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Sample records for energy recovery fels

  1. Start-To-End Simulations of the Energy Recovery Linac Prototype FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Gerth, Christopher; Muratori, Bruno; Owen, Hywel; Thompson, Neil R

    2004-01-01

    Daresbury Laboratory is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) that serves as a testbed for the study of beam dynamics and accelerator technology important for the design and construction of the proposed 4th Generation Light Source (4GLS) project. Two major objectives for the ERLP are the operation of an oscillator infra-red FEL and demonstration of energy recovery from an electron bunch with an energy spread induced by the FEL. In this paper we present start-to-end simulations including the FEL of the ERLP. The beam dynamics in the high-brightness injector, which consists of a DC photocathode gun and a super-conducting booster, have been modelled using the particle tracking code ASTRA. After the main linac, in which the particles are accelerated to 35 MeV, particles have been tracked with the code ELEGANT. The 3D code GENESIS was used to model the FEL interaction with the electron beam. Different modes of operation and their impact on the design of the ERLP are discussed.

  2. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-01-01

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL)

  3. JAERI FEL applications in nuclear energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI FEL has first discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high efficiency, 1GW high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear energy industries, and others. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to prevent cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear energy and other heavy industries. (author)

  4. Status and Future Plans of JAERI Eergy-Recovery Linac FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Kikuzawa, N; Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M; Yamauchi, T

    2005-01-01

    An energy-recovery linac for a high-power free-electron laser is in operation at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In this paper, we report results of research activities and future plans of JAERI ERL-FEL, which are the construction of FEL transport line, the operation of newly-installed RF controller and IOTs, the development of super-lattice photo cathode.

  5. Beyond the International Linear Collider Driven by FEL with Energy Recovery at 5-10TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R

    2005-01-01

    The international linear collider (ILC) at the extreme high energy frontier provides the best hope for the scientist to probe the finenst structure of matter and its origin and perhaps even the origin of the Universe. The technology that employs is based on superconducting RF technology. This technology may usher in a new era for the development of superconducting accelerator technology. On the other hand, the gradient that is allowed in such an accelerator is limited. If one wishes something beyond this after one learns the physics at such high energies(~0.5TeV) and utilizing such technology, one may need a new way to employ the supeconducting technology in providing high gradient compact accelerators. Inspired by a former work of 5-TeV colliders based on solid-state tera-watt lasers [1], we explore 5-10 TeV linear colliders driven by free-electron lasers equipped with energy-recovery system. A preliminary design study suggests that a 5-10 TeV collider with the luminosity of 10(34) can be realized by multi-s...

  6. FEL based photon collider of TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Shnejdmiller, E.A.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Physical principles of operation of high energy photon linear colliders (PLC) based on the Compton backscattering of laser photons on high energy electrons are discussed. The main emphasis is put on the analysis of a possibility to construct the PLC with the center of mass energy 0.5-2 TeV. Free electron laser (FEL) is considered as a source of primary photons. Proposed FEL system consists of a tunable FEL oscillator (output power ∼ 1 - 10 MW) with subsequent amplification of the master signal in a FEL amplifier up to the power ∼ 3 x 10 11 W. The FEL parameters are optimized, restrictions on the electron beam and FEL magnetic system parameters are formulated and problems of technical realization are discussed. It is shown that the FEL technique provides the most suitable way to construct photon linear collider on the base of future generation linear collider. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Analysis of the FEL-RF interaction in recirculating, energy-recovering linacs with an FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Alexeev, P.; Benson, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Doolittle, L.; Neil, G.

    1999-01-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs. Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, phase oscillations and optical cavity detuning. These effects in turn cause changes in the laser output power through a time-varying FEL gain function. All three effects change the beam-induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field and output laser power. We have developed a model of the coupled system and solved it both analytically and numerically. It includes the beam-cavity interaction, low level RF feedback, and the electron-photon interaction. The latter includes the FEL gain function in terms of cavity detuning, energy offset, and is valid both in the small signal gain and in the saturated regimes. We have demonstrated that in the limit of small perturbations, the linear theory agrees with the numerical solutions and have performed numerical simulations for the IR FEL presently being commissioned at Jefferson Lab

  8. Analysis of the FEL-RF interaction in recirculating energy-recovering linacs with an FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, Lia; Alexeev, P.; Benson, Steve; Bolshakov, A.; Doolittle, Lawrence; Neil, George

    1999-01-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs. Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, phase oscillations and optical cavity detuning. These effects in turn cause changes in the laser output power through a time-varying FEL gain function. All three effects change the beam-induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field and output laser power. We have developed a model of the coupled system and solved it both analytically and numerically. It includes the beam-cavity interaction, low level RF feedback, and the electron-photon interaction. The latter includes the FEL gain function in terms of cavity detuning, energy offset, and is valid both in the small signal gain and in the saturated regimes. We have demonstrated that in the limit of small perturbations, the linear theory agrees with the numerical solutions and have performed numerical simulations for the IR FEL presently being commissioned at Jefferson Lab

  9. Analysis of the FEL-RF interaction in recirculating, energy-recovering linacs with an FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merminga, L. E-mail: merminga@jlab.org; Alexeev, P.; Benson, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Doolittle, L.; Neil, G

    1999-06-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs. Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, phase oscillations and optical cavity detuning. These effects in turn cause changes in the laser output power through a time-varying FEL gain function. All three effects change the beam-induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field and output laser power. We have developed a model of the coupled system and solved it both analytically and numerically. It includes the beam-cavity interaction, low level RF feedback, and the electron-photon interaction. The latter includes the FEL gain function in terms of cavity detuning, energy offset, and is valid both in the small signal gain and in the saturated regimes. We have demonstrated that in the limit of small perturbations, the linear theory agrees with the numerical solutions and have performed numerical simulations for the IR FEL presently being commissioned at Jefferson Lab.

  10. Analysis of the FEL-RF interaction in recirculating, energy-recovering linacs with an FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Merminga, L; Benson, S; Bolshakov, A; Doolittle, L; Neil, George R

    1999-01-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs. Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, phase oscillations and optical cavity detuning. These effects in turn cause changes in the laser output power through a time-varying FEL gain function. All three effects change the beam-induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field and output laser power. We have developed a model of the coupled system and solved it both analytically and numerically. It includes the beam-cavity interaction, low level RF feedback, and the electron-photon interaction. The latter includes the FEL gain function in terms of cavity detuning, energy offset, and is valid both in the small signal gain and in the saturated regimes. We have demonstrated that in the limit of small perturbations, the linear theory agrees with the numerical solutions and have performed...

  11. Energy stability in recirculating, energy-recovering linacs in the presence of a FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Bisognano, J.; Delayen, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs (free electron lasers). Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, or, when coupled to M 56 , phase oscillations. Both effects change the beam induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field. An analytical model which includes amplitude and phase feedback, has been developed to study the stability of the system for small perturbations from equilibrium. The interaction of the electron beam with the FEL is a major perturbation which affects both the stability of the system and development of startup and recovery scenarios. To simulate the system's response to such large parameter variations, a numerical model of the beam-cavity interaction has been developed which includes low level rf feedback, phase oscillations and beam loss instabilities and the FEL interaction. Agreement between the numerical model and the linear theory has been demonstrated in the limit of small perturbations. In addition, the model has been benchmarked against experimental data obtained during CEBAF's high current operation. Numerical simulations have been performed for the high power IR DEMO approved for construction at CEBAF

  12. Powerful electrostatic FEL: Regime of operation, recovery of the spent electron beam and high voltage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, I. [Univ. and INFN, Milan (Italy); Gong, J. [Southwest Jiaotong Univ., Chengdu (China)

    1995-02-01

    FEL, driven by a Cockcroft-Walton electrostatic accelerator with the recovery of the spent electron beam, is proposed as powerful radiation source for plasma heating. The low gain and high gain regimes are compared in view of the recovery problem and the high gain regime is shown to be much more favourable. A new design of the onion Cockcroft-Walton is presented.

  13. Energy stability in a high average power FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermings, L.; Bisognano, J.; Delayen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs. Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields or beam current are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, or, when coupled to M, phase oscillations. Both effects change the beam induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field. Stability analysis for small perturbations from equilibrium is performed and threshold currents are determined. Furthermore, the analytical model is extended to include feedback. Comparison with simulation results derived from direct integration of the equations of motion is presented. Design strategies to increase the instability threshold are discussed and the UV Demo FEL, proposed for construction at CEBAF, and the INP Recuperatron at Novosibirsk are used as examples

  14. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  15. Scaling of gain with energy spread and energy in the PEP FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Sag Harbor paper on the PEP FEL discusses the scaling of various FEL parameters with energy spread σ var-epsilon . I will repeat some of this material here and then examine the benefit of increasing the energy spread. How much energy spread can be achieved with damping wigglers is the next topic. Finally, I consider the dependence of gain and saturation length on beam energy and undulator field

  16. JAERI 10kW High Power ERL-FEL and Its Applications in Nuclear Energy Industries

    CERN Document Server

    Minehara, E J; Iijima, H; Kikuzawa, N; Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M; Yamauchi, T

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI high power ERL-FEL has been extended to the more powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW for nuclear energy industries, and other heavy industries like defense, shipbuilding, chemical industries, environmental sciences, space-debris, and power beaming and so on. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the ERL-FEL will cover the current status of the 10kW upgrading and its applications of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to decommission the nuclear power plants, and to demonstrate successfully the proof of principle prevention of cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear power reactors under routine operation using small cubic low-Carbon stainless steel samples.

  17. On FEL integral equation and electron energy loss in intermediate gain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    1994-03-01

    The FEL pendulum equation in a intermediate gain small signal regime is investigated. By calculating the energy loss of the electron beam in terms of the solution of the pendulum equation, we confirm the consistency of the FEL equation in intermediate gain regime. (author)

  18. Development and operation of the JAERI superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2006-02-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute free-electron laser (JAERI FEL) group at Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan has successfully developed one of the most advanced and newest accelerator technologies named "superconducting energy recovery linacs (ERLs)" and some applications in near future using the ERLs. In the text, the current operation and high power JAERI ERL-FEL 10 kW upgrading program, ERL-light source design studies, prevention of the stainless-steel cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures and decommissioning of nuclear power plants in nuclear energy industries were reported and discussed briefly as a typical application of the ERL-FEL.

  19. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  20. The JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FELS and THEIR cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, we need a powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) for academic and industrial uses in almost all fields. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, the JAERI FEL group and I have developed an industrial FEL driven by a compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off super-conducting rf linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the JAERI FEL and cryogenics will cover market-requirements for the industrial FELs, some answers from the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off cryostat concept and operational experiences over these 9 years, our discovery of the new, highly-efficient, high-power, and ultra-short pulse lasing mode, and the energy-recovery geometry. (author)

  1. Energy recovery from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper are reported analysis of some energy recovery form wastes plants. In this work are considered materials and energy flows, environmental impacts and related treatment costs and financial resources [it

  2. Status of the Novosibirsk high-power terahertz FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, N.G.; Knyazev, B.A.; Kolobanov, E.I.; Kotenkov, V.V.; Kubarev, V.V.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Matveenko, A.N.; Medvedev, L.E.; Miginsky, S.V.; Mironenko, L.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Ovchar, V.K.; Popik, V.M.; Salikova, T.V.; Scheglov, M.A.; Serednyakov, S.S.; Shevchenko, O.A.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Tcheskidov, V.G.; Vinokurov, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    The first stage of Novosibirsk high-power free electron laser (FEL) was commissioned in 2003. It is based on the normal conducting CW energy recovery linac (ERL). Now the FEL provides electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range 120-230 μm. The maximum average power is 400 W. The minimum measured linewidth is 0.3%, which is close to the Fourier-transform limit. Four user stations are in operation now. Manufacturing of the second stage of the FEL (based on the four-turn ERL) is in progress

  3. Beam transport design for a recirculating-linac FEL driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, D.; Douglas, D.; Li, Z.; Cornacchia, M.; Garren, A.

    1996-01-01

    The beam transport system for the CEBAF Industrial FEL includes a two-pass transport of the beam with acceleration from injector to wiggler, followed by energy recovery transport from wiggler to dump. From that context, the authors discuss the general problem of multi-pass energy-recovery beam transport for FELs. Tunable, nearly-isochronous, large-momentum-acceptance transport systems are required. The entire transport must preserve beam quality, particularly in the acceleration transport to the wiggler, and have low losses throughout the entire system. Various possible designs are presented, and results of dynamic analyses are discussed

  4. Tapered undulators for SASE FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Fawley, W M; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the use of tapered undulators to enhance the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) based upon self-amplified spontaneous emission, where the radiation tends to have a relatively broad bandwidth and limited temporal coherence. Using the polychromatic FEL simulation code GINGER, we numerically demonstrate the effectiveness of tapered undulators for parameters corresponding to the Argonne low-energy undulator test line FEL and the proposed linac coherent light source.

  5. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  6. Lattice Design for a High-Power Infrared FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, D. R.

    1997-05-01

    A 1 kW infrared FEL, funded by the U.S. Navy, is under construction at Jefferson Lab. This device will be driven by a compact, 42 MeV, 5 mA, energy-recovering, CW SRF-based linear accelerator to produce light in the 3-6.6 μm range. The machine concept comprises a 10 MeV injector, a linac based on a single high-gradient Jefferson Lab accelerator cryomodule, a wiggler and optical cavity, and an energy-recovery recirculation arc. Energy recovery limits cost and technical risk by reducing the RF power requirements in the driver accelerator. Following deceleration to 10 MeV, the beam is dumped. Stringent phase space requirements at the wiggler, low beam energy, and high beam current subject the accelerator lattice to numerous constraints. Principal considerations include: transport and delivery to the FEL of a high-quality, high-current beam; the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) during beam recirculation transport; beam optics aberration control, to provide low-loss energy-recovery transport of a 5% relative momentum spread, high-current beam; attention to possible beam breakup (BBU) instabilities in the recirculating accelerator; and longitudinal phase space management during beam transport, to optimize RF drive system control during energy recovery and FEL operation. The presentation will address the design process and design solution for an accelerator transport lattice that meets the requirements imposed by these physical phenomena and operational necessities.

  7. Design of a nondestructive two-in-one instrument for measuring the polarization and energy spectrum at an X-ray FEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmin; Deng, Bangjie; Chen, Yuanmiaoliang; Liu, Bochao; Chen, Shaofei; Fan, Jinquan; Feng, Lie; Deng, Haixiao; Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong

    2017-10-01

    The free electron laser (FEL), as a next-generation light source, is an attractive tool in scientific frontier research because of its advantages of full coherence, ultra-short pulse duration, and controllable polarization. Owing to the demand of real-time bunch diagnosis during FEL experiments, precise nondestructive measurements of the polarization and X-ray energy spectrum using one instrument are preferred. In this paper, such an instrument based on the electron time-of-flight technique is proposed. By considering the complexity and nonlinearity, a numerical model in the framework of Geant4 has been developed for optimization. Taking the Shanghai Soft X-ray FEL user facility as an example, its measurement performances' dependence on the critical parameters was studied systematically, and, finally, an optimal design was obtained, achieving resolutions of 0.5% for the polarization degree and 0.3 eV for the X-ray energy spectrum.

  8. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  9. Longitudinal transport measurements in an energy recovery accelerator with triple bend achromat arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal properties of electron bunches (energy spread and bunch length and their manipulation are of importance in free electron lasers (FELs, where magnetic bunch length compression is a common feature of beam transport. Recirculating accelerators and energy recovery linac accelerators (ERLs have been used as FEL drivers for several decades and control of longitudinal beam transport is particularly important in their magnet lattices. We report on measurements of longitudinal transport properties in an ERL-FEL, the ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory. ALICE is an energy recovery research accelerator that drives an infrared free electron laser. By measuring the time of arrival of electron bunches, the canonical longitudinal transport quantities were measured in the beam transport and bunch compression sections of the lattice. ALICE includes a four-dipole bunch compression chicane providing fixed longitudinal transport, and triple bend achromat arcs including sextupole magnets where the first and second order longitudinal transport can be adjusted. The longitudinal transport properties in these lattice sections were measured and compared with the theoretical model of the lattice. A reasonable level of agreement has been found. The effect of sextupoles in second order, as well as first order, longitudinal correction is considered, with the measurements indicating the level of alignment of the beam to the center of the sextupole.

  10. Contributions to the FEL2005 conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, O. (comp.)

    2005-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: First lasing at 32 nm of the VUV-FEL at DESY, properties of the radiation from VUV-FEL at DESY, accelerator lay out and physics of X-ray free-electron lasers, bunch compression stability dependence on RF parameters, undulator systems and photon diagnostic for the European XFEL project, electron beam characterization at PITZ and the VUV-FEL at DESY, high precision optical synchronization systems for X-ray free electron lasers, optical laser synnchronized for the DESY VUV-FEL for two-color pump probe experiments, properties of the third harmonic of the SASE FEL radiation, detector response and beam line transmission measurements with far-infrared radiation, upgrades of the laser beam-line at PITZ, bunch length measurements using a Martin-Puplett interferometer at the VUV-FEL, next generation synchronization system for the VUV-FEL at DESY, transverse electron beam diagnostics at the VYV-FEL at DESY, the infrared undulator project at the VUV-FEL, misconceptions regarding second harmonic generation in X-ray free-electron lasers, influence of an energy chirp on SASE FEL operation, design considerations for the 4GLS XUV-FEL, broadband single shot spectrometer, commissioning of TTF2 bunch compressors for 20 fs SASE source, observation of femtosecond bunch length using a transverse deflecting structure, measurement of slice-emittance using a transverse deflecting structure, the injector of the VUV-FEL at DESY, spectral decoding electro-optic measurements for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at the DESY VUV-FEL, longitudinal phase space studies at PITZ, modelling the transverse phase space and core emittance studies at PITZ, measurements of thermal emittance for cesium telluride photocathodes at PITZ, status and first results from the upgraded PITZ facility, commissioning of the SPARC movable emittance meter and its first operation at PITZ. (HSI)

  11. Contributions to the FEL2005 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, O.

    2005-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: First lasing at 32 nm of the VUV-FEL at DESY, properties of the radiation from VUV-FEL at DESY, accelerator lay out and physics of X-ray free-electron lasers, bunch compression stability dependence on RF parameters, undulator systems and photon diagnostic for the European XFEL project, electron beam characterization at PITZ and the VUV-FEL at DESY, high precision optical synchronization systems for X-ray free electron lasers, optical laser synnchronized for the DESY VUV-FEL for two-color pump probe experiments, properties of the third harmonic of the SASE FEL radiation, detector response and beam line transmission measurements with far-infrared radiation, upgrades of the laser beam-line at PITZ, bunch length measurements using a Martin-Puplett interferometer at the VUV-FEL, next generation synchronization system for the VUV-FEL at DESY, transverse electron beam diagnostics at the VYV-FEL at DESY, the infrared undulator project at the VUV-FEL, misconceptions regarding second harmonic generation in X-ray free-electron lasers, influence of an energy chirp on SASE FEL operation, design considerations for the 4GLS XUV-FEL, broadband single shot spectrometer, commissioning of TTF2 bunch compressors for 20 fs SASE source, observation of femtosecond bunch length using a transverse deflecting structure, measurement of slice-emittance using a transverse deflecting structure, the injector of the VUV-FEL at DESY, spectral decoding electro-optic measurements for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at the DESY VUV-FEL, longitudinal phase space studies at PITZ, modelling the transverse phase space and core emittance studies at PITZ, measurements of thermal emittance for cesium telluride photocathodes at PITZ, status and first results from the upgraded PITZ facility, commissioning of the SPARC movable emittance meter and its first operation at PITZ. (HSI)

  12. The Harmonically Coupled 2-Beam FEL

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, Brian W J

    2004-01-01

    A 1-D model of a 2-beam Free Electron Laser amplifier is presented. The two co-propagating electron beams have different energies, chosen so that the fundamental resonant FEL interaction of the higher energy beam is at an harmonic of the lower energy beam. In this way, a coupling between the FEL interactions of the two beams occurs via the harmonic components of the electron bunching and radiation emission of the lower energy interaction. Such resonantly coupled FEL interactions may offer potential benefits over existing single beam FEL schemes. A simple example is presented where the lower energy FEL interaction only is seeded with radiation at its fundamental resonant wavelength. It is predicted that the coherence properties of this seed field are transfered via the resonantly coupled FEL interaction to the un-seeded higher energy FEL interaction, thereby improving its coherence properties over that of a SASE interaction alone. This method may offer an alternative seeding scheme for FELs operating in the XU...

  13. THE VISA FEL UNDULATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARR, R.; CORNACCHIA, M.; EMMA, P.; NUHN, H.D.; FULAND, R.; JOHNSON, E.; RAKOWSKY, G.; LIDIA, S.; BERTOLINI, L.; LIBKIND, M.; FRIGOLA, P.; PELLEGRINI, C.; ROSENZWEIG, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) FEL is an experimental device designed to show Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) to saturation in the visible light energy range. It will generate a resonant wavelength output from 800--600 nm, so that silicon detectors may be used to characterize the optical properties of the FEL radiation. VISA is the first SASE FEL designed to reach saturation, and its diagnostics will provide important checks of theory. This paper includes a description of the VISA undulator, the magnet measuring and shimming system, and the alignment strategy. VISA will have a 4 m pure permanent magnet undulator comprising four 99 cm segments, each with 55 periods of 18 mm length. The undulator has distributed focusing built into it, to reduce the average beta function of the 70--85 MeV electron beam to about 30 cm. There are four FODO cells per segment. The permanent magnet focusing lattice consists of blocks mounted on either side of the electron beam, in the undulator gap. The most important undulator error parameter for a free electron laser is the trajectory walkoff or lack of overlap of the photon and electron beams. Using pulsed wire magnet measurements and magnet shimming, the authors expect to be able to control trajectory walkoff to less than ±50 pm per field gain length

  14. CAS on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs in Hamburg

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and DESY held a jointly-organised specialised course on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELs and ERLs) in Hamburg, Germany, from 31 May to 10 June 2016.      The course was held in the Hotel Scandic Emporio in Hamburg and was attended by 68 participants of 13 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as China, Iran and Japan. The intensive programme comprised 44 lectures and one seminar. Following introductory lectures on electromagnetism, relativity and synchrotron radiation issues, the basic requirements of linacs and ERLs were discussed. Detailed lectures on the theory of FEL science followed. Undulators and the process of lasing and seeding were covered in some detail along with lectures on various beam dynamics and beam control issues. Case studies, for which seven hours were allocated, completed the academic programme. For these, the students were divided into small groups and tasked with completing the basic desig...

  15. ER@CEBAF: A test of 5-pass energy recovery at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S. A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dubbe, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Michalski, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pilat, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Y. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Satogata, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Spata, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tiefenback, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Korysko, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Jefferson Lab personnel have broad expertise in the design, commissioning, and operation of multiple energy recovery linacs (ERLs): the CEBAF Front-End Test (early 1990s), CEBAF-ER (2003), the IR Free Electron Laser (FEL) Demo, the IR FEL Upgrade, and the UV FEL Driver (1997-2014). Continued development of this core competency has led to this collaborative proposal to explore the forefronts of ERL technology at high energy in a unique expansion of CEBAF capability to a 5-pass ERL with negligible switchover time and programmatic impact to the CEBAF physics program. Such a capability would enable world-class studies of open issues in high-energy ERL beam dynamics that are relevant to future facilities such as electron-ion colliders (EICs). This proposal requests support from the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee to seek funding for hardware installation, and a prospective 12 days of beam time circa Fall 2018 for commissioning this high-energy multi-pass ERL experiment in CEBAF.

  16. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun

  17. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  18. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Performance of the FEL cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, M.; Fischer, J.; Preble, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab, formerly known as CEBAF) is building a highly efficient, kilowatt-level infrared free-electron laser, the IR Demo FEL. The IR FEL uses superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate the electron beam that provides energy for the laser. These cavities provide the high-gradient acceleration for the high average currents necessary for a compact FEL design. Currently, a quarter cryomodule injector and a full eight-cavity cryomodule have been installed in the FEL linac. These units were tested as part of the IR FEL commissioning process. The main focus of these tests was to determine the maximum stable operating gradient. The average maximum gradient reached by these ten cavities was 11 Mv/m. Other tests include measurement of cavity parameters such as the unloaded Q (Qo) vs. gradient, the input coupling, calibration of field probes and behavior of the tuner mechanisms. This paper presents the results of those tests

  20. Extending the photon energy coverage of an x-ray self-seeding FEL via the reverse taper enhanced harmonic generation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kaiqing; Qi, Zheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao, E-mail: fengchao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Haixiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Zhentang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-05-11

    In this paper, a simple method is proposed to extend the photon energy range of a soft x-ray self-seeding free-electron laser (FEL). A normal monochromator is first applied to purify the FEL spectrum and provide a coherent seeding signal. This coherent signal then interacts with the electron beam in the following reverse tapered undulator section to generate strong coherent microbunchings while maintain the good quality of the electron beam. After that, the pre-bunched electron beam is sent into the third undulator section which resonates at a target high harmonic of the seed to amplify the coherent radiation at shorter wavelength. Three dimensional simulations have been performed and the results demonstrate that the photon energy gap between 1.5 keV and 4.5 keV of the self-seeding scheme can be fully covered and 100 GW-level peak power can be achieved by using the proposed technique.

  1. FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings was studied in the small signal regime in considering the increase of the energy spread of the electron beam caused by the FEL interaction and the decrease of the FEL gain with the increase of the energy spread in addition to the radiation damping and the quantum excitation. All these effects were considered separately, and combined with FEL power equations. The radiation power available was expressed explicitly with the parameters of the storage ring, the wiggler and the mirrors. The transient process of FEL lasing is simulated with the power equations. A rough estimation is made of the radiation power available by the FEL at different beam energies, and optimization of FEL parameters for a higher radiation power is discussed. ((orig.))

  2. Design considerations of a MW-scale, high-efficiency, industrial-use, ultraviolet FEL amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, C.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental work in free electron laser (FEL) physics, and the physics of particle accelerators over the last 10 years has pointed to the possibility of the generation of MW-level optical beams with laser-like characteristics in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. The concept is based on generation of the radiation in the master oscillator-power FEL amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The FEL amplifier concept eliminates the need for an optical cavity. As a result, there are no thermal loading limitations to increase the average output power of this device up to the MW-level. The problem of a tunable master oscillator can be solved with available conventional quantum lasers. The use of a superconducting energy-recovery linac could produce a major, cost-effective facility with wall plug power to output optical power efficiency of about 20% that spans wavelengths from the visible to the deep ultraviolet regime. The stringent electron beam qualities required for UV FEL amplifier operation can be met with a conservative injector design (using a conventional thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers) and the beam compression and linear acceleration technology, recently developed in connection with high-energy linear collider and X-ray FEL programs

  3. FEL in transverse optical klystron regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Baltateanu, N.

    1994-01-01

    Among all operational regimes of free electron laser (FEL), the transverse optical regime (TOK) requires the least stringent electron beam parameters. The device associated to this regime, also defined as FEL with two or more components, consists of two or more identical interaction sections separated by one or more drift distances among themselves. Starting from the motion equations which describe the interaction between an electron and the radiation inside the undulator, one can obtain some practical expressions for the calculation of the efficiency of the energy transfer from the electron to the radiation, and the gain of the external coherent radiation for a FEL in TOK with three cavities. (Author)

  4. RF linacs for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are twenty rf linac-driven Free Electron Lasers (FELs) existing or under construction throughout the world and proposals for several more. A number of these FELs have recently been established as facilities to produce coherent optical beams for materials and biomedical research. Both short pulse low duty factor and long pulse high duty factor linac-driven FELs will be discussed. Accelerator issues that influence the performance of an FEL as a scientific instrument will be indicated. (Author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Status report on the development of a high-power UV/IR FEL at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.; Bohn, C.; Dylla, H.F. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Last year we presented a design for a kilowatt industrial UV FEL based on a superconducting RF accelerator delivering 5 mA of electron-beam current at 200 MeV with energy recovery to enhance efficiency. Since then, we have progressed toward resolving several issues associated with that design. More exact simulations of the injector have resulted in a more accurate estimate of the injector performance. A new injection method has reduced the longitudinal and transverse emittance at the linac entrance. A more compact lattice has been designed for the UV FEL, and a new recirculation scheme has been identified which greatly increases the threshold for longitudinal instabilities. We decided to use a wiggler from the Advanced Photon Source which leads to a robust high-gain FEL. Analysis of the stability of an RF control system based on CEBAF control modules indicates that only minor modifications will be needed to apply them to this FEL. Detailed magnet specifications, vacuum-chamber beam apertures, and diagnostic specifications have been developed for the recirculation arcs. The design of the optical cavity has been conceptualized, and control systems have been devised to regulate mirror distortion. A half-scale model of one of the end-corner cubes has been built and tested. Finally, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out which indicate that the FEL should exceed its minimum design goals with adequate performance margin.

  6. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  7. Lowering operation costs by energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W; Hausmann, H; Hausmann, K H

    1976-01-01

    Heat recovery and the heat sources available as well as possible applications of the heat recovered are discussed. Groundwater, shower water and waste air are considered as energy sources. Energy recovery by means of finned-tube systems and the heat pump, and economic aspects of the techniques are described.

  8. Computer modelling of statistical properties of SASE FEL radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to computer modelling of statistical properties of the radiation from self amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL). The present approach allows one to calculate the following statistical properties of the SASE FEL radiation: time and spectral field correlation functions, distribution of the fluctuations of the instantaneous radiation power, distribution of the energy in the electron bunch, distribution of the radiation energy after monochromator installed at the FEL amplifier exit and the radiation spectrum. All numerical results presented in the paper have been calculated for the 70 nm SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility being under construction at DESY

  9. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guimei

    2011-01-01

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q ext with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam energy

  10. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  11. Compact compressive arc and beam switchyard for energy recovery linac-driven ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, J. A. G.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Setija, I. D.

    2017-08-01

    High gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by high repetition rate recirculating accelerators have received considerable attention in the scientific and industrial communities in recent years. Cost-performance optimization of such facilities encourages limiting machine size and complexity, and a compact machine can be realized by combining bending and bunch length compression during the last stage of recirculation, just before lasing. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on electron beam quality during compression can, however, limit FEL output power. When methods to counteract CSR are implemented, appropriate beam diagnostics become critical to ensure that the target beam parameters are met before lasing, as well as to guarantee reliable, predictable performance and rapid machine setup and recovery. This article describes a beam line for bunch compression and recirculation, and beam switchyard accessing a diagnostic line for EUV lasing at 1 GeV beam energy. The footprint is modest, with 12 m compressive arc diameter and ˜20 m diagnostic line length. The design limits beam quality degradation due to CSR both in the compressor and in the switchyard. Advantages and drawbacks of two switchyard lines providing, respectively, off-line and on-line measurements are discussed. The entire design is scalable to different beam energies and charges.

  12. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  13. Energy recovery from plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A; Atzger, J

    1983-07-01

    The conversion of plastic wastes to energy is suggested as a practicable and advantageous alternative to recycling. A two-stage pilot gasification plant for the pyrolysis of wastes is described and the utilization of the resulting fuel gas discussed.

  14. An Experimental Study of an FEL Oscillator with a Linear Taper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.; Gubeli, J.; Neil, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by the work of Saldin, Schneidmiller and Yurkov, we have measured the detuning curve widths, spectral characteristics, efficiency, and energy spread as a function of the taper for low and high Q resonators in the IR Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab. Both positive and negative tapers were used. Gain and frequency agreed reasonably well with the predictions of a single mode theory. The efficiency agreed reasonably well for a negative taper with a high Q resonator but disagreed for lower Q values due to the large slippage parameter and the non-ideal resonator Q. We saw better efficiency for a negative taper than for the same positive taper. The energy spread induced in the beam, normalized to the efficiency is larger for the positive taper than for the corresponding negative taper. This indicates that a negative taper is preferred over a positive taper in an energy recovery FEL

  15. The market wants small scale plants for energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with the development within energy conservation in Europe and describes some projects for energy recovery from wastes in Norway. A brief survey of Norwegian energy policy for and development of waste management and energy recovery is included

  16. Tunability and Power Characteristics of the LEBRA Infrared FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Mori, Akira; Nogami, Kyoko; Sato, Isamu; Yokoyama, Kazue

    2004-01-01

    Application of the infrared (IR) Free-Electron Laser (FEL) was started in October 2003 at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) of Nihon University. The FEL system consisted of silver-coated copper mirrors has demonstrated wavelength tunability ranged from 940 to 6100 nm as a function of the electron energy and the undulator K-value. Wavelength dependence of the FEL output power has been measured in term of different electron beam currents, electron energies and the undulator K-values. Approximate 25 mJ/macropulse has been obtained in the range 2 to 3 microns, which corresponds to peak power of 2 MW, provided that the FEL pulse length is 0.4 ps as resulted from the measurement by an interferometric method. The power decrease observed in the longer wavelength range is due to a large diffraction loss in the FEL guiding optics and the vacuum ducts.

  17. FEL components and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.

    1997-01-01

    FEL hardware includes undulators, alignment systems, electron beam diagnostics, and mechanical and vacuum systems. While most FEL close-quote s employ conventional undulators, there is some interest in novel types, particularly where conventional designs cannot be used, as at very short periods and high fields. For these areas, superconducting technology is indicated. The most serious issue facing long FEL undulators is that of alignment; mechanical techniques may not be accurate enough, and beam-based strategies must be considered. To maintain alignment and control the electron trajectory, beam position monitors with micron precision are required. Beam size monitors are also required to assure control of emittance. The talks given in the working group sessions touch on undulators, alignment, and electron beam diagnostics, and they are summarized here. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Study on wavelength shortening and upgrading of the free electron laser (FEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kawakatsu; Sei, Norihiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Suguru; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1997-01-01

    This study is a task of ''Comprehensive study'' in ''nuclear energy basic technology research'', which is promoted under cooperation of four research institutes. The Electrotechnical Laboratory conducted, in 1991 in the first period of colaboration, on successful oscillation at visible region (598 nm) as the first case in Japan, construction of small type accumulation ring NIJI-IV for FEL, successful oscillation of visible range from 595 to 488 nm by installing optical krystron with maximum frequency in the world, and successful emittance lowering of accumulation beam by wide improvement of the ring. In the optical resonator, studies on minute loss measuring technique and on recovery from mirror deterioration were promoted. In the second period started from fiscal year of 1994, studies on FEL oscillation technique in short wavelength and upgrading of FEL corresponding to a frontier area were started, to succeed an oscillation experiment at 350 nm in ultraviolet area on April, 1994. Then, studies on generation of high luminescence x-ray owing to laser Compton scattering using FEL as a future plan, on design of a new accumulation ring and on the others as well as studies on further quality improvement of electron beam and on optical resonator have been promoted. (G.K.)

