WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy rating methodology

  1. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  2. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  3. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough

  4. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  5. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  6. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  7. 18 CFR 342.4 - Other rate changing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other rate changing methodologies. 342.4 Section 342.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... regard to the applicable ceiling level under § 342.3. (b) Market-based rates. A carrier may attempt to...

  8. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  9. Methodology for gathering nuclear energy literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Maria B.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Several activities related to gathering information and documents -conventional and non-conventional primary literature - to include in a bibliographic nuclear energy database are described and arranged, using as model the communication and information process in science and technology and the analysis of the indexed documents in the database. Methodological steps are identified and a collecting system model is presented. 112 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center Benchmark Report: Framework and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report documents the CEMAC methodologies for developing and reporting annual global clean energy manufacturing benchmarks. The report reviews previously published manufacturing benchmark reports and foundational data, establishes a framework for benchmarking clean energy technologies, describes the CEMAC benchmark analysis methodologies, and describes the application of the methodologies to the manufacturing of four specific clean energy technologies.

  11. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  12. Energy reviews: the expense rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The threats against energy supplies push the prices of energy increasingly and lasting/ higher. Therefore it is important to establish the energy balance of an energy industry, which is more accurate than a too global financial balance. Life Cycle Analyses could be finely tuned using a method and tool suggested here: the T expense rate, the ratio between dissipated or spent energies, and extracted energy. T is a profitability indicator based on thermodynamics principles with 1 or 100 % as a theoretical limit. T is convenient too, because it can be broken down between the various steps or processes, and their D expenses. T also allows for a finely tuned analysis, to identify physical and technical parameters impacting the balance sheet. Uncertainties and arbitrary assumptions are explained, after having been boiled down to a minimum amount. A comparison between industries is thus possible for a given use (transportation, electrical production) depending on the form of energy extracted and the processes used. The energy balance is supplemented by the resource availability balance, different from the first one, even though availability may depend on it. (authors)

  13. The Impact of the Rating Agencies' Through-the-cycle Methodology on Rating Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.I.; Rijken, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys on the use of agency credit ratings reveal that some investors believe that credit-rating agencies are relatively slow in adjusting their ratings. A well-accepted explanation for this perception on rating timeliness is the through-the-cycle methodology that agencies use. Through-the-cycle

  14. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.; Muirhead, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  15. 42 CFR 413.196 - Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of changes in rate-setting... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.196 Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates. Link to an amendment...

  16. A methodology for the data energy regional consumption consistency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The article introduces a methodology for data energy regional consumption consistency analysis. The work was going based on recent studies accomplished by several cited authors and boarded Brazilian matrices and Brazilian energetics regional balances. The results are compared and analyzed

  17. Applying Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce cesarean section rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ze-Ying; Hu, Hua-Min; Ren, Xiu-Ling; Zeng, Bao-Jin; Zheng, Ling-Zhi; Qi, Feng

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to reduce cesarean section rate and increase rate of vaginal delivery. By using Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology, the cesarean section rate was investigated and analyzed through a 5-phase roadmap consisting of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The principal causes of cesarean section were identified, improvement measures were implemented, and the rate of cesarean section before and after intervention was compared. After patients with a valid medical reason for cesarean were excluded, the main causes of cesarean section were maternal request, labor pain, parturient women assessment, and labor observation. A series of measures was implemented, including an improved parturient women assessment system, strengthened pregnancy nutrition guidance, implementation of painless labor techniques, enhanced midwifery team building, and promotion of childbirth-assist skills. Ten months after introduction of the improvement measures, the cesarean section rate decreased from 41.83% to 32.00%, and the Six Sigma score (ie, Z value) increased from 1.706 to 1.967 (P < .001). LSS is an effective way to reduce the rate of cesarean section. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  19. Review of methodologies and polices for evaluation of energy efficiency in high energy-consuming industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The classification of the industrial energy efficiency index has been summarized. • The factors of energy efficiency and their implement in industries are discussed. • Four main evaluation methodologies of energy efficiency in industries are concluded. • Utilization of the methodologies in energy efficiency evaluations are illustrated. • Related polices and suggestions based on energy efficiency evaluations are provided. - Abstract: Energy efficiency of high energy-consuming industries plays a significant role in social sustainability, economic performance and environmental protection of any nation. In order to evaluate the energy efficiency and guide the sustainability development, various methodologies have been proposed for energy demand management and to measure the energy efficiency performance accurately in the past decades. A systematical review of these methodologies are conducted in the present paper. First, the classification of the industrial energy efficiency index has been summarized to track the previous application studies. The single measurement indicator and the composite index benchmarking are highly recognized as the modeling tools for power industries and policy-making in worldwide countries. They are the pivotal figures to convey the fundamental information in energy systems for improving the performance in fields such as economy, environment and technology. Second, the six factors that influence the energy efficiency in industry are discussed. Third, four major evaluation methodologies of energy efficiency are explained in detail, including stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment analysis, exergy analysis and benchmarking comparison. The basic models and the developments of these methodologies are introduced. The recent utilization of these methodologies in the energy efficiency evaluations are illustrated. Some drawbacks of these methodologies are also discussed. Other related methods or influential indicators

  20. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  1. Methodology for the economic optimisation of energy storage systems for frequency support in wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Lewis; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Corchero-García, Cristina; Cruz-Zambrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of energy storage system with wind power plant for frequency response. • Energy storage option considered could be economically viable. • For a 50 MW wind farm, an energy storage system of 5.3 MW and 3 MW h was found. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for the economic optimisation of the sizing of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) whilst enhancing the participation of Wind Power Plants (WPP) in network primary frequency control support. The methodology was designed flexibly, so it can be applied to different energy markets and to include different ESS technologies. The methodology includes the formulation and solving of a Linear Programming (LP) problem. The methodology was applied to the particular case of a 50 MW WPP, equipped with a Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRB) in the UK energy market. Analysis is performed considering real data on the UK regular energy market and the UK frequency response market. Data for wind power generation and energy storage costs are estimated from literature. Results suggest that, under certain assumptions, ESSs can be profitable for the operator of a WPP that is providing frequency response. The ESS provides power reserves such that the WPP can generate close to the maximum energy available. The solution of the optimisation problem establishes that an ESS with a power rating of 5.3 MW and energy capacity of about 3 MW h would be enough to provide such service whilst maximising the incomes for the WPP operator considering the regular and frequency regulation UK markets

  2. Energy index decomposition methodology at the plant level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumphai, Wisit

    Scope and method of study. The dissertation explores the use of a high level energy intensity index as a facility-level energy performance monitoring indicator with a goal of developing a methodology for an economically based energy performance monitoring system that incorporates production information. The performance measure closely monitors energy usage, production quantity, and product mix and determines the production efficiency as a part of an ongoing process that would enable facility managers to keep track of and, in the future, be able to predict when to perform a recommissioning process. The study focuses on the use of the index decomposition methodology and explored several high level (industry, sector, and country levels) energy utilization indexes, namely, Additive Log Mean Divisia, Multiplicative Log Mean Divisia, and Additive Refined Laspeyres. One level of index decomposition is performed. The indexes are decomposed into Intensity and Product mix effects. These indexes are tested on a flow shop brick manufacturing plant model in three different climates in the United States. The indexes obtained are analyzed by fitting an ARIMA model and testing for dependency between the two decomposed indexes. Findings and conclusions. The results concluded that the Additive Refined Laspeyres index decomposition methodology is suitable to use on a flow shop, non air conditioned production environment as an energy performance monitoring indicator. It is likely that this research can be further expanded in to predicting when to perform a recommissioning process.

