on drug release rate was evaluated in comparison with tablets containing two kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M as standard polymer. The release data were fitted to several models for kinetic evaluation. The results showed that hardness decreased and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased. The rate of release of propranolol HCl from O. basilicm mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug: mucilage ratio. Drug release was slower from the HPMC K4M and HPMCK100M containing tablets compared to the mucilage containing matrices than the drug release from matrices containing O. basilicum seed mucilage in similar ratios.  Formulations containing O. basilicm mucilage were found to exhibit suitable release pattern. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in tablets containing O. basilicm mucilage the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets.

  5. Fluctuations of global energy release and crackling in nominally brittle heterogeneous fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barés, J; Hattali, M L; Dalmas, D; Bonamy, D

    2014-12-31

    The temporal evolution of mechanical energy and spatially averaged crack speed are both monitored in slowly fracturing artificial rocks. Both signals display an irregular burstlike dynamics, with power-law distributed fluctuations spanning a broad range of scales. Yet, the elastic power released at each time step is proportional to the global velocity all along the process, which enables defining a material-constant fracture energy. We characterize the intermittent dynamics by computing the burst statistics. This latter displays the scale-free features signature of crackling dynamics, in qualitative but not quantitative agreement with the depinning interface models derived for fracture problems. The possible sources of discrepancies are pointed out and discussed.

  6. Influence of the rate of conversion of HT and HTO on projected radiation doses from release of molecular tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Easterly, C.E.; Phillips, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Releases of tritium in the past have been largely in the form of tritiated water, and the projected radiation doses could be estimated by assuming tritium behaviour to parallel that of water. There is increasing interest in potential releases of tritium in the form of HT because of significant recent advances in fusion reactor research. Several recent studies have shown that bacteria containing the enzyme hydrogenase can catalyse the conversion of HT to HTO at rates several orders of magnitude faster than the rates measured in atmospheric systems. Rates of conversion in the soil have been combined with estimates of rates of permeation of HT into the soil and with global and local models depicting tritium transport and cycling. The results suggest that for the expected conversion rates, the impact on projected radiation doses should be relatively minor. (author)

  7. ENERGY RELEASE FROM IMPACTING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FOLLOWING THE 2011 JUNE 7 ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10{sup 26}-5.8 × 10{sup 27} erg) to the radiative energy (≈1.9 × 10{sup 25}-2.5 × 10{sup 26} erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  8. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  9. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Anisotropic kinetic energy release and gyroscopic behavior of CO2 super rotors from an optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Ogden, Hannah M.; Mullin, Amy S.

    2017-10-01

    An optical centrifuge is used to generate an ensemble of CO2 super rotors with oriented angular momentum. The collision dynamics and energy transfer behavior of the super rotor molecules are investigated using high-resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. New multipass IR detection provides improved sensitivity to perform polarization-dependent transient studies for rotational states with 76 ≤ J ≤ 100. Polarization-dependent measurements show that the collision-induced kinetic energy release is spatially anisotropic and results from both near-resonant energy transfer between super rotor molecules and non-resonant energy transfer between super rotors and thermal molecules. J-dependent studies show that the extent and duration of the orientational anisotropy increase with rotational angular momentum. The super rotors exhibit behavior akin to molecular gyroscopes, wherein molecules with larger amounts of angular momentum are less likely to change their angular momentum orientation through collisions.

  11. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  12. Review of tellurium release rates from LWR fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Beahm, E.C.; Wichner, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Although fission product tellurium presents a potentially significant radiohazard, its release and transport in source-term experiments is frequently overlooked because it does not possess a readily measurable, gamma emission; moreover, a recent study emphasized noble gas, iodine and cesium release from LWR fuel elements because of the large data base that exists for these materials. Some new tests show that in some cases tellurium may be held up in core material to a greater degree than previously assumed - an observation that prompts a careful reappraisal of the existing tellurium-release data and its chemical foundation

  13. Effects of Time-Release Caffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, Glycerol Concentration and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Gonzalez, Jay R. Hoffman, Adam J. Wells, Gerald T. Mangine, Jeremy R. Townsend, Adam R. Jajtner, Ran Wang, Amelia A. Miramonti, Gabriel J. Pruna, Michael B. LaMonica, Jonathan D. Bohner, Mattan W. Hoffman, Leonardo P. Oliveira, David H. Fukuda, Maren S. Fragala, Jeffrey R. Stout

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared caffeine pharmacokinetics, glycerol concentrations, metabolic rate, and performance measures following ingestion of a time-release caffeine containing supplement (TR-CAF versus a regular caffeine capsule (CAF and a placebo (PL. Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over design, ten males (25.9 ± 3.2 y who regularly consume caffeine ingested capsules containing either TR-CAF, CAF, or PL. Blood draws and performance measures occurred at every hour over an 8-hour period. Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05 in CAF compared to TR-CAF during hours 2-5 and significantly greater (p = 0.042 in TR-CAF compared to CAF at hour 8. There were no significant differences between trials in glycerol concentrations (p = 0.86 or metabolic measures (p = 0.17-0.91. Physical reaction time was significantly improved for CAF at hour 5 (p=0.01 compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was significantly improved for CAF and TR-CAF during hours 1-4 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively and over the 8-hour period (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was also significantly improved for TR-CAF compared to PL during hours 5-8 (p = 0.004. TR-CAF and CAF showed distinct pharmacokinetics yielding modest effects on reaction time, yet did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures.

  14. Rates and mechanisms of radioactive release and retention inside a waste disposal canister - in Can Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M. (ed.) [and others

    2003-10-01

    the system that will not be present under long term disposal conditions. A simulation of long-term conditions can be done using uranium dioxide that contains a short-lived isotope of uranium, but this will not include the effects of fission product and higher actinide elements on the behaviour of the spent fuel. We designed a project that had as its objective to improve the scientific understanding of the processes that control release of radioactive species from spent fuel inside a disposal canister and the chemical changes in those species that might limit release of radioactivity from the canister. If the mechanisms that control dissolution of the fuel matrix, including self-irradiation effects, can be clarified, a more realistic assessment of the long-term behaviour of spent fuel under disposal conditions can be made. By removing uncertainties concerning waste form performance, a better assessment of the individual and collective role of the engineered barriers can be made. To achieve the overall objective of the project, the following scientific and technical objectives were set. 1. Measure the actual rate of matrix dissolution of uranium dioxide under oxidising and reducing conditions. 2. Measure the effect of alpha radiolysis on the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide under oxidising and reducing conditions. 3. Measure the dissolution rate of the matrix material of spent fuel and thereby determine the additional effects of beta and gamma radiation on uranium dioxide dissolution rate under oxidising and reducing conditions. 4. Measure the ability of actively corroding iron to reduce oxidised U(VI) to U(IV) when U is present as the complex ion uranyl carbonate. 5. Measure the rate of reduction of Np(V) species in the presence of actively corroding iron. 6. Calculate the expected equilibrium and steady state concentrations of U under the conditions of the experiments used for meeting objectives 1 through 3 and compare the calculated results with those measured in

  15. Bioremediation: Application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Levy, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    In situ biodegradation, the activation of microbial processes capable of destroying contaminants where they are found in the environment, is a biological process that responds rapidly to changing environmental factors. Accordingly, in situ sediment enclosures were used to test the efficacy of selected nutrient formulations to enhance the biodegradation of a waxy crude oil in a low-energy shoreline environment. The addition of soluble inorganic fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and slow-release nutrient formulations (sulfur-coated urea) stimulated microbial activity and prolonged the period of oil degradation, despite a decline in seasonal temperatures. Low temperatures reduced the permeability of the coating on the slow-release fertilizers, effectively suppressing nutrient release. Of the nutrient formulations evaluated, the authors recommend the application of granular slow-release fertilizers (such as sulfur-coated urea) when the overlying water temperatures are above 15 degrees C, and the application of soluble inorganic fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate) at lower temperatures. Comprehensive analysis of the experimental results indicate that application protocols for bioremediation (form and type of fertilizer or type and frequency of application), be specifically tailored to account for differences in environmental parameters (including oil characteristics) at each contaminated site

  16. Using SDO's AIA to investigate energy transport from a flare's energy release site to the chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIA's EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims: To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIA's 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 Å channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIA's nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop footpoint on 2001 April 24 with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on timescales comparable to AIA's image cadence. Methods: The nine emission lines observed by CDS cover a wide range of formation temperature from about 0.05 to 8 MK. Line brightenings observed early during the CDS flare occurred at temperatures less than about 0.7 MK, with the largest values around 0.1 MK. These brightenings were consistent with the flare's energy transport being dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Because all of AIA's EUV channels are sensitive to emission from plasma in the 0.1 to 0.7 MK temperature range, we show that all of AIA's EUV channels will brighten simultaneously during flares like this, in which energy transport is dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Results: The 2010 July 31 flare observed by AIA and RHESSI displays this behavior, so we conclude that such beams likely dominated the flare's energy transport early during the event. When thermal conduction from a reconnection-heated, hot (~10 MK) plasma dominates the energy transport, the AIA channels that are sensitive to emission from such temperatures (particularly the 94 and 131 Å channels) will brighten earlier than the channels that are not sensitive to such temperatures (171 and 211 Å). Conclusions: Thus

  17. Energy release from a stream of infalling prominence debris on 2011 September 7-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.; Ofman, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years high-resolution and high-cadence EUV imaging has revealed a new phenomenon, impacting prominence debris, where prominence material from failed or partial eruptions can impact the lower atmosphere and release energy. We present a clear example of this phenomenon occurring on 2011 September 7-8. The initial eruption of prominence material was associated with an X1.8-class flare from AR11283, occurring at 22:30 UT on 2011 September 7, resulting in a semi-continuous stream of this material returning to the solar surface between 00:20 - 00:40 UT on 2011 September 8. A substantial area remote from the original active region experienced brightening in multiple EUV channels observed by SDO/AIA. Using the differential emission measure, we estimated the energetic properties of this event. We found that the radiated energy of the impacted plasma was of order 10^27 ergs, while the upper limit on the thermal energy peaked at 10^28 ergs. Based on these estimates we were able to determine the mass content of the debris to be in the range 2x10^14 energy release takes place during these events, and that such impacts may be used as a novel diagnostic tool for investigating prominence material properties.

  18. Development and evaluation of a new prototype P&T system to determine in-heading gas release rate.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, FJ

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the potential methane hazard in underground coal mines, it is necessary to determine the in-seam methane content and an expected gas release rate during production. Various methods for estimating this have been proposed, ranging...

  19. Reduced rates of controlled-release fertilizer lower potential nitrogen leaching from a Wisconsin bare-root tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryosuke Fujinuma; Nick J. Balster; Hyung-Kyung. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) typically increases nitrogen (N) fertilizer uptake and lowers N lost from the rooting zone via leaching. However, questions remain as to whether lower rates of CRF could further increase this efficiency, especially in sandy bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We hypothesized that: 1) a reduced CRF application at 60 percent of the...

  20. Isopleths of surface concentration and surface exposure rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Yabuta, Hajimu; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Obata, Kazuichi; Kokubu, Morinobu

    1982-03-01

    Various calculations are made to estimate the distributions of concentration and γ-exposure rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a point source to the atmosphere. In this report, the isopleths of concentration and γ-exposure rate which were calculated are given in graphs to enable rapid prediction of the influence of released radioactive material in the emergency situation. Recently there are facilities which are equipped with a system to display the calculation results on CRT; but such practice is rather rare. By placing the calculated isopleths of reduction scale 1/25000 or 1/50000 on the usual map, any facilities without the CRT system can readily estimate the influence of an accidental release. The graphs of isopleths are given with the release height (11 values of 0 to 200 m at about 20 m intervals) and the atmospheric stability (6 classes) as parameters. Calculations of γ-exposure rates were made using the computer code GAMPUL developed by T. Hayashi and T. Shiraishi. In the calculation of radioactive concentrations and γ-exposure rates, the vertical diffusion depths, σsub(z), exceeding 1000 m are taken to be 1000 m according to the Meteorological Guide for the Safety Analysis of Power Reactor (J.AEC). The comparison between with and without this limitation in σsub(z) is made in the case of downwind axial surface distributions. (author)

  1. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  2. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present energy supply resources problem is important. Nuclear reactors can, of course, solve this problem, but at the same time there is another issue, concerning safety exploitation of nuclear reactors. That is why, for the last seven years, such experiments as 'Investigation of the processes, conducting severe accidents with core melting' are being carried out at our IGR (impulse graphite reactor) reactor. Leaving out other difficulties of such experiments, it is necessary to notice, that such experiments require more accurate IGR core energy release calculations. The final aim of the present research is verification and correction of the existing method or creation of new method of IGR core energy release calculation. IGR reactor is unique and there is no the same reactor in the world. Therefore, application of the other research reactor methods here is quite useful. This work is based on evaluation of factors affecting core energy release (physical weight of experimental device, different configuration of reactor core, i.e. location of absorbers, initial temperature of core, etc), as well as interference of absorbers group. As it is known, energy release is a value of integral reactor power. During experiments with rays, Reactor power depends on currents of ion production chambers (IPC), located round the core. It is worth to notice that each ion production chamber (IPC) in the same start-up has its own ratio coefficient between IPC current and reactor present power. This task is complicated due to 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients, that change continuously, probably, because of new loading of experimental facility and different position of control rods. That is why, in order to try about reactor power, before every start-up, we have to re-determine the 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients for each ion production chamber (IPC). Therefore, the present work will investigate the behavior of ratio coefficient within the

  3. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  4. Isopleths of surface air concentration and surface air kerma rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a stack (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Haruo; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Sekita, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2004-06-01

    This report is a revised edition of 'Isopleths of Surface Air Concentration and Surface Air Absorbed Dose Rate due to a Radioactive Cloud Released from a Stack(II) '(JAERI-M 90-206) and based on the revised Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 Recommendation. Characteristics of this report are the use of Air Karma Rate (Gy/h) instead of Air Absorbed Dose Rate (Gy/h), and the record of isopleths of surface air concentration and surface air karma rate on CD-ROM. These recorded data on CD-ROM can be printed out on paper and/or pasted on digital map by personal computer. (author)

  5. Effective Anti-miRNA Oligonucleotides Show High Releasing Rate of MicroRNA from RNA-Induced Silencing Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Yohei; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Yamayoshi, Asako

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by forming RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) and have been considered as promising therapeutic targets. MiRNA is an essential component of RISC for the modulation of gene expression. Therefore, the release of miRNA from RISC is considered as an effective method for the inhibition of miRNA functions. In our previous study, we reported that anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs), which are composed of the 2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe) RNA, could induce the release of miRNA from RISC. However, the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-releasing effects of chemically modified AMOs, which are conventionally used as anti-cancer drugs, are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the miRNA releasing rate from RISC and the inhibitory effect on RISC activity (IC 50 ) using conventional chemically modified AMOs. We demonstrated that the miRNA-releasing effects of AMOs are directly proportional to the IC 50 values, and AMOs, which have an ability to promote the release of miRNA from RISC, can effectively inhibit RISC activity in living cells.

  6. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  7. Status of emission release and associated problems in energy systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Koyama, Shigeo; Ihara, Seijiro.

    1987-11-01

    OECD/IEA/ETSAP (Energy Technology System Analysis Project) has been started in March 1976. Since initiation of the projects, JAERI and ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) have been participating in the projects as operating agent of Japan. From last October, the ETSAP has initiated its Annex III programme, which pursues the problems laid down in energy-environment relationships. Main research objective of the programme is to investigate through the systems analysis ''how various environmental constrains would affect the pattern of fuel and technology use and the choice and timing of implementation of abatement technologies''. In this report, we describe the status of emission release in Japan and associated problems in energy system analysis which has been investigated at the start of these research programme mentioned above. (author)

  8. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagendorfer, Harald, E-mail: Harald.Hagendorfer@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Lorenz, Christiane, E-mail: Christiane.Lorenz@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: Ralf.Kaegi@eawag.ch; Sinnet, Brian, E-mail: Brian.Sinnet@eawag.c [EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Switzerland); Gehrig, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Gehrig@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Goetz, Natalie V., E-mail: Natalie.vonGoetz@chem.ethz.ch; Scheringer, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Scheringer@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Ludwig, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Ludwig@psi.c [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institue (Switzerland); Ulrich, Andrea, E-mail: Andrea.Ulrich@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  9. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Lorenz, Christiane; Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Gehrig, Robert; Goetz, Natalie V.; Scheringer, Martin; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  10. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  11. Production of an experimental bonding agent containing doxycyicline as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, and its release rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In spite of the advances achieved in the field of dentin adhesives, the longevity of bond to dentin is still a challenge. According to recent studies, Matrix Metaloproteinase (MMP inhibitors can increase clinical longevity of bonding and decrease leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and pattern of doxycycline release from an experimental dentin adhesive containing this MMP inhibitor. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, specimens containing 0.25 and 0.5 loading percent of doxycycline in an experimental monomer were prepared in cylindrical moulds of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness. The adhesive monomer was composed of 12 wt% Bis-GMA, 10 wt% TMPTMA, 28 wt% HEMA and 50 wt% ethanol. Camphorquinone and amine were used as initiators. Results: Addition of 0.25 and 0.5 w% doxycycline showed linear release in both groups. Increasing the loading percent of doxycycline caused more release. The release continued during the test period. Conclusion: Doxycycline release was observed from the experimental adhesive. Further studies in this field will help in preparing adhesive systems with more clinical longevity.

  12. Dam Breach Release of Non-Cohesive Sediments: Channel Response and Recovery Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Boardman, G.; Banks, W.; Andrews, M.; Conlon, M.; Dillow, J. J. A.; Gellis, A.; Lowe, S.; McClain, S.; Miller, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removals featuring unchecked releases of non-cohesive sediments are excellent opportunities to learn more about stream channel response to abrupt increases in bed material supply that can occur deliberately or by natural processes like landslides and volcanic eruptions. Understanding channel response to sediment pulses, including response rates, is essential because human uses of river channels and floodplains are impacted by these events as are aquatic habitats. We had the opportunity to study a dam removal site at the Simkins Dam in Maryland, USA, that shares many important geophysical attributes of another well-studied dam removal in the humid northeast United States [Merrimack Village Dam, New Hampshire; Pearson et al., 2011]. The watershed sizes are the same order of magnitude (102 km2), and at both sites relatively low head dams were removed (~ 3-4 m) and ~60,000 m3 of dominantly sand-sized sediments discharged to low-gradient reaches immediately downstream. Analyzing four years of repeat morphometry and bed sediment grain size surveys at the Simkins site on the Patapsco River, as well as continuous discharge and suspended sediment gaging data, we clearly document a two-phase response in the upstream reach as described by Pearson et al. [2011] for their New Hampshire site and noted at other dam removals [e.g., Major et al., 2012]. In the early phase, approximately 50% of the impounded sediment mass was eroded rapidly over a period of about three months when flows were very modest (Figure 1). After incision to base level and channel widening in the former impoundment, a second phase began when further erosion depended on floods large enough to access impounded sediments more distant from the newly-formed channel. We also found important differences in the upstream responses at the Maryland and New Hampshire sites that appear to be related to valley type (non-glaciated versus glaciated, respectively). Response variances immediately downstream between the

  13. Neutrino energy loss rate in a stellar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, S.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Picardi, I.; Pisanti, O.

    2003-01-01

    We review the purely leptonic neutrino emission processes, contributing to the energy loss rate of the stellar plasma. We perform a complete analysis up to the first order in the electromagnetic coupling constant. In particular the radiative electromagnetic corrections, at order α, to the process e + e - →νν-bar at finite density and temperature have been computed. This process gives one of the main contributions to the cooling of stellar interior in the late stages of star evolution. As a result of the analysis we find that the corrections affect the energy loss rate, computed at tree level, by a factor (-4-1)% in the temperature and density region where the pair annihilation is the most efficient cooling mechanism

  14. 75 FR 66057 - Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... (CSX Transp. II), 584 F.3d 1076 (DC Cir. 2009), the Board modified its simplified rail rate guidelines...- Benchmark approach for smaller rail rate disputes. The Three-Benchmark method compares a challenged rate of...: The RSAM and R/VC >180 benchmarks. See Rate Guidelines--Non-Coal Proceedings, (Rate Guidelines) 1 S.T...

  15. Fault on-off versus strain rate and earthquakes energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doglioni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the brittle-ductile transition (BDT controls the seismic cycle. In particular, the movements detected by space geodesy record the steady state deformation in the ductile lower crust, whereas the stick-slip behavior of the brittle upper crust is constrained by its larger friction. GPS data allow analyzing the strain rate along active plate boundaries. In all tectonic settings, we propose that earthquakes primarily occur along active fault segments characterized by relative minima of strain rate, segments which are locked or slowly creeping. We discuss regional examples where large earthquakes happened in areas of relative low strain rate. Regardless the tectonic style, the interseismic stress and strain pattern inverts during the coseismic stage. Where a dilated band formed during the interseismic stage, this will be shortened at the coseismic stage, and vice-versa what was previously shortened, it will be dilated. The interseismic energy accumulation and the coseismic expenditure rather depend on the tectonic setting (extensional, contractional, or strike-slip. The gravitational potential energy dominates along normal faults, whereas the elastic energy prevails for thrust earthquakes and performs work against the gravity force. The energy budget in strike-slip tectonic setting is also primarily due elastic energy. Therefore, precursors may be different as a function of the tectonic setting. In this model, with a given displacement, the magnitude of an earthquake results from the coseismic slip of the deformed volume above the BDT rather than only on the fault length, and it also depends on the fault kinematics.

  16. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A.; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter α that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential. (orig.)

  17. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.