  19. Transverse effects in UV FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, D.W.; Wong, R.K.; Colson, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    In an ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL), the electron beam size can be approximately the same as the optical mode size. The performance of a UV FEL is studied including the effect of emittance, betatron focusing, and external focusing of the electron beam on the transverse optical mode. The results are applied to the Industrial Laser Consortium's UV FEL

  20. Stored energy recovery of irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.T.; Chaplin, R.L.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stored energy released in Stage I recovery of reactor neutron irradiated copper was measured by differential thermal analysis calorimetry for three fluences up to a maximum of 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) after irradiation at temperatures of less than 10 K. The dependence of the stored energy upon fluence, and a tendency toward saturation, were observed. Theoretical reaction rate processes were compared directly with the experimental rates of stored energy release, and the parameters associated with the theory were compared with results from previous resistivity measurements. Good agreement was found for several parameters, but major differences with previous D + E substage results lead to the conclusion that the point defect model may not describe materials experiencing severe neutron damage. Computer studies of warmup rates were made for first and second order and for correlated recovery processes as a function of defect concentration and of external power input. First and second order processes show definite distortion in their recovery rate curves for high defect concentrations; the correlated recovery process shows a much less pronounced effect. This investigation of stored energy used several new approaches. The use of induced radioactivity within the sample as the heating source, and the use of computer generated theoretical stored energy release curves to analyze the data were unique. (author)

  1. Status of the Novosibirsk energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, V.P.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Gavrilov, N.G.; Kayran, D.A.; Knyazev, B.A.; Kolobanov, E.I.; Kotenkov, V.V.; Kubarev, V.V.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Matveenko, A.N.; Medvedev, L.E.; Miginsky, S.V.; Mironenko, L.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Ovchar, V.K.; Popik, V.M.; Salikova, T.V.; Serednyakov, S.S.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.A.; Scheglov, M.A.; Tcheskidov, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser is based on the energy recovery linac (ERL) with room-temperature radiofrequency system. Some features of the ERL are discussed. The results of emittance measurements and electron optics tests are presented. The second stage of the ERL, which has four orbits, is described briefly

  2. Energy recovery from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book gathers the different projects, systems and technologies allowing to recover the energy from rivers, ocean streams, waves and tides with their economic interest. Content: project of swell and waves energy recovery: Pelamis and Searev projects, buoys and breaking systems; streams and tidal energy: horizontal axis and vertical axis turbines, oscillating column and hydraulic systems; kinematic chains of energy generation systems; terrestrial hydro-energy: small-scale hydro-power, French regulation, opening of energy markets, renewable energy law, the French Pope and Lema laws, exploitation permits, markets and perspectives; small hydro-power technologies: turbines, generator, multiplier; R and D trends: turbines, engines, control systems, combined energies and uses; low-fall technology; duct-embedded systems; other technologies. (J.S.)

  3. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  4. Rf system modeling for the high average power FEL at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Fugitt, J.; Neil, G.; Simrock, S.

    1995-01-01

    High beam loading and energy recovery compounded by use of superconducting cavities, which requires tight control of microphonic noise, place stringent constraints on the linac rf system design of the proposed high average power FEL at CEBAF. Longitudinal dynamics imposes off-crest operation, which in turn implies a large tuning angle to minimize power requirements. Amplitude and phase stability requirements are consistent with demonstrated performance at CEBAF. A numerical model of the CEBAF rf control system is presented and the response of the system is examined under large parameter variations, microphonic noise, and beam current fluctuations. Studies of the transient behavior lead to a plausible startup and recovery scenario

  5. A Mode Locked UV-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Parvin, Parviz

    2004-01-01

    An appropriate resonator has been designed to generate femtosecond mode locked pulses in a UV FEL with the modulator performance based on the gain switching. The gain broadening due to electron energy spread affects on the gain parameters, small signal gain (γ0) and saturation intensity (Is), to determine the optimum output coupling as small.

  6. Preliminary Design of a Synchronized Narrow Bandwidth FEL for Taiwan Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Keung Lau Wai; Ching Fan, Tai; Zone Hsiao Feng; Tung Hsu Kuo; Hwang, Ching Shiang; Cheng Kuo Chin; Huei Luo Guo; Jen Wang Duan; Ping Wang Jau; Huey Wang Min

    2004-01-01

    Design study of a narrow line-width, high power IR-FEL facility has been carried out at NSRRC. This machine is designed to synchronize with the U9 undulator radiation of Taiwan Light Source and therefore provide new opportunity for chemical dynamics and condensed matter research. It has been proposed to use a super-conducting linac to provide a 60 MeV high quality electron beam to drive a 2.5-10 microns FEL oscillator with U5 undulator. Operating this linac in energy recovery mode will also be considered as an option to improve overall system effeciency and reduce heat loss and radiation dosage at the beam dump. Performance requirements and outcomes from this preliminary design study will be reported.

  7. The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The best energy recovery project in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaasen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norway is one of the world's leading producers of ferro-alloys and silicon metals. The high temperature required in the production process is obtained by using electric energy. The temperature of the waste gases varies between 200 and 900 o C. To recover the energy of hot dust-holding gases from ferro-alloy plants the waste gases are cooled by means of steam production. The ferro-alloy plant Globe Norge AS Hafslund Metall and the energy supply company Birka Energi have signed an agreement to build Norway's largest energy recovery plant. The plant will recover 260 GWh per year. The oil consumption will be reduced by 26000 tonne per year and the annual emission of carbon dioxide by 80000 tonne. Steam from the plant will be supplied to the two companies Borregaard and Glomma Papp. The article describes the plant in some detail

  9. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H. [The University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  10. Development of BPM Electronics at the JLAB FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, D.; Evtushenko, P.; Jordan, K.; Yan, J.; Dutton, S.; Moore, W.; Evans, R.; Coleman, J.

    2006-11-01

    A new version of BPM electronics based on the AD8362 RMS detector, which is a direct RF to DC converter, is under development at the JLAB FEL. Each of these new BPM electronics utilizes an embedded ColdFire Microprocessor for data processing and communication with the EPICS control system via TCP/IP. The ColdFire runs RTEMS, which is an open source real-time operating system. The JLAB FEL is a SRF Energy Recovery LINAC capable of running up to 10 mA CW beam with a 74.85 MHz micropulse frequency. For diagnostic reasons and for machine tune up, the micropulse frequency can be reduced to 1.17 MHz, which corresponds to about 160 μA of beam current. It is required that the BPM system would be functional for all micropulse frequencies. By taking into account the headroom for the beam steering and current variations the dynamic range of the RF front end is required to be about 60 dB. A BPM resolution of at least 100 μm is required, whereas better resolution is very desirable to make it possible for more accurate measurements of the electron beam optics. Some results of the RF front end development are presented as well as the first measurements made with an electron beam.

  11. Viability of infrared FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared FELs have broken important ground in optical science in the past decade. The rapid development of optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators, and THz sources, however, has changed the competitive landscape and compelled FEL facilities to identify and exploit their unique advantages. The viability of infrared FEL facilities depends on targeting unique world-class science and providing adequate experimental beam time at competitive costs

  12. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  13. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power.

  14. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  15. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  16. FEL options for power beaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Vinokurov, N.A.

    1997-10-01

    The demand for the output power of communication satellites has been increasing exponentially. The satellite power is generated from solar panels which collect the sunlight and convert it to electrical power. The power per satellite is limited due to the limit in the practical size of the solar panel. One way to meet the power demand is to employ multiple satellites (up to 10) per the internationally agreed-upon ''slot'' in the geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). However, this approach is very expensive due to the high cost of sending a satellite into a GEO orbit. An alternative approach is power beaming, i.e., to illuminate the solar panels with high power, highly-directed laser beams from earth. The power beaming generates more power per satellite for the same area of the solar panel. The minimum optical beam power, interesting for power beaming application, is P L = 200kW. The wavelength is chosen to be λ 0.84 microm, so that it is within one of the transmission windows of the air, and at the same time near the peak of the photo-voltaic conversion efficiency of Si, which is the commonly used material for the solar panels. Free electron lasers (FELs) are well suited for the power beaming application because they can provide high power with coherent wavefront, but without high energy density in media. In this article the authors discuss some principal issues, such as the choice of accelerator and electron gun, the choice of beam parameters, radiation hazards, technological availability, and overall efficiency and reliability of the installation. They also attempt to highlight the compromise between the cost of the primary installation, the operation cost, and the choice of technology, and its maturity. They then present several schemes for the accelerator-FEL systems based on RF accelerators. The initial electron beam accelerator up to the energy of a few MeV is more or less common for all these schemes

  17. Observation of high-power coherent synchrotron radiation in the THz region from the JAEA energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiharu; Okuda, Shuichi; Minehara, Eisuke J.; Hajima, Ryoichi; Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji; Kikuzawa, Nobihiro; Iijima, Hokuto; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The energy recovery linac (ERL) is able to generate high-power coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz and the millimeter-wave regions, because it produces shorter bunches than usual storage rings and a higher current than conventional linacs. The spectrum of CSR has been measured at the JAEA-ERL in the wavenumber range from 0.5 to 15 cm -1 . The detected power was 2x10 -4 W/cm -1 at 2.5 cm -1 for the average beam current of 17.7 μA. When the infrared FEL was operated with the undulator in the ERL, the CSR spectrum was shifted to the longer wavelengths because of the energy broadening of the electron beam. (author)

  18. High-power, high-efficiency FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    High power, high efficiency FELs require tapering, as the particles loose energy, so as to maintain resonance between the electromagnetic wave and the particles. They also require focusing of the particles (usually done with curved pole faces) and focusing of the electromagnetic wave (i.e. optical guiding). In addition, one must avoid transverse beam instabilities (primarily resistive wall) and longitudinal instabilities (i.e sidebands). 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  20. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  1. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic Solar cell. ... Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell which converts solar energy directly into electrical energy is one of ... model of the solar panel which could represent the real systems.

  3. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  4. The "TEU-FEL" project

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.; van Oerle, B.M.; van Oerle, B.M.; Bouman, A.F.M.; Botman, J.I.M.; Hagedoorn, H.L.; Delhez, J.L.; Kleeven, W.J.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The free-electron laser of the TEU-FEL project will be based on a 6 MeV photo-cathode linac as injector, a 25 MeV race-track microtron as main accelerator and a hybrid, 25 mm period undulator. The project will be carried out in two phases. In phase one only the 6 MeV linac will be used, The FEL will then produce tunable radiation around 200 µm. In phase two the linac will be used as an injector for the microtron. The FEL will then produce tunable radiation around 10 µm. Technical information ...

  5. Renewal of KU-FEL Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Murakami, Shio; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Zen, Heishun

    2004-01-01

    Users demands to a high power tunable IR laser are increasing in Japan in energy-related science, such as basic study of high-efficiency solar cells, generation of new energy source of alcohol and/or H2 from polluted gas, and separation of DNA and/or RNA. To satisfy these demands, we decided to renew our FEL facility more user friendly and to operate more flexibly. Construction and fundamental studies on the KU-FEL have been carried out at a building of Institute of Chemical Research where few other accelerators are operating. Therefore, available machine time for our experiments is quite limited. We are now modifying the room by adding concrete walls of 2-m thickness and some space for users will be available. The present FEL system will be moved to the room A photocathode RF-gun system will be nearly added to the system and the present thermionic RF-gun will be used ternatively according to the demands of users. The photocathode material will be Cs2Te. The room with the shielding will be completed in June, ...

  6. Accelerator Physics Challenges of X-Ray FEL SASE Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, Paul J

    2002-05-30

    A great deal of international interest has recently focused on the design and construction of free-electron lasers (FEL) operating in the x-ray region ({approx}1 {angstrom}). At present, a linac-based machine utilizing the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) appears to be the most promising approach. This new class of FEL achieves lasing in a single pass of a high brightness electron beam through a long undulator. The requirements on electron beam quality become more demanding as the FEL radiation wavelength decreases, with the 1-{angstrom} goal still 3-orders of magnitude below the shortest wavelength operational SASE FEL (TTF-FEL at DESY [1]). The subpicosecond bunch length drives damaging effects such as coherent synchrotron radiation, and undulator vacuum chamber wakefields. Unlike linear colliders, beam brightness needs to be maintained only over a small ''slice'' of the bunch length, so the concepts of bunch integrated emittance and energy spread are less relevant than their high-frequency (or ''time-sliced'') counterparts, also adding a challenge to phase space diagnostics. Some of the challenges associated with the generation, preservation, measurement, and stability of high brightness FEL electron beams are discussed here.

  7. A study of phase control in the FEL [free electron laser] two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Whittum, D.H.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1989-08-01

    A formalism is developed for the analysis of a steady-state free electron laser (FEL) and is applied to the two-beam accelerator (TBA). Conditions are derived for the design of a FEL TBA with rf output power and phase insensitive to errors in both beam current and energy. An example is presented of a suitably phase insensitive TBA design with 100 reaccelerations employing untapered FEL sections and with low power rf input to each section. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by a single particle FEL simulations. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  8. The "TEU-FEL" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.; van Oerle, B.M.; van Oerle, B.M.; Bouman, A.F.M.; Botman, J.I.M.; Hagedoorn, H.L.; Delhez, J.L.; Kleeven, W.J.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The free-electron laser of the TEU-FEL project will be based on a 6 MeV photo-cathode linac as injector, a 25 MeV race-track microtron as main accelerator and a hybrid, 25 mm period undulator. The project will be carried out in two phases. In phase one only the 6 MeV linac will be used, The FEL will

  9. Quantum SASE FEL with a Laser Wiggler

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, R

    2005-01-01

    Quantum effects in high-gain FELs become relevant when ρ'=ρ(mcγ/ ћ k)<1. The quantum FEL parameter ρ' rules the maximum number of photons emitted per electrons. It has been shown that when ρ'<1 a "quantum purification" of the SASE regime occurs: in fact, the spectrum of the emitted radiation (randomly spiky in the usual classical SASE regime) shrinks to a very narrow single line, leading to a high degree of temporal coherence. From the definition of ρ it appears that in order to achieve the quantum regime, small values of ρ, beam energy and radiation wavelength are necessary. These requirements can be met only using a laser wiggler. In this work we state the scaling laws necessary to operate a SASE FEL in the Angstrom region. All physical quantities are expressed in terms of the normalized emittance and of two parameters: the ratio between laser and electron beam spot sizes and the ratio between Rayleigh range and electron ...

  10. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  11. Review of High Gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-01

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator

  12. CW Energy Recovery Operation of XFELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Sekutowicz; S. Bogacz; Dave Douglas; Peter Kneisel; Gwyn P. Wiliams; Massimo Ferrario; Luca Serafini; Ilan Ben-Zvi; James Rose; Triveni Srinivasan-Rao; Patrick Colestock; Wolf-Dietrich Moeller; Bernd Petersen; Dieter Proch; S. Simrock; James B. Rosenzweig

    2003-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: What will the next generation of the XFEL facilities look like ? Believing that super-conducting technology offers several advantages over room-temperature technology, such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches and the possibility of energy recovery or higher overall efficiency, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program is required over the next few years to arrive at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power. In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  13. Delta undulator for Cornell energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Temnykh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of a new era of synchrotron radiation sources based on energy recovery linac techniques, we designed, built, and tested a short undulator magnet prototype whose features make optimum use of the unique conditions expected in these facilities. The prototype has pure permanent magnet (PPM structure with 24 mm period, 5 mm diameter round gap, and is 30 cm long. In comparison with conventional undulator magnets it has the following: (i full x-ray polarization control.—It may generate varying linear polarized as well as left and right circular polarized x rays with photon flux much higher than existing Apple-II–type devices. (ii 40% stronger magnetic field in linear and approximately 2 times stronger in circular polarization modes. This advantage translates into higher x-ray flux. (iii Compactness.—The prototype can be enclosed in a ∼20  cm diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel. These advantages were achieved through a number of unconventional approaches. Among them is control of the magnetic field strength via longitudinal motion of the magnet arrays. The moving mechanism is also used for x-ray polarization control. The compactness is achieved using a recently developed permanent magnet soldering technique for fastening PM blocks. We call this device a “Delta” undulator after the shape of its PM blocks. The presented article describes the design study, various aspects of the construction, and presents some test results.

  14. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  15. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Energy recovery tests performed on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high energy potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy, are presented. The operation of the suppressor grid is studied in two different experiments. These tests underline the problems to be solved for an efficient recovery of the energy of the unneutralized beam fraction

  16. Statistical properties of SASE FEL radiation: experimental results from the VUV FEL at the TESLA test facility at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the statistical properties of the radiation from a SASE FEL. The experiments were performed at the TESLA Test Facility VUV SASE FEL at DESY operating in a high-gain linear regime with a gain of about 10 6 . It is shown that fluctuations of the output radiation energy follows a gamma-distribution. We also measured for the first time the probability distribution of SASE radiation energy after a narrow-band monochromator. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, the energy fluctuations after the monochromator follow a negative exponential distribution

  17. Energy Recovery in Existing Water Networks: Towards Greater Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable improvements in the performance of irrigation water networks. Improving the energy efficiency of water systems by hydraulic energy recovery is becoming an inevitable trend for energy conservation, emissions reduction, and the increase of profit margins as well as for environmental requirements. This paper presents the state of the art of hydraulic energy generation in drinking and irrigation water networks through an extensive review and by analyzing the types of machinery installed, economic and environmental implications of large and small hydropower systems, and how hydropower can be applied in water distribution networks (drinking and irrigation where energy recovery is not the main objective. Several proposed solutions of energy recovery by using hydraulic machines increase the added value of irrigation water networks, which is an open field that needs to be explored in the near future.

  18. Renewable and recovery energies for each industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    The French agency of environment and energy management (Ademe) has made available to the industrialists, a study about the proper choice of renewable and recovery energies capable to meet the energy and heat needs of their facilities. This article summarises in a table, sector by sector and for each renewable and recovery energy source, the capability of this energy source to supply part or the overall energy needs of some elementary industrial processes. Indication is given about the capability of an energy source to produce electricity as well

  19. FEL polarization control studies on Dalian coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Deng Haixiao; Wang Dong; Zhao Zhentang; Zhang Weiqing; Wu Guorong; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2013-01-01

    The polarization switch of a free-electron laser (FEL) is of great importance to the user scientific community. In this paper, we investigate the generation of controllable polarization FEL from two well-known approaches for Dalian coherent light source, i.e., crossed planar undulator and elliptical permanent undulator. In order to perform a fair comparative study, a one-dimensional time-dependent FEL code has been developed, in which the imperfection effects of an elliptical permanent undulator are taken into account. Comprehensive simulation results indicate that the residual beam energy chirp and the intrinsic FEL gain may contribute to the degradation of the polarization performance for the crossed planar undulator. The elliptical permanent undulator is not very sensitive to the undulator errors and beam imperfections. Meanwhile, with proper configurations of the main planar undulators and additional elliptical permanent undulator section, circular polarized FEL with pulse energy exceeding 100 μJ could be achieved at Dalian coherent light source. (authors)

  20. Optical klystron FELs based on tandem electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Friedman, A.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of tandem electrostatic accelerator FELs in an optical klystron configuration makes it possible to take advantage of the high quality (low emittance and low energy spread) of the electron beam in electrostatic accelerators. With evolving microwiggler technology, state-of-the-art moderate energy (6-14-MeV) tandem electrostatic accelerators may be used for the development of highly coherent tunable radiation sources in the entire IR region. The authors present the general design considerations and the predicted operating characteristics of such devices and refer in specifics to a design of a 10-1000-μm FEL based on the parameters of a 5-6-MeV high current tandem accelerator. The operating wavelength of FELs is determined by the Doppler shift formula

  1. Issues at a university based FEL center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.I.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Stanford FEL Center was established in September 1990. In this paper, the FEL itself, the Center infrastructure, the interaction with experimenters and the educational mission are described. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E

    2005-01-01

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  3. FEL-principles, techniques and its progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaofeng; Yang Fujia

    1992-01-01

    The basic principles of free electron laser (FEL) and its operation modes are presented. The state of the art is described for accelerator technology and laser systems. Some comparisons are made between FEL and conventional laser with regard to power capability, short-wavelength operation, and tunability. The application prospects of FEL are discussed

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana

    2010-09-15

    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  5. FERMI(at)Elettra FEL Design Technical Optimization Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William; Penn, Gregory; Allaria, Enrico; De Ninno, Giovanni; Graves, William

    2006-01-01

    This is the final report of the FEL Design Group for the Technical Optimization Study for the FERMI(at)ELETTRA project. The FERMI(at)ELETTRA project is based on the principle of harmonic upshifting of an initial ''seed'' signal in a single pass, FEL amplifier employing multiple undulators. There are a number of FEL physics principles which underlie this approach to obtaining short wavelength output: (1) the energy modulation of the electron beam via the resonant interaction with an external laser seed (2) the use of a chromatic dispersive section to then develop a strong density modulation with large harmonic overtones (3) the production of coherent radiation by the microbunched beam in a downstream radiator. Within the context of the FERMI project, we discuss each of these elements in turn

  6. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  7. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  8. Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

  9. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  10. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of industrial and municipal wastes. Anurag Pandey, Anupam Shukla. Abstract. Energy from biological organic waste as an aspect of sustainable waste management is probably the most contentious. Solid and liquid wastes are a rapidly growing problem ...

  11. The ARC-EN-CIEL FEL Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, M E

    2005-01-01

    ARC-EN-CIEL (Accelerator-Radiation for Enhanced Coherent Intense Extended Light), the French project of a fourth generation light source aims at providing the user community with coherent femtosecond light pulses covering from UV to soft X ray. It is based on a CW 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator delivering high charge, subpicosecond, low emittance electron bunches with a high repetition rate. The FEL is based on in the injection of High Harmonics in Gases in a High Gain Harmonic Generation scheme, leading to a rather compact solution. The produced radiation extending down to 0.8 nm with the Non Linear Harmonic reproduces the good longitudinal and transverse coherence of the harmonics in gas. Optional beam loops are foreseen to increase the beam current or the energy. They will accommodate fs synchrotron radiation sources in the IR, VUV and X ray ranges and a FEL oscillator in the 10 nm range. An important synergy is expected between accelerator and laser communities. Indeed, electron plasma accelerat...

  12. Resource and energy recovery options for fermentation industry residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, S C [Santa Clara Univ., CA (USA); Manning, Jr, J F [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the fermentation industry has provided facility planners, plant operators and environmental engineers with a wide range of residuals management challenges and resource/energy recovery opportunities. In response, the industry has helped pioneer the use of a number of innovative resource and energy recovery technologies. Production of animal feed supplements, composts, fertilizers, soil amendments, commercial baking additives and microbial protein materials have all been detailed in the literature. In many such cases, recovery of by-products significantly reduces the need for treatment and disposal facilities. Stable, reliable anaerobic biological treatment processes have also been developed to recover significant amounts of energy in the form of methane gas. Alternatively, dewatered or condensed organic fermentation industry residuals have been used as fuels for incineration-based energy recovery systems. The sale or use of recovered by-products and/or energy can be used to offset required processing costs and provide a technically and environmentally viable alternative to traditional treatment and disposal strategies. This review examines resource recovery options currently used or proposed for fermentation industry residuals and the conditions necessary for their successful application. (author).

  13. Optical modeling of the Jefferson Lab IR Demo FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, G.; Benson, S.; Shinn, M.; Davidson, P.; Kloppel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly known as CEBAF) has embarked on the construction of a 1 kW free-electron laser operating initially at 3 microns that is designed for laser-material interaction experiments and to explore the feasibility of scaling the system in power and wavelength for industrial and Navy defense applications. The superconducting radio-frequency linac, and single-pass transport which accelerates the beam from injector to wiggler, followed by energy-recovery deceleration to a dump. The electron and optical beam time structure in the design consists of a train of pecosecond pulses at a 37.425 MHz pulse repetition rate. The initial optical configuration is a conventional near-concentric resonator with transmissive outcoupling. Future upgrades of the system will increase the power and shorten the operating wavelength, and utilize a more advanced resonator system capable of scaling to high powers. The optical system of the laser has been mode led using the GLAD code by using a Beer's-law region to mimic the FEL interaction. Effects such as mirror heating have been calculated and compared with analytical treatments. The magnitude of the distorium for several materials and wavelengths has been estimated. The advantages as well as the limitations of this approach are discussed

  14. FEL diagnostics and user control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The most recent upgrades and improvements to the free-electron laser (FEL) facility FELIX are presented. Special attention is paid to the improved beam-handling and diagnostic station. In this evacuated beam station a device is implemented that is capable of selecting single micropulses with measured efficiencies of more than 50% over the whole wavelength range of FELIX (5-110 μm). Furthermore, the broadband autocorrelator for micropulse length measurements and the planned continuous polarization rotator based on reflective optics are discussed. Recent additions to the ancillary equipment available to FEL users are presented briefly. The most important ones are the mirror-dispersion-controlled 10-fs Ti:sapphire laser and the 40-T magnet. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Recovery of energy in a gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergalant, Jacques; Guais, J.-C.; Perrault, Michel; Vignet, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Any energy recovery, even partial, goes in the direction of savings in energy and should be sought for. The Tricastin plant, now in the course of being built, will be able to deliver several hundreds of MW for the purpose of urban and agricultural heating. The new Coredif project will more completely integrate the valorization of calories in its definition (choice of temperatures, design of the heat exchangers, recovery cycles). In fact the recent evolution in energy costs renders the otpimization of a plant equipped with a heat recovery system (1 to 2% on the cost of the uranium produced) now economically worth-while. In the same way, the choice of the site of the future plant may be conditioned by the possible uses of calories in its vicinity [fr

  16. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  17. FELs, nice toys or efficient tools?

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Meer, Alex F G

    2004-01-01

    An FEL is an intrinsically interesting device and pushing its performance presents a natural challenge to a physicist. Nonetheless, the main justification for doing FEL research is of course its potential as a unique, versatile source of radiation to be employed for something useful. After 25 years of FEL research, one may wonder how efficient these tools have become. In this paper, I will reflect on this issue from the perspective of 10 years of operation of FELIX as a user facility.

  18. Theoretical Thermal Evaluation of Energy Recovery Incinerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Army Logistics Mgt Center, Fort Lee , VA DTIC Alexandria, VA DTNSRDC Code 4111 (R. Gierich), Bethesda MD; Code 4120, Annapolis, MD; Code 522 (Library...Washington. DC: Code (I6H4. Washington. DC NAVSECGRUACT PWO (Code .’^O.’^). Winter Harbor. IVIE ; PWO (Code 4(1). Edzell. Scotland; PWO. Adak AK...NEW YORK Fort Schuyler. NY (Longobardi) TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY W.B. Ledbetter College Station. TX UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Energy Engineer. Davis CA

  19. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  20. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  1. FEL mirror response to shipboard vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Beauvais, Joshua A.

    2011-01-01

    The Optical cavity of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) is composed of components that must be maintained to very tight tolerances. The shipboard environment is one that will preclude a direct coupling of FEL components to the ship. This thesis will explore the basis for these tight tolerances, and how to isolate them from the FEL. A solid model of a potential FEL system will be developed using SolidWorks. This model will then be converted to a finite element model in ANSYS. The finite element ...

  2. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  3. Optimization Studies of the FERMI at ELETTRA FEL Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ninno, Giovanni; Fawley, William M.; Penn, Gregory E.; Graves, William

    2005-01-01

    The FERMI at ELETTRA project at Sincotrone Trieste involves two FEL's, each based upon the principle of seeded harmonic generation and using the existing ELETTRA injection linac at 1.2 GeV beam energy. Scheduled to be completed in 2008, FEL-1 will operate in 40-100 nm wavelength range and will involve one stage of harmonic up-conversion. The second undulator line, FEL-2, will begin operation two years later in the 10-40 nm wavelength range and use two harmonic stages operating as a cascade. The FEL design assumes continuous wavelength tunability over the full wavelength range, and polarization tunability of the output radiation including vertical or horizontal linear as well as helical polarization. The design considers focusing properties and segmentation of realizable undulators and available input seed lasers. We review the studies that have led to our current design. We present results of simulations using GENESIS and GINGER simulation codes including studies of various shot-to-shot fluctuations and undulator errors. Findings for the expected output radiation in terms of the power, transverse and longitudinal coherence are reported

  4. Optimization Studies of the FERMI at ELETTRA FEL Design

    CERN Document Server

    De Ninno, G

    2005-01-01

    The FERMI at ELETTRA project at Sincotrone Trieste involves two FEL's, each based upon the principle of a seeded harmonic cascade and using the existing ELETTRA injection linac at 1.2 GeV beam energy. Scheduled to be completed in 2008, FEL-1 will operate in the 40-100 nm wavelength range and will involve one stage of harmonic up-conversion. The second phase, FEL-2, will begin operation two years later in the 10-40 nm wavelength range and will involve two cascade stages. FEL design assumes wavelength tunability over the full wavelength range and polarization tunability of the output radiation including helical polarization. The design considers focusing properties and segmentation of realizable undulators and available input seed lasers. We discuss how the interplay between various limitations and self-consistent accelerator simulations [1,2] have led to our current design. We present results of simulations using GENESIS and GINGER simulation codes including studies of various shot-to-shot fluctuations and und...

  5. Proceedings of the 3rd topical meeting on FEL and high power radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Shigenori

    1994-01-01

    The meeting was held on June 10 and 11, 1993, at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. This is the joint study meeting with 31st large power microwave-milliwave study meeting. At the meeting, lectures were given on the report of 1st Asia FEL study meeting, infrared free electron laser (FEL) project in JAERI, present state of Free Electron Laser Research Institute Inc., infrared FEL experiment in the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, FEL experiment in UVSOR storage ring, NIJI-4 SRFEL, simulation of FEL oscillation in photo-klystron, vacuum UVFEL in PF, beam characteristics of small photon storage ring, micro-cherenkov FEL using field emission array, coherent spontaneous emission and radiation build-up in FEL oscillator, stability of soft X-ray multilayers under exposure to multipole Wigger radiation, long life Zn 2 excimer excited with relativistic electron beam, development of large power klystron in KEK, design of 1 THz gyrotron and first experiment, experiment of relativistic peniotron, experiments of 3rd and 10th cyclotron harmonic peniotron oscillators and others. (K.I.)

  6. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  7. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  8. Demonstration Of 3D Effects With High Gain And Efficiency In A UV FEL Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Douglas, David; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hardy, David; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, James; Legg, Robert; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shinn, Michelle; Tennant, Christopher; Walker, Richard; Watson, Anne; Williams, Gwyn; Wilson, Frederick; Zhang, Shukui

    2011-01-01

    We report on the performance of a high gain UV FEL oscillator operating on an energy recovery linac at Jefferson Lab. The high brightness of the electron beam leads to both gain and efficiency that cannot be reconciled with a one-dimensional model. Three-dimensional simulations do predict the performance with reasonable precision. Gain in excess of 100% per pass and an efficiency close to 1/2NW, where NW is the number of wiggler periods, is seen. The laser mirror tuning curves currently permit operation in the wavelength range of 438 to 362 nm. Another mirror set allows operation at longer wavelengths in the red with even higher gain and efficiency.

  9. Energy analysis of human stumbling: the limitations of recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner Cordero, A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2005-01-01

    This study has analyzed the segmental energy changes in the recovery from a stumble induced during walking on a treadmill. Three strategies emerged according to the behavior of the perturbed limb, elevating, lowering, and delayed lowering. These three strategies showed different changes in the

  10. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  11. Stability Analysis of Static Slip-Energy Recovery Drive via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of the sub synchronous static slip energy recovery scheme for the speed control of slip-ring induction motor is presented. A set of nonlinear differential equations which describe the system dynamics are derived and linearized about an operating point using perturbation technique. The Eigenvalue analysis of the ...

  12. FELI linac for IR- and UV-FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.; Morii, Y.; Abe, S.

    1995-01-01

    FELI linac and IR-FEL facilities are now under construction and electron beams of 30-75MeV will be used for FIR- and IR-FEL experiments in this summer. It is composed of a 5-MeV electron injector and seven ETL type accelerating waveguides with a length of 2.93m (2π/3 mode, linearly tapered type). The injector consists of a 150-kV DC thermoionic triode gun operated by a 178.5-MHz and 500-ps pulser, a 714-MHz prebuncher (SHB), and a 2856-MHz standing wave type buncher (SWB). The linac is operated in three modes of 24μs, 12.5μs and 0.5μs. With a choice of three modes, the maximum beam loaded energy can be changed from 165 MeV to 288 MeV. The linac beam is sent to four vertical type undulators using S-type BT systems installed at 30-MeV, 75-MeV, 120-MeV, and 165-MeV sections at a 24-μs pulse beam load. The beam, once used for lasing at 30-MeV section or at 75-MeV section, can be bent back to the following accelerating waveguide and is reaccelerated and reused for lasing. Parameters of four undulators and intended FEL applications are shown. FEL spectral widths and wavelength limitations are also reviewed and discussed for 0.3μm FEL oscillations FELI is aiming at by the end of 1996. (author)

  13. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  14. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-01-01

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10 33 (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented

  16. Energy recovery from garden waste in a LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    According to the common strategies regarding waste management and energy supply in EU countries, more efficient utilization of organic waste resources (including garden waste) with both nutrient and energy recovery is desired. Each of the most common treatments applied today – composting, direct...... use on land and incineration – only provides one of the two services. A technology ensuring both nutrient and energy utilization is anaerobic digestion (AD) that has become applicable for treatment of garden waste recently. In this study, life cycle assessment aimed to compare four garden waste...