  3. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale: A methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelow Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages. Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association

  4. INPRO Methodology to evaluate the Mexico nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz S, R. R.; Martin del C, C.

    2016-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has developed the so-called International Project on Fuel Cycles and Innovative Nuclear Reactors (INPRO), in order to make nuclear energy available to meet the energy needs of the 21 century, in a sustainable way. One of the tasks of the project is the evaluation of the nuclear systems, to check whether they meet the objectives of the project and whether they are sustainable. This paper explains the rationale and general characteristics of the project in the evaluation of nuclear energy systems based on the concept of sustainable development. It describes the methodology developed to carry out this evaluation, divided into seven areas, such as economic, environmental, security, etc., which together make up the sustainable development of energy through nuclear systems. The economic area is analyzed and the evaluation criteria and parameters established by INPRO are discussed, in order to evaluate the Mexican nuclear energy system using Nest (software developed within the same project) as a tool to support the economic evaluation of nuclear systems. Based on the energy strategy proposed by the Energy Secretary of the Mexican Government which seeks to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the national electricity generation park, two types of reactor of currently available technology (A BWR and AP1000), were compared and these in turn with other alternative energy generation technologies, such as combined cycle, geothermal and wind plants. Also, the results of the application of the INPRO methodology are presented. Finally, the recommendations on actions that could lead the Mexican nuclear energy system towards sustainable development and conclusions on the application of the methodology to the Mexican case are mentioned. (Author)

  5. Energy indicators for sustainable development: Guidelines and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This publication is the product of an international initiative to define a set of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) and corresponding methodologies and guidelines. The successful completion of this work is the result of an intensive effort led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), Eurostat and the European Environment Agency (EEA). The thematic framework, guidelines, methodology sheets and energy indicators set out in this publication reflect the expertise of these various agencies, recognized worldwide as leaders in energy and environmental statistics and analysis. While each agency has an active indicator programme, one goal of this joint endeavour has been to provide users with a consensus by leading experts on definitions, guidelines and methodologies for the development and worldwide use of a single set of energy indicators. No set of energy indicators can be final and definitive. To be useful, indicators must evolve over time to fit country-specific conditions, priorities and capabilities. The purpose of this publication is to present one set of EISD for consideration and use, particularly at the national level, and to serve as a starting point in the development of a more comprehensive and universally accepted set of energy indicators relevant to sustainable development. It is hoped that countries will use the EISD to assess their energy systems and to track their progress towards nationally defined sustainable development goals and objectives. It is also hoped that users of the information presented in this publication will contribute to refinements of energy indicators for sustainable development by adding their own unique perspectives to what is presented herein

  6. Energy indicators for sustainable development: Guidelines and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication is the product of an international initiative to define a set of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) and corresponding methodologies and guidelines. The successful completion of this work is the result of an intensive effort led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), Eurostat and the European Environment Agency (EEA). The thematic framework, guidelines, methodology sheets and energy indicators set out in this publication reflect the expertise of these various agencies, recognized worldwide as leaders in energy and environmental statistics and analysis. While each agency has an active indicator programme, one goal of this joint endeavour has been to provide users with a consensus by leading experts on definitions, guidelines and methodologies for the development and worldwide use of a single set of energy indicators. No set of energy indicators can be final and definitive. To be useful, indicators must evolve over time to fit country-specific conditions, priorities and capabilities. The purpose of this publication is to present one set of EISD for consideration and use, particularly at the national level, and to serve as a starting point in the development of a more comprehensive and universally accepted set of energy indicators relevant to sustainable development. It is hoped that countries will use the EISD to assess their energy systems and to track their progress towards nationally defined sustainable development goals and objectives. It is also hoped that users of the information presented in this publication will contribute to refinements of energy indicators for sustainable development by adding their own unique perspectives to what is presented herein

  7. Energy retrofit of commercial buildings. Case study and applied methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aste, N.; Del Pero, C. [Department of Building Environment Science and Technology (BEST), Politecnico di Milano, Via Bonardi 3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Commercial buildings are responsible for a significant share of the energy requirements of European Union countries. Related consumptions due to heating, cooling, and lighting appear, in most cases, very high and expensive. Since the real estate is renewed with a very small percentage each year and current trends suggest reusing the old structures, strategies for improving energy efficiency and sustainability should focus not only on new buildings, but also and especially on existing ones. Architectural renovation of existing buildings could provide an opportunity to enhance their energy efficiency, by working on the improvement of envelopes and energy supply systems. It has also to be noted that the measures aimed to improve the energy performance of buildings should pay particular attention to the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. In general, there is a lack of well-established methods for retrofitting, but if a case study achieves effective results, the adopted strategies and methodologies can be successfully replicated for similar kinds of buildings. In this paper, an iterative methodology for energy retrofit of commercial buildings is presented, together with a specific application on an existing office building. The case study is particularly significant as it is placed in an urban climatic context characterized by cold winters and hot summers; consequently, HVAC energy consumption is considerable throughout the year. The analysis and simulations of energy performance before and after the intervention, along with measured data on real energy performance, demonstrate the validity of the applied approach. The specifically developed design and refurbishment methodology, presented in this work, could be also assumed as a reference in similar operations.

  8. EnergiTools. A methodology for performance monitoring and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancion, P.; Bastien, R.; Ringdahl, K.