  18. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  19. Groundwater flow analysis and dose rate estimates from releases to wells at a coastal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-09-01

    {sup 3}/a. Due to the placing of the shallow wells in the discharge areas, the dilution calculated in the shallow well was shown to be close to that calculated in the deep well. In conservative considerations the value around 90 000 m{sup 3}/a can be regarded as a representative expectation value of the effective dilution of the well. This dilution volume value was also suggested by the most realistic modelling approach of the groundwater flow analysis. It was used as basis when calculating the nuclide specific dose conversion factors (DCF's) for the drinking water pathway. The DCF's were calculated for unit release rates (1 Bq/a) and the assumed water consumption rate was 2 litres/day. (orig.)

  20. Proton-proton reaction rates at extreme energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Motohiko

    1993-01-01

    Results on proton-antiproton reaction rates (total cross-section) at collision energies of 1.8 TeV from experiments at Fermilab have suggested a lower rate of increase with energy compared to the extrapolation based on results previously obtained at CERN's proton-antiproton collider (CERN Courier, October 1991). Now an independent estimate of the values for the proton-proton total cross-section for collision energies from 5 to 30 TeV has been provided by the analysis of cosmic ray shower data collected over ten years at the Akeno Observatory operated by the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of University of Tokyo. These results are based on the inelastic cross-section for collisions of cosmic ray protons with air nuclei at energies in the range10 16-18 eV. A new extensive air shower experiment was started at Akeno, 150 km west of Tokyo, in 1979 with a large array of detectors, both on the ground and under a 1-metre concrete absorber. This measured the total numbers of electrons and muons of energies above 1GeV for individual showers with much better accuracy than before. Data collection was almost continuous for ten years without any change in the triggering criteria for showers above10 16 eV. The mean free path for proton-air nuclei collisions has been determined from the zenith angle of the observed frequency of air showers which have the same effective path length for development in the atmosphere and the same primary energy

  1. Dividing by four CO2 releases due to energy: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Negatep scenario aims at dividing CO 2 releases by 4, which means, more or less, dividing the consumption of fossil energies by the same factor, in order to comply with the French 2005 energy act. After a description of the situation in 2006, of trends, and a recall of the objectives defined by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' regarding energy savings and renewable energies, the authors show that reaching such a reduction requires to: decrease to nearly zero oil and gas in the residential and tertiary sectors, reduce significantly the use of oil in the transport sector, reduce significantly the use of fossil fuels in industry, increase massively the share of electricity in the energy mix, maintain the share of nuclear in the electricity generation and, as long as the storage of electricity is not developed, limit the share of intermittent energies to a level compatible with that of gas turbines. The study shows that the proposed measures can fulfill the objectives for 2020 proposed by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'

  2. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  3. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  4. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Brook, B.W. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart TAS (Australia); Meneley, D.A. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Misak, J. [UJV-Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Blees, T. [Science Council for Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Van Erp, J.B. [Illinois Commission on Atomic Energy, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  5. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Brook, B.W.; Meneley, D.A.; Misak, J.; Blees, T.; Van Erp, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  6. Thermal ramp rate effects on mixed-oxide fuel swelling/gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinman, C.A.; Randklev, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    Macroscopic swelling behavior of PNL-10 was compared to that of PNL-2 fuel and it was found that the swelling-threshold behavior is similar for similar thermal conditions. Transient fission gas release for the PNL-10 fuel is very similar to that observed for the PNL-2 fuel for similar thermal conditions

  7. Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney. Postabsorptive rates and responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumvoll, M; Chintalapudi, U; Perriello, G; Welle, S; Gutierrez, O; Gerich, J

    1995-11-01

    Despite ample evidence that the kidney can both produce and use appreciable amounts of glucose, the human kidney is generally regarded as playing a minor role in glucose homeostasis. This view is based on measurements of arteriorenal vein glucose concentrations indicating little or no net release of glucose. However, inferences from net balance measurements do not take into consideration the simultaneous release and uptake of glucose by the kidney. Therefore, to assess the contribution of release and uptake of glucose by the human kidney to overall entry and removal of plasma glucose, we used a combination of balance and isotope techniques to measure renal glucose net balance, fractional extraction, uptake and release as well as overall plasma glucose appearance and disposal in 10 normal volunteers under basal postabsorptive conditions and during a 3-h epinephrine infusion. In the basal postabsorptive state, there was small but significant net output of glucose by the kidney (66 +/- 22 mumol.min-1, P = 0.016). However, since renal glucose fractional extraction averaged 2.9 +/- 0.3%, there was considerable renal glucose uptake (2.3 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) which accounted for 20.2 +/- 1.7% of systemic glucose disposal (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Renal glucose release (3.2 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) accounted for 27.8 +/- 2.1% of systemic glucose appearance (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Epinephrine infusion, which increased plasma epinephrine to levels observed during hypoglycemia (3722 +/- 453 pmol/liter) increased renal glucose release nearly twofold (5.2 +/- 0.5 vs 2.8 +/- 0.1 mol.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.01) so that at the end of the infusion, renal glucose release accounted for 40.3 +/- 5.5% of systemic glucose appearance and essentially all of the increase in systemic glucose appearance. These observations suggest an important role for the human kidney in glucose homeostasis.

  8. Energy density and rate limitations in structural composite supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. F.; Gienger, E.; Wetzel, E. D.; Xu, K.

    2012-06-01

    The weight and volume of conventional energy storage technologies greatly limits their performance in mobile platforms. Traditional research efforts target improvements in energy density to reduce device size and mass. Enabling a device to perform additional functions, such as bearing mechanical load, is an alternative approach as long as the total mass efficiency exceeds that of the individual materials it replaces. Our research focuses on structural composites that function as batteries and supercapacitors. These multifunctional devices could be used to replace conventional structural components, such as vehicle frame elements, to provide significant system-level weight reductions and extend mission times. Our approach is to design structural properties directly into the electrolyte and electrode materials. Solid polymer electrolyte materials bind the system and transfer load to the fibers while conducting ions between the electrodes. Carbon fiber electrodes provide a route towards optimizing both energy storage and load-bearing capabilities, and may also obviate the need for a separate current collector. The components are being integrated using scalable, cost-effective composite processing techniques that are amenable to complex part shapes. Practical considerations of energy density and rate behavior are described here as they relate to materials used. Our results highlight the viability as well as the challenges of this multifunctional approach towards energy storage.

  9. Analysis of Wigner energy release process in graphite stack of shut-down uranium-graphite reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bespala, E. V.; Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Data, which finding during thermal differential analysis of sampled irradiated graphite are presented. Results of computational modeling of Winger energy release process from irradiated graphite staking are demonstrated. It's shown, that spontaneous combustion of graphite possible only in adiabatic case.

  10. Linear free energy correlations for fission product release from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, David G; Schwantes, Jon M

    2015-03-03

    This paper extends the preliminary linear free energy correlations for radionuclide release performed by Schwantes et al., following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Through evaluations of the molar fractionations of radionuclides deposited in the soil relative to modeled radionuclide inventories, we confirm the initial source of the radionuclides to the environment to be from active reactors rather than the spent fuel pool. Linear correlations of the form In χ = −α ((ΔGrxn°(TC))/(RTC)) + β were obtained between the deposited concentrations, and the reduction potentials of the fission product oxide species using multiple reduction schemes to calculate ΔG°rxn (TC). These models allowed an estimate of the upper bound for the reactor temperatures of TC between 2015 and 2060 K, providing insight into the limiting factors to vaporization and release of fission products during the reactor accident. Estimates of the release of medium-lived fission products 90Sr, 121mSn, 147Pm, 144Ce, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, and 151Sm through atmospheric venting during the first month following the accident were obtained, indicating that large quantities of 90Sr and radioactive lanthanides were likely to remain in the damaged reactor cores.

  11. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  12. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, Eric

    2003-07-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

  13. Detection of low-level environmental exposure rates due to noble gas releases from the Muehleberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Volkle, H.; Pretre, S.

    1980-01-01

    The increase of radiation doses in the vicinity of the Swiss Nuclear Power Stations due to airborne releases is generally expected to be below one mrem/year (about one percent of the natural radiation dose). To prove this expected rate, long term measurements with pressure ionization chambers in the vicinity of the Muhleberg plant (BWR) were conducted. Two of these chambers were installed at places where the greatest dose rates from the noble gas plumes were expected in the two prevailing wind directions. The local dose rates were continuously registered on magnetic tape to allow minicomputer evaluation. After the fuel change in the summer of 1976 the noble gas releases from Muhleberg dropped considerably. From that time the noble gas releases consisted of a very low continuous component and some rare short-time spike compoments resulting from turbine and reactor trips. The dose due to the low continuous component was determined by correlating the dose rates at the measuring points with the release measure--ments at the stack and with weather conditions, and by subtracting the natural background. The short noble gas spikes lasted from minutes to some hours and caused small dose rate increases which were easily measured with the ionization chambers, and usually amounted to doses of some microroentgens. By further correlating these dose peaks with wind direction and stack emission measurements, determination of short time atmospheric dilution factors for existing weather situations became possible. By this process, the very low annual environmental doses in the range of 1 mrem per year were determined. (author)

  14. DEM code-based modeling of energy accumulation and release in structurally heterogeneous rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.

    2015-10-01

    Based on discrete element method, the authors model loading of a physical specimen to describe its capacity to accumulate and release elastic energy. The specimen is modeled as a packing of particles with viscoelastic coupling and friction. The external elastic boundary of the packing is represented by particles connected by elastic springs. The latter means introduction of an additional special potential of interaction between the boundary particles, that exercises effect even when there is no direct contact between the particles. On the whole, the model specimen represents an element of a medium capable of accumulation of deformation energy in the form of internal stresses. The data of the numerical modeling of the physical specimen compression and the laboratory testing results show good qualitative consistency.

  15. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  16. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  17. Improvement in energy release properties of boron-based propellant by oxidant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jzliu@zju.edu.cn; Chen, Binghong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, KClO{sub 4} and HMX coated B were used to prepare propellant samples. • FTIR, XRD and SEM were used for the microstructure analysis of the prepared B. • Thermal oxidation and combustion characteristics of the propellants were studied. • HMX coating was the most beneficial to the energy release of the samples. - Abstract: The energy release properties of a propellant can be improved by coating boron (B) particles with oxidants. In the study, B was coated with four different oxidants, namely, NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, LiClO{sub 4}, and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), and the corresponding propellant samples were prepared. First, the structural and morphological analyses of the pretreated B were carried out. Then, the thermal analysis and laser ignition experiments of the propellant samples were carried out. Coating with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} showed a better performance than mechanical mixing with the same component. Coating with KNO{sub 3} efficiently improved the ignition characteristics of the samples. Coating with LiClO{sub 4} was the most beneficial in reducing the degree of difficulty of B oxidation. Coating with HMX was the most beneficial in the heat release of the samples. The KNO{sub 3}-coated sample had a very high combustion intensity in the beginning, but then it rapidly became weak. Large amounts of sparks were ejected during the combustion of the LiClO{sub 4}-coated sample. The HMX-coated sample had the longest self-sustaining combustion time (4332 ms) and the highest average combustion temperature (1163.92 °C).

  18. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  19. Exploration of Energy Metabolism in the Mouse Using Indirect Calorimetry: Measurement of Daily Energy Expenditure (DEE) and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Reitmeir, Peter; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-09-01

    Current comprehensive mouse metabolic phenotyping involves studying energy balance in cohorts of mice via indirect calorimetry, which determines heat release from changes in respiratory air composition. Here, we describe the measurement of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mice. These well-defined metabolic descriptors serve as meaningful first-line read-outs for metabolic phenotyping and should be reported when exploring energy expenditure in mice. For further guidance, the issue of appropriate sample sizes and the frequency of sampling of metabolic measurements is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Selective attenuation of norepinephrine release and stress-induced heart rate increase by partial adenosine A1 agonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Bott-Flügel

    Full Text Available The release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE is modulated by presynaptic adenosine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of a partial activation of this feedback mechanism. We hypothesized that partial agonism would have differential effects on NE release in isolated hearts as well as on heart rate in vivo depending on the genetic background and baseline sympathetic activity. In isolated perfused hearts of Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, NE release was induced by electrical stimulation under control conditions (S1, and with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M (30 µg/l, 6 · 10(-7 M (300 µg/l or 2-chloro-N(6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA 10(-6 M (S2. Under control conditions (S1, NE release was significantly higher in SHR hearts compared to Wistar (766+/-87 pmol/g vs. 173+/-18 pmol/g, p<0.01. Capadenoson led to a concentration-dependent decrease of the stimulation-induced NE release in SHR (S2/S1  =  0.90 ± 0.08 with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M, 0.54 ± 0.02 with 6 · 10(-7 M, but not in Wistar hearts (S2/S1  =  1.05 ± 0.12 with 6 · 10(-8 M, 1.03 ± 0.09 with 6 · 10(-7 M. CCPA reduced NE release to a similar degree in hearts from both strains. In vivo capadenoson did not alter resting heart rate in Wistar rats or SHR. Restraint stress induced a significantly greater increase of heart rate in SHR than in Wistar rats. Capadenoson blunted this stress-induced tachycardia by 45% in SHR, but not in Wistar rats. Using a [(35S]GTPγS assay we demonstrated that capadenoson is a partial agonist compared to the full agonist CCPA (74+/-2% A(1-receptor stimulation. These results suggest that partial adenosine A(1-agonism dampens stress-induced tachycardia selectively in rats susceptible to strong increases in sympathetic activity, most likely due to a presynaptic attenuation of NE release.

  1. Discount rates for social cost benefit analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question that this paper addresses is how decisions affecting many citizens should be made when there are uncertain outcomes in the distant future. By distant is meant beyond the lifetimes of individuals alive now. Thus the proposed methodology would apply to many decisions in nuclear energy from the investment in new energy sources such as fusion, to the long-term storage of wastes. Decisions of this type have usually been analyzed using cost benefit analysis. In this case, future outcomes are discounted at the so-called social discount rate. By comparison, the proposed methodology uses information on individual citizen's preferences and willingness to pay to make a future generation better off. The connection between the proposed approach and more traditional discounting techniques is examined using the government decision about storing helium for the future as an example

  2. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  3. Effect of rearing diet on the infection rate in flies released for the control of tsetse populations by sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, I.

    1990-01-01

    In areas where sleeping sickness is endemic, it is the practice of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes to give sterilized males a bloodmeal before release into the wild in order to reduce the risk of these released flies acting as disease vectors. This strategy has been adopted because of experimental evidence which showed that it was essential to infect flies at their first feed to establish a Tripanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b rhodesiense infection in tsetse flies. The aim of the work was to test artificial tsetse diets produced in the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf in order to determine whether they were as effective as whole blood in inhibiting T. brucei sensu lato (sl) infections in flies. Seven artificial diets were tested with T.b. rhodesiense; Glossina morsitans morsitans males were fed one meal of the diet and then starved for 3 days before the infective feed. None of these diets significantly altered the infection rate of the treated flies and the seven groups produced statistically homogeneous results, with a mean midgut rate of 16% (control flies fed pig blood: 17%). Flies infected as tenerals with the same trypanosome stock produced midgut rates of 61%. Three of the diets were also tested with a T. congolense stock. There were no significant differences between flies fed artificial (mean midgut infection rate: 15%) and whole blood diets (19%). G. m. morsitans infected as tenerals with this trypanosome stock produced midgut rates of 66%. As with T. brucei sl infections, teneral flies were far more likely to develop a T. congolense infection than fed flies; this result suggests that all the tsetse flies used in SIT programmes should be fed before release in order to reduce the risk both to man and his livestock. Artificial diets are as effective as whole blood in inhibiting trypanosome infections. The effect of bloodmeal on the fly infection rates is discussed in relation to lectin production in fed flies. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the world’s population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

  5. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  6. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  7. Pilot States Program report: Home energy ratings systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.

    2000-04-04

    This report covers the accomplishments of the home energy ratings systems/energy-efficient mortgages (HERS/EEMs) pilot states from 1993 through 1998, including such indicators as funding, ratings and EEMs achieved, active raters, and training and marketing activities. A brief description of each HERS program's evolution is included, as well as their directors' views of the programs' future prospects. Finally, an analysis is provided of successful HERS program characteristics and factors that appear to contribute to HERS program success.

  8. A comparison of measured radionuclide release rates from Three Mile Island Unit-2 core debris for different oxygen chemical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Ryan, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and radiochemical analyses of reactor coolant samples taken during defueling of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) reactor provide relevant data to assist in understanding the solution chemistry of the radionuclides retained within the TMI-2 reactor coolant system. Hydrogen peroxide was added to various plant systems to provide disinfection for microbial contamination and has provided the opportunity to observe radionuclide release under different oxygen chemical potentials. A comparison of the radionuclide release rates with and without hydrogen peroxide has been made for these separate but related cases, i.e., the fuel transfer canal and connecting spent-fuel pool A with the TMI-2 reactor plenum in the fuel transfer canal, core debris grab sample laboratory experiments, and the reactor vessel fluid and associated core debris. Correlation and comparison of these data indicate a physical parameter dependence (surface-to-volume ratio) affecting all radionuclide release; however, selected radionuclides also demonstrate a chemical dependence release under the different oxygen chemical potentials. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of reactor coolant samples taken during defueling of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) reactor provide relevant data to assist in understanding the solution chemistry of the radionuclides retained within the TMI-2 reactor coolant system

  9. Mixing rates of particle systems with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigo, A; Khanin, K; Szász, D

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics is the derivation of macroscopic transport equations in the hydrodynamic limit. The rigorous study of such limits requires detailed information about rates of convergence to equilibrium for finite sized systems. In this paper, we consider the finite lattice {1, 2, …, N}, with an energy x i ∈ (0, ∞) associated with each site. The energies evolve according to a Markov jump process with nearest neighbour interaction such that the total energy is preserved. We prove that for an entire class of such models the spectral gap of the generator of the Markov process scales as O(N -2 ). Furthermore, we provide a complete classification of reversible stationary distributions of product type. We demonstrate that our results apply to models similar to the billiard lattice model considered in Gaspard and Gilbert (2009 J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. 2009 24), and hence provide a first step in the derivation of a macroscopic heat equation for a microscopic stochastic evolution of mechanical origin. (paper)

  10. Calculating economy-wide energy intensity decline rate: The role of sectoral output and energy shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, Soham; Green, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We specify formulas for computing the rate of decline in economy-wide energy intensity by aggregating its two determinants-technical efficiency improvements in the various sectors of the economy, and shifts in economic activity among these sectors. The formulas incorporate the interdependence between sectoral shares, and establish a one-to-one relation between sectoral output and energy shares. This helps to eliminate future energy intensity decline scenarios which involve implausible values of either sectoral share. An illustrative application of the formulas is provided, using within-sector efficiency improvement estimates suggested by Lightfoot-Green and Harvey

  11. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  12. Maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere in a milk producing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, P M

    1963-01-01

    A method is given for calculating, for design purposes, the maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere with respect to milk contamination. In the absence of authoritative advice from the Medical Research Council, provisional working levels for the concentration of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 in milk are derived, and details are given of the agricultural assumptions involved in the calculation of the relationship between the amount of the nuclide deposited on grassland and that to be found in milk. The agricultural and meteorological conditions assumed are applicable as an annual average to England and Wales. The results (in mc/day) for phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 for a number of stack heights and distances are shown graphically; typical values, quoted in a table, include 20 mc/day of phosphorus-32 and 30 mc/day of sulfur-35 as the maximum permissible continuous release rates with respect to ground level releases at a distance of 200 metres from pastureland.

  13. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  14. Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic energy release and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations (δB/B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their energy distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker & Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path (λsc) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.

  15. Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic energy release and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations ( δB / B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their energy distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck equation numerically, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker and Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path ( λ {sub sc}) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.

  16. Forms and rates of release of Cs-137 in 2 peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.; Howe, M.T.; Hemingway, J.D.; Goulding, K.W.T.; Howard, B.J.; IACR Rothamsted, Harpenden; Liverpool Univ.; Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands

    1996-01-01

    Cation exchange resin saturated with H+ and Ca2+ was used to extract Cs-137 from peat soil at two sites in Britain affected by Cs-137 deposition following the Chernobyl accident. The technique identified three classes of Cs-137, similar to those observed for K+ in soils: ''Fast'', ''Intermediate'' and ''Slow''. These classes are probably related to the selectivity for Cs-137 of the cation exchange sites on the organic matter and the clay minerals, and to the structure of the soil. With one exception, most Cs-137 was in the ''Slow'' form and was only very slowly released to the resins, if at all. However, there was enough Cs-137 in the ''Fast'' and ''Intermediate'' forms to contaminate pasture and thus grazing animals for some years. Based on the resin technique, it is estimated that contamination will persist for several decades in uplands contaminated at these activity concentrations. (Author)

  17. An analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Chung, Hae Yong; Lee, Sang Jong

    1996-07-01

    An analysis methodology for the hot leg break mass and energy release is developed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A analysis is suggested. For the post-blowdown period a new computer model named COMET is developed. Differently from previous post-blowdown analysis model FLOOD3, COMET is capable of analyzing both cold leg and hot leg break cases. The cold leg break model is essentially same as that of FLOOD3 with some improvements. The analysis results by the newly proposed hot leg break model in the COMET is in the same trend as those observed in scaled-down integral experiment. And the analyses results for the UCN 3 and 4 by COMET are qualitatively and quantitatively in good agreement with those predicted by best-estimate analysis by using RELAP5/MOD3. Therefore, the COMET code is validated and can be used for the licensing analysis. 6 tabs., 82 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  18. Detection of cold gas releases in space via low energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-eV hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper the authors examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, they examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then they review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of angstrom) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (> 10 10 cm -2 s -1 ) UV background to which the low energy detectors are sensitive. They conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made releases. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral releases, in the space environment

  19. On the rate determining step in fission gas release from high burn-up water reactor fuel during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Mogensen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radial distribution of grain boundary gas in a PWR and a BWR fuel is reported. The measurements were made using a new approach involving X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe microanalysis. In both fuels the concentration of grain boundary gas was much higher than hitherto suspected. The gas was mainly contained in the bubble/pore structure. The factors that determined the fraction of gas released from the grains and the level of gas retention on the grain boundaries are identified and discussed. The variables involved are the local fuel stoichiometry, the amount of open porosity, the magnitude of the local compressive hydrostatic stress and the interaction of metallic precipitates with gas bubbles on the grain faces. It is concluded that under transient conditions the interlinkage of gas bubbles on the grain faces and the subsequent formation of grain edge tunnels is the rate determining step for gas release; at least when high burn-up fuel is involved. (orig.)