  17. Status of the tandem FEL project development in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzvi, I.; Sokolowski, J.; Jerby, E.; Chomski, D.; Ruschin, S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the status of a collaborative research project development aimed toward construction of an IR FEL based on the EN tandem electrostatic accelerator of the Weizmann Institute of Science. A preliminary feasibility demonstration project yielded encouraging progress in three aspects: (1) Electron gun and accelerator conversion: A 50-kV 1-A electron gun injector was designed, built, tested, and assembled on the 6-MeV tandem accelerator which was previously converted and conditioned to operate as an electron accelerator in a positively charged HV terminal configuration. Contrary to the configuration of the only electrostatic accelerator FEL demonstrated so far, the electron gun and multistage depressed collector are connected to the ground, and the wiggler is placed in the HV terminal of the straight geometry tandem accelerator. This configuration promises to provide a high current high quality e-beam. (2) Electron-beam transport: The first installation of the electron optical beam recovery system yielded transport efficiency of 80%. Substantial improvement is expected with planned electron optics modifications. An effect, highly significant for realizing long pulse (quasi-cw) FEL operation, was observed experimentally. Due to the damping effect of the accelerator column capacitance network, the voltage terminal stayed constant for milliseconds even with poor beam transport efficiency. This points to the possibility of developing a long pulse FEL which may operate at a single longitudinal mode. (3) Wiggler development: A conventional 4.4-cm period SmCo planar wiggler was acquired and evaluated using a recently constructed floating wire magnetic field measurement setup

  18. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecka, Kaja

    2018-02-01

    Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  19. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  20. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y; Monteith, H [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  1. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  2. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y.; Monteith, H. [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  3. Waste energy recovery in the industry in the ECE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the ECE region industry accounts for about 44 per cent of total final energy consumption, 50-55 per cent of which is ''lost''. Since the early 1970s the efficiency of energy use has improved by 5 or 6 percentage points. The potential for further cost-effective savings is estimated at 10 to 20 percentage points, depending on the type of industrial activity, kind of waste energy, availability of outlets, investment strategies, awareness of the significantly improved technical possibilities and degree of co-operation between energy specialists and production engineers, equipment manufacturers, and industrial sectors at the national and international levels. The present publication argues the case for secondary energy recovery (SER) by end-users and international co-operation in technical, economic, environmental and methodological fields. It is based on data compiled by the secretariat of the Economic Commission for Europe on 1 June 1984 and given general distribution. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  5. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  6. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90* to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy

  7. Locking Lasers to RF in an Ultrafast FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.; Huang, G.; Doolittle, L.; White, W.; Frisch, J.; Coffee, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a novel, phase-stabilized RF-over-fiber scheme, they transmit 3GHz over 300m with 27fs RMS error in 250kHz bandwidth over 12 hours, and phase lock a laser to enable ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of producing short-duration (< 10fs), high-energy X-ray pulses for a range of scientific applications. The recently activated Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) FEL facility at SLAC will support experiments which require synchronized light pulses for pump-probe schemes. They developed and operated a fiber optic RF transmission system to synchronize lasers to the emitted X-ray pulses, which was used to enable the first pump-probe experiments at the LCLS.

  8. A high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL) is a new FEL approach aimed at achieving the highest optical power from a compact rf-linac FEL. The key idea is to feed back a small fraction ( 5 in single pass) wiggler to enable the FEL to reach saturation in a few passes. This paper summarizes the design of a high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL and describes the first experimental demonstration of the RAFEL concept

  9. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  10. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  11. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  12. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  13. Longitudinal phase space manipulation in energy recovering linac-driven free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piot

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovering an electron beam after it has participated in a free-electron laser (FEL interaction can be quite challenging because of the substantial FEL-induced energy spread and the energy antidamping that occurs during deceleration. In the Jefferson Lab infrared FEL driver accelerator, such an energy recovery scheme was implemented by properly matching the longitudinal phase space throughout the recirculation transport by employing the so-called energy compression scheme. In the present paper, after presenting a single-particle dynamics approach of the method used to energy recover the electron beam, we report on experimental validation of the method obtained by measurements of the so-called “compression efficiency” and “momentum compaction” lattice transfer maps at different locations in the recirculation transport line. We also compare these measurements with numerical tracking simulations.

  14. Energy recovery as a key technology for future mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellbeck, Hans; Risse, Silvio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2011-07-01

    Internal and external combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications represent an essential, basic module for a functioning economy and society. In ensuring mobility worldwide by land and by sea, the combustion engine plays the dominant role. Customer requirements to be fulfilled are manifold. Accordingly a downward trend in the demand for or indeed the abandonment of the combustion engine in personal or freight transport is in the near future unforeseeable. With regard to the continuously increasing need for mobility subject to limited resources and rising environmental consciousness, the combustion engine and the means to improve its efficiency and sustainability are under intensive investigation. Along with the application of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels, improvements in the system itself will be valuable to its future. More specifically, compared to many other techniques the recovery of energy losses resulting from the operation of these engines promises a very high degree of optimization. An overview of the current and predicted number of combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications is given at the beginning of the paper. Furthermore, a differentiation between personal and freight traffic must be made since there is not only a difference in their respective power requirements but also in their lifecycles. The energy losses through exhaust gases and coolants, for example, are quantified and rated in terms of their capabilities on the basis of certain fields of application and utilization profiles. With regard to additional specific boundary conditions, various concepts ranging from recuperation in theory to actual recovery in practice under conditions approximating actual production are analysed in different application scenarios for their efficiency, ecological benefit, and economy. Retroactive or synergistic effects which may follow from their integration into the complete system are considered precisely with the help of examples

  15. Energy Recovery from a Non-Linear Electromagnetic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęcik Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents study of a pseudo-magnetic levitation system (pseudo-maglev dedicated for energy harvesting. The idea rely on motion of a pseudo-levitating magnet in a coil’s terminal. The study based on real prototype harvester system, which in the pendulum dynamic vibration absorber is applied. For some parameters, the stability loss caused by the period doubling bifurcation is detected. The coexistence of two stable solutions, one of which is much better for energy harvesting is observed. The influence of the pseudo-maglev parameters on the recovered current and stability of the periodic solutions is presented in detail. The obtained results show, that the best energy recovery occurs for the high pseudo-maglev stiffness and close to the coil resistance. The amplitude’s excitation, the load resistances and the coupling coefficient strongly influence on the system’s response.

  16. Beam Diagnostics for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Dawson, William; Degen, Chris; DellaPenna, Al; Gassner, David; Kesselman, Martin; Kewish, Jorg; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Mead, Joseph; Oerter, Brian; Russo, Tom; Vetter, Kurt; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2004-01-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL. The goals of this test facility are first to demonstrate stable intense CW electron beam with parameters typical for the RHIC e-cooling project (and potentially for eRHIC), second to test novel elements of the ERL (high current CW photo-cathode, superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers, and feedback systems), and finally to test lattice dependence of stability criteria. Planned diagnostics include position monitors, loss monitors, transverse profile monitors (both optical and wires), scrapers/halo monitors, a high resolution differential current monitor, phase monitors, an energy spread monitor, and a fast transverse monitor (for beam break-up studies and the energy feedback system). We discuss diagnostics challenges that are unique to this project, and present preliminary system specifications. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the timing system

  17. Seeded quantum FEL at 478 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Thirolf, Peter; Seggebrock, Thorben [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present for the first time a concept for a seeded {gamma} quantum Free Electron Laser (QFEL) at 478 keV (transition in {sup 7}Li). To produce a highly intense and coherent {gamma} beam, we intend to use a seeded FEL scheme. Important for the production of a highly brilliant and coherent {gamma} beam are novel refractive {gamma} lenses for focusing and an efficient monochromator, allowing to generate a very intense and coherent seed beam. To realize such a coherent {gamma} beam at 478 keV (1/38 A), it is suitable to use a quantum FEL design based on a new ''asymmetric'' laser-electron Compton back scattering scheme as pursued for the MeGaRay and ELI-NP facilities. Here the pulse length of the laser is much longer than the electron bunch length, equivalent to a {gamma}-FEL with laser wiggler. The coherence of a seeded QFEL can open up totally new areas of fundamental physics and applications. Especially, 478 keV can be attractive for ''green energy'' and life-science research, such as the detection of Li deposition in the brain for manic-depressive psychosis treatment with high spatial resolution or isotope-specific nuclear waste management and treatment.

  18. PERLE. Powerful energy recovery linac for experiments. Conceptual design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal-Kalinin, D.; Arduini, G.; Auchmann, B.; Bernauer, J.; Bogacz, A.; Bordry, F.; Bousson, S.; Bracco, C.; Brüning, O.; Calaga, R.; Cassou, K.; Chetvertkova, V.; Cormier, E.; Daly, E.; Douglas, D.; Dupraz, K.; Goddard, B.; Henry, J.; Hutton, A.; Jensen, E.; Kaabi, W.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Lasheras, N.; Levichev, E.; Marhauser, F.; Martens, A.; Milanese, A.; Militsyn, B.; Peinaud, Y.; Pellegrini, D.; Pietralla, N.; Pupkov, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Schirm, K.; Schulte, D.; Smith, S.; Stocchi, A.; Valloni, A.; Welsch, C.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Zomer, F.

    2018-06-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a novel energy-recovering linac (ERL) facility for the development and application of the energy recovery technique to linear electron accelerators in the multi-turn, large current and large energy regime. The main characteristics of the powerful energy recovery linac experiment facility (PERLE) are derived from the design of the Large Hadron electron Collider, an electron beam upgrade under study for the LHC, for which it would be the key demonstrator. PERLE is thus projected as a facility to investigate efficient, high current (HC) (>10 mA) ERL operation with three re-circulation passages through newly designed SCRF cavities, at 801.58 MHz frequency, and following deceleration over another three re-circulations. In its fully equipped configuration, PERLE provides an electron beam of approximately 1 GeV energy. A physics programme possibly associated with PERLE is sketched, consisting of high precision elastic electron–proton scattering experiments, as well as photo-nuclear reactions of unprecedented intensities with up to 30 MeV photon beam energy as may be obtained using Fabry–Perot cavities. The facility has further applications as a general technology test bed that can investigate and validate novel superconducting magnets (beam induced quench tests) and superconducting RF structures (structure tests with HC beams, beam loading and transients). Besides a chapter on operation aspects, the report contains detailed considerations on the choices for the SCRF structure, optics and lattice design, solutions for arc magnets, source and injector and on further essential components. A suitable configuration derived from the here presented design concept may next be moved forward to a technical design and possibly be built by an international collaboration which is being established.

  19. Technological Challenges to X-Ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    1999-09-16

    There is strong interest in the development of x-ray free electron lasers (x-ray FELs). The interest is driven by the scientific opportunities provided by intense, coherent x-rays. An x-ray FEL has all the characteristics of a fourth-generation source: brightness several orders of magnitude greater than presently achieved in third-generation sources, full transverse coherence, and sub-picosecond long pulses. The SLAC and DESY laboratories have presented detailed design studies for X-Ray FEL user facilities around the 0.1 nm wavelength-regime (LCLS at SLAC, TESLA X-Ray FEL at DESY). Both laboratories are engaged in proof-of-principle experiments are longer wavelengths (TTF FEL Phase I at 71 nm, VISA at 600-800 nm) with results expected in 1999. The technologies needed to achieve the proposed performances are those of bright electron sources, of acceleration systems capable of preserving the brightness of the source, and of undulators capable of meeting the magnetic and mechanical tolerances that are required for operation in the SASE mode. This paper discusses the technological challenges presented by the X-Ray FEL projects.

  20. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Dipaola

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs. Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years walked both at their 'preferred' and 'slow' speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk, potential (Wp, total (WtotCM energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER. Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components.

  1. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  2. Energy demands during a judo match and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoutte, F; Jouanel, P; Filaire, E

    2003-06-01

    To assess energy demand during a judo match and the kinetics of recovery by measuring the metabolites of the oxypurine cascade, lipolytic activity, and glycolytic pathway. Venous blood samples were taken from 16 national judoists (mean (SEM) age 18.4 (1.6) years), before (T(1)) and three minutes (T(2)), one hour (T(3)), and 24 hours (T(4)) after a match. A seven day diet record was used to evaluate nutrient intake. Nutrient analysis indicated that these athletes followed a low carbohydrate diet. Plasma lactate concentration had increased to 12.3 (1.8) mmol/l at the end of the match. An increase in the levels of extracellular markers of muscle adenine nucleotide catabolism, urea, and creatinine was observed at T(2), while uric acid levels remained unchanged. High concentrations of urea persisted for 24 hours during the recovery period. Ammonia, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and creatinine returned to control levels within the 24 hour recovery period. Uric acid concentrations rose from T(3) and had not returned to baseline 24 hours after the match. The levels of triglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids had increased significantly (p<0.05) after the match (T(2)) but returned to baseline values within 24 hours. Concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly increased after the match. These results show that a judo match induces both protein and lipid metabolism. Carbohydrate availability, training adaptation, and metabolic stress may explain the requirement for these types of metabolism.

  3. A Cherenkov radiator for FEL-synchronized VUV-pulses at a linac-based FEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goloviznin, V. V.; Oepts, D.; van der Wiel, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    A possible way to carry out two-color IR+VUV pump-probe experiments at linac-based FELs is proposed. The idea is to supply an FEL facility with a gas cell filled with helium or hydrogen, so that the electron beam, upon passage through the undulator, could be used to generate ultraviolet Cherenkov

  4. A Cherenkov radiator for FEL-synchronized VUV-pulses at a linac-based FEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goloviznin, V.V.; Oepts, W.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A possible way to carry out two-color IR + VUV pump-probe experiments at linac-based FELs is proposed. The idea is to supply an FEL facility with a gas cell filled with helium or hydrogen, so that the electron beam, upon passage through the undulator, could be used to generate ultraviolet Cherenkov

  5. Summary of the working group on FEL theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1984-01-01

    The working group on FEL theory dedicated most of its discussions to topics relevant to the high gain regime in a free electron laser. In addition the area of interest was mainly restricted to FELs for the production of XUV radiation (<1000 A). A list of the topics that were felt to be relevant is: (1) characterization of the FEL high gain regime; (2) the amplified spontaneous emission mode of operation (ASE); (3) superradiance in FELs; (4) diffraction effects for high gain FELs; (5) noise and start-up; (6) coherence properties of the radiation for the ASE and superradiant FELS. 9 references.

  6. Summary of the working group on FEL theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1984-01-01

    The working group on FEL theory dedicated most of its discussions to topics relevant to the high gain regime in a free electron laser. In addition the area of interest was mainly restricted to FELs for the production of XUV radiation (<1000 A). A list of the topics that were felt to be relevant is: (1) characterization of the FEL high gain regime; (2) the amplified spontaneous emission mode of operation (ASE); (3) superradiance in FELs; (4) diffraction effects for high gain FELs; (5) noise and start-up; (6) coherence properties of the radiation for the ASE and superradiant FELS. 9 references

  7. Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Celidonio; Dispenza, Giorgio; Rocca, Vincenzo La; Panno, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all over the World, an appropriate design option could be based on a modular unit having a mean regasification capacity of 2 x 10 9 standard cubic meters/year. This paper deals with the results of feasibility studies, developed by the authors at DREAM in the context of a research program, on ventures based on thermodynamic and economic analysis of improved CHP cycles and related innovative technology which demonstrate the suitability of the proposal

  8. Lattice design for a high-power infrared FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    A 1 kW infrared FEL, funded by the U.S. Navy, is being built at Jefferson Lab. It will be driven by a compact energy-recovering CW superconducting radio-frequency (SRF)-based linear accelerator. Stringent phase space requirements at the wiggler, low beam energy, and high beam current subject the design to numerous constraints. This report addresses these issues and presents a design solution for an accelerator transport lattice meeting the requirements imposed by physical phenomena and operational necessities

  9. Electron beam acceleration and compression for short wavelength FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1994-11-01

    A single pass UV or X-ray FEL will require a low emittance electron beam with high peak current and relatively high beam energy, a few hundred MeV to many GeV. To achieve the necessary peak current and beam energy, the beams must be bunch compressed and they must be accelerated in long transport lines where dispersive and wakefield emittance dilutions are important. In this paper, we will describe the sources and significance of the dilutions during acceleration, bunch compression, and transport through the undulator. In addition, we will discuss sources of jitter, especially effects arising from the bunch compressions, and the possible cancellation techniques

  10. Vacuum system of the compact Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T., E-mail: tohru.honda@kek.jp; Tanimoto, Y.; Nogami, T.; Takai, R.; Obina, T.; Asaoka, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Nakamura, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan) (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), a test accelerator to establish important technologies demanded for future ERL-based light sources, was constructed in late 2013 at KEK. The accelerator was successfully commissioned in early 2014, and demonstrated beam circulation with energy recovery. In the cERL vacuum system, low-impedance vacuum components are required to circulate high-intensity, low-emittance and short-bunch electron beams. We therefore developed ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-compatible flanges that can connect beam tubes seamlessly, and employed retractable beam monitors, namely, a movable Faraday cup and screen monitors. In most parts of the accelerator, pressures below 1×10{sup −7} Pa are required to mitigate beam-gas interactions. Particularly, near the photocathode electron gun and the superconducting (SC) cavities, pressures below 1×10{sup −8} Pa are required. The beam tubes in the sections adjoining the SC cavities were coated with non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials, to reduce gas condensation on the cryo-surfaces. During the accelerator commissioning, stray magnetic fields from the permanent magnets of some cold cathode gauges (CCGs) were identified as a source of the disturbance to the beam orbit. Magnetic shielding was specially designed as a remedy for this issue.

  11. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Experimental tests of energy recovery are made on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source (the circular periplasmatron) is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high negative potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy. To prevent the acceleration of the neutralizer plasma electrons toward the collector of the decelerated ions (the recovery electrode), a potential barrier is created by means of a negatively biased long cylindrical grid (called the suppressor grid) surrounding the beam. For a given negative potential (relative to the neutralizer) applied to this grid a plasma sheath develops at the periphery of the beam. At the entry of the grid the width of this sheath is generally much smaller than the beam radius. However, the ions are deflected by the electric field of the sheath outward through the grid. The ion density in the sheath is thus decreasing as the beam propagates and the result is a sheath-widening process which in turn causes more ions to be deflected. If the suppressor grid is sufficiently long the sheath will eventually fill the whole section of the beam, the potential on the axis will fall below the neutralizer potential and stop the electrons. Concurrently, most of the ions are deflected out of the suppressor. These ions can be decelerated and collected outside the region where the neutral beam propagates. A drawing of such a system is shown

  12. FULL ELECTROMAGNETIC FEL SIMULATION VIA THE LORENTZ-BOOSTED FRAME TRANSFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Numerical electromagnetic simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. A particularly good application for calculation in a boosted frame isthat of short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) where a high energy electron beam with small fractional energy spread interacts with a static magnetic undulator. In the optimal boost frame (i.e., the ponderomotive rest frame), the red-shifted FEL radiation and blue-shifted undulator field have identical wavelengths and the number of required longitudinal grid cells and time-steps for fully electromagnetic simulation (relative to the laboratory frame) decrease by factors of gamma 2 each. In theory, boosted frame EM codes permit direct study of FEL problems for which the eikonal approximation for propagation of the radiation field and wiggler-period-averaging for the particle-field interaction may be suspect. We have adapted the WARP code to apply this method to several electromagnetic FEL problems including spontaneous emission, strong exponential gain in a seeded, single pass amplifier configuration, and emission from e-beams in undulators with multiple harmonic components. WARP has a standard relativistic macroparticle mover and a fully 3-D electromagnetic field solver. We discuss our boosted frame results and compare with those obtained using the 'standard' eikonal FEL simulation approach.

  13. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  14. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  15. Time dependent formulation of the energy loss by an accelerated intense electron beam just emitted by the cathode of RF-FEL photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Wa' el [Physics Department, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)]. E-mail: wael_salahh@hotmail.com; Coacolo, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Hallak, A.B. [Physics Department, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Obaid, M. [Physics Department, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2006-08-01

    The energy loss by an accelerated electron bunch of a conical shape propagating in the laser-driven RF-photoinjector is expressed in terms of an expansion of the vector and scalar potentials into a series of eigenfunctions of the empty unit 'pill-box' cavity. A versatile and simple analytical formula which can be easily applied to a bunch of any shape is obtained.

  16. Design study of a longer wavelength FEL for FELIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.; Oepts, D.; Meer, A.F.G. van der

    1995-01-01

    We present a design study of FEL3, which will extend the FELIX spectral range towards a few hundred microns. A rectangular waveguide will be used to reduce diffraction losses. Calculations show that with a waveguide gap of 1 cm, only one sinusoidal mode along the guided direction can exist within the FEL gain bandwidth, thus excluding group velocity dispersion and lengthening of short radiation pulses. To incorporate FEL3 in the existing FELIX facility, two options are being considered: to combine FEL3 with FEL1 by insertion of a waveguide into FEL1, and to build a dedicated third beam line for FEL3 after the two linacs. Expected FEL performance: gain, spectrum, power, pulse shape, etc., will be presented based on numerical simulations

  17. Methanation and energy recovery from biogas: mutually beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Biogas is credited with a development potential of 18 million tons of oil equivalent by 2020 for the European Union. In terms of scale, this corresponds to the quantity of natural gas consumed today in France. Ten per cent of these resources are today being used, with wide variations from one country to another. If we compare this production to the population levels, it is the Northern European countries of Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands which emerge at the top of the list. Recovery of biogas is proportionally three times higher in these states than in France or in Belgium and six times that of Southern Europe. At a time when biogas appears in the European 'campaign for takeoff' as a sector likely to produce 'MW' in the short term, the identification of factors (including subsidies, purchase prices for energy and tax incentives) that have influenced the growth of methanation and recovery of biogas in certain countries hold valuable lessons for us all. (authors)

  18. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, F.; Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Baresi, M.; Fermi, A.; Rossetti, N.; Vescovo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO 2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO 2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  19. Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lidia.lombardi@pin.unifi.it; Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Waste management systems are a non-negligible source of greenhouse gases. In particular, methane and carbon dioxide emissions occur in landfills due to the breakdown of biodegradable carbon compounds operated on by anaerobic bacteria. The conventional possibilities of reducing the greenhouse effect (GHE) from waste landfilling consists in landfill gas (LFG) flaring or combustion with energy recovery in reciprocating engines. These conventional treatments are compared with three innovative possibilities: the direct LFG feeding to a fuel cell (FC); the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a stationary FC; the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a vehicle FC. The comparison is carried out from an environmental point of view, calculating the specific production of GHE per unit mass of waste disposed in landfill equipped with the different considered technologies.

  20. Completing the cycle : Energy and Resource Recovery Centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, D. [Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp., Ajax, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: ddickson@pearlearth.com

    2006-07-01

    Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp.'s Energy and Resource Recovery Centres support technologies that will provide long-term environmental and economical benefits to industry and society at large. Using a closed-loop production process with zero emissions we offer producers of waste a solution for their end of life products. Our prime goals are to have the flexibility to respond to individual waste market challenges using innovative ultra-high-temperature plasma conversion technology and to focus on the production of value-added industrial products such as a clean synthesis gas (ProGaz), Hydrogen, metals and other recovered materials. The syn-gas with its high hydrogen content can be used in the emerging 'distributed power generation' markets, to power automotive, stationary and portable fuel cells, as well as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles; chemical processing or direct feed to a pipeline.

  1. Fast ferroelectric phase shifters for energy recovery linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu Kazakov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast phase shifters are described that use a novel barium strontium titanate ceramic that can rapidly change its dielectric constant as an external bias voltage is changed. These phase shifters promise to reduce by ∼10 times the power requirements for the rf source needed to drive an energy recovery linac (ERL. Such phase shifters will be coupled with superconducting radiofrequency cavities so as to tune them to compensate for phase instabilities, whether beam-driven or those caused by microphonics. The most promising design is presented, which was successfully cold tested and demonstrated a switching speed of ∼30  ns for 77 deg, corresponding to <0.5  ns per deg of rf phase. Other crucial issues (losses, phase shift values, etc. are discussed.

  2. Completing the cycle : Energy and Resource Recovery Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp.'s Energy and Resource Recovery Centres support technologies that will provide long-term environmental and economical benefits to industry and society at large. Using a closed-loop production process with zero emissions we offer producers of waste a solution for their end of life products. Our prime goals are to have the flexibility to respond to individual waste market challenges using innovative ultra-high-temperature plasma conversion technology and to focus on the production of value-added industrial products such as a clean synthesis gas (ProGaz), Hydrogen, metals and other recovered materials. The syn-gas with its high hydrogen content can be used in the emerging 'distributed power generation' markets, to power automotive, stationary and portable fuel cells, as well as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles; chemical processing or direct feed to a pipeline

  3. Multi-mode interactions in an FEL oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Dong Zhi Wei; Masuda, K; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K

    2000-01-01

    A 3D time-dependent FEL oscillator simulation code has been developed by using the transverse mode spectral method to analyze interaction among transverse modes. The competition among them in an FEL oscillator was investigated based on the parameters of LANL FEL experiments. It is found that under typical FEL oscillator operation conditions, the TEM sub 0 sub 0 mode is dominant, and the effects of other transverse modes can be negligible.

  4. Influence of an imperfect energy profile on a seeded free electron laser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Jia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A single-pass high-gain x-ray free electron laser (FEL calls for a high quality electron bunch. In particular, for a seeded FEL amplifier and for a harmonic generation FEL, the electron bunch initial energy profile uniformity is crucial for generating an FEL with a narrow bandwidth. After the acceleration, compression, and transportation, the electron bunch energy profile entering the undulator can acquire temporal nonuniformity. We study the influence of the electron bunch initial energy profile nonuniformity on the FEL performance. Intrinsically, for a harmonic generation FEL, the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator starts with an electron bunch having energy modulation acquired in the previous stages, due to the FEL interaction at those FEL wavelengths and their harmonics. The influence of this electron bunch energy nonuniformity on the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator is then studied.

  5. Characteristics of the FEL project for the MUH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, F.; Doria, A.; Fascetti, M.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giannessi, L.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Picardi, L.; Renieri, A.; Ronci, G.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1999-01-01

    The design characteristics of a compact Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the far infrared spectral range between 200 and 600 μm are presented in this report. The device can be employed in a fundamental physics experiment to be performed in collaboration with INFN-Trieste and the Paul Sherrer Institute- Villigen. Spectroscopic measurements in the above spectral region will allow one to determine the energy difference between the levels 3D-3P in the μP system with great accuracy [it

  6. The APS SASE FEL: modeling and code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL

  7. Multi-mode competition in an FEL oscillator at perfect synchronism of an optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Z W; Kii, T; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K

    2002-01-01

    The sustained saturation in a short pulse free electron laser (FEL) oscillator at perfect synchronism of an optical cavity has been observed recently by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) FEL group by using their super-conducting linac (Phys. Rev. Lett., in preparation). The experiments have clearly shown that FEL efficiency becomes maximum at perfect synchronism, although it has been considered that only a transient state exists at perfect synchronism due to the lethargy effect. Through careful analyses of the experimental condition of JAERI FEL, we found that, in spite of the short length of the electron micro-bunch, the saturation appears due to the following features, which were different from other FEL experiments: (1) very large ratio of the small signal gain to losses, (2) very long electron macro-bunch which can tolerate a slow start up. The saturation and high efficiency at perfect synchronism were benefited from the contribution of the weak sideband instability. In order to analyse these...

  8. Observation of SASE in LEBRA FEL system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. E-mail: tanaka@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, I.; Hayakawa, Y.; Yokoyama, K

    2004-08-01

    A large enhancement of spontaneous undulator radiation has been observed during FEL lasing experiments at LEBRA. The enhancement has been observed only with the detector for the infrared fundamental radiation. The detector output signal showed spikes during the electron beam pulse, yet no apparent enhancement was observed with a CCD camera monitoring the visible harmonic radiations. An enhancement factor greater than 10 has been obtained with a 2.4 m long undulator with a completely detuned FEL optical cavity length and depends strongly on the parameters of the linac RF system. This implies that the SASE operation is possible even with a conventional electron beam by achieving suitable bunch compression.

  9. Scientific opportunities for FEL amplifier based VUV and X-ray research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to a wide cross section of the synchrotron radiation research community that FELs will be the cornerstone of Fourth Generation Radiation Sources. Through the coherent generation of radiation, they provide as much as 12 orders of magnitude increase in peak power over the third generation storage ring machines of today. Facilities have been proposed which will extend the operating wavelength of these devices well beyond the reach of existing solid state laser technology. In addition, it appears possible to generate pulses of unprecedented brevity, down to a few femtoseconds, with mJ pulse energies. The combination of these attributes has stimulated considerable interest in short wavelength FELs for experiments in chemical, surface, and solid state physics, biology and materials science. This paper provides a brief overview of how the features of these FEL's relate to the experimental opportunities

  10. Analyses of superradiance and spiking-mode lasing observed at JAERI-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Nagai, R; Minehara, E J

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)-FEL has achieved quasi-CW lasing with an average power of 1.7 kW, the initial goal of the R and D program. The FEL extraction efficiency obtained completely exceeds the well-known limit for non-bunched beam, which is determined by the number of undulator periods. We have conducted numerical studies to characterize lasing dynamics observed at JAERI-FEL. Cavity-length detuning curves numerically obtained show good agreement with experimental results. Lasing behavior numerically obtained exhibits chaotic spiking-mode and superradiance as the cavity-length detuning approaches zero. Broadening of lasing spectrum observed in the experiments is explained by these lasing dynamics. The extraction efficiency becomes maximal at the perfect synchronization of the cavity length, where the lasing is quasi-stationary superradiance. We also compare these results with analytical theory previously reported.

  11. Energy-Recovery Pressure-Reducer in District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Borkowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Already existing man-made infrastructures that create water flow and unused pressure are interesting energy sources to which micro-hydropower plants can be applied. Apart from water supply systems (WSSs, which are widely described in the literature, significant hydropower potential can also be found in district heating systems (DHSs. In this paper, a prototype, a so-called energy-recovery pressure-reducer (ERPR, utilized for a DHS, is presented. It consisted of a pump as a turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The latter was connected to the power grid through the power electronic unit (PEU. The variable-speed operation allowed one to modify the turbine characteristics to match the substation’s hydraulic conditions. The proposed ERPR device could be installed in series to the existing classic pressure reducing valve (PRV as an independent device that reduces costs and simplifies system installation. The test results of the prototype system located in a substation of Cracow’s DHS are presented. The steady-state curves and regulation characteristics show the prototype’s operating range and efficiency. In this study, the pressure-reducer impact on the electrical and hydraulic systems, and on the environment, were analyzed. The operation tests during the annual heating season revealed an average system’s efficiency of 49%.

  12. The FFAG return loop for the CBETA Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The CBETA energy recovery linac uses a single xed eld alternating gradient (FFAG) beam line to return the beam for electron beams with four energies, ranging from 42 MeV to 150 MeV. To keep the beam line compact, the ends of the return line have a small radius of curvature, but the central part of the return line is straight. These are connected by transition lines that adiabatically change from one to the other. We rst describe the design or the arc cell. We then describe how a straight cell is created to be a good match to this arc cell. We then describe the design of the transition line between them. The design process makes use of eld maps for the desired magnets. Because we switch magnet types as we move from the arc, through the transition, and into the straight, there are discrete jumps in the elds that degrade the adiabaticity of the transition, and we describe corrections to manage that.

  13. Gain length dependence on phase shake in the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany); Schneidmiller, E.A. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation); Pierini, P. [INFN, Milano (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The TTF VUV FEL, which is in its design stage at DESY, consists of a 30 m long SASE FEL which will radiate around 6 nm, driven by a superconducting linac with final energy of 1 GeV. One of the important issues in its design is the undulator performance, which is studied in this paper. The present setup, including FODO lattice, is discussed in this paper. Results of simulations, including the realistic wiggler field errors and beam stearing, are presented. Dependence of the performance, in particular the gain and saturation length as well as the saturation peak power, on the wiggler field errors is discussed.

  14. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  15. Development of intense terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at KU-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sei, Norihiro, E-mail: sei.n@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zen, Heishun; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute for Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We produced intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz (THz) region using an S-band linac at the Kyoto University Free Electron Laser (KU-FEL), which is a mid-infrared free-electron laser facility. The CSR beam was emitted from short-pulse electron bunches compressed by a 180° arc, and was transferred to air at a large solid angle of 0.10 rad. The measured CSR energy was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse, and KU-FEL was one of the most powerful CSR sources in normal conducting linear accelerator facilities. The CSR spectra were measured using an uncooled pyroelectric detector and a Michelson-type interferometer designed specifically for the KU-FEL electron beam, and had a maximum at a frequency of 0.11 THz. We found that adjusting the energy slit enhanced the CSR energy and shortened the electron beam bunch length in the CSR spectra measurements. Our results demonstrated that the efficient use of the energy slit can help improve the characteristics of CSR. - Highlights: • We have developed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at KU-FEL. • The elevation angle of the CSR was correctly measured by a new technique. • The CSR power extracted to the air was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse. • It was demonstrated that an energy slit was effective to improve the CSR properties.

  16. Development of intense terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at KU-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Zen, Heishun; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We produced intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz (THz) region using an S-band linac at the Kyoto University Free Electron Laser (KU-FEL), which is a mid-infrared free-electron laser facility. The CSR beam was emitted from short-pulse electron bunches compressed by a 180° arc, and was transferred to air at a large solid angle of 0.10 rad. The measured CSR energy was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse, and KU-FEL was one of the most powerful CSR sources in normal conducting linear accelerator facilities. The CSR spectra were measured using an uncooled pyroelectric detector and a Michelson-type interferometer designed specifically for the KU-FEL electron beam, and had a maximum at a frequency of 0.11 THz. We found that adjusting the energy slit enhanced the CSR energy and shortened the electron beam bunch length in the CSR spectra measurements. Our results demonstrated that the efficient use of the energy slit can help improve the characteristics of CSR. - Highlights: • We have developed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at KU-FEL. • The elevation angle of the CSR was correctly measured by a new technique. • The CSR power extracted to the air was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse. • It was demonstrated that an energy slit was effective to improve the CSR properties.