    2000-01-01

    EnergiTools is a performance monitoring and diagnostic tool that combines the power of on-line process data acquisition with advanced diagnosis methodologies. Analytical models based on thermodynamic principles are combined with neural networks to validate sensor data and to estimate missing or faulty measurements. Advanced diagnostic technologies are then applied to point out potential faults and areas to be investigated further. The diagnosis methodologies are based on Bayesian belief networks. Expert knowledge is captured in the form of the fault-symptom relationships and includes historical information as the likelihood of faults and symptoms. The methodology produces the likelihood of component failure root causes using the expert knowledge base. EnergiTools is used at Ringhals nuclear power plants. It has led to the diagnosis of various performance issues. Three case studies based on this plant data and model are presented and illustrate the diagnosis support methodologies implemented in EnergiTools . In the first case, the analytical data qualification technique points out several faulty measurements. The application of a neural network for the estimation of the nuclear reactor power by interpreting several plant indicators is then illustrated. The use of the Bayesian belief networks is finally described. (author)

  9. Methodology of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrat, W.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents issues of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market. Results of research presented in the paper are mainly proposing a concept of a methodology which allows the evaluation of investment processes in regional power markets at the decision-making stage. In this respect, selecting a rational investment strategy is an important stage of the entire investment process. In view of criteria of various nature, the construction of a methodology of investment effectiveness bears an especially important meaning for a local decision-maker or investor. It is of particular significance to countries that are undergoing a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. (orig.)

  10. INFORMATION-ENERGY METHODOLOGY OF THE AIRCRAFT WITH ELECTRIC PROPULSION ENERGY COMPLEX DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vladimirovich Zhmurov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of aircraft development shows that from the point of view of sustainability and energy effi- ciency the most acceptable approach is the transition to all-electric aircraft (AEC. Electrification is aimed primarily on the aircraft most energy-intensive elements efficiency enhancing. Primarily these are power plant and air conditioning system. The actual problem discussed in this article is the development of methodology for the design of aircraft power complex with electric propulsion. The electric power plant literally extends the concept of aircraft power complex. The article con- siders two-level energy-informational design technology of the aircraft power complex. On the energetic level, the energy flows are optimized, and on the information level, the control laws that ensure restrictions compliance and loss minimiza- tion for a given level of entire system reliability are synthesized. From the point of view of sustainability and energy effi- ciency, the most acceptable is the transition to AEC. The proposed information-energy technique provides an opportunity to develop electric and hybrid aircraft with optimal weight and size and energy characteristics due to: electricity consump- tion timeline optimization through the redistribution of electric end users switch on moments, which provides a more uni- form power mode, allowing the same set of electric users to reduce generator rated power, and as a result reduce the flight weight; manage a distributed system of electricity generation that provides the ability to use diverse energy sources; faul tsafety management based on rapid changes in the power network topology; energy recovery control; the sources, convert- ers and users (input circuit and power network real-time diagnostic operations.

  11. Department of Energy's process waste assessment graded approach methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.E.

    1994-03-01

    As the initial phase of the formal waste minimization program, the Department of Energy requires assessments of all its waste-generating operations. These assessments, called process waste assessments (PWAs), are a tool which helps achieve the pollution prevention goals. The DOE complex is comprised of numerous sites located in many different states. The facilities as a whole represent a tremendous diversity of technologies, processes, and activities. Due to this diversity, there are also a wide variety and number of waste streams generated. Many of these waste streams are small, intermittent, and not of consistent composition. The PWA graded approach methodology addresses these complexities and recognizes that processes vary in the quantity of pollution they generate, as well as in the perceived risk and associated hazards. Therefore, the graded approach was developed to provide a cost-effective and flexible methodology which allows individual sites to prioritize their local concerns and align their efforts with the resources allocated. This presentation will describe a project sponsored by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Waste Minimization Division, which developed a graded approach methodology for use throughout the DOE. This methodology was initiated in FY93 through a combined effort of the following DOE/Defense Program sites: Kansas City Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories. This presentation will describe the process waste assessment tool, benefits achieved through the completion of PWAs, DOE's graded approach methodology, and an update on the project's current status

  12. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  13. The Methodology of Management for Long Term Energy Efficiency Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebergs, V.; Kehris, O.; Savickis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2010-01-01

    The paper has shown that the Member States of the European Union (EU) do what they can in order to accelerate the raising of energy efficiency (EE). In each EU Member State investigations are conducted in the planning and management methods with a view to achieve faster and greater EE gains. In Latvia, which imports almost 70% of the total energy resources consumed, saving of each 'toe' is of great importance. Adaptation of the general policy assessment methodology is being studied for planning and management of the EE process. 12 EE management methods have been analysed and recommendations worked out for the introduction of several most topical methods.(author).

  14. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SEGMENTATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the World has shown increased concern for climate change and energy security. The emergence of these issues has pushed many nations to pursue the development of clean domestic electricity production via renewable energy (RE technologies. However, RE also comes with a higher production and investment cost, compared to most conventional fossil fuel based technologies. In order to analyse exactly how Romanian electricity consumers feel about the advantages and the disadvantages of RE, we have decided to perform a comprehensive study, which will constitute the core of a doctoral thesis regarding the Romanian energy sector and household consumers’ willingness to pay for the positive attributes of RE. The current paper represents one step toward achieving the objectives of the above mentioned research, specifically dealing with the issue of segmenting household energy consumers given the context of the Romanian energy sector. It is an argumentative literature review, which seeks to critically assess the methodology used for customer segmentation in general and for household energy users in particular. Building on the experience of previous studies, the paper aims to determine the most adequate segmentation procedure given the context and the objectives of the overall doctoral research. After assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, a psychographic segmentation of household consumers based on general life practices is chosen, mainly because it provides more insights into consumers compared to traditional socio-demographic segmentation by focusing on lifestyles and not external characteristics, but it is also realistically implementable compared to more complex procedures such as the standard AIO. However, the life practice scale developed by Axsen et al. (2012 will need to be properly adapted to the specific objectives of the study and to the context of the Romanian energy sector. All modifications

  15. A methodology for energy performance classification of residential building stock of Hamirpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, there are various codes, standards, guidelines and rating systems launched to make energy intensive and large sized buildings energy efficient whereas independent residential buildings are not covered even though they exist most in numbers of total housing stock. This paper presents a case study methodology for energy performance assessment of existing residential stock of Hamirpur that can be used to develop suitable energy efficiency regulations. The paper discusses the trend of residential development in Hamirpur followed by classification based on usage, condition, predominant material use, ownership size and number of rooms, source of lighting, assets available, number of storey and plot sizes using primary and secondary data. It results in identification of predominant materials used and other characteristics in each of urban and rural area. Further cradle to site embodied energy index of various dominant building materials and their market available alternative materials is calculated from secondary literature and by calculating transportation energy. One representative existing building is selected in each of urban and rural area and their energy performance is evaluated for material embodied energy and operational energy using simulation. Further alternatives are developed based on other dominant materials in each area and evaluated for change in embodied and operational energy. This paper identifies the energy performance of representative houses for both areas and in no way advocates the preference of one type over another. The paper demonstrates a methodology by which energy performance assessment of houses shall be done and also highlights further research.