  20. Kinetic coupling of phosphate release, force generation and rate-limiting steps in the cross-bridge cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Robert; Tesi, Chiara

    2017-08-01

    A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between P i release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [P i ]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-P i discovered that rapid increases in [P i ] induce fast force decays dependent on final [P i ] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to P i release. However, this hypothesis was called into question by studies on skeletal and cardiac myofibrils subjected to P i jumps in both directions (increases and decreases in [P i ]) which revealed that rapid decreases in [P i ] trigger force rises with slow kinetics, similar to those of calcium-induced force development and mechanically-induced force redevelopment at the same [P i ]. A possible explanation for this discrepancy came from imaging of individual sarcomeres in cardiac myofibrils, showing that the fast force decay upon increase in [P i ] results from so-called sarcomere 'give'. The slow force rise upon decrease in [P i ] was found to better reflect overall sarcomeres cross-bridge kinetics and its [P i ] dependence, suggesting that the force generation coupled to P i release cannot be separated from the rate-limiting transition. The reasons for the different conclusions achieved in fibre and myofibril studies are re-examined as the recent findings on cardiac myofibrils have fundamental consequences for the coupling between P i release, rate-limiting steps and force generation. The implications from P i -induced force kinetics of myofibrils are discussed in combination with historical and recent models of the cross-bridge cycle.

  1. National status report: Home energy rating systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.

    2000-04-27

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 included several provisions promoting the use of HERS and EEMs, which strengthened efforts to develop a national infrastructure for HERS and to promote the use of EEMs. This report documents HERS and EEMs activities since 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, mortgage lenders, and other organizations. Though the process of establishing HERS has faced some barriers, this report shows that, as of November 1999, home energy ratings were available in 47 states and the District of Columbia, which represents a significant increase from 1993 when home energy ratings were available in 17 states. Both national and state organizations have developed HERS and related residential energy-efficiency programs. The availability and use of EEMs has also increased significantly. The number of EEMs supported by the Federal Housing Administration has increased more than eight times in the last three years. More than $2.5 billion in federally supported EEMs have been issued to date. Several national lenders offer EEMs, and six states have state-specific EEM or loan programs. EEMs have been used to finance energy-efficient homes in every state.

  2. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2003-01-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin

  3. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin.

  4. Improving containment mass and energy releases for CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaSilva, H.C.; Choe, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    In order to obtain boundary conditions for RELAP5/MOD3 best estimate (BE) large break (LB) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) calculations, it is necessary to utilize a separate containment analysis code CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU, which in turn accepts mass and energy releases from the RELAP5/MOD3 calculation. When these boundary conditions are obtained, they are observed to be significantly lower than those reported in FSAR containment analyses. This motivates the present study, where RELAP5/MOD3 mass and energy releases are generated using the same assumptions listed in the FSAR containment calculations. Then CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU pressures and temperatures calculated with both sets of mass and energy releases are compared. It is seen that those obtained with the RELAP5/MOD3 input are still significantly lower, indicating a level of conservatism in the FSAR mass and energy releases that is even above that explicitly listed and also incorporated into the RELAP5/MOD3 calculation. An important conclusion from this finding is that Environmental Qualification (EQ) issues requiring containment re-analyses are likely to be easily resolved if new mass and energy releases are calculated with state-of-the-art LOCA codes modeling the entire reactor coolant system, even when conservative assumptions are incorporated

  5. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, John [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Molecular and Radiological Biosciences Building, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We propose a radiation detection system which generates its own discrete sampling distribution based on past measurements of background. The advantage to this approach is that it can take into account variations in background with respect to time, location, energy spectra, detector-specific characteristics (i.e. different efficiencies at different count rates and energies), etc. This would therefore be a 'machine learning' approach, in which the algorithm updates and improves its characterization of background over time. The system would have a 'learning mode,' in which it measures and analyzes background count rates, and a 'detection mode,' in which it compares measurements from an unknown source against its unique background distribution. By characterizing and accounting for variations in the background, general purpose radiation detectors can be improved with little or no increase in cost. The statistical and computational techniques to perform this kind of analysis have already been developed. The necessary signal analysis can be accomplished using existing Bayesian algorithms which account for multiple channels, multiple detectors, and multiple time intervals. Furthermore, Bayesian machine-learning techniques have already been developed which, with trivial modifications, can generate appropriate decision thresholds based on the comparison of new measurements against a nonparametric sampling distribution. (authors)

  6. Variationally Optimized Free-Energy Flooding for Rate Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, James; Valsson, Omar; Tiwary, Pratyush; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to obtain kinetic properties of infrequent events from molecular dynamics simulation. The procedure employs a recently introduced variational approach [Valsson and Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 090601 (2014)] to construct a bias potential as a function of several collective variables that is designed to flood the associated free energy surface up to a predefined level. The resulting bias potential effectively accelerates transitions between metastable free energy minima while ensuring bias-free transition states, thus allowing accurate kinetic rates to be obtained. We test the method on a few illustrative systems for which we obtain an order of magnitude improvement in efficiency relative to previous approaches and several orders of magnitude relative to unbiased molecular dynamics. We expect an even larger improvement in more complex systems. This and the ability of the variational approach to deal efficiently with a large number of collective variables will greatly enhance the scope of these calculations. This work is a vindication of the potential that the variational principle has if applied in innovative ways.

  7. Impacts of external convection on release rates in metal hydride storage tanks. Paper no. IGEC-1-080

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, B.; Rowe, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Ho, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversible metal hydrides can be used to store hydrogen at relatively low pressures, with very high volumetric density. The rate hydrogen can be drawn from a given tank is strongly influenced by the rate heat can be transferred to the reaction zone. Because of this, enhancing and controlling heat transfer is a key area of research in the development of metal hydride storage tanks. In this work, the impacts of external convection resistance on hydrogen release rates are examined. A one-dimensional resistive analysis determines the thermal resistances in the system based on one case where no external heat transfer enhancements are used, and a second case where external fins are used. A two-dimensional, transient model, developed in FEMLAB, is used to determine the impact of the external fins on the mass flow rate of hydrogen in more detail. For the particular metal hydride alloy (LaNi 4.8 Sn 0.2 ) and tank geometry studied, it was found that the fins have a large impact on the hydrogen flow rate during the initial stages of desorption. The flow rate with no fins is only 20% of the flow rate with fins for a full tank, 57% when the tank is 33% full, and 74% when the tank is 5% full. As the reaction proceeds, the resistance of the metal hydride alloy within the tank increases and becomes dominant. Therefore, the impact of the fins becomes less significant as the tank empties. (author)

  8. Improvement of energy expenditure prediction from heart rate during running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Keyne; Borne, Rachel; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chapelot, Didier; Pichon, Aurélien; Cornolo, Jérémy; Brugniaux, Julien Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to develop new equations that predict exercise-induced energy expenditure (EE) more accurately than previous ones during running by including new parameters as fitness level, body composition and/or running intensity in addition to heart rate (HR). Original equations predicting EE were created from data obtained during three running intensities (25%, 50% and 70% of HR reserve) performed by 50 subjects. Five equations were conserved according to their accuracy assessed from error rates, interchangeability and correlations analyses: one containing only basic parameters, two containing VO 2max  or speed at VO 2max  and two including running speed with or without HR. Equations accuracy was further tested in an independent sample during a 40 min validation test at 50% of HR reserve. It appeared that: (1) the new basic equation was more accurate than pre-existing equations (R 2  0.809 versus. 0,737 respectively); (2) the prediction of EE was more accurate with the addition of VO 2max  (R 2  = 0.879); and (3) the equations containing running speed were the most accurate and were considered to have good agreement with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, EE estimation during running might be significantly improved by including running speed in the predictive models, a parameter readily available with treadmill or GPS. (paper)

  9. Reaction rate estimation of controlled-release antifouling paint binders: Rosin-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer Yebra, Diego; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Biofouling on ship hulls is prevented by the use of antifouling (A/F) paints. Typically, sea water soluble rosin or rosin-derivatives are used as the primary means of adjusting the polishing rate of the current chemically active self-polishing paint systems to a suitable value. Previous studies h...

  10. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  11. Rates of opioid dispensing and overdose after introduction of abuse-deterrent extended-release oxycodone and withdrawal of propoxyphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larochelle, Marc R; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wharam, J Frank

    2015-06-01

    In the second half of 2010, abuse-deterrent extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (OxyContin; Purdue Pharma) was introduced and propoxyphene was withdrawn from the US market. The effect of these pharmaceutical market changes on opioid dispensing and overdose rates is unknown. To evaluate the association between 2 temporally proximate changes in the opioid market and opioid dispensing and overdose rates. Claims from a large national US health insurer were analyzed, using an interrupted time series study design. Participants included an open cohort of 31.3 million commercially insured members aged 18 to 64 years between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012, with median follow-up of 20 months (last follow-up, December 31, 2012). Introduction of abuse-deterrent OxyContin (resistant to crushing or dissolving) on August 9, 2010, and market withdrawal of propoxyphene on November 19, 2010. Standardized opioid dispensing rates and prescription opioid and heroin overdose rates were the primary outcomes. We used segmented regression to analyze changes in outcomes from 30 quarters before to 8 quarters after the 2 interventions. Two years after the opioid market changes, total opioid dispensing decreased by 19% from the expected rate (absolute change, -32.2 mg morphine-equivalent dose per member per quarter [95% CI, -38.1 to -26.3]). By opioid subtype, the absolute change in dispensing by milligrams of morphine-equivalent dose per member per quarter at 2 years was -11.3 (95% CI, -12.4 to -10.1) for extended-release oxycodone, 3.26 (95% CI, 1.40 to 5.12) for other long-acting opioids, -8.19 (95% CI, -9.30 to -7.08) for propoxyphene, and -16.2 (95% CI, -18.8 to -13.5) for other immediate-release opioids. Two years after the market changes, the estimated overdose rate attributed to prescription opioids decreased by 20% (absolute change, -1.10 per 100,000 members per quarter [95% CI, -1.47 to -0.74]), but heroin overdose increased by 23% (absolute change, 0.26 per 100

  12. Saving money vs investing money: Do energy ratings influence consumer demand for energy efficient goods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzone, Luca A.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses economic barriers leading to the energy efficiency gap in the market for energy-using products by observing several million transactions in the UK over two years. The empirical exercise estimates AIDS models for refrigerators, washing machines, TVs, and light bulbs. Results indicate that market barriers are crucial in the demand for energy efficient options, and consumer response to changes in appliance prices, total expenditures, and energy prices depends on the possibility of behavioural adjustments in consumption. In contrast with the induced innovation hypothesis, current electricity prices can fail to induce innovation because of their short-term impact on disposable income, while consumers invest in energy efficiency when expecting electricity prices to rise in the future. - Highlights: • The article analyses economic barriers to energy efficiency in the UK. • Data refers to 2-year sales of refrigerators, washing machines, TV, and light bulbs. • Demand parameters by efficiency rating are estimated from four AIDS models. • Future (not present) electricity prices induce investments in energy efficiency. • Behavioural efficiency adjustments explain differences in market response

  13. Fission-product energy release for times following thermal-neutron fission of 235U between 2 and 14000 seconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Emery, J.F.; Love, T.A.; McConnell, J.W.; Northcutt, K.J.; Peelle, R.W.; Weaver, H.

    1977-10-01

    Fission-product decay energy-releases rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of 235 U. Samples of mass 1 to 10 μg were irradiated for 1 to 100 sec by use of the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 seconds. The data were obtained for beta and gamma rays separately as spectral distributions, N(E/sub γ/) vs E/sub γ/ and N(E/sub beta/) vs E/sub β/. For the gamma-ray data the spectra were obtained by using a NaI detector, while for the beta-ray data the spectra were obtained by using an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of modest resolution. These were integrated over E/sub γ/ and E/sub β/ to provide total yield and energy integrals as a function of time after fission. Results are low compared to the present 1973 ANS Decay-heat standard. A complete description of the experimental apparatus and data-reduction techniques is presented. The final integral data are given in tabular and graphical form and are compared with published data. 41 figures, 13 tables

  14. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1734-000] Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. Outpacing the Anthropocene: New Constraints for the Rate of Carbon Release at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is linked to benthic foraminiferal extinction and excursion taxa in planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Previous studies have used integrated bio-magneto-stratigraphies, cycle counting, and extraterrestrial 3He accumulation rates to produce a range of estimates for the duration of the initial onset of the PETM CIE between 750 years to 30 kyr. Durations for the total release time (onset to initiation of recovery) range from 45 to 95 kyr. Uncertainty in the timing of the onset of the PETM CIE prevents the identification of a causal mechanism, and hence understanding the biological responses. Recent work on the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay has unveiled the presence of regular couplets (~2 cm) expressed in multiple cores and exposures throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Specifically, the Millville and newly recovered Wilson Lake B cores contain 750 and 660 layers through the CIE, respectively. These couplets have corresponding oxygen stable isotope cycles, arguing for a climatic origin. Orbital and millennial periodicities are far too long to explain the ~750 layers identified in the Millville core. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for the observed δ18O amplitudes (~1‰, with some cycles up to 2‰) and layer counts. Seasonal freshwater input can also augment the cyclic oscillations in δ18O, but the majority of the variability is most plausibly ascribed to temperature. Wilson Lake B and Millville have total δ13C excursions of -5 and -4.5‰ respectively, as well as highly expanded sections of the PETM CIE. In the Millville core, high-resolution, bulk stable isotope records show a 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 12 layers across the PETM CIE onset. Concomitant with this δ13C decrease is a sharp drop in CaCO3. Decreases in both proxies require a large, sudden release of isotopically light carbon. The couplet chronology indicates

  16. Sill intrusion driven fluid flow and vent formation in volcanic basins: Modeling rates of volatile release and paleoclimate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the

  17. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST GALAXY METALLICITY AND GAMMA-RAY ENERGY RELEASE FOR LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo

    2010-01-01

    We compare the redshifts, host galaxy metallicities, and isotropic (E γ,iso ) and beaming-corrected (E γ ) gamma-ray energy release of 16 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z γ,iso , or E γ . These results are at odds with previous theoretical and observational predictions of an inverse correlation between gamma-ray energy release and host metallicity, as well as the standard predictions of metallicity-driven wind effects in stellar evolutionary models. We consider the implications that these results have for LGRB progenitor scenarios, and discuss our current understanding of the role that metallicity plays in the production of LGRBs.

  18. Smoke Movement in an Atrium with a Fire with Low Rate of Heat Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating...... the height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat...

  19. Optimization of detector size and scan rate for beta/gamma material release surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    DOE facilities are required to offer for sale to the public items of salvageable value when they are no longer required by the facilities. These items have to be surveyed to ensure radioactive contamination levels do not exceed the values listed in DOE Order 5400.5. Most facilities use portable contamination monitoring.equipment with probe areas between 20 and 100 cm 2 to check for fixed contamination. This procedure is very labor intensive and results in survey costs that often exceed the costs recovered from selling the items. A solution would be to use large area (> 100 cm 2 ) detectors to find and quantify contamination. Large area scintillation detectors that can be used for beta and alpha detection simultaneously are becoming available commercially. Combining these with a rate meter that can differentiate between alpha and beta events can result in a survey that takes considerably less time to do and will save a proportional amount of money in doing so. The use and limitations of this combination of detectors and rate meters will be discussed

  20. On the Impact of the Fuel Dissolution Rate Upon Near-Field Releases From Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of the impact of the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel on the release from a damaged canister in a KBS-3 repository are presented. The dissolution of the fuel matrix is a complex process and the dissolution rate is known to be one of the most important parameters in performance assessment models of the near-field of a geological repository. A variability study has been made to estimate the uncertainties associated with the process of fuel dissolution. The model considered in this work is a 3D model of a KBS-3 copper canister. The nuclide used in the calculations is Cs-135. Our results confirm that the fuel degradation rate is an important parameter, however there are considerable uncertainties associated with the data and the conceptual models. Consequently, in the interests of safety one should reduce, as far as possible, the uncertainties coupled to fuel degradation.

  1. Study of the ionization rate of the released deuterium in vacuum arc discharges with metal deuteride cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei-Xiang; Long, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Le; Dong, Pan; Li, Chen; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The ionization rate of the released deuterium from a metal deuteride cathode in vacuum arc discharges is investigated by both experiments and modeling analysis. Experimental results show that the deuterium ionization rate increases from 2% to 30% with the increasing arc current in the range of 2-100 A. Thus the full ionization assumption, as is widely used in arc plasma simulations, is not satisfied for the released deuterium at low discharge current. According to the modeling results, the neutral-to-ion conversion efficiency for the deuterium traveling across the cathodic spot region can be significantly less than one, due to the fast plasma expansion and rarefaction in the vacuum. In addition, the model also reveals that, unlike the metal atoms which are mainly ionized in the sheath region and flow back to the cathode, the deuterium ionization primarily occurs in the quasi-neutral region and moves towards the anode. Consequently, the cathodic sheath layer acts like a filter that increases the deuterium fraction beyond the sheath region.

  2. Simulation of short-term fluctuations in gamma exposure rate due to radioactive cloud released from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoichi; Shikata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Kenji; Ohba, Tachimori.

    1981-01-01

    The measured γ-exposure rate around nuclear power plants is due mainly to natural causes and radioactive clouds emitted from the plants. An exposure calculation method based on puff model has been already proposed to identify the plant contributions and to estimate values in response to short-term fluctuations of meteorological condition and the release rate. However, the calculation method by this model consumes a lot of computer time, since the calculation requires a three-dimensional integration of the distribution of the concentration from each puff. Hence, we propose a simplified method using approximate polynominal equations and interpolations. The computer time needed for the calculation with the simplified method is reduced to 1/30 of that required by the previous method. The calculation results by simplified method are compared with those by the previous method and with the measured exposure rate less natural background. The results of two different methods are in good agreement. The calculated exposure rate is within the range from half to twice as much as the measured exposure rate less background. (author)

  3. From quantum chemical formation free energies to evaporation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. Large efforts have been made during the past few years to identify which molecules are behind this phenomenon, but the actual birth mechanism of the particles is not yet well known. Quantum chemical calculations have proven to be a powerful tool to gain new insights into the very first steps of particle formation. In the present study we use formation free energies calculated by quantum chemical methods to estimate the evaporation rates of species from sulfuric acid clusters containing ammonia or dimethylamine. We have found that dimethylamine forms much more stable clusters with sulphuric acid than ammonia does. On the other hand, the existence of a very deep local minimum for clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules and two dimethylamine molecules hinders their growth to larger clusters. These results indicate that other compounds may be needed to make clusters grow to larger sizes (containing more than three sulfuric acid molecules.

  4. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  5. Phase changing nanocomposites for low temperature thermal energy storage and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop new elastomeric phase change materials (PCM for the thermal energy storage/release below room temperature. In particular, poly(cyclooctene (PCO/paraffin blends filled with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, were prepared by a melt compounding process. The microstructural, thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of the resulting materials were investigated. The microstructure of these materials was characterized by the presence of paraffin domains inside the PCO, and CNTs were located only inside the paraffin domains in forms of aggregated clusters. DSC tests evidenced the existence of two distinct crystallization peaks at –10 and at 6 °C, respectively associated to the paraffin and the PCO phases, indicating that both the polymeric constituents are thermally active below room temperature. Moreover, CNT addition did not substantially alter the melting/crystallization properties of the material. Noticeable improvements of the mechanical properties and of the electrical conductivity with respect to the neat PCO/paraffin blend could be obtained upon CNT addition, and also thermal conductivity/diffusivity values were considerably enhanced above the percolation threshold. Finite element modeling demonstrated the efficacy of the prepared nanocomposites for applications in the thermal range from –30 to 6 °C.

  6. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300 0 C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed

  7. The impact of ambient dose rate measuring network and precipitation radar system for detection of environmental radioactivity released by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, M; Stoehlker, U.

    2003-01-01

    For the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, the German measuring network of BfS consists of more than 2000 stations where the ambient gamma dose rate is continuously measured. This network is a helpful tool to detect and localise enhanced environmental contamination from artificial radionuclides. The threshold for early warning is so low, that already an additional dose rate contribution of 0,07 μGy/h is detectable. However, this threshold is frequently exceeded due to precipitation events caused by washout of natural activity in air. Therefore, the precipitation radar system of the German Weather Service provides valuable information on the problem, whether the increase of the ambient dose rate is due to natural or man-made events. In case of an accidental release, the data of this radar system show small area precipitation events and potential local hot spots not detected by the measuring network. For the phase of cloud passage, the ambient dose rate measuring network provides a reliable database for the evaluation of the current situation and its further development. It is possible to compare measured data for dose rate with derived intervention levels for countermeasures like ''sheltering''. Thus, critical regions can be identified and it is possible to verify implemented countermeasures. During and after this phase of cloud passage the measured data of the monitoring network help to adapt the results of the national decision support systems PARK and RODOS. Therefore, it is necessary to derive the actual additional contribution to the ambient dose rate. Map representations of measured dose rate are rapidly available and helpful to optimise measurement strategies of mobile systems and collection strategies for samples of agricultural products. (orig.)