  17. The CSU Accelerator and FEL Facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, S.V.; Biedron, S.G.; Burleson, T.; Carrico, C.; Edelenbos, J.; Hall, C.; Horovitz, K.; Morin, A.; Rand, L.; Sipahi, N.; Sipahi, T.; van der Slot, P.; Yehudah, H.; Dong, A.; Tanaka, T.; Schaa, V.R.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include a 6-MeV L-Band electron linear accelerator (linac) with a free-electron laser (FEL) system capable of producing Terahertz (THz) radiation, a laser laboratory, a microwave test stand, and a magnetic test stand. The photocathode

  18. Inverse Compton gamma-ray source for nuclear physics and related applications at the Duke FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, P.G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years the development of intense, short-wavelength FEL light sources has opened opportunities for the development new applications of high-energy Compton-backscattered photons. These applications range from medical imaging with X-ray photons to high-energy physics with γγ colliders. In this paper we discuss the possibilities for nuclear physics studies using polarized Compton backscattered γ-rays from the Duke storage-ring-driven UV-FEL. There are currently a number of projects that produce polarized γ-rays for nuclear physics studies. All of these facilities operate by scattering conventional laser-light against electrons circulating in a storage ring. In our scheme, intra-cavity scattering of the UV-FEL light will produce a γ-flux enhancement of approximately 10 3 over existing sources. The Duke ring can operate at energies up to 1.2 GeV and can produce FEL photons up to 12.5 eV. We plan to generate γ-rays up to 200 MeV in energy with an average flux in excess of 10 7 /s/MeV, using a modest scattering beam of 10-mA average stored current. The γ-ray energy may be tuned by varying the FEL wavelength or by adjusting the stored electron beam energy. Because of the intense flux, we can eliminate the need for photon energy tagging by collimating of the γ-ray beam. We will discuss the characteristics of the device and its research opportunities

  19. Theoretical analysis of experimental results on SG-1 FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua; Wu Shangqing; Tian Shihong; Dong Zhiwei; Wu Yupu

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the SG-1 FEL and the beam transport thoroughly, and draw certain quantitative conclusions, we developed 3-D WAGFEL code to describe the FEL evolution and 3-D CEBQ code to describe the beam transport. The CEBQ code can simulate the 3-D transport of the electron beam in the modulation section with linear approximation of space charge. According to the first ASE experiments results, the LIA provided a 2 kA, 3.0 MeV beam with a normalized emittance of 0.6 πrad·cm, an energy spread (FWHM) of 4%, resulting in a beam brightness nearly 10 8 A/(πm·rad) 2 . The numerical simulation showed that the quality of the beam was good enough to abandon the 9-m long beam line and substitute it with a 2-m long drifting and focusing region. The second series of ASE and amplifier experiments began in October 1992. The beam transport section was modified. The ASE output power, the amplifier output power and detuning curve was measured. We analysed the experimental results using the WAGFEL and CEBQ codes with parameters equal to those of experiments. Firstly we followed 4096 electrons to simulate the transport process of the beam in the beam line under the condition of I = 2 kA, r b = 1 cm, γ = 6.8, Δγ/γ 4%, ε rms = 0.6 (πrad·cm). Through the simulation, we predicted that the beam current injected into the wiggler was about 611 A. Based on these beam parameters at the entrance of the wiggler, we simulated the FEL process with P in = 300 W. The results are also in Fig.7,8,9

  20. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  1. Proposed continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; P. Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; J. Smedley; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Moeller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S. Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  2. Continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Sekutowicz; Bogacz, S. A.; Douglas, D.; Kneisel, Peter; Williams, G. P.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rose, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Mueller, W.-D.; Petersen, B.; Proch, D.; Simrock, S.; Colestock, P.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  3. SOFT X-RAY FEL BY CASCADING STAGES OF HIGH GAIN HARMONIC GENERATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YU,L.H.

    2003-04-17

    Short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers are perceived as the next generation of synchrotron light sources. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical VUV FELs and make x-ray FELs possible. Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) and High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG)[17-19] are the two leading candidates for x-ray FELs. The first lasing of HGHG proof-of-principle experiment succeeded in August, 1999 in Brookhaven National Laboratory. The experimental results agree with the theory prediction. Compared with SASE FEL, the following advantages of HGHG FEL were confirmed; (1) Better longitudinal coherence, and hence, much narrower bandwidth than SASE. (2) More stable central wavelength, (3) More stable output energy. In this introduction, we will first briefly describe the principle of HGHG in Section A. Then in Section B, we give a general description about how to produce soft x-ray by cascading HGHG scheme. In section 2, we give a detailed description of the system design. Then, in section 3, we give a description of an analytical estimate for the HGHG process, and the calculation of the parameters of different parts of the system. The estimate is found to agree with simulation within about a factor 2 for most cases we studied. The stability issue, the sensitivity to parameter variation, the harmonic contents of the final output, and the noise degradation issue of such HGHG scheme are discussed in Section 4. The results are presented in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, we will give some discussion of the challenges in development of the system. The conclusion is given in Section 6.

  4. Characteristics of the FEL project for the MUH experiment; Stato del progetto FEL per l`esperimeto MUH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocci, F.; Doria, A.; Fascetti, M.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giannessi, L.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Picardi, L.; Renieri, A.; Ronci, G.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1999-01-01

    The design characteristics of a compact Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the far infrared spectral range between 200 and 600 {mu}m are presented in this report. The device can be employed in a fundamental physics experiment to be performed in collaboration with INFN-Trieste and the Paul Sherrer Institute- Villigen. Spectroscopic measurements in the above spectral region will allow one to determine the energy difference between the levels 3D-3P in the {mu}P system with great accuracy. [Italiano] In questo rapporto vengono presentate le caratteristiche di progetto di un Laser ad Elettroni Liberi (FEL) compatto operante nel lontano infrarosso a lunghezze d`onda comprese tra 200 e 600 {mu}m. Tale laser potra` essere impiegato in un esperimento di fisica fondamentale su idrogeno muonico in collaborazione con INFN-Trieste ed il Paul Sherrer Institute-Villigen. Le misure spettroscopiche nella regione spettrale del lontano infrarosso consentiranno di determinare con grande accuratezza la differenza di energia dei livelli 3D-3P nel sistema {mu}P. Attraverso la misura di questa transizione sara` possibile effettuare un test delle correzioni di Meccanica Quantistica (QED) alle energie di legame, migliorando di un ordine di grandezza l`accuratezza della misura della polarizzazione del vuoto.

  5. Processes of energy recovery / energy valorization at low temperature levels. State of the art. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manificat, A.; Megret, O.

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to realize a state of art of the processes of energy recovery at low level of temperature and their valorizations. The information provided will target particularly the thermal systems of waste and biomass treatment. After reminding the adequate context of development with these solutions and define the scope of the current work, the study begins with the definition of different concepts such as low-grade heat (fatal energy) and exergy, and also the presentation of the fiscal environment as well as the economic and regulatory situation, with information about the TGAP, prices of energy and energy efficiency. The second chapter focuses on the different sources of energy at low temperature level that can be recoverable in order to assess their potentials and their characteristics. The Determination of the temperature range of these energy sources will be put in relation with the needs and demands of users from different industrial sectors. The third part of the study is a review of various technologies for energy recovery and valorization at low temperature. It is useful to distinguish different types of heat exchangers interesting to implement. Moreover, innovative processes allow us to consider new perspectives other than a direct use of heat recovered. For example, we can take into account systems for producing electricity (ORC cycle, hot air engines, thermoelectric conversion), or cold generation (sorption refrigeration machine, Thermo-ejector refrigeration machine) or techniques for energy storage with PCM (Phase Change Material). The last chapter deals to the achievement of four study cases written in the form of sheet and aimed at assess the applicability of the processes previously considered, concerning the field of waste. (authors)

  6. The FERMI-Elettra FEL Photon Transport System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangrando, M.; Cudin, I.; Fava, C.; Godnig, R.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.; Parmigiani, F.; Rumiz, L.; Svetina, C.; Turchet, A.; Cocco, D.

    2010-01-01

    The FERMI-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) user facility is under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy), and it will be operative in late 2010. It is based on a seeded scheme providing an almost perfect transform-limited and fully spatially coherent photon beam. FERMI-Elettra will cover the wavelength range 100 to 3 nm with the fundamental harmonics, and down to 1 nm with higher harmonics. We present the layout of the photon beam transport system that includes: the first common part providing on-line and shot-to-shot beam diagnostics, called PADReS (Photon Analysis Delivery and Reduction System), and 3 independent beamlines feeding the experimental stations. Particular emphasis is given to the solutions adopted to preserve the wavefront, and to avoid damage on the different optical elements. Peculiar FEL devices, not common in the Synchrotron Radiation facilities, are described in more detail, e.g. the online photon energy spectrometer measuring shot-by-shot the spectrum of the emitted radiation, the beam splitting and delay line system dedicated to cross/auto correlation and pump-probe experiments, and the wavefront preserving active optics adapting the shape and size of the focused spot to meet the needs of the different experiments.

  7. Advanced Electron Beam Diagnostics for the FERMI FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Ferianis, M; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S

    2005-01-01

    Fermi is the fourth generation light source currently under design at ELETTRA: based on the Harmonic Generation (HG) scheme it will generate FEL radiation in the 100-10nm range. The successful implementation of the HG scheme calls also for precise knowledge of electron beam emittances and energy spread as well as for very accurate control on the photon to electron interaction, in the Undulator sections. In this paper we present our design for two fundamental Diagnostics foreseen for the new FERMI LINAC: the Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and the Transverse Deflecting cavity set-up. Sensitivity studies on transverse beam displacement effects on global stability of FEL output radiation dictate the ultimate performance to be provided by the BPM system. Due to non negligible longitudinal occupancy of a cavity type BPM, some efforts have been put to study compact cavity BPM configuration. A proper set-up of RF deflecting cavity combined with the vertical ramp foreseen at the end of the LINAC provide a powerful tool ...

  8. Options for the Cryogenic System for the BESSY-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzschbach, A.; Quack, H.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Knobloch, J.; Anders, W.; Pflueckhahn, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft fuer Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY GmbH), in January 1999, started operation of BESSY II, a third-generation synchrotron light source delivering world-class, high-brilliance photon beams in the VUV to XUV spectral range. Based on this experience, BESSY has recently proposed the construction of a free-electron laser (FEL), covering a photon-energy range from 20 eV to 1 keV.To reduce the development time and cost, BESSY intends to use proven cavity and cryostat technology developed for the TESLA linear collider. However, the cryogenic load per cavity is approximately 15 to 20 times higher than that anticipated for the (pulsed) TESLA operation. This paper describes possible modifications of the cryostat design to accommodate these additional losses.Superconducting RF cavities are the basis of the FEL accelerator providing the driving electron beam with 2.25 GeV. The accelerator consists of five cold sections separated by warm sections reserved for bunch compression and beam extraction. The total refrigeration load will be covered by a single refrigerator. Several possible layouts of the cryogenic system are described and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  9. Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell; David C. Hoppock; Michael E. Webber

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the potential for energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. These energy recovery strategies could help offset the electricity consumption of the wastewater sector and represent possible areas for sustainable energy policy implementation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 mil...

  10. GINGER simulations of short-pulse effects in the LEUTL FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Fawley, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    While the long-pulse, coasting beam model is often used in analysis and simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs), many current SASE demonstration experiments employ relatively short electron bunches whose pulse length is on the order of the radiation slippage length. In particular, the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL at the Advanced Photon Source has recently lased and nominally saturated in both visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength regions with a sub-ps pulse length that is somewhat shorter than the total slippage length in the 22-m undulator system. In this paper we explore several characteristics of the short pulse regime for SASE FELs with the multidimensional, time-dependent simulation code GINGER, concentrating on making a direct comparison with the experimental results from LEUTL. Items of interest include the radiation gain length, pulse energy, saturation position, and spectral bandwidth. We address the importance of short-pulse effects when scaling the LEUTL results to proposed x-ray FELs and also briefly discuss the possible importance of coherent spontaneous emission at startup

  11. Characterization of secondary electron collection for energy recovery from high energy ions with a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagihara, Shota; Wada, Takayuki; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC) is expected to be used as an energy recovery device for fast protons produced during the D- 3 He nuclear fusion reaction. Some protons, however, are not fully decelerated and pass through the device. A secondary electron direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed as an additional device to recover the protons passing through a TWDEC. In our previous study, magnetic field was applied for efficient secondary electron (SE) collection, but the SEs were reflected close to the collector due to the magnetic mirror effect and the collection was degraded. Herein, a new arrangement of magnets is proposed to be set away from the collector, and experiments in various conditions are performed. An appropriate arrangement away from the collector resulted in the improvement of SE collection. (author)

  12. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  13. Harmonic Content of the BESSY FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Meseck, Atoosa

    2005-01-01

    BESSY proposes a linac-based cascaded High-Gain Harmonic-Generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL) multi-user facility. The BESSY soft X-ray FEL will consist of three undulator lines. The associated tunable lasers will cover the spectral range of 230nm to 460nm. Two to four HGHG stages reduce the seed wavelength to the desired radiation range of 1.24nm < λ < 51nm. The harmonic content of the high-intensity radiator output can be used to reduce the number of necessary HGHG stages. Moreover the higher harmonic content of the final output extends the offered spectral range and thus is of high interest for the user community. In this paper, the higher harmonic content of the final output as well as of the output of several radiators are investigated. The main parameters such as output power, pulse duration and bandwidth as well as their suitability for seeding are discussed.

  14. Growth of transverse coherence in SASE FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vinit; Krishnagopal, Srinivas

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the correlation function between the electric field at two different points in the transverse plane as a parameter to quantify the degree of transverse coherence. We also propose a more realistic model for the initialization of the radiation in computer codes used to study SASE FELs. We make these modifications in the code TDA and use it to study the growth of transverse coherence as a function of electron beam size, beam current and transverse emittance. Our results show explicitly that the onset of full transverse coherence in SASE takes place much before the power saturates. With the more realistic model the onset of the exponential growth regime is delayed, and to get a given power from the FEL one needs a longer undulator than would be predicted by the original TDA code

  15. Performance of a Combined System Using an X-Ray FEL Oscillator and a High-Gain FEL Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, L.; Lindberg, R.; Kim, K. -J.

    2017-06-01

    The LCLS-II at SLAC will feature a 4 GeV CW superconducting (SC) RF linac [1] that can potentially drive a 5th harmonic X-Ray FEL Oscillator (XFELO) to produce fully coherent, 1 MW photon pulses with a 5 meV bandwidth at 14.4 keV [2]. The XFELO output can serve as the input seed signal for a high-gain FEL amplifier employing fs electron beams from the normal conducting SLAC linac, thereby generating coherent, fs x-ray pulses with TW peak powers using a tapered undulator after saturation [3]. Coherent, intense output at several tens of keV will also be feasible if one considers a harmonic generation scheme. Thus, one can potentially reach the 42 keV photon energy required for the MaRIE project [4] by beginning with an XFELO operating at the 3rd harmonic to produce 14.0 keV photons using a 12 GeV SCRF linac, and then subsequently using the high-gain harmonic generation scheme to generate and amplify the 3th harmonic at 42 keV [5]. We report extensive GINGER simulations that determine an optimized parameter set for the combined system.

  16. Spontaneous emission in Cherenkov FEL devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Doria, A.; Schettini, G.; Torre, A.; Walsh, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The main features of the spectral characteristics of the spontaneously emitted Cherenkov light in circular and rectangular wave-guides filled with dielectric are discussed. The characteristics of the radiation emitted by an electron beam moving near and parallel to the surface of a dielectric slab are also analysed. Finally, the relevance of these results to a possible FEL-Cherenkov operation is briefly discussed

  17. Duke storage rink UV/VUV FEL: Status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The 1 GeV Duke storage ring was successfully commissioned with parameters exceeding initial specification. The OK-4 FEL has arrived at the Duke FEL laboratory from the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The OK-4 installation and commissioning is in progress. In this paper we describe the up-to-date status of the Duke storage ring and the OK-4 FEL. The projected performance of the OK-4 UV/VUV FEL is presented based on the electron beam parameters achieved. Initial plans to operate the OK-4 UV/VUV FEL at the Duke 1 GeV storage ring are outlined. Future plans and prospects of both the OK-4 FEL and the Duke storage ring are discussed.

  18. A proposed visible FEL Facility at Boeing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H.; Adamski, J.L.; Hayward, T.D. [Boeing Defense & Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 1-kW average power, visible wavelength FEL is described, based on a 120-MeV, 0.1. A macropulse average current linac operating at a duty factor of 0. 6% and having average beam power of 70 kW. The accelerator will employ a demonstrated photoinjector, 18-MeV, 433-MHz linac as an injector, followed by a 1300-MHz longitudinal phase space {open_quotes} linearizer,{close_quotes} a magnetic buncher chicane, and seven 1300-MHz, pulsed traveling wave linac sections. The magnets used to transport the beam from the linac to the FEL centerline, the 5-m THUNDER wiggler, and the optical resonator will be reclaimed from previous FEL demonstration experiments. We expect to attain pulse lengths of 7 ps for 3.5 nC, with minimal distortion of the pulse profile and normalized rms emittance of 7.5 {+-} 2.5 {pi} mm-mr. FELEX projects a laser conversion efficiency of 4.3 %, yielding average output of 3 kW.

  19. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  20. FEL Trajectory Analysis for the VISA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    1998-01-01

    The Visual to Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) [1] FEL is designed to achieve saturation at radiation wavelengths between 800 and 600 nm with a 4-m pure permanent magnet undulator. The undulator comprises four 99-cm segments each of which has four FODO focusing cells superposed on the beam by means of permanent magnets in the gap alongside the beam. Each segment will also have two beam position monitors and two sets of x-y dipole correctors. The trajectory walk-off in each segment will be reduced to a value smaller than the rms beam radius by means of magnet sorting, precise fabrication, and post-fabrication shimming and trim magnets. However, this leaves possible inter-segment alignment errors. A trajectory analysis code has been used in combination with the FRED3D [2] FEL code to simulate the effect of the shimming procedure and segment alignment errors on the electron beam trajectory and to determine the sensitivity of the FEL gain process to trajectory errors. The paper describes the technique used to establish tolerances for the segment alignment

  1. Bunch compression for an FEL at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the design effort for a free electron laser driven by the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), the author reports studies of bunch-length compression utilizing the existing infrastructure and hardware. In one possible version of the NLCTA FEL, bunches with 900-microm FWHM length, generated by an S-band photo-injector, would be compressed to an rms length of 60--120 microm before entering the FEL undulator. It is shown that, using the present magnetic chicane, the bunch compression is essentially straightforward, and that almost all emittance-diluting effects, e.g. wakefields, chromaticity, or space charge in the bending magnets, are small. The only exception to this finding is the predicted increase of the horizontal emittance due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Estimates based on existing theories of coherent synchrotron radiation suggest a tripling or quadrupling of the initial emittance, which seems to preclude bunch compression during regular FEL operation. Serendipitously, the magnitude of the predicted emittance growth would, on the other hand, make the NLCTA chicane an excellent tool for measuring the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. This will be of considerable interest to many future projects, in particular to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). As an aside, it is shown that coherent synchrotron radiation in a bending magnet gives rise to a minimum possible bunch length, which is very reminiscent of the Oide limit on the vertical spot size at the interaction point of a linear collider

  2. FEL for the polymer processing industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Polymers are everywhere in modern life because of their unique combination of end-use functionalities, ease of processing, recycling potential and modest cost. The physical and economic scope of the infrastructure committed to present polymers makes the introduction of entirely new chemistry unlikely. Rather, the breadth of commercial offerings more likely to shrink in the face of the widening mandate for recycling, especially of packaging. Improved performance and new functionality must therefore come by routes such as surface modification. However they must come with little environmental impact and at painfully low cost. Processing with strongly absorbed light offers unique advantages. The journal and patent literatures disclose a number of examples of benefits that can be achieved, principally by use of excimer lasers or special UV lamps. Examples of commercialization are few, however, because of the unit cost and maximum scale of existing light sources. A FEL, however, offers unique advantages: tunability to the optimum wavelength, potential for scale up to high average power, and a path to attractively low unit cost of light. A business analysis of prospective applications defines the technical and economic requirements a FEL for polymer surface processing must meet. These are compared to FEL technology as it now stands and as it is envisioned.

  3. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-01-01

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed

  4. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-09-21

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed.

  5. Electron beam optics for the FEL experiment and IFEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron beam transport system parameters for the FEL experiment and for the FEL experiment are given. The perturbation of the ''interaction region'' optics due to wiggler focussing is taken into account and a range of solutions are provided for relevant Twiss parameters in the FEL or IFEL region. Modifications of the transport optics in specific sections of the overall beam transport lines, for reasons of enhanced diagnostic capability or enhanced beam momentum analysis resolution, is also presented

  6. Development of energy-efficient processes for natural gas liquids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sekwang; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A new NGL (natural gas liquids) recovery process configuration is proposed which can offer improved energy efficiency and hydrocarbon recovery. The new process configuration is an evolution of the conventional turboexpander processes with the introduction of a split stream transferring part of the feed to the demethanizer column. In this way additional heat recovery is possible which improves the energy efficiency of the process. To evaluate the new process configuration a number of different NGL recovery process configurations are optimized and compared using a process simulator linked interactively with external optimization methods. Process integration methodology is applied as part of the optimization to improve energy recovery during the optimization. Analysis of the new process configuration compared with conventional turbo-expander process designs demonstrates the benefits of the new process configuration. - Highlights: • Development of a new energy-efficient natural gas liquids recovery process. • Improving energy recovery with application of process integration techniques. • Considering multiple different structural changes lead to considerable energy savings.

  7. Start-Up of FEL Oscillator from Shot Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Fawley, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    In free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators, as in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FELs, the buildup of cavity power starts from shot noise resulting from the discreteness of electronic charge. It is important to do the start-up analysis for the build-up of cavity power in order to fix the macropulse width from the electron accelerator such that the system reaches saturation. In this paper, we use the time-dependent simulation code GINGER [1]to perform this analysis. We present results of this analysis for the parameters of the Compact Ultrafast TErahertz FEL (CUTE-FEL) [2] being built at RRCAT

  8. FEL small signal dynamics and electron beam prebunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A seed signal and/or a pre-bunched electron beam may provide the start up of a free electron laser (FEL). Recently, interest has grown around FEL's operating with pre-bunched electron beams; this paper is, therefore, devoted to the analysis of the dynamic features of FEL's operating in such a configuration. It exploits a slightly modified form of the FEL high gain equation to derive quantities of practical interest like the dependence of the system growth rate on the bunching coefficients

  9. Benefits from the BESSY FEL Higher Harmonic Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Goldammer, K

    2005-01-01

    In the FEL process, bunching and coherent radiation is produced at the fundamental frequency as well as its higher harmonics. BESSY proposes a linac-based cascaded High-Gain Harmonic-Generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL) multi-user facility. The BESSY soft X-ray FEL will be seeded by three lasers spanning the spectral range of 230nm to 460nm. Two to four HGHG stages downconvert the seed wavelength to the desired radiation range of 1.24nm to 51nm using higher harmonic bunching. As a surplus, higher harmonic radiation is intrinsically produced in each FEL stage. Radiation on a higher harmonic of the FEL frequency is of high interest because it yields the possibility to reduce the number of FEL stages. This paper details extensive studies of the higher harmonic content of the BESSY FEL radiation. Important aspects of FEL interaction on higher harmonics as resulting from theory and from numerical simulations are discussed. For the case of the BESSY FEL, methods for improving the harmonic content are present...

  10. Nonlinear harmonic generation and proposed experimental verification in SASE FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, H P; Milton, S V

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a 3D, polychromatic, nonlinear simulation code was developed to study the growth of nonlinear harmonics in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs). The simulation was applied to the parameters for each stage of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) SASE FEL, intended for operation in the visible, UV, and short UV wavelength regimes, respectively, to study the presence of nonlinear harmonic generation. Significant nonlinear harmonic growth is seen. Here, a discussion of the code development, the APS SASE FEL, the simulations and results, and, finally, the proposed experimental procedure for verification of such nonlinear harmonic generation at the APS SASE FEL will be given.

  11. Status and prospects of a compact FIR FEL driven by a magnetron-based microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Uk; Kazakevitch, Grigori M.; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Cho, Sung Oh; Gavrilov, Nicolai G.; Lee, Jongmin

    2002-01-01

    A magnetron-based microtron as a driver of FIR FEL has several prominent advantages in cost, size, beam quality and operation convenience. However, it has some disadvantages due to the instability of the RF frequency and a low current. In order to overcome these disadvantages, the frequency stability of the magnetron was improved, and the interaction between the electron beam and the FIR radiation was enhanced by using a high-performance undulator and a low-loss waveguide-mode optical resonator. The FEL is now under upgrade in order to extend the wavelength range to cover 90-300 μm, which can be done by increasing the energy range of electron beam to 4.3-7 MeV. In this paper, we report the results of investigations on output characteristics of the FEL depending on cavity detuning, electron beam matching, and RF instability. Based on the results, we discuss the prospects of wide-band FIR FELs driven by magnetron-based microtrons as potent sources of radiation for scientific applications

  12. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Cao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H∞ robust control, a H2/H∞ controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  14. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ye [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Sengjie Jiao [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Binggang Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China)

    2010-09-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H-infinity robust control, a H2/H-infinity controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  15. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, M.; Jiao, S. [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Cao, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H{sub 2} optimal control and H{sub {infinity}} robust control, a H{sub 2}/H{sub {infinity}} controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. (authors)

  16. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  17. Effects of introducing energy recovery processes to the municipal solid waste management system in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiki, Kosuke; Giang, Pham Quy; Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Sekikawa, Takahiro; Yu, Jeoung-soo; Choijil, Baasandash; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, most developing countries have not set up municipal solid waste management systems with a view of recovering energy from waste or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we have studied the possible effects of introducing three energy recovery processes either as a single or combination approach, refuse derived fuel production, incineration and waste power generation, and methane gas recovery from landfill and power generation in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a case study. We concluded that incineration process is the most suitable as first introduction of energy recovery. To operate it efficiently, 3Rs strategies need to be promoted. And then, RDF production which is made of waste papers and plastics in high level of sorting may be considered as the second step of energy recovery. However, safety control and marketability of RDF will be required at that moment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment

  19. THE CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY ELECTRIFIED URBAN TRANSPORT DURING THE INSTALLATION DRIVE FOR TRACTION SUBSTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sulim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a great attention is paid to increasing of energy efficiency at operated electrified urban transport. Perspective direction for increasing energy efficiency at that type of transport is the application of regenerative braking. For additional increasing of energy efficiency there were suggested the use of capacitive drive on tires of traction substation. One of the main task is the analysis of energy recovery application  with drive and without it.These analysis demonstrated that the calculation algorithms don’t allow in the full volume to carry out calculations of amount and cost of energy recovery without drive and with it. That is why we see the current interest to this topic. The purpose of work is to create methods of algorithms calculation for definite amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport due to definite regime of motion on wayside. There is algorithm developed, which allow to calculate amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport on wayside during the installation capacitive drive at traction substation. On the basis of developed algorithm for the definite regime of wagon motion of subway there were fulfilled the example of energy recovery amount and its cost calculation, among them with limited energy intensity drive, when there are 4 trains on wayside simultaneously.

  20. Generation of a few femtoseconds pulses in seeded FELs using a seed laser with small transverse size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Heting, E-mail: liheting@ustc.edu.cn; Jia, Qika

    2016-09-11

    We propose a simple method to generate a few femtosecond pulses in seeded FELs. We use a longitudinal energy-chirped electron beam passing through a dogleg where transverse dispersion will generate a horizontal energy chirp, then in the modulator, a seed laser with narrow beam radius will only modulate the center portion of the electron beam and then short pulses at high harmonics will be generated in the radiator. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 30 nm XUV pulse based on the HGHG scheme and 9 nm soft x-ray pulse based on the EEHG scheme with duration of about 8 fs (FWHM) and peak power of GW level can be generated from a 180 nm UV seed laser with beam waist of 75 μm. This new scheme can provide an optional operation mode for the existing seeded FEL facilities to meet the requirement of short-pulse FEL.

  1. High-harmonic relativistic gyrotron as an alternative to FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V L; Kalynov, Yu K; Kolganov, N G; Manuilov, V N; Ofitserov, M M; Samsonov, S V; Volkov, A B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applid Physics

    1997-12-31

    A submillimeter wave gyrotron operating at moderately relativistic electron energies of 200-300 keV is proposed as a simple alternative to FEL. It is shown that high pulsed magnetic fields of 20-30 T and selective excitation of separate modes for resonances up to the 5-7 th harmonics will make it possible to obtain in a single device the coherent radiation with broadband frequency step tuning within the whole submillimeter wavelength range. At large pitch angles the coupling of the electron beam with cavity modes at higher harmonics should be as strong as at the fundamental one. In order to check the theoretical predictions, two gyrotrons were designed: LOG-1 (250 kV, 10 A, 10 ms) with a thermionic emission cathode and LOG-2 (350 kV, 35 A, 20 ns) with an explosive emission cathode. (J.U.). 7 refs.

  2. Lasing attempts with a microwiggler on the Los Alamos FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; O'Shea, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Carlsten, B.E.; Early, J.W.; Feldman, D.W.; Fortgang, C.M.; Goldstein, J.C.; Schmitt, M.J.; Stein, W.E.; Wilke, M.D.; Zaugg, T.J.; Newnam, B.E.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The APEX FEL normally lases near a wavelength of 3μm using a permanent magnet wiggler with a 2.7-cm period and a linear accelerator of 40-MeV energy. Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting a series of experiments with the goal of lasing at significantly shorter wavelengths with the same accelerator and the same kind of near-concentric resonator, but using a novel pulsed microwiggler of 0.5-cm period capable of generating a peak field of several tesla. We plan to lase on a fundamental wavelength of ∼0.8 μm and on the third harmonic at 0.25 μm

  3. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  4. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  5. A helical optical for circular polarized UV-FEL project at the UVSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Hiroyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Most of existing storage ring free electron lasers (SRFEL) are restricted those performances by degradation of mirrors in optical cavities. In general, the SRFEL gain at the short wavelength region with high energy electrons is quite low, and the high reflectivity mirrors such as dielectric multilayer mirrors are therefore required. The mirror degradation is considered as a result of irradiation of higher harmonic photons that are simultaneously emitted from planar optical klystron (OK) type undulators, which are commonly used in SRFEL. This problem is getting severer as the lasing wavelength becomes shorter. The UVSOR-FEL had been originally scheduled to be shutdown by 1996 because another undulator project for spectroscopic studies with circular polarized photon would take the FEL`s place. According to suggestion of the insertion device group of the SPring-8, we have designed a helical undulator that is able to vary degree and direction of the polarization easily. In addition, the undulator can be converted into a helical OK by replacing magnets at the center part of undulator in order to coexist with further FEL experiments. Using a calculated magnetic field for magnet configurations of the OK mode, the radiation spectrum at wide wavelength range was simulated by a Fourier transform of Lienard-Wiechert potentials. As a matter of course, some higher harmonics are radiated on the off-axis angle. However it was found out that the higher harmonics is almost negligible as far as inside a solid angle of the Gaussian laser mode. Moreover the gain at the UV region of 250 nm is expected to be much higher than our present FEL because of high brilliant fundamental radiation. The calculated spatial distribution of higher harmonics and the estimated instantaneous gain is presented. Advantages of the helical OK for SRFEL will be discussed in view of our experience, and a possibility of application two-color experiment with SR will be also mentioned.

  6. Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator to drive the future FEL Light Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C.; Power, J.; Zholents, A. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); ( HEP); (LLC)

    2011-04-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expensive instruments and a large part of the cost of the entire facility is driven by the accelerator. Using a high-energy gain dielectric wake-field accelerator (DWA) instead of the conventional accelerator may provide a significant cost saving and reduction of the facility size. In this article, we investigate using a collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator to provide a high repetition rate, high current, high energy beam to drive a future FEL x-ray light source. As an initial case study, a {approx}100 MV/m loaded gradient, 850 GHz quartz dielectric based 2-stage, wakefield accelerator is proposed to generate a main electron beam of 8 GeV, 50 pC/bunch, {approx}1.2 kA of peak current, 10 x 10 kHz (10 beamlines) in just 100 meters with the fill factor and beam loading considered. This scheme provides 10 parallel main beams with one 100 kHz drive beam. A drive-to-main beam efficiency {approx}38.5% can be achieved with an advanced transformer ratio enhancement technique. rf power dissipation in the structure is only 5 W/cm{sup 2} in the high repetition rate, high gradient operation mode, which is in the range of advanced water cooling capability. Details of study presented in the article include the overall layout, the transform ratio enhancement scheme used to increase the drive to main beam efficiency, main wakefield linac design, cooling of the structure, etc.

  7. Variation in emission and energy recovery concerning incident angle in a scheme recovering high energy ions by secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takayuki; Konno, Shota; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2016-01-01

    As an energy recovery device for fast protons produced in D- 3 He nuclear fusion, secondary electron (SE) direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed in addition to traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC). Some protons passing through a TWDEC come into an SEDEC, where protons penetrate to a number of foil electrodes and emitted SEs are recovered. Following to a development of SE orbit control by magnetic field, dependence on incident angle of protons was examined to optimize structure of SEDEC. Based on a theoretical expectation, experiments were performed by changing incident angle of protons and variation in emission and energy recovery were measured. Both emission and energy recovery increased as the angle increased, and differences with theoretical expectation are discussed. (author)

  8. Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in Italy: Actual study and perspective for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, N.; Ciampa, F.; De Cecco, C.

    1992-01-01

    Materials and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and assimilable waste, and their re-use is one of strong points of current regulations and tendencies, both at the national and at community level in Europe. In Italy, the interest in energy recovery from renewable sources has been encouraged by energy-savings law which included financial incentives for thermal plant building if low grade fuels such as MSW were employed. New electric power prices imposed by Italian Electric Power Authority, ENEL, encourage energy recovery from waste burners. This paper aims to point out the present state of energy recovery from wastes in Italy, trends and prospects to satisfy, with new plants, the need for waste thermal destruction and part of the demand for energy in the different Italian regions: only about 10% of MSW are burned and just a small percentage of the estimated amount of recoverable energy (2 MTOE/y) is recuperated. Different technological cycles are discussed: incineration of untreated wastes and energy recovery; incineration (or gasification) of RDF (refuse derived fuels) and heat-electricity co-generation; burning of RDF in industrial plants, in addition to other fuels

  9. Possibilities of using energy recovery in underground mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obracaj Dariusz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In underground mines, there are many sources of energy that are often irrecoverably lost and which could be used in the energy structure of a mine. Methane contained in the ventilation air, the water from the dewatering of the mines and the exhaust air from the mine shafts are the most important sources of energy available to a mine. Among other sources of energy available in a mine, you can also distinguish waste energy from the process of the desalination of water or energy from the waste. The report reviewed the sources of energy available in a mine, assessed the amount of recoverable energy and indicated the potential for its use.

  10. Method for energy recovery of spent ERL beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Frank; Hannon, Fay; Rimmer, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy

    2018-01-16

    A method for recovering energy from spent energy recovered linac (ERL) beams. The method includes adding a plurality of passive decelerating cavities at the beam dump of the ERL, adding one or more coupling waveguides between the passive decelerating cavities, setting an adequate external Q (Qext) to adjust to the beam loading situation, and extracting the RF energy through the coupling waveguides.