  16. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  17. A proposed quantitative credit-rating methodology for South African provincial departments

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Fourie; Tanja Verster; Gary Wayne van Vuuren

    2016-01-01

    The development of subnational credit-rating methodologies affords benefits for subnationals, the sovereign and its citizens. Trusted credit ratings facilitate access to financial markets and above-average ratings allow for the negotiation of better collateral and guarantee agreements, as well as for funding of, for example, infrastructure projects at superior (lower) interest rates. This paper develops the quantitative section of a credit-rating methodology for South African subnationals. Th...

  18. 42 CFR 413.312 - Methodology for calculating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Determined Payment Rates for Low-Volume Skilled Nursing Facilities, for Cost Reporting Periods Beginning... routine service cost limits; (ii) A wage index to adjust for area wage differences; and (iii) The most... of rates published in the Federal Register under the authority of § 413.320, CMS announces the wage...

  19. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  20. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  1. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  2. Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Nascimento, T.S.; Yamazaki, I.M.; Dias, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35 S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ► 35 S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ► Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. ► Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35 S activity in the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system

  3. Discount rates for social cost benefit analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question that this paper addresses is how decisions affecting many citizens should be made when there are uncertain outcomes in the distant future. By distant is meant beyond the lifetimes of individuals alive now. Thus the proposed methodology would apply to many decisions in nuclear energy from the investment in new energy sources such as fusion, to the long-term storage of wastes. Decisions of this type have usually been analyzed using cost benefit analysis. In this case, future outcomes are discounted at the so-called social discount rate. By comparison, the proposed methodology uses information on individual citizen's preferences and willingness to pay to make a future generation better off. The connection between the proposed approach and more traditional discounting techniques is examined using the government decision about storing helium for the future as an example

  4. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  5. Water-energy-food nexus: concepts, questions and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Chen, X.; Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The term of water-energy -food nexus has gained increasing attention in the research and policy making communities as the security of water, energy and food becomes severe under changing environment. Ignorance of their closely interlinkages accompanied by their availability and service may result in unforeseeable, adverse consequences. This paper comprehensively reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of water-energy-food, with a focus on concepts, research questions and methodologies. First, two types of nexus definition are compared and discussed to understand the essence of nexus research issues. Then, three kinds of nexus research questions are presented, including internal relationship analysis, external impact analysis, and evaluation of the nexus system. Five nexus modelling approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages and application, with an aim to identify research gaps in current nexus methods. Finally, future research areas and challenges are discussed, including system boundary, data uncertainty and modelling, underlying mechanism of nexus issues and system performance evaluation. This study helps bring research efforts together to address the challenging questions in the nexus and develop the consensus on building resilient water, energy and food systems.

  6. Specification of Energy Assessment Methodologies to Satisfy ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Harish

    Energy management has become more crucial for industrial sector as a way to lower their cost of production and in reducing their carbon footprint. Environmental regulations also force the industrial sector to increase the efficiency of their energy usage. Hence industrial sector started relying on energy management consultancies for improvements in energy efficiency. With the development of ISO 50001 standard, the entire energy management took a new dimension involving top level management and getting their commitment on energy efficiency. One of the key requirements of ISO 50001 is to demonstrate continual improvement in their (industry) energy efficiency. The major aim of this work is to develop an energy assessment methodology and reporting format to tailor the needs of ISO 50001. The developed methodology integrates the energy reduction aspect of an energy assessment with the requirements of sections 4.4.3 (Energy Review) to 4.4.6 (Objectives, Targets and Action Plans) in ISO 50001 and thus helping the facilities in easy implementation of ISO 50001.

  7. Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O'Neal, B.R.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h -1 (1 rad d -1 ). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h -1 to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h -1 will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted

  8. Complexity, rate of energy exchanges and stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casartelli, M.; Sello, S.

    1987-01-01

    The complexity of trajectories in the phase of anharmonic crystal (mostly a Lennard-Jones chain) is analysed by the variance of microcanonical density and by new parameters P and chi defined, respectively, as the mean value of the time averages and the relative variance of the absolute exchange rate of energies among the normal modes. Evidence is given to the trapping action of residual invariant surfaces in low stochastic regime of motion. The parameter chi, moreover, proves efficient in exploring the border of stochasticity. A simple power law for P vs. the specific energy is obtained and proved to be independent of stochasticity and of the type of anharmonic potential

  9. Institutions in European and Asian energy markets: A methodological overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a methodological framework to study institutions in European and Asian energy markets with a comparative case study on the EU and east Asia. A distinction is made between informal and three types of formal institutions; and their transaction cost reducing, order creating and ecological/climatic functions. The operation of energy markets is explained through the structure of institutions, their types and functions. It is found that order-creating institutions guarantee enough stability, (mutual) trust and solidarity among EU Member States to support the competitive markets institution and supranational formal institutions as the underpinnings of trade in the internal energy market, which nevertheless retains some corporatist features. In the east Asian markets the nature of order-creating institutions sovereignty, energy diplomacy and great power management prevents the emergence of supranational formal institutions and a shared idea of trade. The prevailing structure has a large number of sub-regional organisations with overlapping tasks and few powers. In both markets the functions of institutions signify more than their number; transaction cost reducing institutions are dependent on order-creating institutions, while both of these functions are better realised on the regional level than ecological/climatic functions; ultimately informal institutions are most influential. - Highlights: • Institutions include informal types and three formal types. • The functions of institutions relate to transaction costs, order and ecology. • Transaction cost reduction depends on order creating institutions. • Ecological functions are the most difficult to realise regionally. • Informal institutions are most influential in the EU and east Asian markets

  10. Two methodological perspectives on the Energy East Pipeline conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Amanda; Obeidi, Amer; Hipel, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary approaches for identifying potential resolutions to a conflict are applied to a pipeline dispute in Canada to gain a range of valuable strategic insights as to how it can be resolved. More specifically, the controversy over the Energy East Pipeline for shipping bitumen from the Alberta oil sands for refining in Central and Eastern Canada as well as shipping overseas is investigated using the usual definitions for stability as well as the metarational tree methodology in which policies can be taken into account. As demonstrated by the case study, enhanced strategic insights can be garnered when the metarational tree approach is utilised for exploring conflict resolution within the confines of existing policy. The metarational tree procedure constitutes a useful expansion of the overall Graph Model for Conflict Resolution set of techniques for formally investigating real world disputes. - Highlights: •Application of generalised metarationalities to the Energy East Pipeline conflict. •Comparison and contrasting of generalised metarationalities and the graph model. •Generalised metarationalities are useful for conflicts’ spanning long periods of time. •Generalised metarationalities use policies which may circumvent player preferences.

  11. Postal auditing methodology used to find out the performance of high rate brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Campa, R.