  8. Estimating Energy Expenditure from Heart Rate in Older Adults: A Case for Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. Objective To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using diffe...

  9. Dark energy as consequence of release of cosmological nuclear binding-energy, and its further extension towards a new theory of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Pradhan, Anirudh; Gupta, Sushant

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively recent observations on Type-Ia supernovae and low density (Um = 0.3) measurement of matter including dark matter suggest that the present day universe consists mainly of repulsive-gravity type 'exotic matter' with negative-pressure often said 'dark energy' (Ux = O7). But the nature of dark energy is mysterious and its puzzling questions, such as why, how, where and when about the dark energy, are intriguing. In the present paper the authors attempt to answer these questions while making an effort to reveal the genesis of dark energy, and suggest that the cosmological nuclear binding energy liberated during primordial nucleo-synthesis remains trapped dormant for a long time and then is released free which manifests itself as dark energy in the universe. It is also explained why for dark energy the parameter w = -2/3. Noting that w = 1 for stiff matter and w = 1/3 for radiation; w = -2/3 is for dark energy because '- 1' is due to 'deficiency of stiff- nuclear-matter' and that this binding energy is ultimately released as 'radiation' contributing '+ 1/3', making w = -1+ 1/3 = -2/3. When dark energy is released free at Z = 80, w = -2/3. But as on present day at Z = 0 when radiation strength has diminished to ä ? 0, the parameter w = -1 + ä 1/3 = -1. This, thus almost solves the dark- energy mystery of negative pressure and repulsive-gravity. The proposed theory makes several estimates/predictions which agree reasonably well with the astrophysical constraints and observations. Though there are many candidate-theories, the proposed model of this paper presents an entirely new approach (cosmological nuclear energy) as a possible candidate for dark energy. The secret of acceleration of big-universe is hidden in the small-nucleus. (author)

  10. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe2O3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe2O3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe2O3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe2O3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  11. The Fukushima releases: an inverse modelling approach to assess the source term by using gamma dose rate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne; Didier, Damien; Tombette, Marilyne; Quélo, Denis; Winiarek, Victor; Bocquet, Marc

    2013-04-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident and more recently the Fukushima accident highlighted that the largest source of error on consequences assessment is the source term estimation including the time evolution of the release rate and its distribution between radioisotopes. Inverse modelling methods have proved to be efficient to assess the source term due to accidental situation (Gudiksen, 1989, Krysta and Bocquet, 2007, Stohl et al 2011, Winiarek et al 2012). These methods combine environmental measurements and atmospheric dispersion models. They have been recently applied to the Fukushima accident. Most existing approaches are designed to use air sampling measurements (Winiarek et al, 2012) and some of them use also deposition measurements (Stohl et al, 2012, Winiarek et al, 2013). During the Fukushima accident, such measurements are far less numerous and not as well distributed within Japan than the dose rate measurements. To efficiently document the evolution of the contamination, gamma dose rate measurements were numerous, well distributed within Japan and they offered a high temporal frequency. However, dose rate data are not as easy to use as air sampling measurements and until now they were not used in inverse modelling approach. Indeed, dose rate data results from all the gamma emitters present in the ground and in the atmosphere in the vicinity of the receptor. They do not allow one to determine the isotopic composition or to distinguish the plume contribution from wet deposition. The presented approach proposes a way to use dose rate measurement in inverse modeling approach without the need of a-priori information on emissions. The method proved to be efficient and reliable when applied on the Fukushima accident. The emissions for the 8 main isotopes Xe-133, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-137m, I-131, I-132 and Te-132 have been assessed. The Daiichi power plant events (such as ventings, explosions…) known to have caused atmospheric releases are well identified in

  12. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  13. Influence of the oil globule fraction on the release rate profiles from multiple W/O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie; Cansell, Maud; Placin, Frédéric; Monteil, Julien; Anton, Marc; Leal-Calderon, Fernando

    2010-06-15

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions were prepared and the kinetics of release of magnesium ions from the internal to the external water phase was investigated as a function of the formulation and the globule volume fraction. All the emulsions were formulated using the same surface-active species (polyglycerol polyricinoleate and sodium caseinate). Also, the internal droplet and oil globule diameters were almost identical for all the systems. Two types of W/O/W emulsions were prepared based either on a synthetic oil (miglyol) or on an edible oil (olive oil). The globule volume fraction varied from 11% to 72%. At constant temperature (T=25 degrees C) and irrespective of the oil type, the percentage of magnesium released was lowered by increasing the globule fraction. In all cases, magnesium leakage occurred without film rupturing (no coalescence). Thus, the experimental data were interpreted within the frame of a model based on diffusion. The rate of release was determined by the permeation coefficient of magnesium across the oil phase and by the binding (chelation) of magnesium by caseinate molecules. The data could be adequately fitted by considering a time-dependant permeation coefficient. The better retention of magnesium at high globule fractions could account for two distinct phenomena: (i) the reduction of the relative volume of the outer phase, and (ii) the attenuation of the permeation coefficient over time induced by interfacial magnesium binding, all the more important than the globule fraction increased. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: zhouxiang@njust.edu.cn; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  15. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2413-000] Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  16. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2167-000] Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2168-000] Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1750-000] Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  20. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1348-000] Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  1. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-28-000] Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  2. Deuterium isotope effects on toluene metabolism. Product release as a rate-limiting step in cytochrome P-450 catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, K.H.; Hanzlik, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats oxidize toluene to a mixture of benzyl alcohol plus o-, m- and p-cresol (ca. 69:31). Stepwise deuteration of the methyl group causes stepwise decreases in the yield of benzyl alcohol relative to cresols (ca. 24:76 for toluene-d3). For benzyl alcohol formation from toluene-d3 DV = 1.92 and D(V/K) = 3.53. Surprisingly, however, stepwise deuteration induces stepwise increases in total oxidation, giving rise to an inverse isotope effect overall (DV = 0.67 for toluene-d3). Throughout the series (i.e. d0, d1, d2, d3) the ratios of cresol isomers remain constant. These results are interpreted in terms of product release for benzyl alcohol being slower than release of cresols (or their epoxide precursors), and slow enough to be partially rate-limiting in turnover. Thus metabolic switching to cresol formation causes a net acceleration of turnover

  3. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe 2 O 3 unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe 2 O 3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  4. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hao, Haixia [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hui, Longfei [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Zhao, Fengqi [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hao, E-mail: fenghao98@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Fluorine and Nitrogen Chemicals, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  5. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  6. Physiochemical Characterization and Release Rate Studies of SolidDispersions of Ketoconazole with Pluronic F127 and PVP K-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Mohan, Chander; KanamSrinivasan Uma Shankar, Mara; Gulati, Monica

    2011-01-01

    In the present study solid dispersions of the antifungal drug Ketoconazole were prepared with Pluronic F-127 and PVP K-30 with an intention to improve its dissolution properties. Investigations of the properties of the dispersions were performed using release studies, Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The results obtained showed that the rate of dissolution of Ketoconazole was considerably improved when formulated in solid dispersions with PVP K-30 and Pluronic F-127 as compared with pure drug and physical mixtures. The results from DSC and XRD studies showed the transition of crystalline nature of drug to amorphous form, while FTIR studies demonstrated the absence of drug-carriers interaction. PMID:24250403

  7. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  8. Kinetic rate of iron release during artificial CO{sub 2} injection in a shallow aquifer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillard, J. [Earth Sciences Department UMR CNRS 5276 University of Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); INERIS French National Institut of Environmental and Industrial Risk Survey, Underground Risk Division,, Verneuil en Hallate (France); Gombert, P.; Toulhoat, P. [INERIS French National Institut of Environmental and Industrial Risk Survey, Underground Risk Division,, Verneuil en Hallate (France); Zuddas, P. [Earth Sciences Department UMR CNRS 5276 University of Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); University Pierre and Marie Curie Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    We performed an injection of CO{sub 2}-saturated water in a shallow aquifer following a 'push-pull' test protocol. A specific protocol was designed to measure in situ fluid pH and redox potential with careful sampling. We found increases of dissolved calcium, magnesium, alkalinity, iron and manganese, and other trace elements. Concentrations of Fe resulting from reactivity were estimated using measured concentrations of Fe corrected by a calculated fluid dynamics coefficient. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations suggested that ferri-hydrite Fe(OH){sub 3} dissolution is the main source of iron release. The kinetic rate of Fe(OH){sub 3} dissolution estimated by a surface protonation model indicates that the reaction order is two. Since laboratory experimental results show a reaction order of zero, we propose that the mechanism of ferri-hydrite dissolution proceeds by a more complex mechanism under natural conditions. (authors)

  9. A method for measurements of neutral fragments kinetic energies released to a specific dissociation threshold: optical translational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, A.; Frigon, C.; Larzilliere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The optical translational spectroscopy technique, based on the principles of fast ion beam laser spectroscopy (FIBLAS) and translational spectroscopy, allows the kinetic energies study of neutral fragments released through free dissociation of a neutral molecule. This method presents interesting features such as near-threshold energy measurements and selection of a specific dissociation limit. The fragments resulting from free dissociation (not induced) of neutral molecules, produced by charge exchange processes with a fast ion beam, are probed by laser radiation. Monitoring of the laser-induced fluorescence allows high-resolution spectra due to the kinematic compression of the velocity spread. Measurements of kinetic energies released to the second limit of dissociation H(1s) + H(2l) of H 2 are put forth and compared with those obtained by means of off-axis translational spectroscopy

  10. More Colleges Lock in Energy Rates to Avoid Volatile Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In July, when energy prices were sky-high and some pundits were predicting a continued rise, Charles Riordan, facilities director at Loyola College of Maryland, and his colleagues locked in a chunk of their electricity prices--about a quarter of the college's consumption--to cover the next two years. Now that energy prices have fallen, the…

  11. Exchange rate risks and their impact upon the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al-Zabidi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of international business in Slovakia brought not only the opening of markets and expansion of enterprise possibilities but also an increase in the competition and new risks. One of such risks is also the exchange rate risk. The business that realizes a financial transaction exceeding borders of the state or derives his buying or selling prices in Slovak crowns from the foreign currency, is subjected to the exchange rate risks. The exchange rate risks are caused by volatility of exchange courses of Slovak crowns related to foreign currencies. The progress of exchange rates can considerably influence a real result of a transaction negatively; therefore it is important for enterprises to identify possible risks resulting from changes in exchange rates, so they could react accordingly.The proposed article is aimed at the explanation of basic techniques of minimizing exchange rate risks with the use of financial tools available on the financial market.

  12. Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chuan Gang; Li, Ying Zhen; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of tunnel cross section together with ventilation velocity was studied. • Ceiling temperature varies clearly with tunnel height, but little with tunnel width. • Downstream temperature decreases with increasing tunnel dimensions. • HRR is an important factor that influences decay rate of excess gas temperature. • An equation considering both tunnel dimensions and HRR was developed. - Abstract: Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10 m long with varying width (0.3 m, 0.45 m and 0.6 m) and height (0.25 m and 0.4 m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100 MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  13. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Energy Dissipation Rate on Islets of Langerhans: Implications for Isolation and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Rustin M.; Godoy-Silva, Ruben; Papas, Klearchos K.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute physical stresses can occur in the procurement and isolation process and potentially can contribute to islet death or malfunction upon transplantation. A contractional flow device, previously used to subject suspended cells to well-defined hydrodynamic forces, has been modified and used to assess the vulnerability of porcine islets of Langerhans to hydrodynamic forces. The flow profiles and velocity gradients in this modified device were modeled using commercial CFD software and characterized, as in previous studies, with the scalar parameter, energy dissipation rate (EDR). Porcine islets were stressed in a single pass at various stress levels (i.e., values of EDR). Membrane integrity, oxygen uptake rate, caspase 3/7 activity, and insulin release were not affected by the levels of fluid stress tested up to an EDR of 2 × 103 W/m3. Visual observation of the stressed islets suggested that cells at the islet exterior were peeled away at EDR greater than 10,000 W/m3, however, this observation could not be confirmed using image analysis software, which determined the ratio of surface perimeter to total area. The result of this study suggests an upper limit in fluid stress to which islets can be subjected. Such upper limits assist in the design and operation of future islet processing equipment and processes. PMID:19191351

  15. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a 99m technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it

  16. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  18. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  19. Effect of detention basin release rates on flood flows - Application of a model to the Blackberry Creek Watershed in Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of stormwater detention basins with specified release rates are examined on the watershed scale with a Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) continuous-simulation model. Modeling procedures for specifying release rates from detention basins with orifice and weir discharge configurations are discussed in this report. To facilitate future detention modeling as a tool for watershed management, a chart relating watershed impervious area to detention volume is presented. The report also presents a case study of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Ill., a rapidly urbanizing area seeking to avoid future flood damages from increased urbanization, to illustrate the effects of various detention basin release rates on flood peaks and volumes and flood frequencies. The case study compares flows simulated with a 1996 land-use HSPF model to those simulated with four different 2020 projected land-use HSPF model scenarios - no detention, and detention basins with release rates of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 cubic feet per second per acre (ft3/s-acre), respectively. Results of the simulations for 15 locations, which included the downstream ends of all tributaries and various locations along the main stem, showed that a release rate of 0.10 ft3/s-acre, in general, can maintain postdevelopment 100-year peak-flood discharge at a similar magnitude to that of 1996 land-use conditions. Although the release rate is designed to reduce the 100-year peak flow, reduction of the 2-year peak flow is also achieved for a smaller proportion of the peak. Results also showed that the 0.10 ft3/s-acre release rate was less effective in watersheds with relatively high percentages of preexisting (1996) development than in watersheds with less preexisting development.

  20. Influence of ultrasonic energy on dispersion of aggregates and released amounts of organic matter and polyvalent cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Kleber, M.; Berhe, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aggregates play important roles in soil carbon storage and stabilization. Identification of scale-dependent mechanisms of soil aggregate formation and stability is necessary to predict and eventually manage the flow of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Application of ultrasonic energy is a common tool to disperse soil aggregates. In this study, we used ultra sonic energy (100 to 2000 J cm-3) to determine the amount of polyvalent cations and organic matter involved in aggregation processes in three arable and three forest soils that varied in soil mineral composition. To determine the amount of organic matter and cations released after application of different amount of ultrasonic energy, we removed the coarse fraction (>250 µm). The remaining residue (solid residue freeze dried before we analyzed the amounts of water-extracted organic carbon (OC), Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, and Mg in the filtrates. The extracted OM and solid residues were further characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our results show a linear increase in amount of dissolved OC with increasing amounts of ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3 indicating maximum dispersion of soil aggregates at this energy level independent from soil type or land use. In contrast to Mn, and Mg, the amounts of dissolved Ca, Fe, and Al increase with increasing ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3. At 1500 J cm-3, the absolute amounts of OC, Ca, Fe, and Al released were specific for each soil type, likely indicating differences in type of OM-mineral interactions involved in micro-scaled aggregation processes. The amounts of dissolved Fe, and Al released after an application of 1500 J cm-3 are not related to oxalate- and dithionite- extractable, or total Al content indicating less disintegration of pedogenic oxides or clay minerals due to high levels of ultrasonic energy.

  1. Strain energy storage and dissipation rate in active cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, A.; Ambrosi, D.; Turzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    When living cells are observed at rest on a flat substrate, they can typically exhibit a rounded (symmetric) or an elongated (polarized) shape. Although the cells are apparently at rest, the active stress generated by the molecular motors continuously stretches and drifts the actin network, the cytoskeleton of the cell. In this paper we theoretically compare the energy stored and dissipated in this active system in two geometric configurations of interest: symmetric and polarized. We find that the stored energy is larger for a radially symmetric cell at low activation regime, while the polar configuration has larger strain energy when the active stress is beyond a critical threshold. Conversely, the dissipation of energy in a symmetric cell is always larger than that of a nonsymmetric one. By a combination of symmetry arguments and competition between surface and bulk stress, we argue that radial symmetry is an energetically expensive metastable state that provides access to an infinite number of lower-energy states, the polarized configurations.

  2. Protocol for development of authorized release limits for concrete at U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.-Y.; Parker, F. L.; Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H.; Tripp, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for reuse. Current regulations allow the sites to release surface-contaminated materials if their radioactivity falls below certain levels and to possibly release materials with volumetric contamination or higher levels of surface contamination on a case-by-case basis. In all cases, an ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) analysis that evaluates the risks of releasing volumetrically contaminated concrete or concrete with higher levels of surface contamination is required as a basis for proposing and setting new release limits that allow for reuse of the concrete material. To evaluate the dose impacts of reusing radioactively contaminated material, the measured radiation levels (pCi/g or disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 cm 2 ) must be converted to the estimated dose (mrem/yr) that would be received by affected individuals. The dose depends on the amounts and types of isotopes present and the time, distance, and method of exposure (e.g., inhalation or external exposure). For each disposition alternative, the protocol provides a systematic method to evaluate the impact of the dose on the affected individuals. The cost impacts of reusing concrete also need to be evaluated. They too depend on the disposition alternative and the extent and type of contamination. The protocol provides a method to perform a detailed analysis of these factors and evaluate the dose and cost impacts for various disposition alternatives. Once the dose and cost impacts of the various alternatives have been estimated, the protocol outlines the steps required to propose new release standards that allow release and reuse of the concrete material

  3. Short-term Outcomes following Concussion in the NFL: An 11-year Retrospective Study of Player Release Rate and Financial Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem; Navarro, Sergio Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to assess the short-term outcomes among National Football League (NFL) players following concussion in terms of: (1) DNP protocol activation, (2) release rate at one and three years, and (3) mean salary reduction. A secondary goal of the study was to stratify the post-concussive release rate by franchise and player position. Methods: NFL player transaction records and publicly available weekly injury reports from August 2005 to January 2016 for NFL players were analyzed. All players immediately sustaining recorded concussions were evaluated for a change to inactive or do-not-play (DNP) status. The one-year and three-year release rate following concussion was defined as any player transitioning to inactivation, retirement, free agency, or any failure to return for a successive season on the same team’s active roster after one or three years from the initial concussion. Student’s t-test was used to compare release rates between non-concussed and concussed players at one and three years. Mean salary reduction per year following concussion was calculated using publicly available player contracts. Additionally, franchise-level and position-based analyses of the release rate were performed. Results: Of the total 5,451 NFL players retrospectively analyzed over the 11-year period, 373 sustained publicly reported concussions resulting in DNP protocol activation. The release rate of the post-concussive versus non-concussive player was 26% vs. 20% at 1 year (pfranchise to release an athlete following concussion within one and three years. Table 1 reports a position-based analysis in terms of concussion rate, mean salary reduction, and NFL career longevity. Conclusion: Our retrospective study demonstrates that NFL concussions resulting in DNP protocol activation leads to a statistically greater release rate among concussed NFL players than non-concussed players. Released players suffered reduction in year-over-year accumulated

  4. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate and heart rate variability during the initial training of 3-year-old sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alice; Aurich, Jörg; Möstl, Erich; Müller, Jürgen; Aurich, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Based on cortisol release, a variety of situations to which domestic horses are exposed have been classified as stressors but studies on the stress during equestrian training are limited. In the present study, Warmblood stallions (n=9) and mares (n=7) were followed through a 9 respective 12-week initial training program in order to determine potentially stressful training steps. Salivary cortisol concentrations, beat-to-beat (RR) interval and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) and the geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) were calculated. Nearly each training unit was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol concentrations (pHRV variables SDRR, RMSSD and SD1 decreased in response to training and lowest values were reached during mounting of a rider (pHRV variables increased again. In contrast, SD2 increased with the beginning of lunging (p<0.05) and no changes in response to mounting were detectable. In conclusion, initial training is a stressor for horses. The most pronounced reaction occurred in response to mounting by a rider, a situation resembling a potentially lethal threat under natural conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy transfer rates in inhomogeneous van der Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desfrancois, C.; Schermann, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The internal energy exchange inside an inhomogeneous van der Waals cluster are investigated by means of molecular dynamic calculations. The very long time scales for relaxation of the high frequency degrees of freedom are examined within the framework of Nekhoroshev's theorem. (orig.)