  11. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosho, F; Naito, H; Yugami, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Thermal energy recovery of air conditioning system--heat recovery system calculation and phase change materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhaolin; Liu Hongjuan; Li Yun

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat thermal energy storage systems can be used to recover the rejected heat from air conditioning systems, which can be used to generate low-temperature hot water. It decreases not only the consumption of primary energy for heating domestic hot water but also the calefaction to the surroundings due to the rejection of heat from air conditioning systems. A recovery system using phase change materials (PCMs) to store the rejected (sensible and condensation) heat from air conditioning system has been developed and studied, making up the shortage of other sensible heat storage system. Also, PCMs compliant for heat recovery of air conditioning system should be developed. Technical grade paraffin wax has been discussed in this paper in order to develop a paraffin wax based PCM for the recovery of rejected heat from air conditioning systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin wax and the mixtures of paraffin wax with lauric acid and with liquid paraffin (paraffin oil) are investigated and discussed, including volume expansion during the phase change process, the freezing point and the heat of fusion

  13. Proposed uv-FEL user facility at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Krinsky, S.; White, M.G.; Yu, L.H.; Batchelor, K.; Friedman, A.; Fisher, A.S.; Halama, H.; Ingold, G.; Johnson, E.D.; Kramer, S.; Rogers, J.T.; Solomon, L.; Wachtel, J.; Zhang, X.

    1991-01-01

    The NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposing the construction of a UV-FEL operating in the wavelength range from visible to 750 Angstrom. Nano-Coulomb electron pulses will be generated at a laser photo-cathode RF gun at a repetition rate of 10 KHz. The 6 ps pulses will be accelerated to 250 MeV in a superconducting linac. The FEL output will serve four stations with independent wavelength tuning, using two wigglers and two rotating mirror beam switches. Seed radiation for the FEL amplifiers will be provided by conventional tunable lasers, and the final frequency multiplication from the visible or near UV to the VUV will be carried out in the FEL itself. Each FEL will comprise of an initial wiggler resonant to the seed wavelength, a dispersion section, and a second wiggler resonant to the output wavelength. The facility will provide pump probe capability, FEL or FEL, and FEL on synchrotron light from an insersion device on the NSLS X-Ray ring. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Progress toward a soft X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1988-01-01

    We review the FEL physics and obtain scaling laws for the extension of its operation to the soft X-ray region. We also discuss the properties of an electron beam needed to drive such an FEL, and the present state of the art for the beam production. (orig.)

  15. Observation of superradiance in a short-pulse FEL oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Chaix, P.; Piovella, N.; Oepts, D.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Weits, H. H.

    1997-01-01

    Superradiance has been experimentally studied, in a short-pulse free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator. Superradiance is the optimal way of extracting optical radiation from an FEL and can be characterised by the following scale laws: peak optical power P, scales as the square of electron charge, Q,

  16. Elements of a realistic 17 GHz FEL/TBA design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, renewed interest in an FEL version of a two-beam accelerator (TBA) has prompted a study of practical system and structure designs for achieving the specified physics goals. This paper presents elements of a realistic design for an FEL/TBA suitable for a 1 TeV, 17 GHz linear collider. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  18. Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Bisognano, J; Bosch, R A; Chiang, T C; Green, M A; Jacobs, K; Miller, T; Wehlitz, R; York, R C

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design for a soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) using a short-pulsed, high energy near infrared laser undulator and a low-emittance modest-energy (∼170 MeV) electron beam is described. This low-cost design uses the laser undulator beam in a nearly copropagating fashion with respect to the electron beam, instead of the traditional ‘head-on’ fashion. The nearly copropagating geometry reduces the Doppler shift of scattered radiation to yield soft, rather than hard x-rays. To increase the FEL gain a sheared laser pulse from a Ti : sapphire or other broadband laser is used to extend the otherwise short interaction time of the nearly copropagating laser undulator beam with a relativistic electron beam. (paper)

  19. Maximizing recovery of energy and nutrients from urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, T.; Henkanatte-Gedera, S.M.; Muppaneni, T.; Nirmalakhandan, N.; Deng, S.; Lammers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, UWWs (urban wastewaters) that contain high levels of organic carbon, N (nitrogen), and P (phosphorous) have been considered an environmental burden and have been treated at the expense of significant energy input. With the advent of new pollution abatement technologies, UWWs are now being regarded as a renewable resource from which, useful chemicals and energy could be harvested. This study proposes an integrated, algal-based system that has the potential to treat UWWs to the desired discharge standards in a sustainable manner while recovering high fraction of its energy content as well as its N- and P-contents for use as fertilizers. Key embodiments of the system being proposed are: i) cultivation of an extremophile microalga, Galdieria sulphuraria, in UWW for removal of carbon, N, and P via single-step by mixotrophic metabolism; ii) extraction of energy-rich biocrude and biochar from the cultivated biomass via hydrothermal processing; and, iii) enhancement of biomass productivity via partial recycling of the nutrient-rich AP (aqueous product) from hydrothermal-processed biomass to the cultivation step to optimize productivity, and formulation of fertilizers from the remaining AP. This paper presents a process model to simulate this integrated system, identify the optimal process conditions, and establish ranges for operational parameters. - Highlights: • Developed model for algal system for wastewater treatment/energy production. • Evaluated energy efficiency in algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Optimized algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Demonstrated feasibility of energy-positive wastewater treatment.

  20. Energy efficiency of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) recovery by heat-integrated distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisales Diaz, Victor Hugo; Olivar Tost, Gerard

    2018-03-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) is an alternative biofuel. However, the energy requirement of ABE recovery by distillation is considered elevated (> 15.2 MJ fuel/Kg-ABE), due to the low concentration of ABE from fermentation broths (between 15 and 30 g/l). In this work, to reduce the energy requirements of ABE recovery, four processes of heat-integrated distillation were proposed. The energy requirements and economic evaluations were performed using the fermentation broths of several biocatalysts. Energy requirements of the processes with four distillation columns and three distillation columns were similar (between 7.7 and 11.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Double-effect system (DED) with four columns was the most economical process (0.12-0.16 $/kg-ABE). ABE recovery from dilute solutions by DED achieved energy requirements between 6.1 and 8.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE. Vapor compression distillation (VCD) reached the lowest energy consumptions (between 4.7 and 7.3 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Energy requirements for ABE recovery DED and VCD were lower than that for integrated reactors. The energy requirements of ABE production were between 1.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that for alternative biofuels (ethanol or isobutanol). However, the energy efficiency of ABE production was equivalent than that for ethanol and isobutanol (between 0.71 and 0.76) because of hydrogen production in ABE fermentation.

  1. Optimized energy recovery in line with balancing of an ATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behi, M.; Mirmohammadi, S.A.; Suma, A.B.; Palm, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the potential imbalance problem of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) campus, Eindhoven. This ATES is one of the largest European aquifer thermal energy storage systems, and has a seasonal imbalance problem.

  2. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  3. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  4. The GALAXIE all-optical FEL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Arab, E.; Andonian, G.; Cahill, A.; Fitzmorris, K.; Fukusawa, A.; Hoang, P.; Jovanovic, I.; Marcus, G.; Marinelli, A.; Murokh, A.; Musumeci, P.; Naranjo, B.; O' Shea, B.; O' Shea, F.; Ovodenko, A.; Pogorelsky, I.; Putterman, S.; Roberts, K.; Shumail, M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90034 (United States); Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90034 (United States); and others

    2012-12-21

    We describe a comprehensive project, funded under the DARPA AXiS program, to develop an all-optical table-top X-ray FEL based on dielectric acceleration and electromagnetic undulators, yielding a compact source of coherent X-rays for medical and related applications. The compactness of this source demands that high field (>GV/m) acceleration and undulation-inducing fields be employed, thus giving rise to the project's acronym: GV/m AcceLerator And X-ray Integrated Experiment (GALAXIE). There are numerous physics and technical hurdles to surmount in this ambitious scenario, and the integrated solutions include: a biharmonic photonic TW structure, 200 micron wavelength electromagnetic undulators, 5 {mu}m laser development, ultra-high brightness magnetized/asymmetric emittance electron beam generation, and SASE FEL operation. We describe the overall design philosophy of the project, the innovative approaches to addressing the challenges presented by the design, and the significant progress towards realization of these approaches in the nine months since project initialization.

  5. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  6. ENERGY RECOVERY FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING PROCESS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper ascertains and presents alteration in the energy consumption as a consequence of utilizing the low-temperature waste streams commonly used in the lines of continuous dyeing at the finishing shops of textile enterprises of Belarus. The utilization realizes through the engagement of lithium-bromide absorption heat pumps with various energy characteristics such as the heating coefficient (relative conversion ratio COPhp = 1,15; 1,7; 2,2 and the heating capacity. The latter associates with the converted heat-flow energy utilization variant with the heat-transfer medium heating system scheme (one-, twoand multistage heating. The article considers transition to previously not applied service-water preheating due to the technological acceptance of feeding higher temperature water into the dyeing machine and widening specification of the heattransfer media. The authors adduce variants of internal and external energy use and their evaluation based on the relative energy and exergy characteristics. With results of the thermodynamic analysis of the modernized production effectiveness the researchers prove that alongside with traditional and apparent interior utilization of the energy associated with the stream heat recuperation, it is advisable to widen the range of applied heat-transfer media. The transition to the service water twoand multi-stage preheating is feasible. The study shows that the existing energy supply efficiency extremely low index-numbers improve by one or two degrees. Since they are conditioned, inter alia, by the machinery design, traditional approach to energy supply and heat-medium usage as well as the enterprise whole heating system answering requirements of the bygone era of cheap energy resources. The authors examine the continuous dyeing line modernization options intending considerable investments. Preliminary economic assessment of such inevitable modernization options for the enterprise entire heat-and-power system

  7. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  8. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Heijne, ter Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H2) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At

  9. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091; NRC-2011-0148] Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application; Notice of Intent To Prepare a... intent to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: Strata Energy, Inc. (Strata...

  10. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, D. van; Biswas, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a key issue in the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia's major heavy industrial region, where the major energy consuming industries consume upto 80 PJ/yr of energy in their processes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made towards the reduction of energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in Kwinana. One way to further advance sustainable energy use is through the realisation of regional synergies. These concern the capture, recovery and reuse of by-products, water and energy between industries in close proximity. Kwinana is recognised as a leading edge example in regional synergy development, but more synergy opportunities appear to exist. The centre for sustainable resource processing (CSRP) is undertaking research to develop new synergies in Kwinana, including energy utility synergies. As part of the research, a methodology was developed and applied to identify and evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental feasibility of collaborative energy recovery opportunities from industry flue gases in Kwinana. The trial application demonstrated the significant potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions through energy recovery from flue gases by applying technologies to convert the embedded energy into useful thermal and electric applications. This article discusses the methodology and outcomes from the trial applications, including the impact of carbon taxes, reducing costs of emerging technologies, and increasing energy prices

  11. Design and implementation of Web-based SDUV-FEL engineering database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoying; Shen Liren; Dai Zhimin; Xie Dong

    2006-01-01

    A design of Web-based SDUV-FEL engineering database and its implementation are introduced. This system will save and offer static data and archived data of SDUV-FEL, and build a proper and effective platform for share of SDUV-FEL data. It offers usable and reliable SDUV-FEL data for operators and scientists. (authors)

  12. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  13. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  14. Centrifugal Compressor Unit-based Heat Energy Recovery at Compressor Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shadrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of the electricity consumed by air compressor stations around the world, is transformed into thermal energy, which is making its considerable contribution to global warming. The present article dwells on the re-use (recovery of energy expended for air compression.The article presents the energy analysis of the process of compressing air from the point of view of compressor drive energy conversion into heat energy. The temperature level of excess heat energy has been estimated in terms of a potential to find the ways of recovery of generated heat. It is shown that the temperature level formed by thermal energy depends on the degree of air compression and the number of stages of the compressor.Analysis of technical characteristics of modern equipment from leading manufacturers, as well as projects of the latest air compressor stations have shown that there are two directions for the recovery of heat energy arising from the air compression: Resolving technological problems of compressor units. The use of the excess heat generation to meet the technology objectives of the enterprise. This article examines the schematic diagrams of compressor units to implement the idea of heat recovery compression to solve technological problems: Heating of the air in the suction line during operation of the compressor station in winter conditions. Using compression heat to regenerate the adsorbent in the dryer of compressed air.The article gives an equity assessment of considered solutions in the total amount of heat energy of compressor station. Presented in the present work, the analysis aims to outline the main vectors of technological solutions that reduce negative impacts of heat generation of compressor stations on the environment and creating the potential for reuse of energy, i.e. its recovery.

  15. Design of water and heat recovery networks for the simultaneous minimisation of water and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, Graham Thomas; Picon-Nunez, Martin; Lopez-Maciel, Jose de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes procedures for the design of processes in which water and energy consumption form a large part of the operating cost. Good process design can be characterised by a number of properties, amongst the most important are: efficient use of raw materials, low capital cost and good operability. In terms of thermodynamic analysis these processes can be characterised as being either a 'pinch' problem or a 'threshold' problem. This paper concentrates on developing designs for problems of the threshold type. Most of the problems discussed by previous workers have been of this type. With these properties in mind this work looks at the design of integrated water and energy systems that exhibit the following features: 1. minimum water consumption, 2. minimum energy consumption, and 3. simple network structure. The approach applies for single contaminant. It is shown that the water conservation problem and the heat recovery problems can be de-coupled and the water conservation options should be established first. It is then shown that the number of heaters and heat recovery units required for the system, the quantity and type of hot utility needed for the plant and the complexity of the heat recovery network can all be determined without having to design any heat recovery network. This allows the engineer to select the better water conservation option before embarking on the design of the heat recovery network. For this type of problem the design of the heat recovery network itself is usually simple and straightforward.

  16. Optics-free x-ray FEL oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for an Optics-Free FEL Oscillators (OFFELO) to further the advantages of free-electron lasers and turning them in fully coherent light sources. While SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission) FELs demonstrated the capability of providing very high gain and short pulses of radiation and scalability to the X-ray range, the spectra of SASE FELs remains rather wide (∼0.5%-1%) compared with typical short wavelengths FEL-oscillators (0.01%-0.0003% in OK-4 FEL). Absence of good optics in VUV and X-ray ranges makes traditional oscillator schemes with very high average and peak spectral brightness either very complex or, strictly speaking, impossible. In this paper, we discuss lattice of the X-ray optics-free FEL oscillator and present results of initial computer simulations of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. We also discuss main limiting factors and feasibility of X-ray OFFELO.

  17. Optics-free x-ray FEL oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-03-28

    There is a need for an Optics-Free FEL Oscillators (OFFELO) to further the advantages of free-electron lasers and turning them in fully coherent light sources. While SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission) FELs demonstrated the capability of providing very high gain and short pulses of radiation and scalability to the X-ray range, the spectra of SASE FELs remains rather wide ({approx}0.5%-1%) compared with typical short wavelengths FEL-oscillators (0.01%-0.0003% in OK-4 FEL). Absence of good optics in VUV and X-ray ranges makes traditional oscillator schemes with very high average and peak spectral brightness either very complex or, strictly speaking, impossible. In this paper, we discuss lattice of the X-ray optics-free FEL oscillator and present results of initial computer simulations of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. We also discuss main limiting factors and feasibility of X-ray OFFELO.

  18. The Present Applications of IR FEL at Peking University

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Li Min; Zhao, Kui

    2004-01-01

    In this study the sections of human tissues were treated under 9.5 μm FEL in the BFEL based on the vibrational spectroscopic investigation that significant differences occur between normal and malignant tissues. Under the defocus condition, the burning of tissue section at some part while other part remains unchanged, suggesting that the FEL can selectively destroy some part of tissue. Vibrational spectroscopic and microscopic methods have shown that the FEL can induce decomposition of malignant tissues. The application of FEL whose wavelength is on the characteristic bands of malignant tissues may provide a new method to kill cancer cells with higher selectivity. For understanding the interactions between FEL and biological tissues, structure changes of substances under irradiation by FEL of 9.414 μm and 6.228 μm were measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The samples include ATP, ADP, AMP, and D-ribose, etc. The FTIR spectra of the molecules before and after irradiation of FEL indicate...

  19. FEL induced molecular operation on cultured fibroblast and cholesterol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awazu, Kunio; Ogino, Seiji; Nishimura, Eiichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yasumoto, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    Free Electron Lasers can be used to molecular operation such as the delivery of a number of molecules into cells or the separation of cholesterol ester. First, cultured NIH3T3 cells are exposed to high-intensity short pulse Free Electron Laser (FEL). The FEL is tuned to an absorption maximum wavelength, 6.1 μm, which was measured by microscopic FTIR. A fluorescence dye in the cell suspension is more absorbed into the cell with the FEL exposure due to the FEL-induced mechanical stress to the cell membrane. A quantitative fluorescence microscopy is used to determine the efficiency of delivery. Second, as a compound in a lipid cell, cholesterol ester was exposed to 5.75 μm FEL. FTIR measurement was done to evaluate the modification of the cholesterol ester. The result showed that the fluorescence intensity of sample cells were higher than that of control cells, and there was significant difference between the control and the sample group. Blebbing and the colony formation of the cells were observed for cells with mechanical stress. As for the cholesterol ester, it can be modified by the FEL irradiation. These results showed that FEL can be used as a molecular operational tool by photo-chemical and photo-mechanical interaction. (author)

  20. Energy uses and recovery in sludge disposal, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-08-01

    Capital and operating costs were compared for 3 plant capacities having average dry weather flows of 10, 100, and 500 mgd. Five sludge handling options were considered. They were chemical conditioning with vacuum filtration, low pressure wet air oxidation, high pressure wet air oxidation aerobic and anaerobic digestion, and chemical oxidation with filter press dewatering. The plant sizes considered generated 11.5, 77, and 384 TPD of sludge. High pressure wet air oxidation and aerobic digestion operating costs were the most sensitive to electrical power costs, while the 2 incineration options without heat treatment were the least sensitive. Sludge drying and incineration of a 20% solids cake were the most sensitive to fuel costs, while aerobic and anaerobic digestion were not directly affected. Heat treatment of sludge and dewatering to a 40% cake had the lowest fuel requirements of the 3 incineration options but increased the total plant electric power consumption by >25%. The net Btus consumed were compared. The net consumption was lowest for anaerobic digestion, filter press plus incineration, and heat treatment plus incineration. Excluding heat recovery credit except for steam required in sludge heat treating, these 3 options are still lowest in net Btus consumed.

  1. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  2. EUV stimulated emission from MgO pumped by FEL pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jonnard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated emission is a fundamental process in nature that deserves to be investigated and understood in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV and x-ray regimes. Today, this is definitely possible through high energy density free electron laser (FEL beams. In this context, we give evidence for soft-x-ray stimulated emission from a magnesium oxide solid target pumped by EUV FEL pulses formed in the regime of travelling-wave amplified spontaneous emission in backward geometry. Our results combine two effects separately reported in previous works: emission in a privileged direction and existence of a material-dependent threshold for the stimulated emission. We develop a novel theoretical framework, based on coupled rate and transport equations taking into account the solid-density plasma state of the target. Our model accounts for both observed mechanisms that are the privileged direction for the stimulated emission of the Mg L2,3 characteristic emission and the pumping threshold.

  3. First operation of a powerful FEL with two-dimensional distributed feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Agarin, N V; Bobylev, V B; Ginzburg, N S; Ivanenko, V G; Kalinin, P V; Kuznetsov, S A; Peskov, N Yu; Sergeev, A S; Sinitsky, S L; Stepanov, V D

    2000-01-01

    A W-band (75 GHz) FEL of planar geometry driven by a sheet electron beam was realised using the pulse accelerator ELMI (0.8 MeV/3 kA/5 mu s). To provide the spatial coherence of radiation from different parts of the electron beam with a cross-section of 0.4x12 cm two-dimensional distributed feedback systems have been employed using a 2-D Bragg resonator of planar geometry. The resonator consisted of two 2-D Bragg reflectors separated by a regular waveguide section. The total energy in the microwave pulse of microsecond duration was 100 J corresponding to a power of approx 100 MW. The main component of the FEL radiation spectrum was at 75 GHz that corresponded to the zone of effective Bragg reflection found from 'cold' microwave testing of the resonator. The experimental data compared well with the results of theoretical analysis.

  4. Design of RF chopper system for improving beam quality in FEL injector with thermionic gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Qin, B.; Tan, P.; Hu, T.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    For a linac-based Free Electron Laser (FEL), good beam quality largely contributes to the success of the final radiation. An imperfection confronted with the HUST THz-FEL facility is the long beam tail that emerges in the electron gun and exists through the whole beam line. This paper proposes to deploy a chopper system after the electron gun to truncate the beam tails before they enter into the linac. Physical dimensions of the chopper cavity are discussed in detail and we have developed and derived new analytical expressions applying to all frequencies for the optimal design. Also, technical issues of the cavity are considered. Beam dynamic simulation is performed to examine the truncation effect and the results show that more than 78% of the beam tail can be removed effectively, while preserving the emittance and energy spread in acceptable level

  5. BEAM OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR AN X-RAY FEL OSCILLATOR AT THE LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weilun; Huang, S.; Liu, K.X.; Huang, Z; Ding, Y.; Maxwell, T.J.; Kim, K.-J.

    2016-06-01

    The 4 GeV LCLS-II superconducting linac with high repetition beam rate enables the possibility to drive an X-Ray FEL oscillator at harmonic frequencies *. Compared to the regular LCLS-II machine setup, the oscillator mode requires a much longer bunch length with a relatively lower current. Also a flat longitudinal phase space distribution is critical to maintain the FEL gain since the X-ray cavity has extremely narrow bandwidth. In this paper, we study the longitudinal phase space optimization including shaping the initial beam from the injector and optimizing the bunch compressor and dechirper parameters. We obtain a bunch with a flat energy chirp over 400 fs in the core part with current above 100 A. The optimization was based on LiTrack and Elegant simulations using LCLS-II beam parameters.

  6. Energy recovery ventilation as a radon mitigation method for Navy family housing in Guam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Energy recovery ventilation involves the exchange of contaminated indoor air with fresh, uncontaminated outdoor air with recovery of energy. During radon mitigation diagnostics, air change measurements were performed within three typical Navy family houses, and some were found to be well below recommended minimum standards. The only practical way to solve the indoor air quality problem was to increase the ventilation rate. Options were evaluated, and it was decided to install energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems. An ERV system is a packaged unit complete with blower fans, controls, and air-to-air heat exchanger. However, because of economical limits on the quantity of conditioned air that can be exchanged, ERV has a finite range of application in radon abatement. In Guam, ERV has potential applications in up to 370 units and in an additional 154 units if the mechanical systems are moved indoors. The performance of ERV systems were evaluated during a demonstration program to determine the removal efficiency of radon

  7. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  8. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  9. Undulator systems for the TESLA X-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflueger, J.; Tischer, M.

    2002-01-01

    A large X-ray FEL lab is under consideration within the TESLA project and is supposed to be operated in parallel with the TESLA linear collider. There will be five SASE FELs and five conventional spontaneous undulators. A conceptual design study has been made for the undulator systems for these X-FELs. It includes segmentation into 6.1 m long undulator 'cells'. Each consists of a 5 m long undulator 'segment', a separate quadrupole, one horizontal and one vertical corrector, and a phase shifter. These items are presented and discussed

  10. Tunable driver for the LLNL FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, W.C.; Basten, M.A.; Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J.

    1991-07-01

    This report describes main activities undertaken during the period 1 June 1990 to 1 June 1991 by MIT to support the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory tunable FEL driver project. The goal of this research was to further characterize a tunable microwave source (already identified as a BWO-gyrotron) of moderate output power (10--20 kW). In the 1989 fiscal year, the source was assembled at MIT and initial tests were conducted. Proposed for the fiscal year 1990 were analysis of the previous experimental results, and the performance of new experiments designed to increase the voltage tuning range, the output efficiency, and magnetic field tuning. During the report period the previous experimental results were analyzed and compared to computational results and new components were designed, to make the BWO ready for further experiments. In addition, the BWO-gyrotron was mounted in a new superconducting magnet and initial magnetic field profile measurements were made

  11. FLYWHEEL BASED KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS (KERS) INTEGRATED IN VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS MATHEWS; NISHANTH D

    2013-01-01

    Today, many hybrid electric vehicles have been developed in order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels; unfortunately these vehicles require electrochemical batteries to store energy, with high costs as well as poor conversion efficiencies. By integrating flywheel hybrid systems, these drawbacks can be overcome and can potentially replace battery powered hybrid vehicles cost effectively. The paper will explain the engineering, mechanics of the flywheel system and it’s working in detail. ...

  12. Energy recovery from air flow in underground railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, B.; Mariani, A. [Seconda Univ. degli studi di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Costanzo, M.L. [Tecnosistem spa, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The 20-20-20 energy policy of the European Union commits members to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 20 per cent by 2020, and stipulates that 20 per cent of final-use energy is to be supplied by renewable energy sources. This paper proposed the concept of recovering energy from underground trains by using the air flow inside tunnels to drive energy conversion systems such as turbines to generate electricity. Underground trains use much of their power to overcome the aerodynamic resistance moving the air in front of the train, creating a piston effect when travelling inside tunnels at relatively low speed. Numerical simulations were used in this study to determine how much electricity could be produced. A one-dimensional numerical analysis of a specific subway train track was used to evaluate the air flow magnitude inside the tunnel. Once the air flow features were detected, the potential electricity production was evaluated by considering the characteristics of a Wells turbine. Two types of 3-dimensional models of the tunnel and train were presented. One considered a long straight tunnel with a train running in it, and a small portion of a bypass tunnel. The other considered a large part of an opposite tunnel connected to the main one through the by-pass tunnel. Both the 3D models revealed a maximum flow rate of 2.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h, while the 1D model showed an air flow of 1.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h. The difference was due primarily to the presence of fans in the 1D Model and different modelling assumptions. It was concluded that one single Wells type turbine placed in a by-pass tunnel can produce 32.6 kWh per day, or about 10 MWh per year, resulting in a CO{sub 2} savings of about 5.5 tons per year. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  13. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

  14. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  15. Special Report "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Department of Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as a way to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in science and health, and invest in the Nation's energy future. This national effort will require an unprecedented level of transparency and accountability to ensure that U.S. citizens know where their tax dollars are going and how they are being spent. As part of the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive more than $38 billion to support a number of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. Additionally, the Department's authority to make or guarantee energy-related loans has increased to about $127 billion. The Department plans to disburse the vast majority of the funds it receives through grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and other financial instruments. The supplemental funding provided to the Department of Energy under the Recovery Act dwarfs the Department's annual budget of about $27 billion. The infusion of these funds and the corresponding increase in effort required to ensure that they are properly controlled and disbursed in a timely manner will, without doubt, strain existing resources. It will also have an equally challenging impact on the inherent risks associated with operating the Department's sizable portfolio of missions and activities and, this is complicated by the fact that, in many respects, the Recovery Act requirements represent a fundamental transformation of the Department's mission. If these challenges are to be met successfully, all levels of the Department's structure and its many constituents, including the existing contractor community; the national laboratory system; state and local governments; community action groups and literally thousands of other contract, grant, loan and cooperative agreement recipients throughout the Nation will have to strengthen existing or

  16. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-IRAMIS-SPEC, CNRS-UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salez, Thomas J. [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-IRAMIS-SPEC, CNRS-UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); École des Ponts ParisTech, 6 et 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Champs-sur-Marne, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France)

    2015-06-28

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is −1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and −0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  17. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  18. Energy and exergy recovery in a natural gas compressor station – A technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Kalina, Jacek; Bargiel, Paweł; Szufleński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy flow in a natural gas compressor station. • Operational efficiency only 18.3% vs. 35.1% nominal. • 3 energy/exergy recovery systems proposed. • Up to 168.9 GW h/y electricity and 6.5 GW h/y heat recoverable. • Legal obstacles: operators not allowed to produce electricity. - Abstract: The paper presents possible solutions to improve the thermodynamic performance of a natural gas compressor station equipped with various type of compressor units and operated at part-load conditions. A method for setting a simplified energy and exergy balance based on the available metering information has been presented. For a case study plant, it has been demonstrated that the current part-load operation leads to a significant decrease in energy and exergy efficiency compared to the nominal state of machinery. Three alternative improvement strategies have been proposed: (1) installation of a heat recovery hot water generator for covering the existing heat demand of the plant; (2) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater for covering the existing heat demand and driving an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for electricity generation; (3) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater with and ORC and gas expanders for switching into full-load operation of the gas turbine unit. Energy and exergy performance of the proposed strategies as well as their economic feasibility have been analyzed. The second scenario involving an ORC unit provides the highest local energy savings, however, its economic feasibility is not achieved under the current part-load operating conditions. A hypothetic scenario of the same station operated at full-load due to an increased gas transmission capacity demonstrate the economic feasibility (possible under optimistic price conditions). Finally, it has been shown that the possibility of waste energy recovery from natural gas transmission systems (in particular, from compressor stations) depends on legal

  19. Optical properties of infrared FELs from the FELI Facility II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, K.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E. [Free Electron Laser Institute, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The FELI Facility II has succeeded in infrared FEL oscillation at 1.91 {mu} m using a 68-MeV, 40-A electron beam from the FELI S-band linac in February 27, 1995. The FELI Facility II is composed of a 3-m vertical type undulator ({lambda}u=3.8cm, N=78, Km a x=1.4, gap length {ge}20mm) and a 6.72-m optical cavity. It can cover the wavelength range of 1-5{mu}m. The FELs can be delivered from the optical cavity to the diagnostics room through a 40-m evacuated optical pipeline. Wavelength and cavity length dependences of optical properties such as peak power, average power, spectrum width, FEL macropulse, FEL transverse profile are reported.

  20. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELS. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded Harmonic Generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 meter tong NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities

  1. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- Florida State Energy Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). The SEP provides Federal financial assistance to carry out energy efficiency and renewable energy projects that meet each state's unique energy needs while also addressing national goals such as energy security. Federal funding is based on a grant formula that takes into account population and energy consumption. The SEP emphasizes the state's role as the decision maker and administrator for the program. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP, authorizing $3.1 billion in grants. Based on existing grant formulas and after reviewing state-level plans, EERE made awards to states. The State of Florida's Energy Office (Florida) was allocated $126 million - a 90-fold increase over Florida's average annual SEP grant of $1.4 million. Per the Recovery Act, this funding must be obligated by September 30, 2010, and spent by April 30, 2012. As of March 10, 2010, Florida had expended $13.2 million of the SEP Recovery Act funds. Florida planned to use its grant funds to undertake activities that would preserve and create jobs; save energy; increase renewable energy sources; and, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To accomplish Recovery Act objectives, states could either fund new or expand existing projects. As a condition of the awards, EERE required states to develop and implement sound internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. Based on the significant increase in funding from the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether Florida had internal controls in place to provide assurance that the goals of the SEP and Recovery Act will be met and accomplished efficiently and effectively. We identified weaknesses in the implementation of SEP Recovery Act projects that

  2. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Hülsen, T; Mehta, C M; Keller, J

    2015-12-01

    Alternative domestic wastewater treatment processes that recover energy and nutrients while achieving acceptable nutrient limits (650mgCODL(-1). PRR offers the possibility for recovery of nitrogen and other nutrients (including potassium) through assimilative recovery. However, the energetic overhead of this is substantial, requiring 5kWhkgN(-1) as electricity, which compares to ammonia fixation costs. The lower energy costs, and near to market status of LEM treatment make it likely as a recovery platform in the shorter term, while ability to recover other elements such as nitrogen and potassium, as well as enhance favourability on concentrated wastewaters may enhance the desirability of partitioning in the longer term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal comfort analysis of a low temperature waste energy recovery system. SIECHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Martin, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Rey Martinez, F.J.; Velasco Gomez, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The use of a recovery device is justified in terms of energy savings and environmental concerns. But it is clear that the use of a recovery system also has to lead to controlling indoor environmental quality, nowadays a priority concern. In this article, experimental research has been carried out whose aim is to study the thermal comfort provided by a combined recovery equipment (SIECHP), consisting of a ceramic semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC) and a heat pipe device (HP) to recover energy at low temperature in air-conditioning systems. To characterize this device empirically in terms of thermal comfort (TC), Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV), draught rate, and vertical air temperature difference were used in this study as the TC criteria. (author)

  4. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  5. LCLS X-Ray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Highly Time-Dependent Undulator Wakefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, Karl L.F.; Emma, Paul; Huang, Heinz-Dieter Nuhn; Stupakov, Gennady; Fawley, William M.; Reiche, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Energy loss due to wakefields within a long undulator, if not compensated by an appropriate tapering of the magnetic field strength, can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive-wall component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber material (e.g., Cu) and its radius. Of recent interest[1] is the so-called ''AC'' component of the resistive-wall wake which can lead to strong variations on very short timescales (e.g., ∼ 20 0fs). To study the expected performance of the LCLS in the presence of these wakefields, we have made an extensive series of start-to-end SASE simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT, and time-dependent FEL simulation codes GENESIS1.3 and GINGER. We discuss the impact of the wakefield losses upon output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well as the benefits of a partial compensation of the time-dependent wake losses obtained with a slight z-dependent taper in the undulator field. We compare the taper results to those predicted analytically[2

  6. LCLS X-Ray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Highly Time-Dependent Undulator Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Fawley, W M; Emma, P; Huang, Z; Nuhn, H D; Reiche, S; Stupakov, G

    2005-01-01

    Energy loss due to wakefields within a long undulator, if not compensated by an appropriate tapering of the magnetic field strength, can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber wall material (e.g. Cu) and its radius. Of recent interest [1] is the so-called "AC" component of the resistive wake which can lead to strong variations on very short timescales (e.g. ~20 fs). To study the expected performance of the LCLS in the presence of these wakefields, we have made an extensive series of start-to-end SASE simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT, and time-dependent FEL simulation codes GENESIS1.3 and GINGER. We discuss the impact of the wakefield losses upon output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well a...