    1998-01-01

    This work describes results from a methodology implemented at the Secondary Laboratory for Dosimetric Calibration at CPHR used to check the brachytherapy performance at high doses rate using Cesium 137 or cobalt 60 sources

  12. The significance of some methodological effects on filtration and ingestion rates of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, H. J.; Anger, K.

    1982-06-01

    Filtration rate (F) and ingestion rate (I) were measured in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis feeding on the flagellate Dunaliella spec. and on yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 60-min experiments in rotating bottles served as a standard for testing methodological effects on levels of F and I. A lack of rotation reduced F values by 40 %, and a rise in temperature from 18° to 23.5 °C increased them by 42 %. Ingestion rates increased significantly up to a particle (yeast) concentration of ca. 600-800 cells · μl-1; then they remained constant, whereas filtration rates decreased beyond this threshold. Rotifer density (up to 1000 ind · ml-1) and previous starvation (up to 40 h) did not significantly influence food uptake rates. The duration of the experiment proved to have the most significant effect on F and I values: in 240-min experiments, these values were on the average more than 90 % lower than in 15-min experiments. From this finding it is concluded that ingestion rates obtained from short-term experiments (60 min or less) cannot be used in energy budgets, because they severely overestimate the actual long-term feeding capacity of the rotifers. At the lower end of the particle size spectrum (2 to 3 µm) there are not only food cells, but apparently also contaminating faecal particles. Their number increased with increasing duration of experiments and lead to an underestimation of F and I. Elemental analyses of rotifers and their food suggest that B. plicatilis can ingest up to 0.6 mJ or ca. 14 % of its own body carbon within 15 min. The long term average was estimated as 3.4 mJ · ind-1 · d-1 or ca. 75 % of body carbon · d-1.

  13. A proposed quantitative credit-rating methodology for South African provincial departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Fourie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of subnational credit-rating methodologies affords benefits for subnationals, the sovereign and its citizens. Trusted credit ratings facilitate access to financial markets and above-average ratings allow for the negotiation of better collateral and guarantee agreements, as well as for funding of, for example, infrastructure projects at superior (lower interest rates. This paper develops the quantitative section of a credit-rating methodology for South African subnationals. The unique characteristics of South African data, their assembly, and the selection of dependent and independent variables for the linear-regression model chosen, are discussed. The methodology is then applied to the provincial Department of Health using linear regression modelling.

  14. A methodology for the parametric modelling of the flow coefficients and flow rate in hydraulic valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés, José R.; Rodríguez, José M.; Saumell, Javier; Pütz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a methodology for the parametric modelling of flow in hydraulic valves. • We characterize the flow coefficients with a generic function with two parameters. • The parameters are derived from CFD simulations of the generic geometry. • We apply the methodology to two cases from the automotive brake industry. • We validate by comparing with CFD results varying the original dimensions. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the parametric modelling of the flow rate in hydraulic valve systems. This methodology is based on the derivation, from CFD simulations, of the flow coefficient of the critical restrictions as a function of the Reynolds number, using a generalized square root function with two parameters. The methodology is then demonstrated by applying it to two completely different hydraulic systems: a brake master cylinder and an ABS valve. This type of parametric valve models facilitates their implementation in dynamic simulation models of complex hydraulic systems

  15. Energy Level Composite Curves-a new graphical methodology for the integration of energy intensive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Abbas, Own Syed; Gundersen, Truls

    2006-01-01

    Pinch Analysis, Exergy Analysis and Optimization have all been used independently or in combination for the energy integration of process plants. In order to address the issue of energy integration, taking into account composition and pressure effects, the concept of energy level as proposed by [X. Feng, X.X. Zhu, Combining pinch and exergy analysis for process modifications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 17 (1997) 249] has been modified and expanded in this work. We have developed a strategy for energy integration that uses process simulation tools to define the interaction between the various subsystems in the plant and a graphical technique to help the engineer interpret the results of the simulation with physical insights that point towards exploring possible integration schemes to increase energy efficiency. The proposed graphical representation of energy levels of processes is very similar to the Composite Curves of Pinch Analysis-the interpretation of the Energy Level Composite Curves reduces to the Pinch Analysis case when dealing with heat transfer. Other similarities and differences are detailed in this work. Energy integration of a methanol plant is taken as a case study to test the efficacy of this methodology. Potential integration schemes are identified that would have been difficult to visualize without the help of the new graphical representation

  16. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  17. How to count and assess different energies, in particular renewable energies: methodological reflections and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concepts of primary energy and of final energy, as well as their relationships which are conventionally adopted at the international level, the author shows that these concepts are not suitable to the assessment of economic and energetic efficiency of energy systems, notably those comprising several transformations of an energy into another. He also shows that the methodology developed by the Academy of Technologies in its 'Vecteurs' report is perfectly adapted. This is illustrated by two examples: the main uses of biomass, and the use of peak productions of wind energy which is essentially intermittent. With this method, it is possible to identify the main factors which must be quantified when assessing the technical-economic relevance of such or such choice, notably thermodynamic efficiencies of each step, capitals to be invested and expectable load factors, or impact in terms of CO 2 emissions. Appendices proposes energetic statistics for France (energy assessment, consumption of primary energy), an assessment of methanization, and an analysis of wind energy production in Europe while taking its intermittency into account, for the production of hydrogen

  18. The surface-forming energy release rate versus the local energy release rate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Si; Wang, He-ling; Landis, Chad M; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies two ways to extract the energy (or power) flowing into a crack tip during propagation based on the power balance of areas enclosed by a stationary contour and a comoving contour. It is very interesting to find a contradiction that two corresponding energy release rates (ERRs), a surface-forming ERR and a local ERR, are different when stress singularity exists at a crack tip. Besides a rigorous mathematical interpretation, we deduce that the stress singularity leads to an...

  19. Covariance methodology applied to uncertainties in I-126 disintegration rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, K.A.; Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The covariance methodology applied to uncertainties in 126 I disintegration rate measurements is described. Two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The parameters involved in the determination of the disintegration rate in each experimental system present correlated components. In this case, the conventional statistical methods to determine the uncertainties (law of propagation) result in wrong values for the final uncertainty. Therefore, use of the methodology of the covariance matrix is necessary. The data from both systems were combined taking into account all possible correlations between the partial uncertainties. (orig.)