  6. Analytical definition of fission chain reaction parameters for cylindrical uranium bar and energy release evaluations for HIF hybrid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Within the conditions of Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) arises a possibility to obtain the fission chain reaction for a cylindrical HIF target. The paper contains the solution interpolated with the diffusion approximation in order to receive the general approximation expressions for the bar critical radius as well as for over-critical state. The obtained critical parameters generalized for uranium envelope are used for rough evaluation of the energy release in HIF hybrid targets [ru

  7. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  8. Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments

  9. Relativistic Calculations and Measurements of Energies, Auger Rates, and Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Research and Industry, Denton, Texas, 8-10 November 1982. 7. B. Crasemann: "Efectos Relativ’sticos y de QED Sobre las Transiciones Rayos - X y Auger Entre...INNER-SHELL IONIZATION BY PROTONS X -RAY EMISSION BREIT INTERACTION AUGER TRANSITIONS DIRAC-HARTREE-SLATER COMPUTATIONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESONANT...computations, including relativistic and quantum- electrodynamic effects, of atomic energy levels and of x -ray and Auger transitions in atoms with one or

  10. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  11. Issues in radioactivity for fusion energy: remote maintenance rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, D.W.; Maninger, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Recent technical progress in fusion research has been sufficient to encourage the development of conceptual designs for fusion power systems. These design efforts suggest that more attention should be paid to the safety and environmental effects of the radioactivity induced in the structural materials by the fusion neutrons. In particular, radioactivity from neutron activation of the structural components of a fusion power system will be a concern for occupational exposure of personnel. Careful choice of structural materials can significantly reduce this exposure. We propose the Remote Maintenance Rating (RMR) as a numerical means of comparing materials and machine designs with respect to occupational exposures. The RMR is defined as the dose rate at the surface of a uniformly activated, thick, infinite slab with the same composition and density as the machine component. We used the RMR rating system to evaluate the suitability of several different iron-based alloys. The specific fusion power system design used in our evaluation was a conceptual design from the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). We determined that HT-9 is significantly better in terms of radiological dose rates at early times than the other iron-based alloys (by a factor of 3 to 7). We also calculated the behavior of both silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum (Al), two low activation materials often proposed for reactors

  12. Energy and greenhouse gas profile of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region. Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Alain; Poitevin, Lionel; Loeb, Amandine; Philippot, Herve; Rebouillat, Lea; Jacquelin, Antoine

    2017-06-01

    This publication first proposes graphs and comments characterising final energy consumption of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region: regional situation in 2015 (analysis per sector and per energy), primary resources, social-economic analysis (energy bill, level of energy poverty, burden due to old housing and commuting for households), evolution of energy consumption between 2005 and 2015 (per sector, per source of energy, evolution of energy intensity and of the energy bill). The next part addresses greenhouse gas emissions: regional situation in 2015 (distribution in terms of emission type and per gas), evolutions between 1990 and 2015, evolutions per sector. The third part addresses renewable energies: regional situation for the different types of renewable energy, comparison with final energy consumption, comparison with national data, production evolutions, focus per sector (wood and wood by-products, heat pumps in the housing sector, urban waste valorisation units, biogas valorisation, bio-fuels, wind energy, hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic). The last part recalls national objectives related to energy, to greenhouse gas emissions for France and for the region, in relationship with the law on energy transition and for a green growth

  13. Energy structure, marginal efficiency and substitution rate: An empirical study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhiyong; Fan Ying; Jiao Jianling; Yan Jisheng; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important factor in developing energy policies as it represents the extent to which resources support economic output. In recent literature, relevant studies have mainly focused on aggregate energy efficiency, but rarely touched on the marginal efficiency of diverse energy resources and their comparative substitution rate. During 1978-2003, China's energy efficiency continually increased; and consequently became a hot topic in contemporary literature. However, there is no empirical study on the relationship between energy structure and energy efficiency. In order to close the gap, this paper reports the empirical study of the impact of China's energy structure on its energy efficiency from 1978 to 2003. The work covered primary estimation of the marginal efficiency of coal and petroleum in China, as well as the comparative substitution rate. Results indicate that the substitution rate between petroleum and coal is a factor of 5.38

  14. Energy minimization of mobile video devices with a hardware H.264/AVC encoder based on energy-rate-distortion optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghun; Lee, Jungeon; Jung, Jongpil; Lee, Chul-Hee; Kyung, Chong-Min

    2014-09-01

    In mobile video systems powered by battery, reducing the encoder's compression energy consumption is critical to prolong its lifetime. Previous Energy-rate-distortion (E-R-D) optimization methods based on a software codec is not suitable for practical mobile camera systems because the energy consumption is too large and encoding rate is too low. In this paper, we propose an E-R-D model for the hardware codec based on the gate-level simulation framework to measure the switching activity and the energy consumption. From the proposed E-R-D model, an energy minimizing algorithm for mobile video camera sensor have been developed with the GOP (Group of Pictures) size and QP(Quantization Parameter) as run-time control variables. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides up to 31.76% of energy consumption saving while satisfying the rate and distortion constraints.

  15. Joint release rate estimation and measurement-by-measurement model correction for atmospheric radionuclide emission in nuclear accidents: An application to wind tunnel experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpeng; Li, Hong; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Wei; Fang, Sheng

    2018-03-05

    The release rate of atmospheric radionuclide emissions is a critical factor in the emergency response to nuclear accidents. However, there are unavoidable biases in radionuclide transport models, leading to inaccurate estimates. In this study, a method that simultaneously corrects these biases and estimates the release rate is developed. Our approach provides a more complete measurement-by-measurement correction of the biases with a coefficient matrix that considers both deterministic and stochastic deviations. This matrix and the release rate are jointly solved by the alternating minimization algorithm. The proposed method is generic because it does not rely on specific features of transport models or scenarios. It is validated against wind tunnel experiments that simulate accidental releases in a heterogonous and densely built nuclear power plant site. The sensitivities to the position, number, and quality of measurements and extendibility of the method are also investigated. The results demonstrate that this method effectively corrects the model biases, and therefore outperforms Tikhonov's method in both release rate estimation and model prediction. The proposed approach is robust to uncertainties and extendible with various center estimators, thus providing a flexible framework for robust source inversion in real accidents, even if large uncertainties exist in multiple factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On the phenomenon of the fast release of energy in irradiated solid methane: discussion of models considering the local space distribution of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    A general idea of the phenomenon, so-called 'a burp', is provided. It is concluded that no justified and consistent theory of the burp phenomenon is proposed. The paper expresses criticism on the application of the classic theory of homogeneous chemical reactions and of thermal explosion to analyze burps as it was in common usage up to now. Two hypotheses to explain features burps display are presented instead. Both of them have to do with mechanism of storing and releasing energy accounting for local non-uniformity of temperature end energy deposition. 11 refs., 4 figs

  17. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  18. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Dana Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  19. Observational study on the fine structure and dynamics of a solar jet. II. Energy release process revealed by spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Takahito; Tei, Akiko; Asai, Ayumi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    We report on a solar jet phenomenon associated with the C5.4 class flare on 2014 November 11. The data of the jet was provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. These plentiful data enabled us to present this series of papers to discuss all the processes of the observed phenomena, including energy storage, event trigger, and energy release. In this paper, we focus on the energy release process of the observed jet, and mainly describe our spectral analysis on the Hα data of DST to investigate the internal structure of the Hα jet and its temporal evolution. This analysis reveals that in the physical quantity distributions of the Hα jet, such as line-of-sight velocity and optical thickness, there is a significant gradient in the direction crossing the jet. We interpret this internal structure as the consequence of the migration of the energy release site, based on the idea of ubiquitous reconnection. Moreover, by measuring the horizontal flow of the fine structures in the jet, we succeeded in deriving the three-dimensional velocity field and the line-of-sight acceleration field of the Hα jet. The analysis result indicates that part of the ejecta in the Hα jet experienced additional acceleration after it had been ejected from the lower atmosphere. This secondary acceleration was found to occur in the vicinity of the intersection between the trajectories of the Hα jet and the X-ray jet observed by Hinode/XRT. We propose that a fundamental cause of this phenomenon is magnetic reconnection involving the plasmoid in the observed jet.

  20. The relationship between energy metabolism and the action of inhibitors of histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, L G; Johansen, Torben

    1977-01-01

    1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol/l) and dicu......1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol...

  1. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  2. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-11-07

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  3. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Grace G D; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-11-13

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid-solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive goal. Herein, we report a combination of photo-switching dopants and organic phase-change materials as a way to introduce an activation energy barrier for phase-change materials solidification and to conserve thermal energy in the materials, allowing them to be triggered optically to release their stored latent heat. This approach enables the retention of thermal energy (about 200 J g -1 ) in the materials for at least 10 h at temperatures lower than the original crystallization point, unlocking opportunities for portable thermal energy storage systems.

  4. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE RELEASE AND CONVERSION VIA RECONNECTION OF ENERGY STORED BY A CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using a simple two-dimensional, zero-{beta} model, we explore the manner by which reconnection at a current sheet releases and dissipates free magnetic energy. We find that only a small fraction (3%-11% depending on current-sheet size) of the energy is stored close enough to the current sheet to be dissipated abruptly by the reconnection process. The remaining energy, stored in the larger-scale field, is converted to kinetic energy in a fast magnetosonic disturbance propagating away from the reconnection site, carrying the initial current and generating reconnection-associated flows (inflow and outflow). Some of this reflects from the lower boundary (the photosphere) and refracts back to the X-point reconnection site. Most of this inward wave energy is reflected back again and continues to bounce between X-point and photosphere until it is gradually dissipated, over many transits. This phase of the energy dissipation process is thus global and lasts far longer than the initial purely local phase. In the process, a significant fraction of the energy (25%-60%) remains as undissipated fast magnetosonic waves propagating away from the reconnection site, primarily upward. This flare-generated wave is initiated by unbalanced Lorentz forces in the reconnection-disrupted current sheet, rather than by dissipation-generated pressure, as some previous models have assumed. Depending on the orientation of the initial current sheet, the wave front is either a rarefaction, with backward-directed flow, or a compression, with forward-directed flow.

  5. Why heavy and light quarks radiate energy with similar rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The dead-cone effect has been predicted to reduce the magnitude of energy loss and jet quenching for heavy flavors produced with large p T in heavy-ion collisions. On the contrary, data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider demonstrate a strong suppression of high-p T electrons from charm and bottom decays. We show that vacuum radiation of a highly virtual quark produced at high p T with a stripped-off color field develops a much wider dead cone, which screens the one related to the quark mass. Lacking the field, gluons cannot be radiated within this cone until the color field is regenerated and the quark virtuality cools down to the scale of the order of the quark mass. However, this takes longer than is essential for the observed jet quenching, leading to similar nuclear effects for the light and charm quark jets. Open beauty is expected to radiate much less within the p T range studied so far in heavy-ion collisions.

  6. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  7. Formulation of a modified release metformin. HCl matrix tablet: influence of some hydrophilic polymers on release rate and in-vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride is an antidiabetic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes and reduces basal plasma levels of glucose. In this study, a simplex centroid experimental design with 69 runs was used to select the best combination of some hydrophilic polymers that rendered a 24 h in-vitro release profile of metformin.HCl. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model was used to model the dissolution profiles since it presented the best fit to the experimental data. Further, a cubic model predicted the best formulation of metformin.HCl containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, carrageenan, sodium alginate, and gum arabic at 6.26, 68.7, 6.26, 6.26, 6.26 and 6.26 % levels, respectively. The validation runs confirmed the accuracy of the cubic model with six components for predicting the best set of components which rendered a once-a-day modified release hydrophilic matrix tablet in compliance with the USP specifications.O cloridrato de metformina é um agente antidiabético que melhora a tolerância à glicose em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 e reduz os níveis plasmáticos basais de glicose. Neste estudo, um projeto experimental do tipo "centróide simplex" com 69 tomadas foi usado para selecionar a melhor combinação de alguns polímeros hidrofílicos que gerou um perfil de liberação da metformina.HCl de 24 horas. O modelo Korsmeyer-Peppas foi usado para modelar os perfis de dissolução, uma vez que apresentou os melhores ajustes aos dados experimentais. Além disso, um modelo cúbico previu a melhor formulação de metformina.HCl sendo aquela contendo polivinilpirrolidona, etilcelulose, hidroxipropilmetil celulose, carragena, alginato de sódio e goma arábica nos níveis 6.26, 68.7, 6.26, 6.26, 6.26 e 6.26 %, respectivamente. As corridas de validação confirmaram a precisão do modelo cúbico com os seis componentes para prever o melhor conjunto de componentes que originou uma

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic and thermal processes in solar flare energy build-up and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tend, W. van.

    1979-01-01

    A solar flare can be described as an instability in the upper solar atmosphere that converts 10 28 ergs to 10 32 ergs of magnetic energy into other forms of energy, mainly kinetic energy. The solar flare gives rise to a wealth of observable phenomena. The author develops a fairly simple model to explain many of these apparently very diverse features of solar flares. (Auth.)

  9. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  10. Structural and functional analysis of a FeoB A143S G5 loop mutant explains the accelerated GDP release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Amy P; Deshpande, Chandrika N; Vincent, Kimberley; Pedroso, Marcelo M; Schenk, Gerhard; Maher, Megan J; Jormakka, Mika

    2014-05-01

    GTPases (G proteins) hydrolyze the conversion of GTP to GDP and free phosphate, comprising an integral part of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signaling, protein biosynthesis and cell division, as well as membrane transport processes. The G protein cycle is brought to a halt after GTP hydrolysis, and requires the release of GDP before a new cycle can be initiated. For eukaryotic heterotrimeric Gαβγ proteins, the interaction with a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor catalyzes the release of GDP from the Gα subunit. Structural and functional studies have implicated one of the nucleotide binding sequence motifs, the G5 motif, as playing an integral part in this release mechanism. Indeed, a Gαs G5 mutant (A366S) was shown to have an accelerated GDP release rate, mimicking a G protein-coupled receptor catalyzed release state. In the present study, we investigate the role of the equivalent residue in the G5 motif (residue A143) in the prokaryotic membrane protein FeoB from Streptococcus thermophilus, which includes an N-terminal soluble G protein domain. The structure of this domain has previously been determined in the apo and GDP-bound states and in the presence of a transition state analogue, revealing conformational changes in the G5 motif. The A143 residue was mutated to a serine and analyzed with respect to changes in GTPase activity, nucleotide release rate, GDP affinity and structural alterations. We conclude that the identity of the residue at this position in the G5 loop plays a key role in the nucleotide release rate by allowing the correct positioning and hydrogen bonding of the nucleotide base. © 2014 FEBS.

  11. Theoretical estimation of Photons flow rate Production in quark gluon interaction at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; Hamza Hussein, Hyder; Mustafa Hussein, Saba

    2018-05-01

    photons emitted from higher energetic collisions in quark-gluon system have been theoretical studied depending on color quantum theory. A simple model for photons emission at quark-gluon system have been investigated. In this model, we use a quantum consideration which enhances to describing the quark system. The photons current rate are estimation for two system at different fugacity coefficient. We discussion the behavior of photons rate and quark gluon system properties in different photons energies with Boltzmann model. The photons rate depending on anisotropic coefficient : strong constant, photons energy, color number, fugacity parameter, thermal energy and critical energy of system are also discussed.

  12. Automatic heart rate normalization for accurate energy expenditure normalization : an analysis of activities of daily living and heart rate features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altini, M.; Penders, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Amft, O.D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Background: Energy Expenditure (EE) estimation algorithms using Heart Rate (HR) or a combination of accelerometer and HR data suffer from large error due to

  13. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati-fard, T; Vazifehshenas, T

    2014-01-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field. (paper)

  14. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  15. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Assessment of energy credits for the enhancement of the Egyptian Green Pyramid Rating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aleem, Shady H.E.; Zobaa, Ahmed F.; Abdel Mageed, Hala M.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important categories in the Green Building Rating Systems all over the world. Green Building is a building that meets the energy requirements of the present with low energy consumption and investment costs without infringing on the rights of forthcoming generations to find their own needs. Despite having more than a qualified rating system, it is clear that each system has different priorities and needs on the other. Accordingly, this paper proposes a methodology using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assessment of the energy credits through studying and comparing four of the common global rating systems, the British Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), the American Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the Australian Green Stars (GS), and the PEARL assessment system of the United Arab Emirates, in order to contribute to the enhancement of the Egyptian Green Pyramid Rating System (GPRS). The results show the mandatory and optional energy credits that should be considered with their proposed weights according to the present and future needs of green Egypt. The results are compared to data gathered through desk studies and results extracted from recent questionnaires. - Highlights: • The Egyptian rating system is underway but not on track. • The main objective is the enhancement of the Egyptian rating system. • We propose a methodology for assessment of the energy credits. • The results show the optional energy credits with their optimal weights. • The results show the mandatory energy credits that should be considered.

  17. Influence of the ionic character of a drug on its release rate from hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and acrylamide synthesized by photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gomez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the ionic character of a specific drug on its release rate from a hydrogel based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA and acrylamide (AAm is analyzed. The hydrogel was synthesized by photopolymerization employing visible light, safranine O (Saf, as sensitizer, and a silsesquioxane functionalized with amine and methacrylate groups (SFMA, as co-initiator and crosslinker. Safranine O (Saf was employed as a model of a cationic drug and the anionic form of resorufin (Rf as a model of an anionic drug. Saf exhibited a larger affinity with functional groups of the hydrogel than that of Rf. This produced a lower loading and a faster release rate of Rf with respect to Saf. Besides, the release rate of Rf followed a Fickian behavior, while that of Saf exhibited a non-Fickian behavior. By hydrolyzing the hydrogel at pH = 13, amide groups supplied by AAm were irreversibly converted into carboxylic acid groups. Higher loadings and slower release rates of Saf from the hydrolyzed hydrogels were observed, making them particularly suitable for the slow drug-delivery of cationic drugs.

  18. Spontaneous Emission and Energy Transfer Rates Near a Coated Metallic Cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    BRADLEY, LOUISE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates of quantum systems in proximity to a dielectrically coated metallic cylinder are investigated using a Green's tensor formalism. The excitation of surface plasmon modes can significantly modify these rates. The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates are investigated as a function of the material and dimensions of the core and coating, as well as the emission wavelength of the donor. For the material of the core we consider...

  19. Behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 released into the pond of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milintawisamai, Mesak; Panyathipsakul, Yureeporn

    1989-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in liquid waste released from the waste disposal plant of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace(OAEP) have been followed since 1984. The concentration of both nuclides in surface water outside OAEP boundary is 2 to 30 times less than in the OAEP pond, the reservoir of liquid waste. This indicates that most of the nuclides are effectively absorbed by clay in the bottom of the pond. The nuclide concentration in fresh-water organisms in the pond such as fish, prawn and snail is also investigated to elucidate the behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a static fresh-water ecological system

  20. Environmental effects on energy metabolism and 86Rb elimination rates of fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between energy metabolism and the turnover rates of number of important chemical and radiological elements (particularly the Group IA alkali metals: K, Rb, and Cs) have been observed in fishes. Using response surface statistics and fractional factorial ANOVA, the author examined the relative influences of temperature, salinity, food intake rate, mass, and their first order interactions on routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates. Routine metabolic rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity, with a strong body mass effect and a significant effect of food intake. 86 Rb elimination rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity. There were no interactive effects between mass and either temperature or salinity for either routine energy metabolism or 86 Rb elimination rates. There was a significant interaction effect between temperature and salinity on routine energy metabolism rates, but not on 86 Rb elimination. The authors also observed a relationship between routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates that may possibly be exploited as a means of estimating energy metabolic rates of fishes in the field. The statistical techniques used in this experiment have broad potential applications in assessing the contributions of combinations of environmental variables on contaminant kinetics, as well as in multiple toxicity testing, in that they greatly simplify experimental designs compared with traditional full-factorial methods

  1. Analysis and prospectives of the mechanism of release of energy efficiency titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, P.

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the Third annual report on the mechanism of release of energetic efficiency titles and considering the Decree Ministerial 21/12/2007, there is an analysis of the better aspects of the mechanism of release of energetic efficiency titles introduced from the norms regarding the previous annual relations. Particularly important is the role carried out from the Authority of the Electric Power and the Gas in the action of control and monitoring of the market. In this direction they have been formulated various deliberations. Analyzing the results obtained from the market of energetic efficiency titles in the course of 2007, it has been caught up 98% of the established objectives. In the course of the same year they have been cancelled many titles, as a result of verification activity. The obtained results refer to the geographic distribution, to the exchanged volumes and to the costs of the titles. At last some criticalities are placed in evidence that remain in the mechanism and that they can be resolved in order to improve the market. [it

  2. An energy-independent dose rate meter for beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Keller, M.

    1986-01-01

    An easy to handle dose rate meter has been developed at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre with a small probe for the energy-independent determination of the dose rate in mixed radiation fields. The dose rate meter contains a small ionisation chamber with a volume of 15.5 cm 3 . The window of the ionisation chamber consists of an aluminised plastic foil of 7 mg.cm -2 . The dose rate meter is suitable for determining the dose rate in skin. With a supplementary depth dose cap, the dose rate can be determined in tissue at a depth of 1 cm. The dose rate meter is energy-independent within +-20% for 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation and for gamma radiation in the energy range above 35 keV. (author)

  3. 75 FR 36381 - Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding Rates, Accounting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding Rates, Accounting and Financial Reporting... the above-referenced docket regarding rates, accounting and financial reporting associated with... set method(s) of rate recovery, accounting and financial reporting. However, the same is not...

  4. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  5. Study of influence of exchange rate change on the supply and demand of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y.H.; Shin, D.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The change of relative prices of trading goods and non-trading goods due to appreciation or depreciation of real exchange rates influences industrial structure and trading infrastructure by changing output, consumption, import and export, and prices of domestic economy. Considering that energy is used as intermediate input of all industrial sectors as well as in final consumption in the Korean economy which lacks energy resources and relies on imported energy resources, I believe that assessing the concrete effects of the real exchange rate change onto the energy industry must be a very important item in establishing effective energy policy. In this thesis, I measure the elasticity of the exchange rate as endogenous factors related to the energy industry using a CGE model that breaks down the energy industry. One (1) % depreciation of real exchange rate increases the domestic sales prices of all energy industry sectors, and the price increase ratios of petroleum and coal products are calculated as the highest among these. Petroleum and coal products show the highest price increase ratios while both the output and export decrease. On the other hand, depreciation increases the domestic sales prices of power generation, city gas, and heating sectors, but it is found to increase the output apart from petroleum and coal products. Depreciation of the real exchange rate is found to change the composition of the energy industry from petroleum and coal products to power generation, city gas, and heating sectors. 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults: a case for calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using different levels of calibration. Heart rate and energy expenditure were assessed across five levels of exertion in 290 adults participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Correlation and random effects regression analyses assessed the linearity of the relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure and cross-validation models assessed predictive performance. Heart rate and energy expenditure were highly correlated (r=0.98) and linear regardless of age or sex. Intra-person variability was low but inter-person variability was high, with substantial heterogeneity of the random intercept (s.d. =0.372) despite similar slopes. Cross-validation models indicated individual calibration data substantially improves accuracy predictions of energy expenditure from heart rate, reducing the potential for considerable measurement bias. Although using five calibration measures provided the greatest reduction in the standard deviation of prediction errors (1.08 kcals/min), substantial improvement was also noted with two (0.75 kcals/min). These findings indicate standard regression equations may be used to make population-level inferences when estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults but caution should be exercised when making inferences at the individual level without proper calibration.