  7. Optimization of the LCLS X-Rray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Strong Undulator Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven; Emma, Paul; Fawley, William M; Huang, Zhirong; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Stupakov, Gennady

    2005-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Free-Electron Laser will operate in the wavelength range of 1.5 to 15 Angstroms. Energy loss due to wakefields within the long undulator can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber material (e.g. Cu) and its radius. To study the expected performance in the presence of these wakefields, we make a series of "start-to-end" simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT and time-dependent FEL simulation codes Genesis 1.3 and Ginger. We discuss the impact of the wakefield on output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well as the benefits of a partial compensation obtained with a slight z dependent taper in the undulator field. We compare these results to those obtained by decreasing the bunch ...

  8. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schietinger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free-Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including a transverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunches of up to 200 pC charge and up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of an FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measurements performed during the operation of the test facility, including the results of the test of an in-vacuum undulator prototype generating radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet and optical range.

  9. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Schietinger, T.; Aiba, M.; Arsov, V.; Bettoni, S.; Beutner, B.; Calvi, M.; Craievich, P.; Dehler, M.; Frei, F.; Ganter, R.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Janousch, M.; Kaiser, M.; Keil, B.; Löhl, F.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ozkan Loch, C.; Peier, P.; Prat, E.; Raguin, J.-Y.; Reiche, S.; Schilcher, T.; Wiegand, P.; Zimoch, E.; Anicic, D.; Armstrong, D.; Baldinger, M.; Baldinger, R.; Bertrand, A.; Bitterli, K.; Bopp, M.; Brands, H.; Braun, H. H.; Brönnimann, M.; Brunnenkant, I.; Chevtsov, P.; Chrin, J.; Citterio, A.; Csatari Divall, M.; Dach, M.; Dax, A.; Ditter, R.; Divall, E.; Falone, A.; Fitze, H.; Geiselhart, C.; Guetg, M. W.; Hämmerli, F.; Hauff, A.; Heiniger, M.; Higgs, C.; Hugentobler, W.; Hunziker, S.; Janser, G.; Kalantari, B.; Kalt, R.; Kim, Y.; Koprek, W.; Korhonen, T.; Krempaska, R.; Laznovsky, M.; Lehner, S.; Le Pimpec, F.; Lippuner, T.; Lutz, H.; Mair, S.; Marcellini, F.; Marinkovic, G.; Menzel, R.; Milas, N.; Pal, T.; Pollet, P.; Portmann, W.; Rezaeizadeh, A.; Ritt, S.; Rohrer, M.; Schär, M.; Schebacher, L.; Scherrer, St.; Schlott, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schulz, L.; Smit, B.; Stadler, M.; Steffen, Bernd; Stingelin, L.; Sturzenegger, W.; Treyer, D. M.; Trisorio, A.; Tron, W.; Vicario, C.; Zennaro, R.; Zimoch, D.

    2016-10-26

    The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including atransverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunchesof up to200 pC chargeand up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of a FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measureme...

  10. High-gain Seeded FEL Amplifier Tunable in the Terahertz Range

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, C; Pellegrini, C; Ralph, J E; Reiche, S; Rosenzweig, J B; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya

    2005-01-01

    The lack of a high-power, relatively low-cost and compact terahertz (THz) source in the range 0.3-3x10(12) Hz is the major obstacle in progressing on biomedical and material studies at these wavelengths. A high-gain, single pass seeded FEL technique allows to obtain high power THz pulses of a high spectral brightness. We describe an ongoing project at the Neptune laboratory where a ~ 1kW seed pulse generated by difference frequency mixing of CO2 laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal is injected into a waveguide FEL amplifier. The FEL is driven by a 5 ps (r.m.s) long electron pulse with a peak current up to 100A provided by a regular S-band photoinjector. According to 3-D, time dependent simulations, up to ~ 10 MW THz power can be generated using a 2 meter long planar undulator. By mixing different pairs of CO2 laser lines and matching resonant energy of the electron beam, tunability in the 100-400 mm range is expected. A tunable Fabri-Perot interferometer will be used to select a high-power 5ps THz pulse. T...

  11. A Coherent Compton Backscattering High Gain FEL using an X-Band Microwave Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, C; Travish, G

    2005-01-01

    We describe a proposed high-gain FEL using an X-band microwave undulator and operating at a wavelength of about 0.5 μm. The FEL electron beam energy is 65 MeV. The beam is produced by the NLCTA X-band linac at SLAC, using an S-band high-brightness photoinjector. The undulator consists of a circular waveguide with an rf wave counter-propagating with respect to the electron beam. The undulator is powered with two high-power X-band klystrons and a dual-moded pulse compressor recently developed at SLAC. This system is capable of delivering flat-top rf pulses of up to 400 ns and a few hundred megawatts. The equivalent undulator period is 1.4 cm, the radius of the circular pipe is 1 cm, and the undulator parameter is about 0.4 for a helical undulator configuration, obtained using two cross-polarized TE modes, or larger for a planar configuration, using one rf polarization. The undulator is about four meters long. The FEL will reach saturation within this distance when operated in a SASE mode. We describe t...

  12. THz Imaging by a Wide-band Compact FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Uk Jeong Young; Cheol Lee Byung; Hee-Park, S

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory-scale users facility with a compact THz FEL. The FEL operates in the wide wavelength range of 100–1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3-3 THz. THz radiation from the FEL shows well collimated Gaussian spatial distribution and narrow spectral width of 0.3 μm, which is Fourier transform limited by the estimated pulse duration of 20 ps. The main application of the FEL is THz imaging for bio-medical researches. We are developing THz imaging techniques by 2-D scanning, single pulse capturing with the electro-optic method, and 3-D holography. High power, coherent, and pulsed feature of the FEL radiation is expected to show much better performance in advanced THz imaging of 3-D tomography by comparing with incoherent and weak THz sources. By controlling the optical delay between reference beam and scattered light from an object, we can get its 3-D tomography by the holograms. The coherent and pulse length of the FEL beam is measured to be 3-6 mm. In this paper we will show a...

  13. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  14. Direct energy recovery from helium ion beams by a beam direct converter with secondary electron suppressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Toku, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Okazaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-yr study of beam direct energy conversion was performed at the Kyoto University Institute of Atomic Energy to clarify the essential features of direct energy recovery from monoenergetic ion beams so that the performance characteristics of energy recovery can be predicted reasonably well by numerical calculations. The study used an improved version of an electrostatically electron-suppressed beam direct converter. Secondary electron suppressor grids were added, and a helium ion beam was used with typical parameters of 15.4 keV, 90 mA, and 100 ms. This paper presents a comparison of experimental results with numerical results by the two-dimensional Kyoto University Advanced Dart (KUAD) code, including evaluation of atomic processes

  15. Role of primary sedimentation on plant-wide energy recovery and carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Riccardo; Giaccherini, Francesca; Jiang, Lu-Man; Sobhani, Reza; Rosso, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to show the effect of primary sedimentation on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and solids fractionation and consequently on the carbonaceous and energy footprints of wastewater treatment processes. Using a simple rational procedure for COD and solids fraction quantification, we quantify the effects of varying fractions on CO2 and CO2-equivalent mass flows, process energy demand and energy recovery. Then we analysed two treatment plants with similar biological nutrient removal processes in two different climatic regions and quantified the net benefit of gravity separation before biological treatment. In the cases analysed, primary settling increases the solid fraction of COD that is processed in anaerobic digestion, with an associated increase in biogas production and energy recovery, and a reduction in overall emissions of CO2 and CO2-equivalent from power importation.

  16. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  17. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  18. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  19. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  20. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  1. Integrated energy and emission management for diesel engines with waste heat recovery using dynamic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.C.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI

  2. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  3. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Performance in the Energy Recovery of Kiwi Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa

    2017-12-01

    World production and trade of fruits generate losses in the harvest, post-harvest, handling, distribution and consumption phases, corresponding to 6.8% of total production. These residues present high potential as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process and biogas generation. Thus, the energy valuation of the agro-industrial residues of kiwi production was evaluated by anaerobic digestion, aiming at optimizing the biogas production and its quality. Ten assays were carried out in a batch reactor (500 mL) under mesophilic conditions and varying a number of operational factors: different substrate/inoculum ratios; four distinct values for C: N ratio; inoculum from different digesters; and inoculum collected at different times of the year. The following parameters were used to control and monitor the process: pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA), volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Among the tests performed, the best result obtained for the biogas production corresponded to the use of 2 g of substrate and 98 mL of inoculum of the anaerobic digester of the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Bragança, with addition of 150 mg of bicarbonate leading to a production of 1628 L biogas.kg-1 VS (57% methane). In relation to the biogas quality, the best result was obtained with 20 g of substrate and 380 mL of inoculum from the anaerobic digester sludge of WWTP of Ave (with addition 600 mg of sodium bicarbonate), presenting a value of 85% of CH4, with a production of 464 L biogas.kg-1 VS.

  5. City of Camden, New Jersey Program offering widespread energy recovery (power): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, Stanley [City of Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Development and Planning Bureau of Housing Services

    2013-12-31

    The Camden Residential POWER Program, Program Offering Widespread Energy Recovery, is a program designed to benefit Camden homeowners, stabilize neighborhoods and put local contractors to work. Camden POWER granted up to $18,600 to fund energy efficient home improvements and necessary life/safety rehabilitation repairs. The program was designed as a self-sustaining, neighborhood approach to bringing long-term energy and financial savings to the community. Valuable home upgrades were completed, including high-efficiency furnaces, hot water heaters, insulation, insulated roofs and blower door guided air-sealing. The goal of all improvements were to reduce energy consumption, lower utility bills, improve property values and promote neighborhood stabilization.

  6. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  7. Feasibility analysis of a small-scale ORC energy recovery system for vehicular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capata, Roberto; Toro, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the feasibility of an “on-board” ORC recovery system to power auxiliaries. • Performance of the ORC cycle has been simulated with CAMEL-Pro™. • Several relevant ORC components have been designed. • Approximate characteristics dimensions of HRSG and evaporator have been calculated and a preliminary layout provided. • The evaluation of a possible assembling of the system has been developed. - Abstract: This paper analyses the feasibility of an “on-board” innovative and patented ORC recovery system. The vehicle thermal source can be either a typical diesel engine (1400 cc) or a small gas turbine set (15–30 kW). The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system that can produce sufficient extra power to sustain the conditioning system and other auxiliaries. The concept is suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles, but it is studied here for automotive applications. The characteristics of the organic cycle-based recovery system are discussed, and a preliminary design of the main components, such as the heat recovery exchanger, the evaporator and the pre-heater is presented. The main challenge are the imposed size and weight limitations that require a particular design for this compact recovery system. A possible system layout is analyzed and the requirements for a prototypal application are investigated

  8. Maximization of energy recovery inside supersonic separator in the presence of condensation and normal shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shooshtari, S.H. Rajaee; Shahsavand, A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural gases provide around a quarter of energy consumptions around the globe. Supersonic separators (3S) play multifaceted role in natural gas industry processing, especially for water and hydrocarbon dew point corrections. These states of the art devices have minimum energy requirement and favorable process economy compared to conventional facilities. Their relatively large pressure drops may limit their application in some situations. To maximize the energy recovery of the dew point correction facility, the pressure loss across the 3S unit should be minimized. The optimal structure of 3s unit (including shock wave location and diffuser angle) is selected using simultaneous combination of normal shock occurrence and condensation in the presence of nucleation and growth processes. The condense-free gas enters the non-isentropic normal shock wave. The simulation results indicate that the normal shock location, pressure recovery coefficient and onset position strongly vary up to a certain diffuser angle (β = 8°) with the maximum pressure recovery of 0.88 which leads to minimum potential energy loss. Computational fluid dynamic simulations show that separation of boundary layer does not happen for the computed optimal value of β and it is essentially constant when the inlet gas temperatures and pressures vary over a relatively broad range. - Highlights: • Supersonic separators have found numerous applications in oil and gas industries. • Maximum pressure recovery is crucial for such units to maximize energy efficiency. • Simultaneous condensation and shock wave occurrence are studied for the first time. • Diverging nozzle angle of 8° can provide maximum pressure recovery of 0.88. • The optimal diffuser angle remains constant over a broad range of inlet conditions.

  9. Development of a pump-probe facility with sub-picosecond time resolution combining a high-power ultraviolet regenerative FEL amplifier and a soft X-ray SASE FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faatz, B.; Fateev, A.A.; Feldhaus, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Pflueger, J.; Rossbach, J.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of a high power radiation source with laser-like characteristics in the ultraviolet spectral range at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF). The concept is based on the generation of radiation in a regenerative FEL amplifier (RAFEL). The RAFEL described in this paper covers a wavelength range of 200-400 nm and provides 200 fs pulses with 2 mJ of optical energy per pulse. The linac operates at 1% duty factor and the average output radiation power exceeds 100 W. The RAFEL will be driven by the spent electron beam leaving the soft X-ray FEL, thus providing minimal interference between these two devices. The RAFEL output radiation has the same time structure as the X-ray FEL and the UV pulses are naturally synchronized with the soft X-ray pulses from the TTF FEL. Therefore, it should be possible to achieve synchronization close to the duration of the radiation pulses (200 fs) for pump-probe techniques using either an UV pulse as a pump and soft X-ray pulse as a probe, or vice versa

  10. Generation of doublet spectral lines at self-seeded X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim to reduce the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Braggtransmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use such kind of monochromator setup with two -or more- crystals arranged in a series to spectrally filter the SASE radiation at two -or more- closely-spaced wavelengths within the FEL gain band. This allows for the production of doublet- or multiplet-spectral lines. Applications exist over a broad range of hard X-ray wavelengths involving any process where there is a large change in cross section over a narrow wavelength range, as in multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques (MAD). In this paper we consider the simultaneous operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL at two closely spaced wavelengths. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and we show that this method can produce fully coherent radiation shared between two longitudinal modes. Mode spacing can be easily tuned within the FEL gain band, i.e. within 10 eV. An interesting aspect of the proposed scheme is a way of modulating the electron bunch at optical frequencies without a seed quantum laser. In fact, the XFEL output intensity contains an oscillating ''mode-beat'' component whose frequency is related to the frequency difference between the pair of longitudinal modes considered. Thus, at saturation one obtains FEL-induced modulations of energy loss and energy spread in the electron bunch at optical frequency. These modulations can be converted into density modulation at the same optical frequency with the help of a weak chicane installed behind the baseline undulator. Powerful coherent radiation can then be generated with the help of an optical transition radiation (OTR) station,which have important applications. In this paper we briefly

  11. Technical Design and Optimization Study for the FERMI at Elettra FEL Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, Steven M.; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovo', Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The FERMI (at) Elettra FEL project will provide a novel, x-ray free electron laser user facility at Sincrotrone Trieste based on seeded and cascade FEL techniques. The electron beam source and injector systems play a crucial role in the success of the facility by providing the highest quality electron beams to the linac and FEL undulators. This Technical Note examines the critical technology components that make up the injector system, and demonstrates optimum beam dynamics solutions to achieve the required high quality electron beams. Section 2 provides an overview of the various systems and subsystems that comprise the photoinjector. The different operating modes of the injector are described as they pertain to the different linac configurations driven by the FEL and experimental design. For each mode, the required electron beam parameters are given. Sections 3 and 4 describe the critical beamline elements in the injector complex: the photocathode and drive laser, and the RF gun. The required drive laser parameters are given at the end of Section 3. Additional details on the design of the photoinjector drive laser systems are presented in a separate Technical Note. Design considerations for the RF gun are extensively presented in Section 4. There, we describe the variation of the cavity geometry to optimize the efficiency of the energy transfer to the electron beam. A study of the power coupling into the various cavity modes that interact within the bandwidth of the RF drive pulse is presented, followed by a study of the transient cavity response under several models and, finally, the effects on extracted beam quality. Section 5 describes the initial design for the low energy, off-axis diagnostic beamline. Beam dynamics simulations using ASTRA, elegant, and MAD are presented. Section 6 presents the optimization studies for the beam dynamics in the various operating modes. The optimized baseline configurations for the beamline and incident drive laser pulse are

  12. Generation of doublet spectral lines at self-seeded X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-11-01

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim to reduce the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Braggtransmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use such kind of monochromator setup with two -or more- crystals arranged in a series to spectrally filter the SASE radiation at two -or more- closely-spaced wavelengths within the FEL gain band. This allows for the production of doublet- or multiplet-spectral lines. Applications exist over a broad range of hard X-ray wavelengths involving any process where there is a large change in cross section over a narrow wavelength range, as in multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques (MAD). In this paper we consider the simultaneous operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL at two closely spaced wavelengths. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and we show that this method can produce fully coherent radiation shared between two longitudinal modes. Mode spacing can be easily tuned within the FEL gain band, i.e. within 10 eV. An interesting aspect of the proposed scheme is a way of modulating the electron bunch at optical frequencies without a seed quantum laser. In fact, the XFEL output intensity contains an oscillating ''mode-beat'' component whose frequency is related to the frequency difference between the pair of longitudinal modes considered. Thus, at saturation one obtains FEL-induced modulations of energy loss and energy spread in the electron bunch at optical frequency. These modulations can be converted into density modulation at the same optical frequency with the help of a weak chicane installed behind the baseline undulator. Powerful coherent radiation can then be generated with the help of an optical transition radiation (OTR) station,which have important applications. In this paper we briefly

  13. Moisture transfer through the membrane of a cross-flow energy recovery ventilator: Measurement and simple data-driven modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    CR Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    The moisture transfer effectiveness (or latent effectiveness) of a cross-flow, membrane based energy recovery ventilator is measured and modeled. Analysis of in situ measurements for a full year shows that energy recovery ventilator latent effectiveness increases with increasing average relative humidity and surprisingly increases with decreasing average temperature. A...

  14. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  15. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  16. Energy saving in the baking industry by more selective use of energy and by recovery of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, L.; Nieman, W.; Rouwen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 7000 Tj energy are used yearly by the bakery industry in the Netherlands. Until now, very little is known about energy use in this sector, this being partly due to the extremely decentralised production. The aim of the study is to pinpoint and evaluate methods for energy saving and heat recovery in the bakery. Priority was given to the procedures or places where a large amount of energy is used or is lost. A second important part of the study is to identify the situations where energy can easly be saved in very simple ways. The study was subsidised by the European Economic Community, the Industry group for bakeries and the Dutch Ministry for Economic Affairs. Monitoring was in the hands of a committee, with representation by the Nederlandse Bakkerijstichting (Dutch Bakery Organisation), the Stichting Voorlichting Energiebesparing Nederland (Organisation for Information about Energy Conservation), the Ministry of Agriculture/Fisheries and the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

  17. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  18. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.

  19. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  20. Electron gun for the Fel Clio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaput, R.

    1990-01-01

    A triode electron gun has been developed and manufactured at LURE (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique) and LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) for the free electron laser CLIO 1 (Collaboration pour un laser a electrons libres dans l'infrarouge a Orsay) now under construction: this gun involves a grid-cathode assembly manufactured by EIMAC, currently used in the SLAC gun family. For the FEL requirements, the gun must be able to yield a train of short pulses at accuracy frequency or a continuous pulse. Driving together the cathode and the grid the gun produces a continous beam of 12 μs or a pulsed beam of very short pulse of 1 ns at 250 MHz, 125 MHz, 62.5 MHz or 31.25 MHz. The performances of the gun has been tested on a testing bench. A peak current of 1 Amp. for 1 ns width at any frequencies was achieved at an injection voltage of 90 kV

  1. Introduction: a short-wavelength-FEL/storage-ring complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    We believe that, in view of the present state of FEL understanding, it is now proper to construct a research facility devoted to the use of coherent radiation and the advancement of FEL physics technology at wavelengths shorter than 1000 A. We show a possible layout of such a facility, which will be referred to as a Coherent xuv Facility (CXF), where research can be conducted on several techniques for generating coherent radiation. Undulators are already well understood and will generate broadly tunable, spatially coherent radiation of bandwidth lambda /Δlambda approx. = 10 2 . A crossed undulator system will extend the undulator capability to include variable polarization. For full coherence, in spatial as well as in longitudinal directions, it is necessary to induce and exploit density modulation in electron beams, as is the case in the transverse optical klystrons (TOKs) and FELs. In TOKs, coherent radiation is generated at harmonics of an input laser frequency, with the electron beam playing the role of a nonlinear medium. Ultimately, FELS would deliver intense, tunable x rays and vuv radiation of extremely narrow spectral width. There are two possible routes to an FEL, one based on feedback by end mirrors, the other based on development of a high-gain, single-pass device. It can be seen, from this paper, that the photon flux increases monotonically, or the wavelength decreases monotonically, as one goes through (1) undulator radiation, (2) TOK radiation, (3) FEL oscillator radiation, to (4) FEL single-pass radiation. Each of these will demand considerable quality development effort. Each will result in photon fluxes of increased value to the users

  2. Extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Boyer, J.C.; Corlier, M. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The CLIO FEL has been designed to lase between 2 and 20 {mu}m. The electrons are produced by a 32/50 MeV RF linear accelerator. The injector is a 100 keV thermoionic gun, followed by a subharmonic prebuncher at 0.5 GHz and a buncher at 3 GHz. The electron beam is then accelerated in a 4.5 m long travelling wave accelerating section, to the nominal energy. The undulator consisted of 48 periods of 40 mm and the optical cavity is 4.8 m long which corresponds to a 1.2 m Rayleigh length. The peak power extracted by a ZnSe Brewster plate is 10 MW at 10 {mu}. But, beyond 11{mu}m, the laser power decreases rapidely and no laser oscillation appears above 17 {mu}m. In order to lase at farther wavelengths, few changes have been made: First of all, the power limit is due to the diffraction losses of the undulator vaccuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Numerical calculations have been made and show that cavity losses reach 55 % at 15 {mu}m whereas the measured gain is 60 %. Consequently, the undulator vaccuum chamber have been replaced by a approximately twice bigger one. Then, the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter K is reduced by a factor 2: laser tunability is greatly reduced. This why a new undulator has been built. The main characteristics are summarized.

  3. Los Alamos High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, W.D.; Bender, S.; Meier, K.; Thode, L.E.; Watson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The 10-/mu/m Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) facility is being upgraded. The conventional electron gun and bunchers have been replaced with a much more compact 6-MeV photoinjector accelerator. By adding existing parts from previous experiments, the primary beam energy will be doubled to 40 MeV. With the existing 1-m wiggler (/lambda//sub w/ = 2.7 cm) and resonator, the facility can produce photons with wavelengths from 3 to 100 /mu/m when lasing on the fundamental mode and produce photons in the visible spectrum with short-period wigglers or harmonic operation. After installation of a 150/degree/ bend, a second wiggler will be added as an amplifier. The installation of laser transport tubes between the accelerator vault and an upstairs laboratory will provide experimenters with a radiation-free environment for experiments. Although the initial experimental program of the upgraded facility will be to test the single accelerator-master oscillator/power amplifier configuration, some portion of the operational time of the facility can be dedicated to user experiments. 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  5. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  6. A statistical approach to electrical storage sizing with application to the recovery of braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, V.; Pievatolo, A.; Tironi, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of efficient energy use, electrical energy in electric drives plays a fundamental role. High efficiency energy storage systems permit energy recovery, peak shaving and power quality functions. Due to their cost and the importance of system integration, there is a need for a correct design based on technical-economical optimization. In this paper, a method to design a centralized storage system for the recovery of the power regenerated by a number of electric drives is presented. It is assumed that the drives follow deterministic power cycles, but shifted by an uncertain amount. Therefore the recoverable energy and, consequently, the storage size requires the optimization of a random cost function, embedding both the plant total cost and the saving due to the reduced energy consumption during the useful life of the storage. The underlying stochastic model for the power profile of the drives as a whole is built from a general Markov chain framework. A numerical example, based on Monte Carlo simulations, concerns the maximization of the recoverable potential energy of multiple bridge cranes, supplied by a unique grid connection point and a centralized supercapacitor storage system. -- Highlights: ► Recovery of braking power produced by multiple electric drives. ► Temporal power profile modeled through the multinomial distribution and Markov chains. ► Storage sizing via random cost function optimization. ► The search region for the optimization is given explicitly. ► The value of energy recovered during the useful life of the storage outweighs its cost.

  7. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  8. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-Power Adiabatic Computing with Improved Quasistatic Energy Recovery Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of adiabatic logic circuits is determined by the adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses incurred by them during the charging and recovery operations. The lesser will be these losses circuit will be more energy efficient. In this paper, a new approach is presented for minimizing power consumption in quasistatic energy recovery logic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the nonadiabatic losses completely by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs whose gates are controlled by power clocks. Proposed circuit inherits the advantages of quasistatic ERL (QSERL family but is with improved power efficiency and driving ability. In order to demonstrate workability of the newly developed circuit, a 4 × 4 bit array multiplier circuit has been designed. A mathematical expression to calculate energy dissipation in proposed inverter is developed. Performance of the proposed logic (improved quasistatic energy recovery logic (IQSERL is analyzed and compared with CMOS and reported QSERL in their representative inverters and multipliers in VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18 μm UMC technology. In our proposed (IQSERL inverter the power efficiency has been improved to almost 20% up to 50 MHz and 300 fF external load capacitance in comparison to CMOS and QSERL circuits.

  10. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  11. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  13. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  14. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  15. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  16. What is an energy recovery linac, and why there might be one in your future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, Geoffrey [Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applying beam energy recovery allows a class of novel accelerators to be built with performance characteristics beyond that possible in ring accelerators or non-recirculated linear accelerators. Although the idea was published 50 years ago, and was explored and developed as a result of ''Star Wars'' strategic defense programs in the 1980s and 1990s, renewed interest in energy recovery linacs (ERLs) has flowered as a result of continuous development and improvement of superconducting beam acceleration systems. Many applications to electron accelerators where the very best beam quality is required at high average current have been and are being explored. Examples include advanced X-ray sources, electron sources for electron ion colliders, internal target experiments and applications, lithography, and other topics. Examples highlighting new performance possibilities and the present perception on the limits of ERLs are given.

  17. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  18. Federal role in resource recovery will focus on waste-to-energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Virtually all of the federal programs created in recent years to sponsor resource recovery R and D have been slated for budget cuts or termination by the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The only programs that will survive revised fiscal budgets will be waste-to-energy R and D studies sponsored by DOE and EPA. Differing reactions to such cuts are apparent: the affected agencies are protesting, while private industry welcomes this hands-off policy.

  19. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  20. A hydraulic test stand for demonstrating the operation of Eaton’s energy recovery system (ERS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng (Rachel); Danzl, Per; Mahulkar, Vishal; Piyabongkarn, Damrongrit (Neng); Brenner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cost represents a significant operating expense for owners and fleet managers of hydraulic off-highway vehicles. Further, the upcoming Tier IV compliance for off-highway applications will create further expense for after-treatment and cooling. Solutions that help address these factors motivate fleet operators to consider and pursue more fuelefficient hydraulic energy recovery systems. Electrical hybridization schemes are typically complex, expensive, and often do not satisfy customer pay...

  1. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  2. The European investment bank and financing the installation of urban refuse treatment plants with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty-Gauquie, H.

    1992-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (BEI), the world's leading international financing institution, with an annual loans total of 15.3 billion Ecus in 1991, every year finances a number of projects for the treatment of refuse, with energy recovery from waste and heat distribution. This article describes the missions of the BEI and the parameters taken into account for authorizing investment. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste by refuse derived fuel production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaz Saheri; Noorezlin Ahmad Baseri; Masoud Aghajani Mir; Malmasi Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is so beneficial both for the energy and for the positive environmental implications. Mainly related to the saving of primary energy derived from fossil fuel. Malaysia as a fast growing population country has the average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated around 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and it has been increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Regarding characterization exercise, the main parts of the Malaysian MSW were found to be food, paper and plastic, which made up almost 80 % of the waste by weight. Furthermore, the average moisture content of the MSW was about 55 %, making incineration a challenging mission. In addition waste sectors in Malaysia contributes to 1.3 million ton of CH 4 compare to total CH 4 emission which is 2.2 MT. In order to overcome waste problem considering other technical, environmental and economical methods seems to be necessarily. Resource recovery centers recovers the maximum proportion of recyclable and recoverable resources from the mixed municipal solid waste .The resource recovery process itself is one of the step-by-step segregation and elimination of all non-combustibles , and separation of the combustibles in the desired form of fuel for good combustion. Then, a further mechanical separation process converts combustible materials to refuse derived fuel (RDF) with moisture content between 20 and 30 % and an average calorific fuel value of about 3450 kcal/kg. So, the aim of this paper is taking into account resource recovery from waste using refuse derived fuel as a secondary resource with regarding advantages and disadvantages of this kind of energy production in Malaysia as a developing country. (author)

  4. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  5. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-06-17

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Hatzell, Marta C.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Optimally efficient swimming in hyper-redundant mechanisms: control, design, and energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, A J; Nahon, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyper-redundant mechanisms (HRMs), also known as snake-like robots, are highly adaptable during locomotion on land. Researchers are currently working to extend their capabilities to aquatic environments through biomimetic undulatory propulsion. In addition to increasing the versatility of the system, truly biomimetic swimming could also provide excellent locomotion efficiency. Unfortunately, the complexity of the system precludes the development of a functional solution to achieve this. To explore this problem, a rapid optimization process is used to generate efficient HRM swimming gaits. The low computational cost of the approach allows for multiple optimizations over a broad range of system conditions. By observing how these conditions affect optimal kinematics, a number of new insights are developed regarding undulatory swimming in robotic systems. Two key conditions are varied within the study, swimming speed and energy recovery. It is found that the swimmer mimics the speed control behaviour of natural fish and that energy recovery drastically increases the system's efficiency. Remarkably, this efficiency increase is accompanied by a distinct change in swimming kinematics. With energy recovery, the swimmer converges to a clearly anguilliform gait, without, it tends towards the carangiform mode. (paper)

  8. Effect of FEL induced ionization on X-ray reflectivity of multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The VUV-FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) emits short-pulse radiation with wavelengths from 6 to 30 nm and a pulse length of 10-50 fs. The FLASH wavelength allows x-ray diffraction experiments at periodical multilayer's structures acting as 1D crystal. The probe of depth selective interaction of the high-intense x-ray short pulse with these objects can be used to obtain information about possible electronic excitation and various recombination processes inside multilayers. As known from recent experiments at FLASH, the later ones are most likely using highly intense FEL radiation. The ML reflectivity is analyzed for case of that the optical parameters are changing as function of the depth of the penetrating incident pulse into the multilayer. The response is studied for the model system La/B{sub 4}C using two experimental conditions both at fixed incidence angle: 1) the energy of the incident pulses, E, coincides with the energy of the 1st order multilayer Bragg peak, E{sub B}, of the reflection curve, and 2) the energy of incident pulse differs by a small dE from E{sub B}. The ML response to a given sub-pulse differs for both conditions. However, there is a clear fingerprint of ionization for both conditions for the case that E is close to the K-absorption edge of B-atoms. Our results support respective efforts to measure the optical parameters of solids under high-intense FEL radiation.

  9. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-01-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  10. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  11. The FEL development at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Chae, Y. C.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P.; Deriy, B.; Dortwegt, R.; Edrmann, M.; Freund, H. P.; Friedsam, H.; Galayda, J. N.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Grelick, A.; Huang, Z.; Jones, J.; Kang, Y.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Lewellen, J. W.; Lill, R.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Markovich, G. M.; Milton, S. V.; Moog, E. R.; Nassiri, A.; Ogurtsov, V.; Pasky, S.; Power, J.; Tieman, B.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.

    1999-01-01

    Construction of a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL) based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode of operation is nearing completion at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) with initial experiments imminent. The APS SASE FEL is a proof-of-principle fourth-generation light source. As of January 1999 the undulator hall, end-station building, necessary transfer lines, electron and optical diagnostics, injectors, and initial undulatory have been constructed and, with the exception of the undulatory, installed. All preliminary code development and simulations have also been completed. The undulator hall is now ready to accept first beam for characterization of the output radiation. It is the project goal to push towards fill FEL saturation, initially in the visible, but ultimately to W and VUV, wavelengths

  12. A role for nuclear energy in the recovery of oil from the tar sands of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.; Sochaski, R.O.; Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-12-01

    Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the necessary flexibility to fit into many of the possible methods of recovering oil from the tar sands. Cost comparisons of fossil and nuclear sources show that, for the supply of process steam, the nuclear source is competitive under the criteria of debt financing or low discount rates on capital, continued escalation, and long plant capital write-off period. (author)

  13. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  14. Three years of biomedical FEL use in medicine and surgery How far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Benedikt

    1997-02-01

    Since the FEL has been made available for biophysical research in the IR, it has revolutionized the optimization strategies of laser-tissue interaction and the minimizing of adverse effects, in particular for photoablative use in surgery. Its tunability together with the free combination of wavelength and energy made it an efficient research tool, allowing the reduction of risks and costs of preclinical biomedical research. New computer-assisted surgical techniques evolved and the broader data basis of IR photothermal ablation allows more accurate predictive modelling of the efficiency and the adverse effects of photoablation. New applications for diagnostic imaging as well as the first clinical applications in neurosurgery lay ahead.

  15. Plasma Wakefield Accelerated Beams for Demonstration of FEL Gain at FLASHForward

    OpenAIRE

    Niknejadi, Pardis; Aschikhin, Alexander; Hu, Zhanghu; Karstensen, Sven; Knetsch, Alexander; Kononenko, Olena; Libov, Vladyslav; Ludwig, Kai; Martinez de la Ossa, Alberto; Marutzky, Frank; Mehrling, Timon; Osterhoff, Jens; Behrens, Christopher; Palmer, Charlotte; Poder, Kristjan

    2017-01-01

    FLASHForward is the Future-ORiented Wakefield Accelerator Research and Development project at the DESY free-electron laser (FEL) facility FLASH. It aims to produce high-quality, GeV-energy electron beams over a plasma cell of a few centimeters. The plasma is created by means of a 25 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The plasma wakefield will be driven by high-current-density electron beams extracted from the FLASH accelerator. The project focuses on the advancement of plasma-based particle acceler...

  16. Status and initial commissioning of a high gain 800 nm SASE FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Aaron M; Murokh, A; Musumeci, P; Pellegrini, C; Rosenzweig, J; Babzien, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Johnson, E; Malone, R; Rakowsky, G; Skaritka, J; Wang, X J; Yu, L H; Van Bibber, K A; Hill, J M; Le Sage, G P; Carr, R; Cornacchia, M; Nuhn, H D; Ruland, R; Nguyen, D C

    2000-01-01

    We describe the status and initial commissioning of the Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) experiment. VISA uses a strong focusing 4 m undulator, the Brookhaven National Laboratory ATF linac with an energy of 72 MeV, and a photoinjector electron source. The VISA fundamental radiation wavelength is near 800 nm and the power expected at saturation is near 60 MW. Power, angular and spectral measurements are planned for the VISA radiation and these results will be analyzed and compared with SASE FEL theory and computer simulation. In addition, the induced electron beam micro-bunching will be measured using coherent transition radiation.