  20. Soft error rate analysis methodology of multi-Pulse-single-event transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Huo Mingxue; Xiao Liyi

    2012-01-01

    As transistor feature size scales down, soft errors in combinational logic because of high-energy particle radiation is gaining more and more concerns. In this paper, a combinational logic soft error analysis methodology considering multi-pulse-single-event transients (MPSETs) and re-convergence with multi transient pulses is proposed. In the proposed approach, the voltage pulse produced at the standard cell output is approximated by a triangle waveform, and characterized by three parameters: pulse width, the transition time of the first edge, and the transition time of the second edge. As for the pulse with the amplitude being smaller than the supply voltage, the edge extension technique is proposed. Moreover, an efficient electrical masking model comprehensively considering transition time, delay, width and amplitude is proposed, and an approach using the transition times of two edges and pulse width to compute the amplitude of pulse is proposed. Finally, our proposed firstly-independently-propagating-secondly-mutually-interacting (FIP-SMI) is used to deal with more practical re-convergence gate with multi transient pulses. As for MPSETs, a random generation model of MPSETs is exploratively proposed. Compared to the estimates obtained using circuit level simulations by HSpice, our proposed soft error rate analysis algorithm has 10% errors in SER estimation with speed up of 300 when the single-pulse-single-event transient (SPSET) is considered. We have also demonstrated the runtime and SER decrease with the increment of P0 using designs from the ISCAS-85 benchmarks. (authors)

  1. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of eternality in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalisation are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalisation such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals resulted obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the Extern E Methodology in the EU . Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalisation of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in te market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs

  2. Liability aspects of home energy-rating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Liability aspects of home energy rating systems are discussed. An introduction to the rating system concept, including types of rating systems, implementation efforts to date, and possible groups to conduct ratings, is also included. The home energy rating system concept involves the periodic rating of the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The rating can provide a relative indication of a home's energy efficiency and also a quantitative estimate of consumption, fuel cost, or both. Primary attention is given to liability issues associated with developing and performing ratings. Secondary attention is given to possible liability associated with misuse of a rating once it has been performed.

  3. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Site Identification and Ranking Methodology Part II: Tidal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Marine hydrokinetic energy is a promising and growing piece of the renewable energy sector that offers high predictability and additional energy sources for a diversified energy economy. This report investigates the market opportunities for tidal energy along the U.S. coastlines. It is part one of a two-part investigation into the United States' two largest marine hydrokinetic resources (wave and tidal). Tidal energy technology is still an emerging form of renewable energy for which large-scale grid-connected project costs are currently poorly defined. Ideally, device designers would like to know the resource conditions at economical project sites so they can optimize device designs. On the other hand, project developers need detailed device cost data to identify sites where projects are economical. That is, device design and siting are, to some extent, a coupled problem. This work describes a methodology for identifying likely deployment locations based on a set of criteria that tidal energy experts in industry, academia, and national laboratories agree are likely to be important factors for all technology types. Several factors that will affect tidal project costs and siting have not been considered here -- including permitting constraints, conflicting use, seasonal resource variability, extreme event likelihood, and distance to ports -- because consistent data are unavailable or technology-independent scoring could not be identified. As the industry continues to mature and converge around a subset of device archetypes with well-defined costs, more precise investigations of project siting that include these factors will be possible. For now, these results provide a high-level guide pointing to the regions where markets and resource will one day support commercial tidal energy projects.

  4. Ways of transition to clean energy use: two methodological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, L.S.; Kaganovich, B.M.; Krutov, A.N.; Filippov, S.P.; Martinsen, D.; Mueller, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Walbeck, M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the Siberian Energy Institute, Irkutsk, and the Nuclear Research Center, Juelich, carried out with the aid of complex computer models, demonstrate the opportunities of novel integrated energy systems in a future, clean energy supply. As conditions differ widely in different regions and different countries, there will of course be a wide structural variety in the realization of integrated energy systems. The studies of SEI and KFA, based on the cooperation with the International Institute of Applied System Analysis (IIASA), emphasize the common viewpoint that the idea of integrated energy systems constitutes an essential basis for future studies on 'energy in a finite environment'. (Author)

  5. Success Rates by Software Development Methodology in Information Technology Project Management: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerald P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite over half a century of Project Management research, project success rates are still too low. Organizations spend a tremendous amount of valuable resources on Information Technology projects and seek to maximize the utility gained from their efforts. The author investigated the impact of software development methodology choice on ten…

  6. The Reliability of Methodological Ratings for speechBITE Using the PEDro-P Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Power, Emma; Togher, Leanne; McCabe, Patricia; Munro, Natalie; Smith, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background: speechBITE (http://www.speechbite.com) is an online database established in order to help speech and language therapists gain faster access to relevant research that can used in clinical decision-making. In addition to containing more than 3000 journal references, the database also provides methodological ratings on the PEDro-P (an…

  7. Assessment of energy credits for the enhancement of the Egyptian Green Pyramid Rating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aleem, Shady H.E.; Zobaa, Ahmed F.; Abdel Mageed, Hala M.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important categories in the Green Building Rating Systems all over the world. Green Building is a building that meets the energy requirements of the present with low energy consumption and investment costs without infringing on the rights of forthcoming generations to find their own needs. Despite having more than a qualified rating system, it is clear that each system has different priorities and needs on the other. Accordingly, this paper proposes a methodology using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assessment of the energy credits through studying and comparing four of the common global rating systems, the British Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), the American Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the Australian Green Stars (GS), and the PEARL assessment system of the United Arab Emirates, in order to contribute to the enhancement of the Egyptian Green Pyramid Rating System (GPRS). The results show the mandatory and optional energy credits that should be considered with their proposed weights according to the present and future needs of green Egypt. The results are compared to data gathered through desk studies and results extracted from recent questionnaires. - Highlights: • The Egyptian rating system is underway but not on track. • The main objective is the enhancement of the Egyptian rating system. • We propose a methodology for assessment of the energy credits. • The results show the optional energy credits with their optimal weights. • The results show the mandatory energy credits that should be considered.

  8. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  9. GREEN LEAN METHODOLOGY: ENTERPRISE ENERGY MANAGEMENT FOR INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the usefulness of Lean Manufacturing techniques when approaching the environmental issues. Green Lean Methodology presentation in seven steps with afferent tools and techniques provides a practical framework. Green Lean Methodology follows the Deming’s cycle (PDCA and it aims to achieve the continuous incremental improvement. Increasing the resource use effectiveness is achieved not only by protecting natural resources, but also by increasing productivity. These environmental gains through productivity are possible by continuously reducing losses in transformation processes, by designing/redesigning products and services in order to prevent undesirable environmental effects, by designing the control procedures in the processing flows, by increasing the capital investment in more efficient technology, by continuously improving work performance, by changing the perceptions of senior managers and by a more efficient and effective research and innovation. Keywords

  10. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  11. The methodology of energy policy-making in economical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursina, B.