  7. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Building energy efficiency rating systems have been established worldwide to systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings. This study aimed to develop a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings from two perspectives: (i) establishment of reasonable and fair criteria for the building energy efficiency rating system; and (ii) establishment of comparative incentive and penalty programs to encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. Based on the analysis of the conventional energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings, this study was conducted in five steps: (i) data collection and analysis; (ii) correlation analysis between the household size and the CO 2 emission density (i.e., CO 2 emission per unit area); (iii) cluster formation based on results of the correlation analysis using a decision tree; (iv) establishment of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings; and (v) establishment of incentive and penalty programs using advanced case-based reasoning. The proposed system can allow a policymaker to establish a reasonable and fair energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings and can encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. - Highlights: • A new energy efficiency rating system for the residential building was developed. • The incentive and penalty programs were established using an advanced CBR model. • The new system was established using reasonable and fair standards. • It allows all residents to voluntarily participate in the energy saving campaign. • It can be applied to any country or sector in the global environment

  8. Airborne release fractions/rates and respirable fractions for nonreactor nuclear facilities. Volume 1, Analysis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This handbook contains (1) a systematic compilation of airborne release and respirable fraction experimental data for nonreactor nuclear facilities, (2) assessments of the data, and (3) values derived from assessing the data that may be used in safety analyses when the data are applicable. To assist in consistent and effective use of this information, the handbook provides: identification of a consequence determination methodology in which the information can be used; discussion of the applicability of the information and its general technical limits; identification of specific accident phenomena of interest for which the information is applicable; and examples of use of the consequence determination methodology and airborne release and respirable fraction information

  9. ENERGY STAR and Green Buildings--Using ENERGY STAR Resources for Green Building Rating Systems: LEED[R], Green Globes[R] and CHPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utebay, Kudret

    2011-01-01

    Every building, from the smallest school to the tallest skyscraper, uses energy. This energy is most often generated by burning fossil fuels, which releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. Existing commercial buildings offer a significant opportunity for low-cost, immediate emissions and energy cost…

  10. Reaction dynamics of the four-centered elimination CH2OH + --> CHO + +H2: Measurement of kinetic energy release distribution and classical trajectory calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Seung C.; Kim, Myung Soo

    1996-03-01

    Mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrum of CHO+ generated in the unimolecular dissociation of CH2OH+ was measured. Kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) was evaluated by analyzing the spectrum according to the algorithm developed previously. The average kinetic energy release evaluated from the distribution was extraordinarily large, 1.63 eV, corresponding to 75% of the reverse barrier of the reaction. A global analytical potential energy surface was constructed such that the experimental energetics was represented and that various features in the ab initio potential energy surface were closely reproduced. Classical trajectory calculation was carried out with the global analytical potential energy surface to investigate the causes for the extraordinarily large kinetic energy release. Based on the detailed dynamical calculations, it was found that the strained bending forces at the transition state and strengthening of the CO bond from double to triple bond character were mainly responsible for such a significant kinetic energy release. In addition, the dissociation products H2 and CHO+ ion were found to be rotationally excited in the trajectory calculations. This was attributed to the asymmetry of the transition state and the release of asymmetric bending forces. Also, the bending vibrational modes of CHO+ and the H2 stretching mode, which are coupled with the bending coordinates, were found to be moderately excited.

  11. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  12. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  13. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake

  14. A GTPase chimera illustrates an uncoupled nucleotide affinity and release rate, Providing insight into the activation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilfoyle, Amy P.; Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Font Sadurni, Josep

    2014-01-01

    , biophysical studies on both the eukaryotic Gα proteins and the GTPase domain (NFeoB) of prokaryotic FeoB proteins have revealed conformational changes in the G5 loop that accompany nucleotide binding and release. However, it is unclear whether this conformational change in the G5 loop is a prerequisite...

  15. Lumley's energy cascade dissipation rate model for boundary-free turbulent shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    True dissipation occurs mainly at the highest wavenumbers where the eddy sizes are comparatively small. These high wavenumbers receive their energy through the spectral cascade of energy starting with the largest eddies spilling energy into the smaller eddies, passing through each wavenumber until it is dissipated at the microscopic scale. However, a small percentage of the energy does not spill continuously through the cascade but is instantly passed to the higher wavenumbers. Consequently, the smallest eddies receive a certain amount of energy almost immediately. As the spectral energy cascade continues, the highest wavenumber needs a certain time to receive all the energy which has been transferred from the largest eddies. As such, there is a time delay, of the order of tau, between the generation of energy by the largest eddies and the eventual dissipation of this energy. For equilibrium turbulence at high Reynolds numbers, there is a wide range where energy is neither produced by the large eddies nor dissipated by viscosity, but is conserved and passed from wavenumber to higher wavenumbers. The rate at which energy cascades from one wavenumber to another is proportional to the energy contained within that wavenumber. This rate is constant and has been used in the past as a dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. However, this is true only in steady, equilibrium turbulence. Most dissipation models contend that the production of dissipation is proportional to the production of energy and that the destruction of dissipation is proportional to the destruction of energy. In essence, these models state that the change in the dissipation rate is proportional to the change in the kinetic energy. This assumption is obviously incorrect for the case where there is no production of turbulent energy, yet energy continues to cascade from large to small eddies. If the time lag between the onset on the energy cascade to the destruction of energy at the microscale can be

  16. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation are calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors for photons and electrons are calculated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. Dose-rate conversion factors for photons only are calculated for 22 body organs. (author)

  17. Progressive Time-Weighted Dynamic Energy Efficiency, Energy Decoupling Rate, and Decarbonization: An Empirical Study on G7 and BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Tu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a critical factor of economic growth, but the overuse of it results in global warming and climate change. Hence, energy efficiency improvement can help mitigate climate change and prevent economic losses or even ecological extinction. The data envelopment analysis (DEA approach has been extensively applied for energy efficiency estimation, but past studies of this estimation employ a static mode that does not consider consecutive periods and the carry-over effect. This study estimates energy efficiency under a weight-restricted dynamic DEA (WrD-DEA model, creates a weight-restricted dynamic energy efficiency (WrD-EE indicator, and discusses issues concerning the energy decoupling rate and decarbonization. We utilize members in the Group of Seven (G7 and BRICS (Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa for our experimental observations. The main results herein are: (1 BRICS has larger room for improvement to achieve the standard ratio of the energy decoupling rate than the G7; (2 the G7 and BRICS do not converge to decarbonization; and (3 BRICS exhibits more rapid improvement on energy efficiency than the G7.

  18. Determination by a CFD code of the heat release rate in a confined and mechanically-ventilated compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Ayoub

    2011-01-01

    For several years, many experimental/numerical research programs have been carried out at IRSN in order to provide sufficient data on the burning process and understand the behavior of a pool fire in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment. Several experimental tests have shown that in some cases, the oxygen concentration in the local decreases then stabilizes until fire extinction. The fuel mass loss rate is instantaneously adjusted according to the ventilation in the local, which may leads to a lower fuel consumption rate as compared to that in free atmosphere. The fire duration is then 2 to 3 times greater than that obtained in free atmosphere, which may damages some specific safety equipment used to reduce the spread of fire between compartments such as fire doors. The objective of this work is to propose a theoretical approach that allows the determination of the burning rate of fuels for pool fires in a closed compartment. Fuel response to vitiated air as well as burning enhancement due to hot gases and confinement should be taken into account. Thus, a theoretical formulation, based on an energy balance equation at the pool fire surface, was developed and compared with the empirical correlation of Peatross and Beyler before being implemented in a CFD code 'ISIS', developed at IRSN and validated against PRISME fire test results. The main advantage of this global approach is that no assumptions were made on the relative importance of each mode of heat transfer from the flame. In fact, the convective and the radiant components of the heat flux from the flame to the fuel surface were determined taking into account the air vitiation effect. In addition to this theoretical approach, an experimental work was conducted at the Institut PPRIME to study heptane pool fires in a reduced-scale fire compartment, in the aim to investigate the effects of vitiated air on fire parameters. These results were used to validate the theoretical formulation developed

  19. Determination of αs from jet production rates and energy-energy correlations on the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1990-10-01

    This presentation uses data obtained from the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The strong coupling constant α s is determined in two different analyses of the Z 0 decay into multi-hadronic final states. The first uses the jet production rates and the second the asymmetry of energy-energy correlations. Both methods compare experimental data with second order of perturbative QCD predictions. The results are α s (M z ) = 0.114 ± 0.003 ± 0.004 ± 0.012 using the jet rates method and α s (M z ) = 0.106 ± 0.003 ± 0.003 ± 0.003 from the energy-energy correlations method

  20. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  1. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  2. Joint sensor placement and power rating selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bushnaq, Osama M.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is on optimal sensor placement and power rating selection for parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We take into account the amount of energy harvested by the sensing nodes, communication link quality

  3. Evaluating impacts of energy prices release on urban planning of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei Aghdam, Feridoun [Mohaghegh Ardabili University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: Fbabei@uma.ac.ir, email: freydoun2001@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The Parliament of Iran adopted a subsidy reform plan in January, 2010. This reform constitutes one of the most significant changes to Iran's economy in the last 50 years, as it aims to replace subsidies on food and energy with social assistance. This will have important effects on the sectors consuming the most energy such as transport, buildings, industry and agriculture. The aim of this paper is to determine both the positive and negative impacts of this reform. A review of the available information was carried out using library resources, the press and the Internet; interviews with experts were also conducted. Then field investigations were conducted and a comparative survey was done. Results of this research showed that the subsidy reform plan will result in economic, social, political and traffic benefits but will also raise socio-economic issues in urban areas. This study pointed out that the subsidy reform will have more positive than negative impacts.

  4. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  5. Photochemical Energy Storage and Electrochemically Triggered Energy Release in the Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System: UV Photochemistry and IR Spectroelectrochemistry in a Combined Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Olaf; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian; Bachmann, Julien; Libuda, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    The two valence isomers norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) enable solar energy storage in a single molecule system. We present a new photoelectrochemical infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PEC-IRRAS) experiment, which allows monitoring of the complete energy storage and release cycle by in situ vibrational spectroscopy. Both processes were investigated, the photochemical conversion from NBD to QC using the photosensitizer 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone, MK) and the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion from QC to NBD. Photochemical conversion was obtained with characteristic conversion times on the order of 500 ms. All experiments were performed under full potential control in a thin-layer configuration with a Pt(111) working electrode. The vibrational spectra of NBD, QC, and MK were analyzed in the fingerprint region, permitting quantitative analysis of the spectroscopic data. We determined selectivities for both the photochemical conversion and the electrochemical cycloreversion and identified the critical steps that limit the reversibility of the storage cycle.

  6. Releasing Stored Solar Energy within Pond Scum: Biodiesel from Algal Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as an attractive feedstock for the mass production of renewable transportation fuels due to their fast growth rate, flexible habitat preferences, and substantial oil yields. As an educational tool, a laboratory was developed that mimics emerging algal biofuel technology, including the extraction of algal lipids and…

  7. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  8. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  9. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 77 FR 38280 - Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2071-000] Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA New York, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  13. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  16. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  18. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-25-000] Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  20. 77 FR 106 - California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-645-000] California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... California Ridge Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  1. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  2. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  3. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  4. Effect of hydrophilicity of carbon nanotube arrays on the release rate and activity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Zhaojun; Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Tan, Cher Ming; Tay, Beng Kang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Peel, Sean A F, E-mail: zhaojun.han@csiro.au [Department of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1G6 (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Novel nanostructures such as vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have received increasing interest as drug delivery carriers. In the present study, two CNT arrays with extreme surface wettabilities are fabricated and their effects on the release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are investigated. It is found that the superhydrophilic arrays retained a larger amount of rhBMP-2 than the superhydrophobic ones. Further use of a poloxamer diffusion layer delayed the initial burst and resulted in a greater total amount of rhBMP-2 released from both surfaces. In addition, rhBMP-2 bound to the superhydrophilic CNT arrays remained bioactive while they denatured on the superhydrophobic surfaces. These results are related to the combined effects of rhBMP-2 molecules interacting with poloxamer and the surface, which could be essential in the development of advanced carriers with tailored surface functionalities.

  5. Analysis of energy released from core disruptive accident of sodium cooled fast reactor using CDA-ER and VENUS-II codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. H.; Ha, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The fast reactor has a unique feature in that rearranged core materials can produce a large increase in reactivity and recriticality. If such a rearrangement of core materials should occur rapidly, there would be a high rate of reactivity increase producing power excursions. The released energy from such an energetic recriticality might challenge the reactor vessel integrity. An analysis of the hypothetical excursions that result in the disassembly of the reactor plays an important role in a liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) safety analysis. The analysis of such excursions generally consists of three phases (initial or pre-disassembly phase, disassembly phase, energy-work conversion phase). The first step is referred to as the 'accident initiation' or 'pre-disassembly' phase. In this phase, the accident is traced from some initiating event, such as a coolant pump failure or control rod ejection, up to a prompt critical condition where high temperatures and pressures rapidly develop in the core. Such complex processes as fuel pin failure, sodium voiding, and fuel slumping are treated in this phase. Several computer programs are available for this type of calculation, including SAS4A, MELT-II and FREADM. A number of models have been developed for this type of analysis, including the REXCO and SOCOOL-II computer programs. VENUS-II deals with the second phase (disassembly analysis). Most of the models used in the code have been based on the original work of Bethe and Tait. The disassembly motion is calculated using a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamics equations in the VENUS code. The density changes can be explicitly calculated, which in turn allows the use of a more accurate density dependent equation of state. The main functional parts of the computational model can be summarized as follows: Power and energy (point kinetics), Temperature (energy balance), Internal pressure (equation of state), Material displacement (hydrodynamics), Reactivity

  6. Analysis of energy released from core disruptive accident of sodium cooled fast reactor using CDA-ER and VENUS-II codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. H.; Ha, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    The fast reactor has a unique feature in that rearranged core materials can produce a large increase in reactivity and recriticality. If such a rearrangement of core materials should occur rapidly, there would be a high rate of reactivity increase producing power excursions. The released energy from such an energetic recriticality might challenge the reactor vessel integrity. An analysis of the hypothetical excursions that result in the disassembly of the reactor plays an important role in a liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) safety analysis. The analysis of such excursions generally consists of three phases (initial or pre-disassembly phase, disassembly phase, energy-work conversion phase). The first step is referred to as the 'accident initiation' or 'pre-disassembly' phase. In this phase, the accident is traced from some initiating event, such as a coolant pump failure or control rod ejection, up to a prompt critical condition where high temperatures and pressures rapidly develop in the core. Such complex processes as fuel pin failure, sodium voiding, and fuel slumping are treated in this phase. Several computer programs are available for this type of calculation, including SAS4A, MELT-II and FREADM. A number of models have been developed for this type of analysis, including the REXCO and SOCOOL-II computer programs. VENUS-II deals with the second phase (disassembly analysis). Most of the models used in the code have been based on the original work of Bethe and Tait. The disassembly motion is calculated using a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamics equations in the VENUS code. The density changes can be explicitly calculated, which in turn allows the use of a more accurate density dependent equation of state. The main functional parts of the computational model can be summarized as follows: Power and energy (point kinetics), Temperature (energy balance), Internal pressure (equation of state), Material displacement (hydrodynamics), Reactivity feedback (Doppler and

  7. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  8. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed

  9. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Matsumoto, Steven W.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool is a web-based system that is designed to allow building owners, managers, and operators to more accurately assess the energy performance of their commercial buildings. This document provide a step-by-step instruction on how to use the tool.

  10. Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...

  11. High Rates of Police Detention Among Recently Released HIV-infected Prisoners in Ukraine: Implications for Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M.; Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael; Kiryazova, Tetiana; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ukraine’s HIV epidemic, primarily affecting people who inject drugs (PWID), is expanding and transitioning despite free opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), two effective ways to reduce HIV transmission. Police detention not resulting in imprisonment, defined as police harassment, of PWID is common, but its prevalence and impact on health is not known. Method HIV-infected individuals (N=97) released from prison within one year were recruited and surveyed in two HIV-endemic Ukrainian cities about post-release police detention experiences. Data on the frequency of police detention, related adverse events, and impact on OST and ART continuity were collected, and correlates of detention were examined using logistic regression. Results Detention responses were available for 94 (96.9%) participants, of which 55 (58.5%) reported police detentions (mean=9.4 per person-year). For those detained while prescribed OST (N=28) and ART (N=27), medication interruption was common (67.9% and 70.4%, respectively); 23 of 27 participants prescribed OST (85.2%) were detained en route to/from OST treatment. Significant independent correlates of detention without charges included post-release ART prescription (AOR 4.98, p=0.021), current high-risk injection practices (AOR 5.03, p=0.011), male gender (AOR 10.88, p=0.010), and lower lifetime months of imprisonment (AOR 0.99, p=0.031). Conclusions HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison in Ukraine experience frequent police detentions, resulting in withdrawal symptoms, confiscation of syringes, and interruptions of essential medications, including ART and OST. Structural changes are urgently needed to reduce police detentions in order to control HIV transmission and improve both individual and public health. PMID:23769160

  12. Tailoring the degradation rate and release kinetics from poly(galactitol sebacate) by blending with chitosan, alginate or ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Janeni; Madras, Giridhar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Despite significant advances in recent times, the investigation of discovering a perfect biomaterial is perennial. In this backdrop, blending of natural and synthetic polymers is gaining popularity since it is the easiest way to complement the drawbacks and attain a superlative material. Based on this, the objective of this study was to synthesize a novel polyester, poly(galactitol sebacate), and subsequently blend this polymer with one of the three natural polymers such as alginate, chitosan or ethyl cellulose. FT-IR showed the presence of both the polymers in the blends. 1 H NMR confirmed the chemical structure of the synthesized poly (galactitol sebacate). Thermal characterization was performed by DSC revealing that the polymers were amorphous in nature and the glass transition temperatures increased with the increase in ratio of the natural polymers in the blends. SEM imaging showed that the blends were predominantly homogeneous. Contact angle measurements demonstrated that the blending imparted the hydrophilic nature into poly (galactitol sebacate) when blending with alginate or chitosan and hydrophobic when blending with ethyl cellulose. In vitro hydrolytic degradation studies and dye release studies indicated that the polymers became more hydrophilic in alginate and chitosan blends and thus accelerated the degradation and release process. The reverse trend was observed in the case of ethyl cellulose blends. Modeling elucidated that the degradation and dye release followed first order kinetics and Higuchi kinetics, respectively. In vitro cell studies confirmed the cytocompatible nature of the blends. It can be proposed that the chosen natural polymers for blending showed wide variations in hydrophilicity resulting in tailored degradation, release and cytocompatibility properties and thus are promising candidates for use in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ring current energy injection rate and solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Kan, J.R.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (i) formulate the ring current injection rate Usub(R) in terms of phisub(CT) (cross-tail potential drop) by assuming that the ring current formation is a direct consequence of an enhanced convection, (ii) examine the relationship between the injection rate Usub(R) and the power transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and (iii) demonstrate that an enhanced convection indeed leads to the formation of the ring current. (author)

  14. Determination of the rate of energy partition in deeply inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarini, A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss how excitation energy is partitioned in a deeply inelastic collision. Using the nucleon exchange mechanism for the deep inelastic scattering process, it is possible to draw on existing information about the evolution of the charge and mass distributions with energy loss and combine this with recent information on the partition of excitation energy in deeply inelastic collisions to obtain rates of heating for the two reaction partners

  15. Physiological response to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups: metabolic rates, energy reserve utilization, and water fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Delphine; Groscolas, René; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2009-11-01

    Surviving prolonged fasting requires various metabolic adaptations, such as energy and protein sparing, notably when animals are simultaneously engaged in energy-demanding processes such as growth. Due to the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, subantarctic fur seal pups have to repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout the 10-mo rearing period while preparing for nutritional independence. Their metabolic responses to natural prolonged fasting (33.4 +/- 3.3 days) were investigated at 7 mo of age. Within 4-6 fasting days, pups shifted into a stage of metabolic economy characterized by a minimal rate of body mass loss (0.7%/day) and decreased resting metabolic rate (5.9 +/- 0.1 ml O(2)xkg(-1)xday(-1)) that was only 10% above the level predicted for adult terrestrial mammals. Field metabolic rate (289 +/- 10 kJxkg(-1)xday(-1)) and water influx (7.9 +/- 0.9 mlxkg(-1)xday(-1)) were also among the lowest reported for any young otariid, suggesting minimized energy allocation to behavioral activity and thermoregulation. Furthermore, lean tissue degradation was dramatically reduced. High initial adiposity (>48%) and predominant reliance on lipid catabolism likely contributed to the exceptional degree of protein sparing attained. Blood chemistry supported these findings and suggested utilization of alternative fuels, such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and de novo synthesized glucose from fat-released glycerol. Regardless of sex and body condition, pups tended to adopt a convergent strategy of extreme energy and lean body mass conservation that appears highly adaptive for it allows some tissue growth during the repeated episodes of prolonged fasting they experience throughout their development.

  16. Energy transport by energetic electrons released during solar flares. I - Thermal versus nonthermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of energetic electrons through a flaring flux tube is studied in an attempt to determine how the energy of the electrons is deposited in the flux tube. One-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are used in the present investigation. As the energetic electrons propagate into the system, a return current of ambient plasma electrons and some of the energetic electrons is drawn into the energetic electron source. It is found that, as the ambient temperature relative to the ion temperature increases above about 3, the heated return-current electrons can excite ion-sound waves.