  17. Status and initial commissioning of a high gain 800 nm SASE FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, A.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Musumeci, P.; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Johnson, E.; Malone, R.; Rakowsky, G.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, X.J.; Yu, L.H.; Van Bibber, K.A.; Hill, J.M.; Le Sage, G.P.; Carr, R.; Cornacchia, M.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Ruland, R.; Nguyen, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the status and initial commissioning of the Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) experiment. VISA uses a strong focusing 4 m undulator, the Brookhaven National Laboratory ATF linac with an energy of 72 MeV, and a photoinjector electron source. The VISA fundamental radiation wavelength is near 800 nm and the power expected at saturation is near 60 MW. Power, angular and spectral measurements are planned for the VISA radiation and these results will be analyzed and compared with SASE FEL theory and computer simulation. In addition, the induced electron beam micro-bunching will be measured using coherent transition radiation

  18. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials...

  19. Towards the Fourier limit on the super-ACO Storage Ring FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couprie, M.E.; De Ninno, G.; Moneron, G.; Nutarelli, D.; Hirsch, M.; Garzella, D.; Renault, E.; Roux, R.; Thomas, C.

    2001-01-01

    Systematic studies on the Free Electron Laser (FEL) line and micropulse have been performed on the Super-ACO storage ring FEL with a monochromator and a double-sweep streak camera under various conditions of operation (detuning, 'CW' and Q-switched mode). From these data, it appears that the FEL is usually operated very close to the Fourier limit

  20. Towards the Fourier limit on the super-ACO Storage Ring FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Garzella, D; Hirsch, M; Moneron, G; Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Roux, R; Thomas, C

    2001-01-01

    Systematic studies on the Free Electron Laser (FEL) line and micropulse have been performed on the Super-ACO storage ring FEL with a monochromator and a double-sweep streak camera under various conditions of operation (detuning, 'CW' and Q-switched mode). From these data, it appears that the FEL is usually operated very close to the Fourier limit.

  1. Multi-fuctional heat recovery systems. Really energy saving; Multifunktionale Waermerueckgewinnung. Wie man wirklich Energie spart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Heinz [SEW Systemtechnik fuer Energierecycling und Waermeflussbegrenzung GmbH, Kempen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    An energy saving leeds only to a correct optimized operation, if a demand-oriented total design is integrated into the building. In special for air-conditioning energy saving measures are presented and essential criteria named, to save in fact effectively, efficiently, reliably and profitably energy and enhance simultanously user quality. (orig./GL)

  2. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  3. Beam profile diagnostics system for SDUV-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yichao; Han Lifeng; Chen Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    A new beam profile diagnostics system for Shanghai Deep Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (SDUV-FEL) has been developed based on industrial Ethernet, with good versatility and scalability. The system includes three major subsystems for image acquisition,pneumatic control and stepper motor control, respectively. Virtual instrument technology is adopted to drive the devices, and to develop the measurement software. In this paper,we describe the system structure, and its hardware and software design. The results of system commissioning are given as well. As an important diagnostic tool and data acquisition method, the system has been successfully applied to the measurement and control of the SDUV-FEL.(authors)

  4. The effects of swimming and running on energy intake during 2 hours of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C P; Flynn, M G; Braun, W A; Boardley, D J

    1999-12-01

    To determine energy intake in the 2 hrs after swimming (S) and running (R) at the same relative exercise intensity and duration (71.8 +/- 2.5% VO2max; 45 min) to evaluate whether a difference in recovery energy intake could explain the greater body fat observed in swimmers relative to runners. this was a randomized crossover design. running exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill (Quinton) while swimming was conducted in a 45.7 m pool. eight well-trained competitive male triathletes participated in this investigation. subjects were blinded to the purpose of the study and swam and ran on separate occasions for 45 min at 71.8 +/- 2.5% of VO2max. Subjects were then placed in a room with a variety of foods and beverages for 2 hrs after R and S. energy intake (kJ/2 hrs and kcal/2 hrs) was determined by weighing and measuring the food remaining in the room after 2 hrs of postexercise recovery. Expired gases, heart rates, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were obtained at 15 min intervals throughout exercise. Blood samples for serum glucose and lactate were obtained preexercise and immediately, 15 min, and 135 min postexercise. Perceived hunger and thirst ratings were obtained after the subjects were seated in the room containing the food. Serum glucose was significantly (p energy intake (4584 +/- 611 kJ/2 hrs; 1095 +/- 146 kcal/2 hrs for R and 4383 +/- 484 kJ/2 hrs; 1047 +/- 116 kcal for S) or blood lactate. The type of exercise, swimming or running, did not significantly influence energy intake during 2 hours of postexercise recovery.

  5. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm -3 with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin -1 and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm -3 was obtained with 30mLmin -1 recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing energy recovery in the steel industry: Matching continuous charge with off-gas variability smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Meneghetti, Antonella; Nardin, Gioacchino; Savino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A system based on phase change material is inserted into the off-gas-line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace. • The off-gas temperature profile after scrap preheating is smoothed. • A heat transfer fluid through phase change material containers allows to control overheating issues. • The smoothed off-gas profiles enable efficient downstream power generation. • The recovery system investment cost is decreased due to lower sizes of components. - Abstract: In order to allow an efficient energy recovery from off-gas in the steel industry, the high variability of heat flow should be managed. A temperature smoothing device based on phase change materials at high temperatures is inserted into the off-gas line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace process with scrap preheating. To address overheating issues, a heat transfer fluid flowing through containers is introduced and selected by developing an analytical model. The performance of the smoothing system is analyzed by thermo-fluid dynamic simulations. The reduced maximum temperature of off-gas allows to reduce the size and investment cost of the downstream energy recovery system, while the increased minimum temperature enhances the steam turbine load factor, thus increasing its utilization. Benefits on environmental issues due to dioxins generation are also gained

  8. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  9. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  10. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.it [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Batignani, G. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Benkechkache, M.A. [Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, I-38123 Trento (Italy); University Constantine 1, Department of Electronics in the Science and Technology Faculty, I-25017, Constantine (Algeria); Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, I-38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Fabris, L. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze Applicate, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); Forti, F. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze Applicate, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 10{sup 4} photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  11. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M.A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.

    2016-01-01

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 10"4 photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of stillage fractions - estimation of the potential for energy recovery in bioethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Fuchs, W; Meixner, K; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R; Bochmann, G

    2013-01-01

    Stillage processing can require more than one third of the thermal energy demand of a dry-grind bioethanol production plant. Therefore, for every stillage fraction occurring in stillage processing the potential of energy recovery by anaerobic digestion (AD) was estimated. In the case of whole stillage up to 128% of the thermal energy demand in the process can be provided, so even an energetically self-sufficient bioethanol production process is possible. For wet cake the recovery potential of thermal energy is 57%, for thin stillage 41%, for syrup 40% and for the evaporation condensate 2.5%. Specific issues for establishing AD of stillage fractions are evaluated in detail; these are high nitrogen concentrations, digestate treatment and trace element supply. If animal feed is co-produced at the bioethanol plant and digestate fractions are to be reused as process water, a sufficient quality is necessary. Most interesting stillage fractions as substrates for AD are whole stillage, thin stillage and the evaporation condensate. For these fractions process details are presented.

  13. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of energy and iron from oily sludge pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Linbo; Han, Jun; He, Xiang; Zhan, Yiqiu; Yu, Fei

    2015-05-01

    In the steel industry, about 0.86 ton of oily sludge is produced for every 1000 tons of rolling steel. Due to the adverse impact on human health and the environment, oily sludge is designated as a hazardous waste in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRT). In this paper, the pyrolysis treatment of oily sludge is studied in a fluidized bed reactor at a temperature range of 400-600 °C. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 59.2% and a minimum energy loss of 19.0% are achieved at 500 °C. The energy consumption of treating 1 kg oily sludge is only 2.4-2.9 MJ. At the same time, the energy of produced oil, gas and solid residue are 20.8, 6.32, and 0.83 MJ, respectively. In particular, it is found that the solid residue contains more than 42% iron oxide, which can be used as the raw material for iron production. Thus, the simultaneous recovery of energy and iron from oil sludge by pyrolysis is feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical....... The results indicate that exergy losses due to mixing are insignificant as compared to chemical exergies of metals in all flows. Total exergy losses for Fe, Al, and Cu recovery in the two WtE systems range from 38% to 90%....

  16. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. → For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. → For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. → For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  17. Energy recovery in SUDS towards smart water grids: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Helena M.; Teyssier, Charlotte; Samora, Irene; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a methodology for urban flood adaptation and energy recovery solutions is resting on the concept of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) as a measure to reduce risks of urban flooding while fully utilizing the available resources. Flood drainage systems are infrastructures essential in urban areas, which include retention ponds that can be used as water storage volumes to damp floods and simultaneously to produce energy, constituting innovative solutions to be integrated in future smart water grid′s designs. The consideration of urban flooding as a problem caused by excess water that can be harvested and re-used is expected to provide a comprehensive representation of a water-energy nexus for future urban areas. The study comprises an optimization of energy recovery in SUDS of a small district area of Lisbon down-town through the use of a low-head hydropower converter. The status-quo solution based on a basin catchment for the average expected runoff is analysed, with influence of the tidal backwater effect of the Atlantic Ocean which causes difficulties to the drainage of excess flow. The methodology used to reach the flow damping and the optimized solution for energy production is presented. -- Highlights: •An innovative solution for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). •Use of retention ponds to reduce risks of urban flooding while producing energy. •Use of recently developed hydropower converters for low heads. •Solution to be integrated in future smart water networks for increasing efficiency. •Water and energy nexus for sustainable operation towards future smart cities

  18. The DarkLight Experiment at the JLab FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter

    2013-10-01

    DarkLight will study the production of gauge bosons associated with Dark Forces theories in the scattering of 100 MeV electrons on proton a target. DarkLight is a spectrometer to measure all the final state particles in e- + p -->e- + p +e- +e+ . QED allows this process and the invariant mass distribution of the e+e- pair is a continuum from nearly zero to nearly the electron beam energy. Dark Forces theories, which allow the dark matter mass scale to be over 1 TeV, predict a gauge boson A' in the mass range of 10-1,000 MeV and decays to an electron-positron pair with an invariant mass of mA'. We aim to search for this process using the 100 MeV, 10 mA electron beam at the JLab Free Electron Laser impinging on a hydrogen target with a 1019 cm-2 density. The resulting luminosity of 6 ×1035/cm2-s gives the experiment enough sensitivity to probe A' couplings of 10-9 α . DarkLight is unique in its design to detect all four particles in the final state. The leptons will be measured in a large high-rate TPC and a silicon sensor will measure the protons. A 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field provides the momentum resolution and focuses the copious Møller scattering background down the beam line, away from the detectors. A first beam test has shown the FEL beam is compatible with the target design and that the hall backgrounds are manageable. The experiment has been approved by Jefferson Lab for first running in 2017.

  19. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  20. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  1. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas; Ekvall, T.

    2009-01-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspec...

  2. Microbial fuel cells for direct electrical energy recovery from urban wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, A G; Molognoni, D; Dallago, E; Liberale, A; Cella, R; Longoni, P; Pantaleoni, L

    2013-01-01

    Application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to wastewater treatment for direct recovery of electric energy appears to provide a potentially attractive alternative to traditional treatment processes, in an optic of costs reduction, and tapping of sustainable energy sources that characterizes current trends in technology. This work focuses on a laboratory-scale, air-cathode, and single-chamber MFC, with internal volume of 6.9 L, operating in batch mode. The MFC was fed with different types of substrates. This study evaluates the MFC behaviour, in terms of organic matter removal efficiency, which reached 86% (on average) with a hydraulic retention time of 150 hours. The MFC produced an average power density of 13.2 mW/m(3), with a Coulombic efficiency ranging from 0.8 to 1.9%. The amount of data collected allowed an accurate analysis of the repeatability of MFC electrochemical behaviour, with regards to both COD removal kinetics and electric energy production.

  3. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  4. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater

  5. Status of the project of Novosibirsk high power FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinayev, I.V.; Erg, G.I.; Gavrilov, N.G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  6. Colorado State University (CSU) accelerator and FEL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, S.; Biedron, S.; Harris, J.; Martinez, J.; D'Audney, A.; Edelen, J.; Einstein, J.; Hall, C.; Horovitz, K.; Morin, A.; Sipahi, N.; Sipahi, T.; Williams, J.; Carrico, C.; Van Der Slot, P. J M

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include a 6-MeV L-Band (1.3 GHz) electron linear accelerator (linac) with a free-electron laser (FEL) system capable of producing Terahertz (THz) radiation, a laser laboratory, a microwave test laboratory, and a magnetic test laboratory.

  7. Towards imaging of ultrafast molecular dynamics using FELs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouzee, A.; Johnsson, P.; Rading, L.; Siu, W.; Huismans, Y.; Duesterer, S.; Redlin, H.; Tavella, F.; Stojanovic, N.; Al-Shemmary, A.; Lepine, F.; Holland, D. M. P.; Schlathölter, Thomas; Hoekstra, R.; Fukuzawa, H.; Ueda, K.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Hundertmark, A.

    2013-01-01

    The dissociation dynamics induced by a 100 fs, 400 nm laser pulse in a rotationally cold Br-2 sample was characterized by Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI) using a time-delayed extreme ultra-violet (XUV) FEL pulse, obtained from the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). The momentum distribution of

  8. Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

  9. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    1995-04-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA self-amplified spontaneous emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded harmonic generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 m long NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start-up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities.

  10. The FEL-TNO uniform open systems model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Overbeek, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The FEL-TNO Uniform Open Systems Model is based upon the IS0/0SI Basic Reference Model and integrates operating systems, (OSI) networks, equipment and media into one single uniform nodel. Usage of the model stimulates the development of operating systen and network independent applications and puts

  11. FEL-Oscillator simulations with Genesis 1.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Volokhine, I.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the propagation of the light outside the undulator. We present a paraxial Optical Propagation Code (OPC) based on the Spectral Method and Fresnel Diffraction Integral,

  12. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  13. Evaluation of an integrated continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor: Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  15. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  16. Experimental analysis of energy performance of a ventilated window for heat recovery under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    balance of the ventilated window and clarified the methodology for thermal performance evaluation. Comparison between windows with and without ventilation using the window-room-ventilation heat balance revealed that a ventilated window can potentially contribute to energy savings. In addition...... transmittance introduced by the ventilation was higher than the effect of heat recovery. Accordingly, the use of the ventilated windows might be most suitable for window unit with low ventilation rates. The results correlated with theoretical calculations in standards and software. However, the concept...

  17. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the course on Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELsand ERLs), organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel Scandic HamburgEmporio, Hamburg, Germany from 31 May to 10 June 2016, in collaboration with DESY. Following introductorylectures on radiation issues, the basic requirements on linear accelerators and ERLs are discussed. Undulators andthe process of seeding and lasing are then treated in some detail, followed by lectures on various beam dynamicsand controls issues.

  18. Production and detection of axion-like particles at the VUV-FEL. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetz, U.; Ringwald, A.; Tschentscher, T.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, the PVLAS collaboration has reported evidence for an anomalously large rotation of the polarization of light generated in vacuum in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. This may be explained through the production of a new light spin-zero particle coupled to two photons. In this Letter of Intent, we propose to test this hypothesis by setting up a photon regeneration experiment which exploits the photon beam of the Vacuum-UltraViolet Free-Electron Laser VUV-FEL, sent along the transverse magnetic field of a linear arrangement of dipole magnets of size B L ∼ 30 Tm. The high photon energies available at the VUV-FEL increase substantially the expected photon regeneration rate in the mass range implied by the PVLAS anomaly, in comparison to the rate expected at visible lasers of similar power. We find that the particle interpretation of the PVLAS result can be tested within a short running period. The pseudoscalar vs. scalar nature can be determined by varying the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the laser polarization. The mass of the particle can be measured by running at different photon energies. The proposed experiment offers a window of opportunity for a firm establishment or exclusion of the particle interpretation of the PVLAS anomaly before other experiments can compete. (Orig.)

  19. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing

  20. Energy recovery by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) in SWRO–PRO integrated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2015-11-11

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, it is projected that 25.6-40.7millionkWh/day of energy can be recovered globally, if the brines from SWRO are used as the draw solution and diluted to the seawater level in a PRO system. Detailed integrated SWRO-PRO processes are developed in this study with the option to form a closed-loop SWRO-PRO process that can substantially reduce the pretreatment cost of desalination. The governing mathematical models that describe both the transport phenomena on a module level and the energy flow on a system level are developed to evaluate the performances of the SWRO-PRO processes. The model aims to investigate the performance of the hollow fibers as dilution occurs and provides guidelines on hollow fiber module design and process operation. Determining the dilution factor and the corresponding operating pressure of PRO is the key to optimize the integrated process. The specific energy consumptions of three SWRO-involved processes; namely, (1) SWRO without a pressure exchanger, (2) SWRO with a pressure exchanger, and (3) SWRO with pressure exchangers and PRO are compared. The results show that the specific energy consumptions for the above three processes are 5.51, 1.79 and 1.08kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 25% recovery SWRO plant; and 4.13, 2.27 and 1.14kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 50% recovery SWRO plant, using either freshwater or wastewater as the feed solution in PRO.

  1. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliopova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kliopova@ktu.lt; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  2. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg −1 of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  3. Artificial Knee Joints Actuators with Energy Recovery Capabilities: A Comparison of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Alò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human knee absorbs more energy than it expends in level ground walking. For this reason it would be useful if the actuation system of a wearable robot for lower limbs was able to recover energy thus improving portability. Presently, we recognize three promising technologies with energy recovery capabilities already available in the literature: the Series Elastic Actuator (SEA, the Clutchable Series Elastic Actuator (C-SEA, and the flywheel Infinitely Variable Transmission (F-IVT actuator. In this paper, a simulation model based comparison of the performance of these actuators is presented. The focus is on two performance indexes: the energy consumed by the electric motor per gait and the peak torque/power requested to the electric motor. Both quantities are related to the portability of the device: the former affects the size of the batteries for a given desired range; the latter affects the size and the weight of the electric motor. The results show that, besides some well-explained limitations of the presented methodology, the C-SEA is the most energy efficient whereas the F-IVT allows cutting down the motor torque/peak power strongly. The analysis also leads to defining how it is possible to improve the F-IVT to achieve a reduction of the energy consumption.

  4. Waste Energy Recovery from Natural Gas Distribution Network: CELSIUS Project Demonstrator in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Borelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems. The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence from five European cities with complementary baseline positions regarding the sustainable use of energy: Cologne, Genoa, Gothenburg, London, and Rotterdam. Lasting four-years and coordinated by the City of Gothenburg, the project faces with an holistic approach technical, economic, administrative, social, legal and political issues concerning smart district heating and cooling, aiming to establish best practice solutions. This will be done through the implementation of twelve new high-reaching demonstration projects, which cover the most major aspects of innovative urban heating and cooling for a smart city. The Genoa demonstrator was designed in order to recover energy from the pressure drop between the main supply line and the city natural gas network. The potential mechanical energy is converted to electricity by a turboexpander/generator system, which has been integrated in a combined heat and power plant to supply a district heating network. The performed energy analysis assessed natural gas saving and greenhouse gas reduction achieved through the smart systems integration.

  5. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  6. Coronary wave energy: a novel predictor of functional recovery after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Kalpa; Foster, Paul; Guilcher, Antoine; Bandara, Asela; Jogiya, Roy; Lockie, Tim; Chowiencyzk, Phil; Nagel, Eike; Marber, Michael; Redwood, Simon; Plein, Sven; Perera, Divaka

    2013-04-01

    Revascularization after acute coronary syndromes provides prognostic benefit, provided that the subtended myocardium is viable. The microcirculation and contractility of the subtended myocardium affect propagation of coronary flow, which can be characterized by wave intensity analysis. The study objective was to determine in acute coronary syndromes whether early wave intensity analysis-derived microcirculatory (backward) expansion wave energy predicts late viability, defined by functional recovery. Thirty-one patients (58±11 years) were enrolled after non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Regional left ventricular function and late-gadolinium enhancement were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, before and 3 months after revascularization. The backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was derived from wave intensity analysis of phasic coronary pressure and velocity in the infarct-related artery, whereas mean values were used to calculate hyperemic microvascular resistance. Twelve-hour troponin T, left ventricular ejection fraction, and percentage late-gadolinium enhancement mass were 1.35±1.21 µg/L, 56±11%, and 8.4±6.0%, respectively. The infarct-related artery backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was inversely correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement infarct mass (r=-0.81; Pwave threshold of 2.8 W m(-2) s(-2)×10(5) predicted functional recovery with sensitivity and specificity of 0.91 and 0.82 (AUC 0.88). Hyperemic microvascular resistance correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement mass (r=0.48; P=0.03) but not left ventricular recovery (r=-0.34; P=0.07). The microcirculation-derived backward expansion wave is a new index that correlates with the magnitude and location of infarction, which may allow for the prediction of functional myocardial recovery. Coronary wave intensity analysis may facilitate myocardial viability assessment during cardiac catheterization.

  7. Energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process through practical stack gases heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran Goortani, B.; Mateos-Espejel, E.; Moshkelani, M.; Paris, J.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for the optimal recovery of heat from stack gases considering energy and technical constraints has been developed and applied to an existing Kraft pulping mill. A system based on a closed loop recirculation of hot oil is used to recover the heat from stack gases and distribute it to the appropriate cold streams. The recovery of heat from stack gases is part of an overall optimization of the Kraft mill. Tools such as Pinch Analysis and exergy analysis are used to evaluate the process streams. The results indicate that 10.8 MW of heat from stack gases can be reused to heat process streams such as the deaerator water, hot water, drying filtrates, and black liquor. A simulation model of the recirculation loop has been developed to determine the specifications of the recovery system. The total heat exchanger surface area required by the system is 3460 m 2 , with a hot oil recirculation temperature of 137 o C. The anticipated total investment is $10.3 M, with a payback time of 1.8 years. - Highlights: → We developed a process design for recovering heat from stack gases in a Kraft mill. → The recovered heat is optimally distributed to the process cold streams. → Heat recovery system has a total surface area of 3500 m 2 without gases condensation. → A reduction of 7 percent in total process steam demand is anticipated. → A total investment of 10.3 M$ is needed with a payback time of less than two years

  8. A pixelated x-ray detector for diffraction imaging at next-generation high-rate FEL sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodola, L.; Ratti, L.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Forti, F.; Casarosa, G.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Mendicino, R.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2017-08-01

    The PixFEL collaboration has developed the building blocks for an X-ray imager to be used in applications at FELs. In particular, slim edge pixel detectors with high detection efficiency over a broad energy range, from 1 to 12 keV, have been developed. Moreover, a multichannel readout chip, called PFM2 (PixFEL front-end Matrix 2) and consisting of 32 × 32 cells, has been designed and fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology. The pixel pitch is 110 μm, the overall area is around 16 mm2. In the chip, different solutions have been implemented for the readout channel, which includes a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time-variant shaper and an A-to-D converter with a 10 bit resolution. The CSA can be configured in four different gain modes, so as to comply with photon energies in the 1 to 10 keV range. The paper will describe in detail the channel architecture and present the results from the characterization of PFM2. It will discuss the design of a new version of the chip, called PFM3, suitable for post-processing with peripheral, under-pad through silicon vias (TSVs), which are needed to develop four-side buttable chips and cover large surfaces with minimum inactive area.

  9. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  10. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  11. Fast synchrotron and FEL beam monitors based on single-crystal diamond detectors and InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Carrato, S.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Jark, W. H.; Ganbold, T.; Biasiol, G.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2013-12-01

    Simultaneous photon-beam position and intensity monitoring is becoming of increasing importance for new-generation synchrotron radiation sources and free-electron lasers (FEL). Thus, novel concepts of beam diagnostics are required in order to keep such beams under control. From this perspective diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ photon beam monitors, which can withstand the high dose rates occurring in such radiation facilities. Here, we report on the development of freestanding, single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond detectors with segmented electrodes. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices operated at room temperature may also be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. These features are valuable in low-energy and time-resolved FEL applications. In particular, a novel segmented InGaAs/InAlAs device has been developed and will be discussed. Dedicated measurements carried out on both these devices at the Elettra Synchrotron show their capability to monitor the position and the intensity of the photon beam with bunch-by-bunch temporal performances. Furthermore, preliminary tests have been performed on diamond detectors at the Fermi FEL, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for 100-fs-wide FEL pulses with a photon energy of 28.8 eV.

  12. Computational and experimental optimization of the exhaust air energy recovery wind turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaeikia, Seyedsaeed; Ghazali, Nik Nazri Bin Nik; Chong, Wen Tong; Shahizare, Behzad; Izadyar, Nima; Esmaeilzadeh, Alireza; Fazlizan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying the viability of harvesting wasted energy by exhaust air recovery generator. • Optimizing the design using response surface methodology. • Validation of optimization and computation result by performing experimental tests. • Investigation of flow behaviour using computational fluid dynamic simulations. • Performing the technical and economic study of the exhaust air recovery generator. - Abstract: This paper studies the optimization of an innovative exhaust air recovery wind turbine generator through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The optimization strategy aims to optimize the overall system energy generation and simultaneously guarantee that it does not violate the cooling tower performance in terms of decreasing airflow intake and increasing fan motor power consumption. The wind turbine rotor position, modifying diffuser plates, and introducing separator plates to the design are considered as the variable factors for the optimization. The generated power coefficient is selected as optimization objective. Unlike most of previous optimizations in field of wind turbines, in this study, response surface methodology (RSM) as a method of analytical procedures optimization has been utilised by using multivariate statistic techniques. A comprehensive study on CFD parameters including the mesh resolution, the turbulence model and transient time step values is presented. The system is simulated using SST K-ω turbulence model and then both computational and optimization results are validated by experimental data obtained in laboratory. Results show that the optimization strategy can improve the wind turbine generated power by 48.6% compared to baseline design. Meanwhile, it is able to enhance the fan intake airflow rate and decrease fan motor power consumption. The obtained optimization equations are also validated by both CFD and experimental results and a negligible deviation in range of 6–8.5% is observed.

  13. The PixFEL project: development of advanced X-ray pixel detectors for application at future FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Comotti, D.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Ratti, L.; Vacchi, C.; Fabris, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Morsani, F.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Pancheri, L.

    2015-01-01

    The PixFEL project aims to develop an advanced X-ray camera for imaging suited for the demanding requirements of next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities. New technologies can be deployed to boost the performance of imaging detectors as well as future pixel devices for tracking. In the first phase of the PixFEL project, approved by the INFN, the focus will be on the development of the microelectronic building blocks, carried out with a 65 nm CMOS technology, implementing a low noise analog front-end channel with high dynamic range and compression features, a low power ADC and high density memory. At the same time PixFEL will investigate and implement some of the enabling technologies to assembly a seamless large area X-ray camera composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. A pixel matrix with active edge will be developed to minimize the dead area of the sensor layer. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be explored to build a four-side buttable readout chip with small pixel pitch and all the on-board required functionalities. The ambitious target requirements of the new pixel device are: single photon resolution, 1 to 10 4 photons @ 1 keV to 10 keV input dynamic range, 10-bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, 1 kevent in-pixel memory and 100 μm pixel pitch. The long term goal of PixFEL will be the development of a versatile X-ray camera to be operated either in burst mode (European XFEL), or in continuous mode to cope with the high frame rates foreseen for the upgrade phase of the LCLS-II at SLAC

  14. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  15. Electron bunch structure in energy recovery linac with high-voltage dc photoelectron gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Saveliev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The internal structure of electron bunches generated in an injector line with a dc photoelectron gun is investigated. Experiments were conducted on the ALICE (accelerators and lasers in combined experiments energy recovery linac at Daresbury Laboratory. At a relatively low dc gun voltage of 230 kV, the bunch normally consisted of two beamlets with different electron energies, as well as transverse and longitudinal characteristics. The beamlets are formed at the head and the tail of the bunch. At a higher gun voltage of 325 kV, the beam substructure is much less pronounced and could be observed only at nonoptimal injector settings. Experiments and computer simulations demonstrated that the bunch structure develops during the initial beam acceleration in the superconducting rf booster cavity and can be alleviated either by increasing the gun voltage to the highest possible level or by controlling the beam acceleration from the gun voltage in the first accelerating structure.

  16. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  17. Emittance growth caused by bends in the Los Alamos free-electron laser energy recovery experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimentally transporting the beam from the wiggler to the decelerators in the energy recovery experiment (ERX) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory free-electron laser was more difficult than expected because of the large initial emittance in the beam. This emittance was apparently caused in an early 60 0 achromatic bend. To get this beam through subsequent bends without wall interception, the quadrupole focusing had to be changed from the design amount; as a result, the emittance grew further. This paper discusses various mechanisms for this emittance growth in the 60 0 bend, including effects caused by path changes in the bend resulting from wake-field-induced energy changes of particles in the beam and examines emittance filters, ranging from a simple aperture near a beam crossover to more complicated telescope schemes designed to regain the original emittance before the 60 0 bend

  18. Heat pipe heat exchanger and its potential to energy recovery in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Yat H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat recovery by the heat pipe heat exchangers was studied in the tropics. Heat pipe heat exchangers with two, four, six, and eight numbers of rows were examined for this purpose. The coil face velocity was set at 2 m/s and the temperature of return air was kept at 24°C in this study. The performance of the heat pipe heat exchangers was recorded during the one week of operation (168 hours to examine the performance data. Then, the collected data from the one week of operation were used to estimate the amount of energy recovered by the heat pipe heat exchangers annually. The effect of the inside design temperature and the coil face velocity on the energy recovery for a typical heat pipe heat exchanger was also investigated. In addition, heat pipe heat exchangers were simulated based on the effectiveness-NTU method, and their theoretical values for the thermal performance were compared with the experimental results.

  19. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  20. Environmental assessment of alternative treatment schemes for energy and nutrient recovery from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedizzi, C; Noya, I; Sarli, J; González-García, S; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T; Carballa, M

    2018-04-20

    The application of livestock manure on agricultural land is being restricted due to its significant content of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), leading to eutrophication. At the same time, the growing demand for N and P mineral fertilizers is increasing their production costs and causing the depletion of natural phosphate rock deposits. In the present work, seven technologically feasible treatment schemes for energy (biogas) and nutrient recovery (e.g., struvite precipitation) and/or removal (e.g., partial nitritation/anammox) were evaluated from an environmental perspective. In general, while approaches based solely on energy recovery and use of digestate as fertilizer are commonly limited by community regulations, strategies pursuing the generation of high-quality struvite are not environmentally sound alternatives. In contrast, schemes that include further solid/liquid separation of the digestate improved the environmental profile, and their combination with an additional N-removal stage would lead to the most environmental-friendly framework. However, the preferred scenario was identified to be highly dependent on the particular conditions of each site, integrating environmental, social and economic criteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  2. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emam, Rami Salah; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m 3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analyses are performed for SWRO with energy recovery. • Parametric studies are done to study effects of operating conditions on performance. • Different seawater sources with different salinity values are tested. • At base case, plant exergy efficiency is 5.82% and product cost is 2.451 $/m 3

  3. Potential of Electronic Plastic Waste as a Source of Raw Material and Energy Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazli Othman; Nor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Lariyah Mohd Sidek

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the production of electronic equipment is one of the fastest growing industrial activities in this world. The increase use of plastic in this sector resulted in an increase of electronic plastic waste. Basically, electronic plastic material contains various chemical elements which act as a flame retardant when electronic equipment is operated. In general, the concept of recycling electronic plastic waste should be considered in order to protect the environment. For this purpose, research has been conducted to different resins of electronic plastic waste to identify the potential of electronic plastic waste as a source of raw material and energy recovery. This study was divided into two part for example determination of physical and chemical characteristics of plastic resins and calculation of heating value for plastic resins based on Dulong formula. Results of this research show that the average calorific value of electronic waste is 30,872.42 kJ/ kg (7,375 kcal/ kg). The emission factor analysis showed that the concentration of emission value that might occur during waste management activities is below the standard set by the Environment Quality Act 1974. Basically, this research shows that electronic plastic waste has the potential to become the source of raw material and energy recovery. (author)

  4. Compatibility analysis of material and energy recovery in a regional solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2003-01-01

    The rising prices of raw materials and concerns about energy conservation have resulted in an increasing interest in the simultaneous recovery of materials and energy from waste streams. Compatibility exists for several economic, environmental, and managerial reasons. Installing an on-site or off-site presorting facility before an incinerator could be a feasible alternative to achieve both goals if household recycling programs cannot succeed in local communities. However, the regional impacts of presorting solid waste on a waste-to-energy facility remain unclear because of the inherent complexity of solid waste compositions and properties over different areas. This paper applies a system-based approach to assess the impact of installing a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) process before an incinerator. Such an RDF process, consisting of standard unit operations of shredding, magnetic separation, trommel screening, and air classification, might be useful for integrating the recycling and presorting efforts for a large-scale municipal incinerator from a regional sense. An optimization modeling analysis is performed to characterize such integration potential so that the optimal size of the RDF process and associated shipping patterns for flow control can be foreseen. It aims at exploring how the waste inflows with different rates of generation, physical and chemical compositions, and heating values collected from differing administrative districts can be processed by either a centralized presorting facility or an incinerator to meet both the energy recovery and throughput requirements. A case study conducted in Taipei County, which is one of the most densely populated metropolitan areas in Taiwan, further confirms the application potential of such a cost-benefit analysis.

  5. International perspective on energy recovery from landfill gas. A joint report of the IEA Bioenergy Programme and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report presents a review of the current status of energy recovery from landfill gas. Utilisation, collection and treatment technologies are examined, and ten case studies of landfill gas utilisation are given. Non-technical issues such as barrier to energy recovery from landfill gas, landfill gas generation, and landfill gas emissions are addressed, and recommendations are outlined. The potential market for landfill gas, and market opportunities are considered. Details of the objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the IEA Bioenergy Programme, and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme are included in appendices. (UK)

  6. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery, electrical heater and solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Özyoğurtçu, Gamze; Mobedi, Moghtada; Özerdem, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The energy consumed to condition fresh air is considerable, particularly for the buildings such as cinema, theatre or gymnasium saloons. The aim of the present study is to design a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery unit, electrical heater and stored solar energy, then to make an economical analysis based on life cycle cost (LCC) to find out its payback period. The system is able to recover thermal energy of exhaust air, store solar energy during the sunlight period an...