    1998-08-01

    Scrutiny and careful study in energy is a subject that in human science has been investigated from different point of view. The expansion of this research, because of its importance and effect in different dimensions of human life, has also arrived in the field of political and economic sciences. Economics evaluates the energy phenomenon at the side of elements such as labor, capital and technology in the production functions of firms. The nature of these discussions is mainly from the viewpoint of micro analyses. Nevertheless, the variation and challenges concerning energy and environment during the recent decades and the economists` detailed investigations in its analysis and evaluation have led to the arrival of energy discussions in a special shape in macro planning and large economic models. The paper compares various energy models - EFDM, MEDEE, MIDAS and HERMES. This extent of planning and consequently modelling which lacks a background in the processes of economic researches, deals with analysis of energy and economics reacting effects. Modelling of energy-economy interaction and energy policy in modeling macroeconomics large models are new ideas in energy studies and economics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Domestic energy management methodology for optimizing efficiency in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of domestic technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. These technologies on their own already improve the efficiency, but more can be

  13. Energy-saving methodology for material handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, P.A.; Makri, A.P.; Provatidis, C.G. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Design and Control Systems Division, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, GR-15773 Athens (Greece)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents an energy saving approach to the problem of order picking in warehousing environment, which is directly related to the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). While the available heuristic algorithms for the order-picking problem search for the route that minimizes the travel time, here the problem is addressed from the energy saving point of view. In a few words, the least energy-consuming route is identified in order to quantify the trade off in time and energy between the fastest route and the most energy economic one. Keeping in mind that often energy is as important as time, especially during a low-demand period, the current paper sheds some light into a two dimensional way of addressing the warehouse material handling problem, which saves time as well as energy. A very interesting finding is that a relatively small loss of service time in many cases may lead to a significant decrease of consumed energy without any additional cost. (author)

  14. Energy, water vapor and carbon fluxes in Andean agroecosystems: conceptualization and methodological standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela María Castaño Marín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the conceptualization, methodological adjustment and experimental application of the micrometeorological technique eddy covariance - EC, to measure energy, water vapor and CO2 fluxes in two coffee agroecosystems: the first under full sunlight, and the second under shade, both with equatorial Andean hillslope conditions. With a footprint and fetch calculation, the required distance from the edge of the field in the prevailing wind direction to the EC tower is three times higher under shade than full sun. The shaded agroecosystem reached maximum average carbon fixation rates of 21.26 ± 2.469 μmolCO2.m-2s-1 ( = 0.05 (61% higher than under 100% sunlight which gives a high carbon sink capacity to the association of coffee plants with shading Pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan L. The average evapotranspiration rate was 2.33 ± 0.0102 mm.d-1 ( = 0.05 and 2.08 ± 0.00732 mm.d-1 under shade and 100% sunlight, respectively. The proportion of net radiation that reached the soil was 2% under shade and 4% under 100% sunlight. Likewise, the soil energy loss during the night was lower under shade, indicating less day-night temperature range in the latter agroecosystem. The methodological adjustment and the results of this first work using EC in Colombian coffee plantations, contribute to the development of reliable research regarding gas and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and ecosystems in conditions of the equatorial Andean hillslope.

  15. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Site Identification and Ranking Methodology Part I: Wave Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Marine hydrokinetic energy is a promising and growing piece of the renewable energy sector that offers high predictability and additional energy sources for a diversified energy economy. This report investigates the market opportunities for wave energy along the U.S. coastlines. It is part one of a two-part investigation into the United State's two largest marine hydrokinetic resources (wave and tidal). Wave energy technology is still an emerging form of renewable energy for which large-scale, grid-connected project costs are currently poorly defined. Ideally, device designers would like to know the resource conditions at economical project sites so they can optimize device designs. On the other hand, project developers need detailed device cost data to identify sites where projects are economical. That is, device design and siting are, to some extent, a coupled problem. This work describes a methodology for identifying likely deployment locations based on a set of criteria that wave energy experts in industry, academia, and national laboratories agree are likely to be important factors for all technology types. This work groups the data for the six criteria into 'locales' that are defined as the smaller of either the local transmission grid or a state boundary. The former applies to U.S. islands (e.g., Hawaii, American Samoa) and rural villages (e.g., in Alaska); the latter applies to states in the contiguous United States. These data are then scored from 0 to 10 according to scoring functions that were developed with input from wave energy industry and academic experts. The scores are aggregated using a simple product method that includes a weighting factor for each criterion. This work presents two weighting scenarios: a long-term scenario that does not include energy price (weighted zero) and a near term scenario that includes energy price. The aggregated scores are then used to produce ranked lists of likely deployment locales. In both scenarios

  16. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  17. Supporting the Energy Transition: the Role of Low Interest Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Low interest rates tend to favor 'green technologies' competitiveness while also increasing their cost volatility. Our analysis of the impact of interest rates on green energy technologies costs points to three key conclusions: - A low interest rate environment makes green energy technologies more competitive. Hydroelectric power is less expensive than any other technology across the entire spectrum of interest rate levels that we analyzed in this paper. Wind on-shore is competitive with all other technologies up until interest rates of about 8%. - Green energy technologies' LCOEs react more significantly to a change in interest rates than the LCOEs of brown energy technologies, implying a greater volatility for green energy technologies' costs in response to interest rate volatility. A higher volatility is damaging because it brings more uncertainty in investment decisions. As a result, stable interest rates are more beneficial for green energy investments than for brown energy investments. - In order to increase the ratio of green to brown energy investments, we can consider a discount on the interest rates for the former or a premium on interest rates for the latter. Our estimations indicate that, because interest rate changes have a greater impact on the costs of green energy technologies, a discount on green investments' interest rates would be more efficient than a premium on brown investments' interest rates. (author)

  18. 78 FR 55245 - Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-0036] Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of... available to states to evaluate compliance with building energy codes and general approaches towards... building energy codes and general approaches towards compliance. The comment period ended on September 5...

  19. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) 2008 Pledges. Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bilello, Daniel E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cowlin, Shannon C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wise, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions resulting from more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy.

  20. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J; Watson, G M [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  1. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  2. Research on statistical methodology to investigate energy consumption in public buildings sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuqin; Li Nianping; Guan Jun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find a statistical methodology to investigate the national energy consumption in the public buildings sector in China, in order to look into the actuality of the national energy consumption of public buildings and to provide abundant data for building energy efficiency work. The frame of a national statistical system of energy consumption for public buildings is presented in this paper. The statistical index system of energy consumption is constituted, which refers to the general characteristics of public buildings, their possession and utilization of energy consumption equipment and their energy consumption quantities. Sequentially, a set of statistical report forms is designed to investigate the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country, respectively. On this base, the above statistical methodology is used to gather statistics of a public building for annual energy consumption

  3. Application of a Resilience Framework to Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    align to a disruption or an associated downtime impacting mission performance. Reliability metrics and models were also used throughout the study to...Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven A.S...Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven Group 73 A.S. Castillo TBD

  4. Identification of energy storage rate components. Theoretical and experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliferuk, W; Maj, M

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is decomposition of energy storage rate into terms related to different mode of deformation. The stored energy is the change in internal energy due to plastic deformation after specimen unloading. Hence, this energy describes the state of the cold-worked material. Whereas, the ratio of the stored energy increment to the appropriate increment of plastic work is the measure of energy conversion process. This ratio is called the energy storage rate. Experimental results show that the energy storage rate is dependent on plastic strain. This dependence is influenced by different microscopic deformation mechanisms. It has been shown that the energy storage rate can be presented as a sum of particular components. Each of them is related to the separate internal microscopic mechanism. Two of the components are identified. One of them is the storage rate of statistically stored dislocation energy related to uniform deformation. Another one is connected with non-uniform deformation at the grain level. It is the storage rate of the long range stresses energy and geometrically necessary dislocation energy. The maximum of energy storage rate, that appeared at initial stage of plastic deformation is discussed in terms of internal micro-stresses.