  17. Inability to match energy intake with energy expenditure at sustained near-maximal rates of energy expenditure in older men during a 14-d cycling expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads; Morville, Thomas; Riis Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The upper rates of energy expenditure (EE) and the corresponding regulation of energy intake (EI), as described in younger trained subjects, are not well elucidated in older subjects. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate EE in older men during prolonged cycling and determine whether...... it is sufficiently matched by EI to maintain energy balance. In addition, we investigated appetite ratings and concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones. DESIGN: Six men (mean ± SE age: 61 ± 3 y) completed 2706 km of cycling, from Copenhagen to Nordkapp, in 14 d. EE was measured by using doubly labeled water......, and food and drink intake was recorded by the accompanying scientific staff. Energy balance was calculated as the discrepancy between EI and EE and from changes in body energy stores as derived from deuterium dilution. Fasting hormones were measured before and after cycling, and appetite ratings were...

  18. Multifunctional glass fiber/polyamide composites with thermal energy storage/release capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fredi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composite laminates with thermal energy storage (TES capability were prepared by combining a glass fabric, a polyamide 12 (PA12 matrix and two different phase change materials (PCMs, i.e. a paraffinic wax microencapsulated in melamine-formaldehyde shells and a paraffin shape stabilized with carbon nanotubes. The melt flow index of the PA12/PCM blends decreased with the PCM concentration, especially in the systems with shape stabilized wax. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, for the matrices with microcapsules, the values of enthalpy were approximately the 70% of the theoretical values, which was attributed to the fracture of some microcapsules. Nevertheless, most of the energy storage capability was preserved. On the other hand, much lower relative enthalpy values were measured on the composites with shape stabilized wax, due to a considerable paraffin leakage or degradation. The subsequent characterization of the glass fabric laminates highlighted that the fiber and void volume fractions were comparable for all the laminates except for that with the higher amount of shape stabilized wax, where the high viscosity of the matrix led to a low fiber volume fraction and higher void content. The mechanical properties of the laminates were only slightly impaired by PCM addition, while a more sensible drop of the elastic modulus, of the stress at break and of the interlaminar shear strength could be observed in the shape stabilized wax systems.

  19. The importance of ingestion rates for estimating food quality and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Chalise, Mukesh K; Koenig, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Testing ecological or socioecological models in primatology often requires estimates of individual energy intake. It is a well established fact that the nutrient content (and hence the energy content) of primate food items is highly variable. The second variable in determining primate energy intake, i.e., the ingestion rate, has often been ignored, and few studies have attempted to estimate the relative importance of the two predictors. In the present study individual ingestion rates were measured in two ecologically very different populations of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) at Jodhpur, India, and Ramnagar, Nepal. Protein and soluble sugar concentrations in 50 and 100 food items. respectively, were measured using standardized methods. Variation in ingestion rates (gram of dry matter per minute) was markedly greater among food items than among langur individuals in both populations, but did not differ systematically among food item categories defined according to plant part and age. General linear models (GLMs) with ingestion rate, protein, and soluble sugar content explained 40-80% of the variation in energy intake rates (kJ/min). The relative importance of ingestion rates was either similar (Ramnagar) or much greater (Jodhpur) than the role of sugar and/or protein content in determining the energy intake rates of different items. These results may impact socioecological studies of variation in individual energy budgets, investigations of food choice in relation to chemical composition or sensory characteristics, and research into habitat preferences that measures habitat quality in terms of abundance of important food sources. We suggest a definition of food quality that includes not only the amount of valuable food contents (energy, vitamins, and minerals) and the digestibility of different foods, but also the rate at which the food can be harvested and processed. Such an extended definition seems necessary because time may constrain primates when

  20. Neutrino energy loss rates due to key iron isotopes for core-collapse physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, J.-U.

    2008-07-01

    Accurate estimates of neutrino energy loss rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution, in particular for the cooling of neutron stars and white dwarfs. The energy spectra of neutrinos and antineutrinos arriving at the Earth can also provide useful information on the primary neutrino fluxes as well as neutrino mixing scenario. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for a microscopic calculation of stellar weak interaction rates of fp-shell nuclide, particularly iron isotopes, with success. Here I present the calculation of neutrino and antineutrino energy loss rates due to key iron isotopes in stellar matter using the pn-QRPA theory. The rates are calculated on a fine grid of temperature-density scale suitable for core-collapse simulators. The calculated rates are compared against earlier calculations. The neutrino cooling rates due to even-even isotopes of iron, 54,56 Fe, are in good agreement with the rates calculated using the large-scale shell model. The pn-QRPA calculated neutrino energy loss rates due to 55 Fe are enhanced roughly around an order of magnitude compared to the large-scale shell model calculation during the oxygen and silicon shell burning stages of massive stars and favor a lower entropy for the cores of massive stars. (author)

  1. Fracture Energy of Plain Concrete Beams at Different Rates of Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Madsen, S. H.

    . The beams are tested in a closed loop servo controlled materials testing system. The experimental results for these preliminary tests show that the bending tensile strength is increasing with the displacement rate and that the fracture energy is constant at lower displacement rates and then increasing...

  2. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  3. Linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO2 emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bio-energy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bio-energy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO 2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO 2 emissions from bio-energy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bio-energy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO 2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO 2 emissions from bio-energy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bio-energy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bio-energy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years). (authors)

  4. Mechanical energy release and fuel fragmentation in high energy deposition into fuel under a reactivity initiated accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Saito, Shinzo; Ochiai, Masaaki

    1985-01-01

    The fuel fragmentation is one of important subjects to be studied, since it is one of basic processes of molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) and it has not yet been made clear enough. Accordingly, UO 2 fuel fragmentation was studied in the NSRR experiments simulating a reactivity initiated accident (RIA). As results of the experiments, the distribution of the size of fuel fragments was obtained and the mechanism of fuel fragmentation was discussed as described below. It was revealed that the distribution was well displayed in the form of logarithmic Rosin-Rammler's distribution law. It was shown that the conversion ratio from thermal energy to mechanical in the experiment was in inverse propotion to the volume-surface mean diameter defined as a ratio of the total volume of fragments to the total surface. Consequently, it was confirmed that the mean diameter was proper as an index for the degree of the fuel fragmentation. It was also pointed out that the Weber-type hydraulic instability model for fragmentation was consistent with the experimental results. The mechanism of the fuel fragmentation is understood as follows. Cladding tube is ruptured due to the increase in rod pressure when fuel is molten, and then molten fuel spouts through the openings in the form of jet. As a result of molten fuel spouting, fuel is fragmented by the Weber-type of hydraulic instability. The model well explains the effects of experimental parameters as heat deposition, subcooling of cooling water and capsule diameter, on the fuel fragmentation. According to the model, fuel fragments have to be spherical. There were many spherical particles which had hollow and burst crack. This may be due to internal burst during solidification process. The items which should be studied further are also described in the end of this report. (author)

  5. Energy performance ratings and house prices in Wales: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; McAllister, Pat; Nanda, Anupam; Wyatt, Pete

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) ratings on residential prices in Wales. Drawing on a sample of approximately 192,000 transactions, the capitalisation of energy efficiency ratings into house prices is investigated using two approaches. The first adopts a cross-sectional framework to investigate the effect of EPC rating on price. The second approach applies a repeat-sales methodology to investigate the impact of EPC rating on house price appreciation. Statistically significant positive price premiums are estimated for dwellings in EPC bands A/B (12.8%) and C (3.5%) compared to houses in band D. For dwellings in band E (−3.6%) and F (−6.5%) there are statistically significant discounts. Such effects may not be the result of energy performance alone. In addition to energy cost differences, the price effect may be due to additional benefits of energy efficient features. An analysis of the private rental segment reveals that, in contrast to the general market, low-EPC rated dwellings were not traded at a significant discount. This suggests different implicit prices of potential energy savings for landlords and owner-occupiers.

  6. Linking mortgage finance incentives to a voluntary home energy rating system: Insight into consensus building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenior, M.-M.

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative consensus process was created to implement a program linking voluntary home energy rating systems (HERS) to mortgage incentives. The participants involved many of the stakeholders or interest groups who have a role in implementing and who will be affected by energy efficiency mortgate incentive programs linked to HERS. The participants included representatives from the primary and secondary mortgage market; real estate, home building, and remodeling industries; utilities; state, local, consumer, and environmental organizations; and home energy rating providers. The participants defined the actions required to implement as well as the technical requirements of a program linking home energy ratings and mortgage finance. Building on the recommendations of the collaborative process, members of the collaborative continue to take initiatives to put a Home Energy Rating Systems Council into place, in planning pilot programs for developing and testing ways to link HERS and mortgage programs, and in making home buyers and owners aware of existing mortgage incentives. At the same time, mortgage providers are working to develop uniformity among mortgage incentive programs and with the US Department of Energy to develop procedures to verify the relative accuracy of HERS calculation tools and their application, and with the emerging HERS Council to develop the guidelines for voluntary HERS required under the Energy Policy Act of 1992

  7. Review of the energy rating of dwellings in the European Union as a mechanism for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Murillo, S.; Moran, J.C.; Granada, E. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n 36200 Vigo (Spain); Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.; Vicuna, J.E. [Depto de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad de La Rioja, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial de Logrono, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, E-26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} and other GHGs is one of the biggest environmental challenges facing the European Union as it strives for sustainable development. If that challenge is to be met, domestic energy consumption must be controlled: it currently accounts for 40% of the total, making it one of the biggest sources of emissions. EU Directives 93/76 and 2002/91 make it compulsory for energy rating systems to be set up to report on consumption in buildings. This paper looks at the various rating systems now up and running, with varying levels of success, in EU countries. However, Denmark's is the only system that can be considered as providing a full energy rating in the sense of awarding a graded score to buildings rather than a simple pass/fail rating, and proposing ways of improving the score obtained. Indeed, many regulations on energy saving in the residential sector are extremely recent, and it is too soon to assess their results. In some States they may also be modified by reforms currently being studied or processed. (author)

  8. Effect of ventilation rate on air cleanliness and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Tseng; Liang, Ching-Chieh; Chien, Tsung-Yi; Wu, Feng-Jen; Fan, Kuang-Chung; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-02-27

    The interrelationships between ventilation rate, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest are yet to be understood. We investigate the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality indices and energy consumption in ORs at rest. The study investigates the air temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM), and airborne bacteria at different ventilation rates in operation rooms at rest of a medical center. The energy consumption and cost analysis of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in the operation rooms at rest were also evaluated for all ventilation rates. No air-conditioned operation rooms had very highest PM and airborne bacterial concentrations in the operation areas. The bacterial concentration in the operation areas with 6-30 air changes per hour (ACH) was below the suggested level set by the United Kingdom (UK) for an empty operation room. A 70% of reduction in annual energy cost by reducing the ventilation rate from 30 to 6 ACH was found in the operation rooms at rest. Maintenance of operation rooms at ventilation rate of 6 ACH could save considerable amounts of energy and achieve the goal of air cleanliness.

  9. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, A.V.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Zhukovsky, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. (authors)

  10. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.

  12. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  13. Joule heat production rate and the particle energy injection rate as a function of the geomagnetic indices AE and AL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, B.; Akasofu, S.; Kamide, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the joint efforts of operating six meridian chains of magnetometers during the IMS, magnetic records from 71 stations are used to deduce the distribution of electric fields and currents in the polar ionosphere for March 17, 18, and 19, 1978. As a continuation of this project, we have constructed hourly distribution maps of the Joule heat production rate and their sum over the entire polar region on the three days. For this purpose the conductivity distribution is inferred at each instant partially on the basis of an empirical method devised by Ahn et al. (1982). The particle energy injection rate is estimated similarly by using an empirical method. The data set thus obtained allows us to estimate also the global Joule heat production rate U/sub J/, the global particle energy injection rate U/sub A/ and the sum U/sub Gamma/ of the two quantities. It is found that three global quantities (watt) are related almost linearly to the AE(nT) and AL(nT) indices. Our present estimates give the following relationships: U/sub J/ = 2.3 times 10 8 x AE 8 U/sub A/ = 0.6 times 10 8 x AE 8 and U/sub I/ = 2.9 times 10 8 x AE: U/sub J/ = 3.0 times 10 8 x AL 8 U/sub A/ = 0.8 times 10 8 x AL, and U/sub I/ = 3.8 times 10 8 x AL

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  15. Development of a general model to predict the rate of radionuclide release (source term) from a low-level waste shallow land burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Kempf, C.R.; Suen, C.J.; Mughabghab, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Federal Code of Regulations 10 CFR 61 requires that any near surface disposal site be capable of being characterized, analyzed, and modeled. The objective of this program is to assist NRC in developing the ability to model a disposal site that conforms to these regulations. In particular, a general computer model capable of predicting the quantity and rate of radionuclide release from a shallow land burial trench, i.e., the source term, is being developed. The framework for this general model has been developed and consists of four basic compartments that represent the major processes that influence release. These compartments are: water flow, container degradation, release from the waste packages, and radionuclide transport. Models for water flow and radionuclide transport rely on the use of the computer codes FEMWATER and FEMWASTE. These codes are generally regarded as being state-of-the-art and required little modification for their application to this project. Models for container degradation and release from waste packages have been specifically developed for this project. This paper provides a brief description of the models being used in the source term project and examples of their use over a range of potential conditions. 13 refs

  16. Radiation preparation of drug carriers based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels, their loading capacities and controlled release rates for dexamethasone and tegafur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Dang Sang; Nguyen Van Binh; Tran Bang Diep; Nguyen Thi Thom; Hoang Phuong Thao; Pham Duy Duong; Tran Minh Quynh

    2015-01-01

    Thermo-sensitive hydrogels have great potential in some applications. In order to use as the drug delivery systems, the hydrogels should be biocompatibility. New polymers with more biocompatibility and better biodegradability, and environmental friendly crosslinking agents would be necessary for the successful drug carriers. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-dimethylacrylamide) based hydrogels have been prepared from the admixture solutions of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and N,N’-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA) by radiation copolymerization and crosslinking at radiation dose of 20 kGy as reported in our previous study. Water swelling behaviour of the resulting hydrogels were much depended on their nature such as initial ratio of NIPA and DMA. The drug-loaded hydrogels were prepared by merging hydrogel in the solutions containing corresponding drugs. Loading capacity of the hydrogels were about 48.6 and 95.7 mg per g dried hydrogel for dexamethasone and tegafur. The release studies showed that the presence of ions in simulated body fluid and temperature of the solution much affecting to in vitro release behaviors of hydrogels for dexamethasone and tegafur. The release rates were fast for both drug models. The result also revealed that these drug carriers were biocompatibility without skin irritation, suggested the drug-loaded hydrogels may be used as controlled release drug delivery systems. (author)

  17. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. M. Wijlens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2 participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1 oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF for 1 or 8 min; and (2 energy content of gastric load (GL by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001. All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.002; fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02. In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  18. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-26

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  19. Unintended anchors: Building rating systems and energy performance goals for U.S. buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Leidy; Mack, Daniel; Klapthor, Brent; Tunstall, Casey; Harrison, Jennilee

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., where buildings account for 40% of energy use, commercial buildings use more energy per unit area than ever before. However, exemplary buildings demonstrate the feasibility of much better energy performance at no additional first cost. This research examines one possible explanation for this inconsistency. The aim is to investigate whether the anchoring bias, which refers to our tendency to gravitate towards a pre-defined standard regardless of its relevance, influences energy performance goals in building design. The scope examines professionals who help set energy performance goals for U.S. buildings. Prior to being asked to set an energy performance goal, these professionals were randomly directed to one of three series of questions. One series set an anchor of 90% energy reduction beyond standard practice, one set a 30% anchor, and one set no anchor. Respondents exposed to the 90% anchor, and respondents exposed to no anchor at all, set higher energy performance goals than respondents exposed to the 30% anchor. These results suggest that building rating systems that only reward incremental energy improvements may inadvertently create anchors, thereby discouraging more advanced energy performance goals and inhibiting energy performance that is technically and economically feasible.

  20. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Optimization of Korean energy planning for sustainability considering uncertainties in learning rates and external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyok; Koo, Jamin; Lee, Chang Jun; Yoon, En Sup

    2012-01-01

    During the last few decades, energy planning has focused on meeting domestic demand at lower total costs. However, global warming and the shared recognition of it have transformed the problem of energy planning into a more complex task with a greater number of issues to be considered. Since the key issue is to reduce greenhouse effects, governments around the world have begun to make investments in renewable energy systems (e.g., hydro, wind, solar, and/or biomass power). The relatively high costs of renewable energy systems and the uncertain outlook of their rate of diffusion in the market make it difficult to heavily rely on them. The uncertain variations in production cost over time are especially challenging. To handle uncertainties, the concept of the learning rate was adopted in this study so as to compute the costs of energy systems in the future and Monte Carlo simulation was performed. The aim of this study was to optimize plans of conventional and prospective renewable energy systems with respect to production cost. The production cost included capital, fixed, variable, and external costs. For the case study, the energy situation in South Korea was used. The results of the case study where the proposed methodology was applied could provide useful insights economically and strategies of sustainable energy management for ambiguous environments. -- Highlights: ► We propose energy planning method for sustainability. ► We consider uncertainties such as learning rate, fuel prices, and CO 2 prices. ► We consider the possibility of CO 2 trading. ► The proposed method is applied to South Korea case. ► The added capacities of energy systems depend on uncertainties.

  2. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...; Order No. 697-D] Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary... affiliates.\\3\\ \\1\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services...\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public...

  3. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  4. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  5. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3635-000] Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  6. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. 78 FR 62615 - Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-96-000] Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  8. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  9. 75 FR 76004 - Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2179-000] Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Planet Energy (New York) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  11. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  12. 75 FR 71425 - Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2088-000] Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  13. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1875-000] AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. 77 FR 2718 - CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-775-000] CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an...

  15. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  16. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  17. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  18. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-295-000] NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  19. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  20. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  1. 75 FR 74039 - FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... proceeding, of FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2160-000] FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  2. 76 FR 61687 - NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4677-000] NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  3. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  4. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  5. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  6. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  7. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  8. Energy rating of solar modules; Workshop 'vergleichender Modulertrag'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeni, R. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a workshop held in Zurich, Switzerland. The project aimed to help commercial investors in the photovoltaics area who need better information on component costs involved in photovoltaics installations. Today, solar module prices are compared using the power output under standard conditions. The authors propose that they should be compared with their energy production. The workshop, held in March 2002 in Zurich, aimed to provide an overview of existing rating methods for energy production. Various methods of comparison are discussed, including a matrix method based on electrical and meteorological measurements, a production calculation method involving efficiency measurements made for various locations and conditions as well as another approach that takes irradiance, cell temperature, spectral correction into account. A further method of calculating energy ratings from laboratory measurements is also presented, as is a review of developments in relevant standardisation areas. Various methods are compared and commented on.

  9. Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of directly compressed controlled release matrices of Losartan Potassium using Ethocel Grade 100 as rate retarding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran Ahmad; Khan, Gul Majid; Zeeshan Danish, Muhammad; Akhlaq; Khan, Haroon; Rehman, Fazal; Mehsud, Saifullah

    2015-12-30

    Current study was aimed to develop 200mg controlled release matrix tablets of Losartan Potassium using Ethocel 100 Premium and Ethocel 100 FP Premium as rate controlling polymer. In-vitro studies were performed according to USP Method-I in phosphate buffer (PH 6.8) using pharma test dissolution apparatus. The temperature of the dissolution medium was kept constant at 37±0.5°C at 100rpm. Flow properties, physical quality control tests, effect of polymer size and drug-to-polymers ratios were studied using different kinetics models such as 1st-order, zero-order, Hixon Crowell model, Highuchi model and Power law. Difference factor f1 and similarity factor f2 were applied for dissolution profiles against Cardaktin® tablets used as a reference formulation. The matrices with polymer ethocel 100 FP Premiums have prolonged the drug release rate as compared to polymer ethocel 100 Premiums. The n values matrices with polymer ethocel grade 100 ranged from 0.603 to 0.857 indicating that the drug release occurred by anomalous non fickian diffusion kinetics while then value of reference Cardaktin® tablet was measured as 0.125 indicating that these tablets do not follow power law. The dissolution profiles of test formulations were different than that of reference Cardaktin®. This suggests the polymer Ethocel grade 100 can be proficiently incorporated in fabrication and development of once a day controlled release matrix tablets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-neutral operation (ENO is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day.

  11. High energy effects on D-brane and black hole emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Sarkar, T.

    1997-01-01

    We study the emission of scalar particles from a class of near-extremal five-dimensional black holes and the corresponding D-brane configuration at high energies. We show that the distribution functions and the black hole greybody factors are modified in the high energy tail of the Hawking spectrum in such a way that the emission rates exactly match. We extend the results to charged scalar emission and to four dimensions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Binding free energy and counterion release for adsorption of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B on a POPG membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Vivcharuk, Victor; Tomberli, Bruno; Gray, C. G.

    2009-09-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interaction of an anionic palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) bilayer with the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin (LFCinB) in a 100 mM NaCl solution at 310 K. The interaction of LFCinB with a POPG bilayer is employed as a model system for studying the details of membrane adsorption selectivity of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Seventy eight 4 ns MD production run trajectories of the equilibrated system, with six restrained orientations of LFCinB at 13 different separations from the POPG membrane, are generated to determine the free energy profile for the peptide as a function of the distance between LFCinB and the membrane surface. To calculate the profile for this relatively large system, a variant of constrained MD and thermodynamic integration is used. A simplified method for relating the free energy profile to the LFCinB-POPG membrane binding constant is employed to predict a free energy of adsorption of -5.4±1.3kcal/mol and a corresponding maximum adsorption binding force of about 58 pN. We analyze the results using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We find the peptide-membrane attraction to be dominated by the entropy increase due to the release of counterions and polarized water from the region between the charged membrane and peptide, as the two approach each other. We contrast these results with those found earlier for adsorption of LFCinB on the mammalianlike palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine membrane.