  8. Energy recovery storage systems in electrical vehicles with batteries; Tecnicas de armazenamiento de energia em veiculos electricos a baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, M.; Maia, J.; Foito, D.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper are presented three energy recovery storage systems that can be used in electrical vehicles with batteries. The first storage system uses ultra capacitors that is electrical energy storage, the second system is based on superconductivity magnetic storage, and the third system uses on kinetic energy stored in flywheels. It is also presented the power electronics needed to perform the energy systems. (Author)

  9. Field Encapsulation Library The FEL 2.2 User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Henze, Chris; Ellsworth, David

    1999-01-01

    This document describes version 2.2 of the Field Encapsulation Library (FEL), a library of mesh and field classes. FEL is a library for programmers - it is a "building block" enabling the rapid development of applications by a user. Since FEL is a library intended for code development, it is essential that enough technical detail be provided so that one can make full use of the code. Providing such detail requires some assumptions with respect to the reader's familiarity with the library implementation language, C++, particularly C++ with templates. We have done our best to make the explanations accessible to those who may not be completely C++ literate. Nevertheless, familiarity with the language will certainly help one's understanding of how and why things work the way they do. One consolation is that the level of understanding essential for using the library is significantly less than the level that one should have in order to modify or extend the library. One more remark on C++ templates: Templates have been a source of both joy and frustration for us. The frustration stems from the lack of mature or complete implementations that one has to work with. Template problems rear their ugly head particularly when porting. When porting C code, successfully compiling to a set of object files typically means that one is almost done. With templated C++ and the current state of the compilers and linkers, generating the object files is often only the beginning of the fun. On the other hand, templates are quite powerful. Used judiciously, templates enable more succinct designs and more efficient code. Templates also help with code maintenance. Designers can avoid creating objects that are the same in many respects, but not exactly the same. For example, FEL fields are templated by node type, thus the code for scalar fields and vector fields is shared. Furthermore, node type templating allows the library user to instantiate fields with data types not provided by the FEL

  10. Analysis and comparison between electric and magnetic power couplers for accelerators in Free Electron Lasers (FEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpico, C., E-mail: claudio.serpico@elettra.eu [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Grudiev, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Vescovo, R. [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-10-11

    Free-electron lasers represent a new and exciting class of coherent optical sources possessing broad wavelength tunability and excellent optical-beam quality. The FERMI seeded free-electron laser (FEL), located at the Elettra laboratory in Trieste, is driven by a 200 m long, S-band linac: the high energy part of the linac is equipped with 6 m long backward traveling wave (BTW) structures. The structures have small iris radius and a nose cone geometry which allows for high gradient operation. Development of new high-gradient, S-band accelerating structures for the replacement of the existing BTWs is under consideration. This paper investigates two possible solutions for the RF power couplers suitable for a linac driven FEL which require reduced wakefields effects, high operating gradient and very high reliability. The first part of the manuscript focuses on the reduction of residual field asymmetries, while in the second analyzes RF performances, the peak surface fields and the expected breakdown rate. In the conclusion, two solutions are compared and pros and cons are highlighted.

  11. Analysis and comparison between electric and magnetic power couplers for accelerators in Free Electron Lasers (FEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpico, C.; Grudiev, A.; Vescovo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Free-electron lasers represent a new and exciting class of coherent optical sources possessing broad wavelength tunability and excellent optical-beam quality. The FERMI seeded free-electron laser (FEL), located at the Elettra laboratory in Trieste, is driven by a 200 m long, S-band linac: the high energy part of the linac is equipped with 6 m long backward traveling wave (BTW) structures. The structures have small iris radius and a nose cone geometry which allows for high gradient operation. Development of new high-gradient, S-band accelerating structures for the replacement of the existing BTWs is under consideration. This paper investigates two possible solutions for the RF power couplers suitable for a linac driven FEL which require reduced wakefields effects, high operating gradient and very high reliability. The first part of the manuscript focuses on the reduction of residual field asymmetries, while in the second analyzes RF performances, the peak surface fields and the expected breakdown rate. In the conclusion, two solutions are compared and pros and cons are highlighted.

  12. FAST: a three-dimensional time-dependent FEL simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    In this report we briefly describe the three-dimensional, time-dependent FEL simulation code FAST. The equations of motion of the particles and Maxwell's equations are solved simultaneously taking into account the slippage effect. Radiation fields are calculated using an integral solution of Maxwell's equations. A special technique has been developed for fast calculations of the radiation field, drastically reducing the required CPU time. As a result, the developed code allows one to use a personal computer for time-dependent simulations. The code allows one to simulate the radiation from the electron bunch of any transverse and longitudinal bunch shape; to simulate simultaneously an external seed with superimposed noise in the electron beam; to take into account energy spread in the electron beam and the space charge fields; and to simulate a high-gain, high-efficiency FEL amplifier with a tapered undulator. It is important to note that there are no significant memory limitations in the developed code and an electron bunch of any length can be simulated

  13. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  14. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications

  15. Potentials and limitations of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulenburg, Hong Giang

    2012-11-01

    The major aim of study is the evaluation of the potentials and limitations of energy recovery from MSW in Vietnam through a comparative assessment of the climate change impacts (via CO2-eq.) among waste-to-energy (WtE) options in order to select the suitable technique for waste management. Recovered energy by these waste management options is assumed to replace the energy from fossil fuels-based sources, including three power possibilities. A survey on national legal and institutional framework for solid waste management was therefore undertaken to point out the strength and weakness and suggest the developing and improvement policies in this field. A view on economic benefit is also one important objective and it represented in terms of ''CO2- Avoidance Cost'' among different investment options. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out with regard to the optimum technical parameters and the change of energy mix in 2020-2030 in order to assess the variations of overall GHGs impacts in Vietnam. Due to waste composition, the energy mix and legal framework on solid waste management at national level are not robust, therefore the outcomes of this study do not aim to select the best waste management approach or to pose the Vietnamese waste managers or decision makers under pressure. Instead, it endeavors to indicate the potential of GHGs savings and the economic benefits that could be gained by introducing WtE practices. It also aims to suggest the improvement of national legal framework in solid waste management and energy development plan in order to transfer the technical knowledge and experience on WtE technology from developed countries to Vietnam.

  16. Nutritional Improvement and Energy Intake Are Associated with Functional Recovery in Patients after Cerebrovascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy expenditure in children with cerebral palsy and moderate / severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, Andrea A; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Ibarra-Gutierrez, Ana I; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and moderate or severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery. In an intervention study, thirteen subjects with CP (10 females and 3 males with a mean age of 9y11m ± 2y3m), level V of the Gross Motor Function Classification System and moderate or severe malnutrition were included. Eight were fed by nasogastric tube and five by gastrostomy. They were compared with 57 healthy participants (31 females and 26 males with mean age of 8y7m ± 10m). Anthropometric measurements, body composition and energy expenditure by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and indirect calorimetry (IC) were performed in both groups. TEE and REE were higher in healthy children than in children with CP in kcal/d and kcal/cm/d but were lower in kcal/kg/d (p children with CP produced a significant increase in energy expenditure. TEE and REE, in children with CP, are lower than in healthy children. Estimating the REE in children with CP and malnutrition is better performed in kcal/kg/d than in kcal/cm/d. Fat-free mass (FFM) is a good predictor of the REE in healthy children and children with CP. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  19. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  20. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  1. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  2. Safe Disposal of Medical and Plastic Waste and Energy Recovery Possibilities using Plasma Pyrolysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, S.K.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis and plasma gasification are emerging technologies that can provide complete solution to organic solid waste disposal. In these technologies plasma torch is used as a workhorse to convert electrical energy into heat energy. These technologies dispose the organic waste in an environment friendly manner. Thermal plasma provides extremely high temperature in oxygen free or controlled air environment which is required for pyrolysis or gasification reactions. Plasma based medical waste treatment is an extremely complex technology since it has to contend with extreme temperatures and corrosion-prone environment, complex pyro-chemistry resulting in toxic and dangerous products, if not controlled. In addition, one has to take care of complete combustion of pyrolyzed gases followed by efficient scrubbing to meet the emission standards set by US EPA and Central Pollution Control Board, India. In medical waste, high volume and low packing density waste with nonstandard composition consisting of a variety of plastics, organic material and liquids used to be present. The present paper describes the work carried out at Institute for Plasma Research, India, on plasma pyrolysis of (i) medical waste disposal and the results of emission measurement done at various locations in the system and (ii) energy recovery from cotton and plastic waste. The process and system development has been done in multiple steps. Different plasma pyrolysis models were made and each subsequent model was improved upon to meet stringent emission norms and to make the system energy efficient and user friendly. FCIPT, has successfully demonstrated up to 50 kg/ hr plasma pyrolysis systems and have installed plasma pyrolysis facilities at various locations in India . Plastic Waste disposal along with energy recovery in 15 kg/ hr model has also been developed and demonstrated at FCIPT. In future, this technology has great potential to dispose safely different waste streams such as biomass

  3. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management

  4. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  5. Cost-effective treatment of swine wastes through recovery of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Adib; Aponte-Morales, Veronica; Wang, Meng; Dilbeck, Merrill; Lahav, Ori; Zhang, Qiong; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Ergas, Sarina J

    2017-11-01

    Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K + ) as saleable fertilizers. The system uses in-vessel anaerobic digestion (AD) for methane production and solids stabilization, followed by struvite precipitation and ion exchange (IX) onto natural zeolites (chabazite or clinoptilolite) for nutrient recovery. An alternative approach that integrated struvite recovery and IX into a single reactor, termed STRIEX, was also investigated. Pilot- and bench-scale reactor experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each stage in the treatment train. Data from these studies were integrated into a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to assess the cost-effectiveness of various process alternatives. Significant improvement in water quality, high methane production, and high nutrient recovery (generally over 90%) were observed with both the AD-struvite-IX process and the AD-STRIEX process. The LCCA showed that the STRIEX system can provide considerable financial savings compared to conventional systems. AD, however, incurs high capital costs compared to conventional anaerobic lagoons and may require larger scales to become financially attractive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavity-mirror degradation in the deep-UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the degradation of dielectric multilayer mirrors used in short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) is caused by the carbon contamination on the mirror surface and the defects inside the dielectrics. We reported last year that the degraded dielectric multilayer mirrors can be repaired with both surface treatment by RF-induced oxygen plasma and thermal annealing. However, such a mirror degradation is still one of the most critical issues in the deep ultraviolet (UV) FELs, because the fundamental undulator radiation resonating in the laser cavity, the intensity of which is much higher than that of higher harmonics, can be sufficiently energetic to cause the mirror degradation through photochemical reactions. We are investigating the mirror degradation mainly in the deep UV region down to 240 nm. The experimental results will be shown. The mirror degradation mechanism will be discussed.

  7. A wiggler magnet for FEL low voltage operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shamma`a, A.; Stuart, R.A.; Lucas, J.

    1995-12-31

    In low voltage FELs (ie, 200kV), operation is necessarily in the microwave frequency range for wiggler periods of the order of cms., so that a waveguide system is mandatory. Also, because of the relatively low velocity of the electron beam, the wiggle amplitude of the electron beam can be much larger than is normal for highly relativistic FELs. Both these factors mean that the electron trajectory must be carefully controlled to avoid beam collision with the waveguide walls. A wiggler system with half poles at entrance and exit is not an acceptable solution because of the offset is gives rise to the electron trajectory. Consequently, we have designed and constructed a wiggler magnet with exponential entrance and exit tapers for a minimal deflection and displacement of the electron beam. Simulations and experimental measurements showed that an on axis trajectory is easily obtainable.

  8. Feedback Control Of Dynamical Instabilities In Classical Lasers And Fels

    CERN Document Server

    Bielawski, S; Szwaj, C

    2005-01-01

    Dynamical instabilities lead to unwanted full-scale power oscillations in many classical lasers and FEL oscillators. For a long time, applications requiring stable operation were typically performed by working outside the problematic parameter regions. A breakthrough occurred in the nineties [1], when emphasis was made on the practical importance of unstable states (stationary or periodic) that coexist with unwanted oscillatory states. Indeed, although not observable in usual experiments, unstable states can be stabilized, using a feedback control involving arbitrarily small perturbations of a parameter. This observation stimulated a set of works leading to successful suppression of dynamical instabilities (initially chaos) in lasers, sometimes with surprisingly simple feedback devices [2]. We will review a set of key results, including in particular the recent works on the stabilization of mode-locked lasers, and of the super-ACO, ELETTRA and UVSOR FELs [3].

  9. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  10. Help system for control of JAERI FEL (Free Electron laser)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    The control system of JAERI FEL (Free Electron Laser) has a help system to provide the information necessary to operate the machine and to develop the new user interface. As the control software is constructed on the MS-Windows 3.x, the hyper-text feature of the Windows help system can be accessed. It consists of three major parts: (1) on-line help, (2) full document, and (3) tutorial system. (author)

  11. Neutron dose rate at the SwissFEL injector test facility: first measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, E.; Frey, N.; Fuchs, A.; Harm, C.; Hoedlmoser, H.; Luescher, R.; Mayer, S.; Morath, O.; Philipp, R.; Rehmann, A.; Schietinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the new SwissFEL Free Electron Laser facility is currently in the design phase. It is foreseen to accelerate electrons up to a maximum energy of 7 GeV with a pulsed time structure. An injector test facility is operated at a maximum energy of 300 MeV and serves as the principal test and demonstration plant for the SwissFEL project. Secondary radiation is created in unavoidable interactions of the primary beam with beamline components. The resulting ambient dose-equivalent rate due to neutrons was measured along the beamline with different commercially available survey instruments. The present study compares the readings of these neutron detectors (one of them is specifically designed for measurements in pulsed fields). The experiments were carried out in both, a normal and a diagnostic mode of operation of the injector. Measurements were taken at the SwissFEL injector test facility using three different types of commercially available survey instruments for normal and diagnostic mode of operation at different positions inside the accelerator vault. During normal operation, the doses indicated by the different instruments agree within the measurement uncertainty except for the beam dump region. There, due to its limited energy range and high sensitivity, the LB6411 shows significantly lower dose values than the other instruments. The photon background in the vault associated with each pulse causes the scintillator used by the LB6419 to saturate. As a result, only the channel using the delayed 12 C(n,p)12-reaction could be used during the measurements. The highest doses per pulse were measured next to the beam dump and the bunch compressor. For the optimisation of the accelerator, luminescent screens can be inserted into the beam path causing a dose distributed over several metres depending on the screen type. The dose arise to 40 % from neutrons with energies of >20 MeV. Although the charge of each pulse were reduced to decrease

  12. Present and next steps of the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.J.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 0.3 kW FEL light and 100 kW or larger electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in 1999. The 1 kW class output as our present program goal will be achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 5 year program goal is the 100 kW class FEL light and a few tens MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual design options needed for such a very high power operation and shorter wavelength light sources will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the exciting facility. (author)

  13. Energy Recovery Hydropower: Prospects for Off-Setting Electricity Costs for Agricultural, Municipal, and Industrial Water Providers and Users; July 2017 - September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy; Telluride, CO (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Energy recovery hydropower is one of the most cost-effective types of new hydropower development because it is constructed utilizing existing infrastructure, and it is typically able to complete Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) review in 60 days. Recent changes in federal and state policy have supported energy recovery hydropower. In addition, some states have developed programs and policies to support energy recovery hydropower, including resource assessments, regulatory streamlining initiatives, and grant and loan programs to reduce project development costs. This report examines current federal and state policy drivers for energy recovery hydropower, reviews market trends, and looks ahead at future federal resource assessments and hydropower reform legislation.

  14. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M. [Vanderbilt Free-Electron-Laser Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  15. Mode distortion measurements on the Jefferson lab IR FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S V; Shinn, M

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported on the analytical calculations of mirror distortion in a high-power FEL with a near-concentric cavity. This analysis allowed us to estimate the power level at which the FEL interaction would be affected, though no exact theory of FEL power vs. distortion exists at this point. Recently we have directly measured the mode size and beam quality as a function of power using a resonator with a center wavelength of 5 mu m. The resonator mirrors were calcium fluoride. This particular material exhibits a large amount of distortion for a given power but, due to the negative slope of refractive index vs. temperature, adds almost no optical phase distortion on the laser output. The mode in the cavity can thus be directly calculated from the measurements at the resonator output. The presence of angular jitter produced raw measurements inconsistent with cold cavity expectations. Removing the effects of the angular jitter, we derive results in agreement with cold cavity measurements. The result i...

  16. An advanced UV optical cavity for the European FEL project

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, M W; Chesworth, A A; Clarke, J A; Fell, B; Hill, C; Marl, R; Mullacrane, I D; Reid, R J

    2000-01-01

    A European collaboration is constructing a short wavelength FEL for the ELETTRA storage ring. The optical cavity has been designed and constructed at Daresbury Laboratory for delivery to Sincrotrone Trieste in Autumn 1999, following commissioning tests over the Summer. Initial FEL operation will be at 350 nm but subsequently down to 200 nm or less and mirrors will be 40 mm diameter. The 32 m optical cavity is controllable to 0.01 mu rad in mirror pitch and yaw using digital piezo translators. A novel feature is the simultaneous presence of three remotely interchangeable mirrors to extend the tuning range and also to interchange damaged mirrors immediately. In addition, a transfer arm and load-lock arrangement will permit a mirror to be withdrawn from the chamber and replaced without disruption to the UHV system. The FEL is designed to operate at high power (1-10 W) and multi-watt spontaneous emission is also present: power loading has been investigated by FEA analysis and has necessitated specification of a w...

  17. First experimental data on the FEL - RF interaction at the Jefferson Lab IRFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Merminga; P. Alexeev; S.V. Benson; A. Bolshakov; L.R. Doolittle; D.R. Douglas; C. Hovater; G.R. Neil

    1999-01-01

    High power FELs driven by recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can exhibit instabilities in the beam energy and laser output power. Fluctuations in the accelerating cavity fields can cause beam loss on apertures, phase oscillations and optical cavity detuning. These can affect the laser power and in turn the beam-induced voltage to further enhance the fluctuations of the rf fields. A theoretical model was developed to study the dynamics of the coupled system and was presented last year. Recently, a first set of experimental data was obtained at the Jefferson Lab IRFEL for direct comparisons with the model. The authors describe the experiment, present the data together with the modeling predictions and outline future directions

  18. Analysis of the superconducting wiggler magnets for the ATF Harmonic Generation FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ingold, G.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the superconducting wiggler magnet under construction for the High Gain Harmonic Generation experiment (HGHG) at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL. This wiggler consists of an energy modulation section, a dispersion magnet and a radiator section. We present an analysis of the dispersion magnet and the end effects in the other wiggler sections. The purpose of the dispersion magnet is to convert energy modulation of the electron beam into spatial bunching. For the dispersion magnet, we discuss the physical requirements, analyze the magnetic design, determine the focusing properties, and consider the effect of departures from ideal behavior on the FEL gain. In the modulator and radiator wigglers we analyze the effects due to the ends of the wiggler and discuss their correction. In addition, the localized field produced by a trim coil for horizontal beam steering is investigated

  19. Feasibility of an XUV FEL Oscillator Driven by a SCRF Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Freund, H. P.; Reinsch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility is currently under construction at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Using a1-ms-long macropulse composed of up to 3000 micropulses, and with beam energies projected from 45 to 800 MeV, the possibility for an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) free-electron laser oscillator (FELO) with the higher energy is evaluated. We have used both GINGER with an oscillator module and the MEDUSA/OPC code to assess FELO saturation prospects at 120 nm, 40 nm, and 13.4 nm. The results support saturation at all of these wavelengths which are also shorter than the demonstrated shortest wavelength record of 176 nm from a storage-ring-based FELO. This indicates linac-driven FELOs can be extended into this XUV wavelength regime previously only reached with single-pass FEL configurations.

  20. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation on frosting of energy-recovery ventilator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Stephane; Mercadier, Yves; Brousseau, Patrick

    Frosting of energy-recovery ventilators results in two major problems: increase of pressure losses and reduction of heat transfer rates. Frost formation of heat and mass exchangers used in these ventilation systems is investigated both experimentally and numerically. A numerical model for the prediction of the thermal behavior of the exchanger is presented. The model is validated with experimental data and is then employed to conduct a parametric study. Results indicate that the absolute humidity is the prevailing parameter for characterizing the frosting phenomenon. A frost-mass-fraction chart is established in terms of the absolute humidity of the warm exhaust stream and of the temperature of the cold supply stream. The effect of time and mass flowrate is also evaluated. The transient three-dimensional model shows that the absolute humidity and the temperature of both air flows vary nonlinearly in the frosted zone.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Membrane-Based Dehumidification and Energy Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Qu, Ming [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a first-order physics-based model that accounts for the fundamental heat and mass transfer between a humid-air vapor stream on feed side to another flow stream on permeate side. The model comprises a few optional submodels for membrane mass transport; and it adopts a segment-by-segment method for discretizing heat and mass transfer governing equations for flow streams on feed and permeate sides. The model is able to simulate both dehumidifiers and energy recovery ventilators in parallel-flow, cross-flow, and counter-flow configurations. The predicted tresults are compared reasonably well with the measurements. The open-source codes are written in C++. The model and open-source codes are expected to become a fundament tool for the analysis of membrane-based dehumidification in the future.

  3. R'07 World Congress - Recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This final congress report summarises the topics dealt with at the R'07 World Congress on the recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency. The congress was held in 2007 in Davos, Switzerland. Details on the organisation and participants are given and the experts who held plenary lectures are listed. Brief details are given on oral and poster sessions, along with details on how the proceedings of the congress can be obtained. Workshops held at the conference covered the following topics: Plastics recycling, biofuels and E-waste, workshops on zero wastes, scarce metals and the identification and management of social implications over the product life cycle (footprint). An Internet-address where the results of the sessions can be obtained is given along with a summary of excursions and social events held within the framework of the congress. Finally, participant feedback is presented in graphical form.

  4. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  5. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between two braking control methods integrating energy recovery for a two-wheel front driven electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itani, Khaled; De Bernardinis, Alexandre; Khatir, Zoubir; Jammal, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between two braking methods for an EV maximizing the energy recovery. • Wheels slip ratio control based on robust sliding mode and ECE R13 control methods. • Regenerative braking control strategy. • Energy recovery of a HESS with respect to road surface type and road condition. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison between two braking methods for a two-wheel front driven Electric Vehicle maximizing the energy recovery on the Hybrid Energy Storage System. The first method consists in controlling the wheels slip ratio while braking using a robust sliding mode controller. The second method will be based on ECE R13H constraints for an M1 passenger vehicle. The vehicle model used for simulation is a simplified five degrees of freedom model. It is driven by two 30 kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) recovering energy during braking phases. Several simulation results for extreme braking conditions will be performed and compared on various road type surfaces using Matlab/Simulink®. For an initial speed of 80 km/h, simulation results demonstrate that the difference of energy recovery efficiency between the two control braking methods is beneficial to the ECE constraints control method and it can vary from 3.7% for high friction road type to 11.2% for medium friction road type. At low friction road type, the difference attains 6.6% due to different reasons treated in the paper. The stability deceleration is also discussed and detailed.

  7. Present status and future directions of the JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, EJ.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimori, M.; Sawamura, M.; Hajima, R.; Nagai, R.; Kikuzawa, N.; Nishimori, N.; Shizuma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 2.34kW FEL light and l00kW electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in February 2000. Twice larger output than the present program goal of 1kW was achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 2 years program goal is the 100kW class FEL light and a few MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual and engineering design options needed for such a very high power operation will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the existing facility. Finally, several applications, table-top superconducting rf linac based FELs, and an X-ray FEL R and D will be discussed as a next-five years program at JAERI-FEL laboratory. (author)

  8. UV-VUV FEL program at DUKE storage ring with OK-4 optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; Vinokurov, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    A 1 GeV electron storage ring dedicated for UV-VUV FEL operation is under construction at the Duke University Free Electron Laser Laboratory. The UV-VUV-FEL project, based on the collaboration of the Duke FEL Laboratory and Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics is described. The main parameters of the DFELL storage ring, of the OK-4 optical klystron, and the experimental set-up are presented. The parameters of UV-VUV FEL are given and the possible future upgrades to this system are discussed

  9. A linear programming approach for the optimal planning of a future energy system. Potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal solid wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Koroneos, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the mismatch between the energy supply levels and the end use, in a broader sense, was studied for the Hellenic energy system. The ultimate objective was to optimize the way to meet the country's energy needs in every different administrative and geographical region using...... renewable energy sources (RES) and at the same time to define the remaining available space for energy recovery units from municipal solid waste (MSW) in each region to participate in the energy system. Based on the results of the different scenarios examined for meeting the electricity needs using linear...

  10. Prospects for a soft x-ray FEL powered by a relativistic-klystron high-gradient accelerator (RK-HGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, H.D.; Barletta, W.A.; Yu, S.S.; Schlueter, R.; Deis, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present here the concept of x-ray FELs using high gain, single-pass amplifiers with electron beams accelerated in high gradient structures powered by relativistic klystrons. Other authors have also considered x-ray FELs; the unique aspect of this paper is the use of high gradient acceleration. One of the authors has previously presented preliminary studies on this concept. The intent in this paper is to display the results of a top level design study on a high gain FEL, to present its sensitivity to a variety of fabrication and tuning errors, to discuss several mechanisms for increasing gain yet more, and to present explicitly the output characteristics of such an FEL. The philosophy of the design study is to find a plausible operating point which employs existing or nearly existing state-of-the-art technologies while minimizing the accelerator and wiggler lengths. The notion is to distribute the technical risk as evenly as possible over the several technologies so that each must advance only slightly in order to make this design feasible. This study entailed no systematic investigation of possible costs so that, for example, the sole criterion for balancing the trade-off between beam energy and wiggler length is that the two components have comparable lengths. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  11. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  12. Analysis of an integrated packed bed thermal energy storage system for heat recovery in compressed air energy storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Zavattoni, Simone A.; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Barbato, Maurizio C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A packed bed TES system is proposed for heat recovery in CAES technology. •A CFD-based approach has been developed to evaluate the behaviour of the TES unit. •TES system enhancement and improvement alternatives are also demonstrated. •TES performance evaluated according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) represents a very attracting option to grid electric energy storage. Although this technology is mature and well established, its overall electricity-to-electricity cycle efficiency is lower with respect to other alternatives such as pumped hydroelectric energy storage. A meager heat management strategy in the CAES technology is among the main reasons of this gap of efficiency. In current CAES plants, during the compression stage, a large amount of thermal energy is produced and wasted. On the other hand, during the electricity generation stage, an extensive heat supply is required, currently provided by burning natural gas. In this work, the coupling of both CAES stages through a thermal energy storage (TES) unit is introduced as an effective solution to achieve a noticeable increase of the overall CAES cycle efficiency. In this frame, the thermal energy produced in the compression stage is stored in a TES unit for its subsequent deployment during the expansion stage, realizing an Adiabatic-CAES plant. The present study addresses the conceptual design of a TES system based on a packed bed of gravel to be integrated in an Adiabatic-CAES plant. With this objective, a complete thermo-fluid dynamics model has been developed, including the implications derived from the TES operating under variable-pressure conditions. The formulation and treatment of the high pressure conditions were found being particularly relevant issues. Finally, the model provided a detailed performance and efficiency analysis of the TES system under charge/discharge cyclic conditions including a realistic operative

  13. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  14. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining; remote communities lacking

  15. Demonstration of low emittance in the Cornell energy recovery linac injector prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of the six-dimensional phase space of the electron beam produced by the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector, a high-brightness, high repetition rate (1.3 GHz DC photoemission source designed to drive a hard x-ray energy recovery linac (ERL. A complete simulation model of the injector has been constructed, verified by measurement, and optimized. Both the horizontal and vertical 2D transverse phase spaces, as well as the time-resolved (sliced horizontal phase space, were simulated and directly measured at the end of the injector for 19 and 77 pC bunches at roughly 8 MeV. These bunch charges were chosen because they correspond to 25 and 100 mA average current if operating at the full 1.3 GHz repetition rate. The resulting 90% normalized transverse emittances for 19   (77  pC/bunch were 0.23±0.02 (0.51±0.04  μm in the horizontal plane, and 0.14±0.01 (0.29±0.02  μm in the vertical plane, respectively. These emittances were measured with a corresponding bunch length of 2.1±0.1 (3.0±0.2  ps, respectively. In each case the rms momentum spread was determined to be on the order of 10^{-3}. Excellent overall agreement between measurement and simulation has been demonstrated. Using the emittances and bunch length measured at 19  pC/bunch, we estimate the electron beam quality in a 1.3 GHz, 5 GeV hard x-ray ERL to be at least a factor of 20 times better than that of existing storage rings when the rms energy spread of each device is considered. These results represent a milestone for the field of high-brightness, high-current photoinjectors.

  16. Evaluation of two different alternatives of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Jimenez, Ana Carolina; Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios Bereche, Milagros Cecilia; Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities. A total of two configurations were evaluated: (i) waste incineration with energy recovery and electricity production in a steam cycle; and (ii) waste gasification, where the syngas produced is used as fuel in a boiler of a steam cycle for electricity production. Simulations were performed assuming the same amount of available waste for both configurations, with a composition corresponding to the MSW from Santo André, Brazil. The thermal efficiencies of the gasification and incineration configurations were 19.3% and 25.1%, respectively. The difference in the efficiencies was caused by the irreversibilities associated with the gasification process, and the additional electricity consumption in the waste treatment step. The economic analysis presented a cost of electrical energy produced of 0.113 (US$ kWh -1 ) and 0.139 (US$ kWh -1 ) for the incineration and gasification plants respectively.

  17. Design and Experimental Analysis of an Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fazlizan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT was positioned at the discharge outlet of a cooling tower electricity generator. To avoid a negative impact on the performance of the cooling tower and to optimize the turbine performance, the determination of the VAWT position in the discharge wind stream was conducted by experiment. The preferable VAWT position is where the higher wind velocity matches the positive torque area of the turbine rotation. With the proper matching among the VAWT configurations (blade number, airfoil type, operating tip-speed-ratio, etc. and exhaust air profile, the turbine system was not only able to recover the wasted kinetic energy, it also reduced the fan motor power consumption by 4.5% and increased the cooling tower intake air flow-rate by 11%. The VAWT had a free running rotational speed of 479 rpm, power coefficient of 10.6%, and tip-speed-ratio of 1.88. The double multiple stream tube theory was used to explain the VAWT behavior in the non-uniform wind stream. For the actual size of a cooling tower with a 2.4 m outlet diameter and powered by a 7.5 kW fan motor, it was estimated that a system with two VAWTs (side-by-side can generate 1 kW of power which is equivalent to 13% of energy recovery.

  18. Beam-dynamics driven design of the LHeC energy-recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario; Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel; Bogacz, S. Alex

    2015-12-01

    The LHeC is envisioned as a natural upgrade of the LHC that aims at delivering an electron beam for collisions with the existing hadronic beams. The current baseline design for the electron facility consists of a multipass superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) operating in a continuous wave mode. The unprecedently high energy of the multipass ERL combined with a stringent emittance dilution budget poses new challenges for the beam optics. Here, we investigate the performances of a novel arc architecture based on a flexible momentum compaction lattice that mitigates the effects of synchrotron radiation while containing the bunch lengthening. Extensive beam-dynamics investigations have been performed with placet2, a recently developed tracking code for recirculating machines. They include the first end-to-end tracking and a simulation of the machine operation with a continuous beam. This paper briefly describes the Conceptual Design Report lattice, with an emphasis on possible and proposed improvements that emerged from the beam-dynamics studies. The detector bypass section has been integrated in the lattice, and its design choices are presented here. The stable operation of the ERL with a current up to ˜150 mA in the linacs has been validated in the presence of single- and multibunch wakefields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects.

  19. Beam-dynamics driven design of the LHeC energy-recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pellegrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The LHeC is envisioned as a natural upgrade of the LHC that aims at delivering an electron beam for collisions with the existing hadronic beams. The current baseline design for the electron facility consists of a multipass superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL operating in a continuous wave mode. The unprecedently high energy of the multipass ERL combined with a stringent emittance dilution budget poses new challenges for the beam optics. Here, we investigate the performances of a novel arc architecture based on a flexible momentum compaction lattice that mitigates the effects of synchrotron radiation while containing the bunch lengthening. Extensive beam-dynamics investigations have been performed with placet2, a recently developed tracking code for recirculating machines. They include the first end-to-end tracking and a simulation of the machine operation with a continuous beam. This paper briefly describes the Conceptual Design Report lattice, with an emphasis on possible and proposed improvements that emerged from the beam-dynamics studies. The detector bypass section has been integrated in the lattice, and its design choices are presented here. The stable operation of the ERL with a current up to ∼150  mA in the linacs has been validated in the presence of single- and multibunch wakefields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects.

  20. New halo formation mechanism at the KEK compact energy recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Olga; Nakamura, Norio; Shimada, Miho; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ueda, Akira; Obina, Takashi; Takai, Ryota

    2018-02-01

    The beam halo mitigation is a very important challenge for reliable and safe operation of a high-energy machine. A systematic beam halo study was conducted at the KEK compact energy recovery linac (cERL) since non-negligible beam loss was observed in the recirculation loop during a common operation. We found that the beam loss can be avoided by making use of the collimation system. Beam halo measurements have demonstrated the presence of vertical beam halos at multiple locations in the beam line (except the region near the electron gun). Based on these observations, we made a conjecture that the transverse beam halo is attributed to the longitudinal bunch tail arising at the photocathode. The transfer of particles from the longitudinal space to a transverse halo may have been observed and studied in other machines, considering nonlinear effects as their causes. However, our study demonstrates a new unique halo formation mechanism, in which a transverse beam halo can be generated by a longitudinal bunch tail due to transverse rf kicks from the accelerating (monopole) fields of the radio-frequency cavities. This halo formation occurs when nonrelativistic particles enter the cavities with a transverse offset, even if neither nonlinear optics nor nonlinear beam effects are present. A careful realignment of the injector system will mitigate the present halo. Another possible cure is to reduce the bunch tails by changing the photocathode material from the present GaAs to a multi-alkali that is known to have a shorter longitudinal tail.