  13. Uncertainty in the learning rates of energy technologies. An experiment in a global multi-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe; Voss, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of promising energy technologies in the market depends on their future energy production-cost development. When analyzing these technologies in an integrated assessment model using endogenous technological learning, the uncertainty in the assumed learning rates (LRs) plays a crucial role in the production-cost development and model outcomes. This study examines the uncertainty in LRs of some energy technologies under endogenous global learning implementation and presents a floor-cost modeling procedure to systematically regulate the uncertainty in LRs of energy technologies. The article narrates the difficulties of data assimilation, as compatible with mixed integer programming segmentations, and comprehensively presents the causes of uncertainty in LRs. This work is executed using a multi-regional and long-horizon energy system model based on 'TIMES' framework. All regions receive an economic advantage to learn in a common domain, and resource-ample regions obtain a marginal advantage for better exploitation of the learning technologies, due to a lower supply-side fuel-cost development. The lowest learning investment associated with the maximum LR mobilizes more deployment of the learning technologies. The uncertainty in LRs has an impact on the diffusion of energy technologies tested, and therefore this study scrutinizes the role of policy support for some of the technologies investigated. (author)

  14. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  15. Fission and explosive energy releases of PuO2, PuO2--UO2, UO2, and UO3 assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, J.J.; Hansen, G.E.; Byers, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The critical masses and fission and explosive energy releases of PuO 2 , PuO 2 --UO 2 , UO 2 , and UO 3 assemblies have been calculated. The parameters selected for the model are conservative. They were chosen after review of appropriate plants that have been and are proposed for construction in the future. The resulting data envelopes are intended to include any conceivable set of circumstances that could ultimately lead to a nuclear incident. All energy release analysis was performed for initial fission spikes only: recriticality mechanisms were not considered

  16. STAR FORMATION RATES AND STELLAR MASSES OF z = 7-8 GALAXIES FROM IRAC OBSERVATIONS OF THE WFC3/IR EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE AND THE HUDF FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, I.; Gonzalez, V.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Carollo, C. M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.; Kriek, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the Spitzer/IRAC properties of 36 z ∼ 7 z 850 -dropout galaxies and three z ∼ 8 Y 098 galaxies derived from deep/wide-area WFC3/IR data of the Early Release Science, the ultradeep HUDF09, and wide-area NICMOS data. We fit stellar population synthesis models to the spectral energy distributions to derive mean redshifts, stellar masses, and ages. The z ∼ 7 galaxies are best characterized by substantial ages (>100 Myr) and M/L V ∼ 0.2. The main trend with decreasing luminosity is that of bluing of the far-UV slope from β ∼ -2.0 to β ∼ -3.0. This can be explained by decreasing metallicity, except for the lowest luminosity galaxies (0.1L* z =3 ), where low metallicity and smooth star formation histories (SFHs) fail to match the blue far-UV and moderately red H - [3.6] color. Such colors may require episodic SFHs with short periods of activity and quiescence ('on-off' cycles) and/or a contribution from emission lines. The stellar mass of our sample of z ∼ 7 star-forming galaxies correlates with star formation rate (SFR) according to log M* = 8.70(±0.09) + 1.06(±0.10)log SFR, implying that star formation may have commenced at z > 10. No galaxies are found with SFRs much higher or lower than the past averaged SFR suggesting that the typical star formation timescales are probably a substantial fraction of the Hubble time. We report the first IRAC detection of Y 098 -dropout galaxies at z ∼ 8. The average rest-frame U - V ∼ 0.3 (AB) of the three galaxies are similar to faint z ∼ 7 galaxies, implying similar M/L. The stellar mass density to M UV,AB +0.7 -1.0 x 10 6 M sun Mpc -3 , following log ρ*(z) = 10.6(±0.6) - 4.4(±0.7) log(1 + z) [M sun Mpc -3 ] over 3 < z < 8.

  17. Star Formation Rates and Stellar Masses of z = 7-8 Galaxies from IRAC Observations of the WFC3/IR Early Release Science and the HUDF Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, I.; González, V.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Kriek, M.; Magee, D.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the Spitzer/IRAC properties of 36 z ~ 7 z 850-dropout galaxies and three z ~ 8 Y 098 galaxies derived from deep/wide-area WFC3/IR data of the Early Release Science, the ultradeep HUDF09, and wide-area NICMOS data. We fit stellar population synthesis models to the spectral energy distributions to derive mean redshifts, stellar masses, and ages. The z ~ 7 galaxies are best characterized by substantial ages (>100 Myr) and M/LV ≈ 0.2. The main trend with decreasing luminosity is that of bluing of the far-UV slope from β ~ -2.0 to β ~ -3.0. This can be explained by decreasing metallicity, except for the lowest luminosity galaxies (0.1L* z = 3), where low metallicity and smooth star formation histories (SFHs) fail to match the blue far-UV and moderately red H - [3.6] color. Such colors may require episodic SFHs with short periods of activity and quiescence ("on-off" cycles) and/or a contribution from emission lines. The stellar mass of our sample of z ~ 7 star-forming galaxies correlates with star formation rate (SFR) according to log M* = 8.70(±0.09) + 1.06(±0.10)log SFR, implying that star formation may have commenced at z > 10. No galaxies are found with SFRs much higher or lower than the past averaged SFR suggesting that the typical star formation timescales are probably a substantial fraction of the Hubble time. We report the first IRAC detection of Y 098-dropout galaxies at z ~ 8. The average rest-frame U - V ≈ 0.3 (AB) of the three galaxies are similar to faint z ~ 7 galaxies, implying similar M/L. The stellar mass density to M UV,AB Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11563, 9797. Based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through contract 125790 issued by JPL/Caltech. Based on service

  18. Simple analytical approximation for rotationally inelastic rate constants based on the energy corrected sudden scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions

  19. Nano-encapsulation of olive leaf phenolic compounds through WPC-pectin complexes and evaluating their release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Adeleh; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpour, Elham; Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, W/O micro-emulsions as primary emulsions and a complex of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin in the external aqueous phase were used to produce W/O/W emulsions. Average droplet size of primary W/O emulsion and multiple emulsions stabilized by WPC or WPC-pectin after one day of production was 6.16, 675.7 and 1443 nm, respectively, which achieved to 22.97, 347.7 and, 1992.4 nm after 20 days storage without any sedimentation. The encapsulation efficiency of phenolic compounds for stabilized W/O/W emulsions with WPC and WPC-pectin were 93.34% and 96.64%, respectively, which was decreased to 72.73% and 88.81% at 20th storage day. The lowest release of phenolics observed in multiple emulsions of WPC-pectin. These results suggest that nano-encapsulation of olive leaf extract within inner aqueous phase of W/O/W emulsions was successful, and there could be a high potential for the application of olive leaf extract in fortification of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Blundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass (FM], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate, but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  1. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  2. Interaction of initial litter quality and thinning intensity on litter decomposition rate, nitrogen accumulation and release in a pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chen; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Weiwei Wang; Guolei Li; Yong. Liu

    2014-01-01

    Thinning alters litter quality and microclimate under forests. Both of these two changes after thinning induce alterations of litter decomposition rates and nutrient cycling. However, a possible interaction between these two changes remains unclear. We placed two types of litter (LN, low N concentration litter; HN, high N concentration litter) in a Chinese pine (Pinus...

  3. Estimates of external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors for selected radionuclides released from fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This report provides a tabulation of both external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors using radioactive decay data in the updated Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for selected 26 radionuclides and all their daughter radionuclides of potential importance in safety assessments of fusion facilities. The external dose-rate conversion factors for 21 target organs are tabulated for three exposure modes that are immersion in contaminated air, irradiation at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface and immersion contaminated water. For internal exposure, committed dose equivalents, based on the methodology of ICRP Publication 30, in the same target organs per intake of unit activity are given for the inhalation and ingestion exposure pathways. The data presented here is intended to be generally used for safety assessments of fusion reactors. Comparisons of external effective dose-rate conversion factors and committed effective dose equivalents are made with the previous data from the independent data bases to provide quality assurance on our calculated results. There is generally good agreement among data from the independent data bases. The differences in the values of both effective dose-rate and dose conversion factors appeared are primarily due to differences in calculational methodology, the use of different radioactive decay data, and compilation errors. (author)

  4. Variation in effective pollination rates in relation to the spatial and temporal distribution of pollen release in rejuvenated perennial ryegrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Goossens, P.J.; Sevcikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Genebank accessions stored as seed populations require periodic rejuvenation in order to maintain sufficient numbers of viable seeds. During rejuvenation the genetic composition of accessions may be altered for a variety of reasons, of which variation in pollination rates between plants is the least

  5. Heart rate profiles and energy cost of locomotion during cross-country skiing races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognoni, P; Rossi, G; Gastaldelli, F; Canclini, A; Cotelli, F

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses and speed in two cross-country skiing races, which were run by seven male and seven female subjects by using classic and free style. Heart rates and skiing velocities were analyzed over flat, uphill and downhill sections, which were run from one to three times. Heart rates were higher in uphill sections than in flat sections; a steady-state heart rate was never reached in the downhill section. When the same uphill section was repeated, the heart rate tended to increase but the speed to decrease. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was calculated from heart rate:VO2 ratio, measured during uphill walking with the aid of poles. The mean (SD) energy cost of locomotion (i.e., the ratio between net VO2 and speed) was 162.1 (9.4) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) and 147.7 (7.1) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) when male subjects ran the flat section after first downhill by using classic and free style, respectively. Females had lower values for VO2 and speed, but similar energy costs. In general, the variability of the energy cost of locomotion in skiers of a similar competitive level is of the same order as that found in uphill walking on a treadmill.

  6. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals partially rate-limiting product release by parallel pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Murkin, Andrew S

    2012-07-03

    As part of the non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl pyrophosphate, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR) catalyzes the conversion of DXP into 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) by consecutive isomerization and NADPH-dependent reduction reactions. Because this pathway is essential to many infectious organisms but is absent in humans, DXR is a target for drug discovery. In an attempt to characterize its kinetic mechanism and identify rate-limiting steps, we present the first complete transient kinetic investigation of DXR. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements with Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXR (MtDXR) revealed that NADPH and MEP bind to the free enzyme and that the two bind together to generate a nonproductive ternary complex. Unlike the Escherichia coli orthologue, MtDXR exhibited a burst in the oxidation of NADPH during pre-steady-state reactions, indicating a partially rate-limiting step follows chemistry. By monitoring NADPH fluorescence during these experiments, the transient generation of MtDXR·NADPH·MEP was observed. Global kinetic analysis supports a model involving random substrate binding and ordered release of NADP(+) followed by MEP. The partially rate-limiting release of MEP occurs via two pathways--directly from the binary complex and indirectly via the MtDXR·NADPH·MEP complex--the partitioning being dependent on NADPH concentration. Previous mechanistic studies, including kinetic isotope effects and product inhibition, are discussed in light of this kinetic mechanism.

  7. Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER [Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor] reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs

  8. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  9. Flow rate and source reservoir identification from airborne chemical sampling of the uncontrolled Elgin platform gas release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D.; Mobbs, Stephen D.; Wellpott, Axel; Allen, Grant; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Burton, Ralph R.; Camilli, Richard; Coe, Hugh; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Gallagher, Martin; Hopkins, James R.; Lanoiselle, Mathias; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Purvis, Ruth M.; O'Shea, Sebastian; Pyle, John A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.

    2018-03-01

    An uncontrolled gas leak from 25 March to 16 May 2012 led to evacuation of the Total Elgin wellhead and neighbouring drilling and production platforms in the UK North Sea. Initially the atmospheric flow rate of leaking gas and condensate was very poorly known, hampering environmental assessment and well control efforts. Six flights by the UK FAAM chemically instrumented BAe-146 research aircraft were used to quantify the flow rate. The flow rate was calculated by assuming the plume may be modelled by a Gaussian distribution with two different solution methods: Gaussian fitting in the vertical and fitting with a fully mixed layer. When both solution methods were used they compared within 6 % of each other, which was within combined errors. Data from the first flight on 30 March 2012 showed the flow rate to be 1.3 ± 0.2 kg CH4 s-1, decreasing to less than half that by the second flight on 17 April 2012. δ13CCH4 in the gas was found to be -43 ‰, implying that the gas source was unlikely to be from the main high pressure, high temperature Elgin gas field at 5.5 km depth, but more probably from the overlying Hod Formation at 4.2 km depth. This was deemed to be smaller and more manageable than the high pressure Elgin field and hence the response strategy was considerably simpler. The first flight was conducted within 5 days of the blowout and allowed a flow rate estimate within 48 h of sampling, with δ13CCH4 characterization soon thereafter, demonstrating the potential for a rapid-response capability that is widely applicable to future atmospheric emissions of environmental concern. Knowledge of the Elgin flow rate helped inform subsequent decision making. This study shows that leak assessment using appropriately designed airborne plume sampling strategies is well suited for circumstances where direct access is difficult or potentially dangerous. Measurements such as this also permit unbiased regulatory assessment of potential impact, independent of the emitting

  10. Using the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) to evaluate CHENATH, the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme Simulation Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsante, A.E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Highett, VIC (Australia). Div. of Building Construction and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) uses a simulation program as its reference tool to evaluate the energy demand of buildings. The Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) developed software called CHENATH, is a significantly enhanced version of the CHEETAH simulation program. As part of the NatHERS development process, it was considered important to subject CHENATH to further testing. Two separate evaluation projects were undertaken. This paper describes one of these projects. CHENATH was compared with a reference set of eight internationally recognized simulation programs using the BESTEST methodology. Annual heating and cooling energy requirements were compared for a specified set of variations on a simple double-glazed building. Annual incident and transmitted solar radiation was also compared, for which CHENATH agreed very well with the reference set. It also agreed well for heating energy, but tended to over-predict cooling energy. This is largely because it controls an environmental temperature rather than the required air temperature. For the same reason CHENATH over-predicted heating and cooling demands. No major discrepancies were found that would suggest bugs in the program. (author). 4 tabs., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  11. Energy-aware architecture for multi-rate ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yahya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The backbone of ad hoc network design is energy performance and bandwidth resources limitations. Multi-rate adaptation architectures have been proposed to reduce the control overhead and to increase bandwidth utilization efficiency. In this paper, we propose a multi-rate protocol to provide the highest network performance under very low control overhead. The efficiency of the proposed auto multi-rate protocol is validated extensive simulations using QualNet network simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution significantly improves the overall network performance.

  12. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  13. Metrologic analysis of energy and economic growth rate and study of the countermeasures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, W.P.; Yun, Z.; Lain, C.W.; Kun, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal output in China increased from 872mt in 1985 to 1080mt in 1990, representing an annual growth rate of 4.37% . As the biggest coal burning country, it gives out a large amount of CO 2 and other pollutants into air, resulting in serious air pollution and sharing a great part in creating the global greenhouse effect. On the other hand, China faces severe energy shortage. Coal will remain the most important energy resource for a long time, Using the method of econometrics, this paper analyses the relations between China's energy production, consumption increase and national economic growth in the list forty years, makes comparisons with other countries, and points out problems of China's energy consumption increase and economic development. On this basis the strategy for developing China's energy industry is put forward, In the end, the authors advance that the leading position of energy industry in the national economy must be established and economic developing speed in China must be determined according to that of the energy industry, and China's national economy can then develop continuously, steadily and coordinately. Environment problems will become restrictive condition of china's energy developing strategy and technology choice

  14. Radiation chemistry of water at low dose rates with emphasis on the energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    There has been considerable interest in absorbed dose water calorimetry. In order to accurately relate the temperature change to the absorbed dose, the energy balance of the overall chemistry of the system must be known. The radiolytic products and their yields are affected by dose rate, dose and added solutes. The yields of the radiolytic products have been calculated using a computer program developed at Atomic Energy of Canada. The chemical energy balance was determined as a function of dose for various dose rates and initial concentrations of hydrogen (H 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In solutions containing H 2 O 2 or O 2 and H 2 the chemical reactions were exothermic; in other cases they were endothermic. Approach to equilibrium and equilbrium conditions are discussed

  15. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Load-Unload Response Ratio and Accelerating Moment/Energy Release Critical Region Scaling and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X. C.; Mora, P.; Peng, K.; Wang, Y. C.; Weatherley, D.

    The main idea of the Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR) is that when a system is stable, its response to loading corresponds to its response to unloading, whereas when the system is approaching an unstable state, the response to loading and unloading becomes quite different. High LURR values and observations of Accelerating Moment/Energy Release (AMR/AER) prior to large earthquakes have led different research groups to suggest intermediate-term earthquake prediction is possible and imply that the LURR and AMR/AER observations may have a similar physical origin. To study this possibility, we conducted a retrospective examination of several Australian and Chinese earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 7.9, including Australia's deadly Newcastle earthquake and the devastating Tangshan earthquake. Both LURR values and best-fit power-law time-to-failure functions were computed using data within a range of distances from the epicenter. Like the best-fit power-law fits in AMR/AER, the LURR value was optimal using data within a certain epicentral distance implying a critical region for LURR. Furthermore, LURR critical region size scales with mainshock magnitude and is similar to the AMR/AER critical region size. These results suggest a common physical origin for both the AMR/AER and LURR observations. Further research may provide clues that yield an understanding of this mechanism and help lead to a solid foundation for intermediate-term earthquake prediction.

  17. Assessment of chemicals released in the marine environment by dielectric elastomers useful as active elements in wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Bele, Adrian; Vasiliu, Lavinia; Gradinaru, Luiza; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Racles, Carmen; Cazacu, Maria

    2018-01-05

    A series of elastomers, either natural or synthetic (some of them commercial, while others prepared in the laboratory), suitable for use as active elements in devices for wave energy harvesting, were evaluated concerning their behavior and effects on the marine environment. In this aim, the elastomer films, initially evaluated regarding their aspect, structure, surface wettability, and tolerance of microorganisms growth, were immersed in synthetic seawater (SSW) within six months for assessing compounds released. There were analyzed the changes occurred both in the elastomers and salt water in which they were immersed. For this, water samples taken at set time intervals were analyzed by using a sequence of sensitive spectral techniques: UV-vis, IR, and in relevant cases 1 H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), able to detect and identify organic compounds, while after six months, they were also investigated from the point of view of aspect, presence of metal traces, pH, and biological activity. The changes in aspect, structure and morphology of the dielectric films at the end of the dipping period were also evaluated by visual inspection, IR spectroscopy by using spectral subtraction method, and SEM-EDX technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical rate of energy loss for registration of charged particles in cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoefel, T.M.J.; Sachett, I.A.

    1979-09-01

    Cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II (Kodak-Pathe) have been exposed, at right angles, to alpha-particle beams in the energy range 2.5 - 5.5 MeV. From measurements of both through etched track density, a critical rate of energy lo ss for track registration of (0.85 +- 0.05) MeV cm 2 /mg has been derived, which corresponds to a critical alpha-particle energy of (4.6 +- 0.4) MeV. These results are compatible with those obtained by other authors whenever similar etching conditions are used. The concepts of threshold rate of energy loss and a threshold energy for etched-track formation are introduced, and their values are obtained from the experiment as being (0.80 +- 0.05) MeV cm 2 /mg and (5.1 +- 0.4) Mev, respectively. In addition, the present work provides a suitable set of useful, reference data for further applications of such plastic nuclear track detector in problems concerned with the detection of low-energy alpha particles. (Author) [pt

  19. Suitability of representative electrochemical energy storage technologies for ramp-rate control of photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Fletcher, John; Burr, Patrick; Hall, Charles; Zheng, Bowen; Wang, Da-Wei; Ouyang, Zi; Lennon, Alison

    2018-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems can exhibit rapid variances in their power output due to irradiance changes which can destabilise an electricity grid. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of the suitability of different electrochemical energy storage system (ESS) technologies to provide ramp-rate control of power in PV systems. Our investigations show that, for PV systems ranging from residential rooftop systems to megawatt power systems, lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities (up to 600 Wh L-1) require the smallest power-normalised volumes to achieve the ramp rate limit of 10% min-1 with 100% compliance. As the system size increases, the ESS power-normalised volume requirements are significantly reduced due to aggregated power smoothing, with high power lithium-ion batteries becoming increasingly more favourable with increased PV system size. The possibility of module-level ramp-rate control is also introduced, and results show that achievement of a ramp rate of 10% min-1 with 100% compliance with typical junction box sizes will require ESS energy and power densities of 400 Wh L-1 and 2300 W L-1, respectively. While module-level ramp-rate control can reduce the impact of solar intermittence, the requirement is challenging, especially given the need for low cost and long cycle life.

  20. Observations of turbulent energy dissipation rate in the upper ocean of the central South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of turbulent energy dissipation rate, velocity, temperature, and salinity were obtained in the upper ocean of the central South China Sea (14.5˚N, 117.0˚E) during an experimental campaign from May 11th to 13th 2010. Dissipation rate was elevated ( 10-7 Wkg-1) at night by convection mixing and was weakened ( 10-9 Wkg-1) in daytime due to the warming stratification. Thermocline dissipation rate varied with time ( 10-9 Wkg-1 to 10-8 Wkg-1) under the influence of internal waves. Energy was transferred from the diurnal internal tides to high frequency internal waves through nonlinear wave-wave interactions. This energy cascade process was accompanied by elevated shear and enhanced dissipation, which played an important role in the turbulent mixing in thermocline. Compare with the thermocline dissipation, dissipation below the thermocline was more stable and weak ( 10-10 Wkg-1). The observed dissipation rate during the measurement was well parameterized by the MacKinnon-Gregg parameterization (a model based on a reinterpretation of wave-wave interaction theory), whereas the Gregg-Henyey parameterization was not in good agreement with the observed dissipation rate.