  5. Deciding the way. Comparing energy risks: methodologies and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Yoshio; Lee, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following major issues in comparative assessment of energy systems are discussed: target users; decision making process; subject policy-making; setting boundaries; aggregated health indicators; monetary valuation; long-term health effects; global warming; methods to reflect uncertainties. Suggestions for study approaches of the mentioned issues are proposed

  6. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    A high energy return on energy investment (EROI) of an energy production process is crucial to its long-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much higher than those of renewable energy life-cycles, and specifically of photovoltaics (PVs). We show that this is largely a misconception fostered by the use of outdated data and, often, a lack of consistency among calculation methods. We hereby present a thorough review of the methodology, discuss methodological variations and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel based electricity life-cycles. - Highlights: ► We perform a review of the EROI methodology. ► We provide new calculations for PV compared to oil- and coal-based energy systems. ► If compared consistently, PV sits squarely in the same range of EROI as conventional fossil fuel life cycles.

  7. Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Til, Harrison J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  8. Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System - Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stephane, de la Rue du Can [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The main objective of the development of BUENAS is to provide a global model with sufficient detail and accuracy for technical assessment of policy measures such as energy efficiency standards and labeling (EES&L) programs. In most countries where energy efficiency policies exist, the initial emphasis is on household appliances and lighting. Often, equipment used in commercial buildings, particularly heating, air conditioning and ventilation (HVAC) is also covered by EES&L programs. In the industrial sector, standards and labeling generally covers electric motors and distribution transformers, although a few more types of industrial equipment are covered by some programs, and there is a trend toward including more of them. In order to make a comprehensive estimate of the total potential impacts, development of the model prioritized coverage of as many end uses commonly targeted by EES&L programs as possible, for as many countries as possible.

  9. Methodology for the assessment of oxygen as an energy carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Wei

    Due to the energy intensity of the oxygen generating process, the electric power grid would benefit if the oxygen generating process was consumed electric power only during low demand periods. Thus, the question to be addressed in this study is whether oxygen production and/or usage can be modified to achieve energy storage and/or transmission objectives at lower cost. The specific benefit to grid would be a leveling, over time, of the demand profile and thus would require less installation capacity. In order to track the availability of electricity, a compressed air storage unit is installed between the cryogenic distillation section and the main air compressor of air separation unit. A profit maximizing scheme for sizing storage inventory and related equipments is developed. The optimum scheme is capable of market responsiveness. Profits of steel maker, oxy-combustion, and IGCC plants with storage facilities can be higher than those plants without storage facilities, especially, at high-price market. Price tracking feature of air storage integration will certainly increase profit margins of the plants. The integration may push oxy-combustion and integrated gasification combined cycle process into economic viability. Since oxygen is used in consumer sites, it may generate at remote locations and transport to the place needed. Energy losses and costs analysis of oxygen transportation is conducted for various applications. Energy consumptions of large capacity and long distance GOX and LOX pipelines are lower than small capacity pipelines. However, transportation losses and costs of GOX and LOX pipelines are still higher than electricity transmission.

  10. Nutrients interaction investigation to improve Monascus purpureus FTC5391 growth rate using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Two vital factors, certain environmental conditions and nutrients as a source of energy are entailed for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulation of nutritional requirement is the simplest and most effectual strategy to stimulate and enhance the activity of microorganisms. Methodology and Results: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were employed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen sources in order to improve growth rate of Monascus purpureus FTC5391,a new local isolate. The best models for optimization of growth rate were a multilayer full feed-forward incremental back propagation network, and a modified response surface model using backward elimination. The optimum condition for cell mass production was: sucrose 2.5%, yeast extract 0.045%, casamino acid 0.275%, sodium nitrate 0.48%, potato starch 0.045%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.57%. The experimental cell mass production using this optimal condition was 21 mg/plate/12days, which was 2.2-fold higher than the standard condition (sucrose 5%, yeast extract 0.15%, casamino acid 0.25%, sodium nitrate 0.3%, potato starch 0.2%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of RSM and ANN showed that all carbon and nitrogen sources tested had significant effect on growth rate (P-value < 0.05. In addition the use of RSM and ANN alongside each other provided a proper growth prediction model.

  11. Methodology for attainment of density and effective atomic number through dual energy technique using microtomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, H.; Lima, I.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Dual energy technique for computerized microtomography shows itself as a promising method for identification of mineralogy on geological samples of heterogeneous composition. It can also assist with differentiating very similar objects regarding the attenuation coefficient, which are usually not separable during image processing and analysis of microtomographic data. Therefore, the development of a feasible and applicable methodology of dual energy in the analysis of microtomographic images was sought. - Highlights: • Dual energy technique is promising for identification of distribution of minerals. • A feasible methodology of dual energy in analysis of tomographic images was sought. • The dual energy technique is efficient for density and atomic number identification. • Simulation showed that the proposed methodology agrees with theoretical data. • Nondestructive characterization of distribution of density and chemical composition

  12. 49 CFR 1109.4 - Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered... § 1109.4 Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology. (a) A... methodology must engage in non-binding mediation of its dispute with the railroad upon filing a formal...

  13. Improving inferior vena cava filter retrieval rates with the define, measure, analyze, improve, control methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Patrick D; Reis, Stephen P; McKune, Angie; Ravanzo, Maria; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Pillai, Anil K

    2015-04-01

    To design a sustainable process to improve optional inferior vena cava (IVC) filter retrieval rates based on the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) methodology of the Six Sigma process improvement paradigm. DMAIC, an acronym for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control, was employed to design and implement a quality improvement project to increase IVC filter retrieval rates at a tertiary academic hospital. Retrievable IVC filters were placed in 139 patients over a 2-year period. The baseline IVC filter retrieval rate (n = 51) was reviewed through a retrospective analysis, and two strategies were devised to improve the filter retrieval rate: (a) mailing of letters to clinicians and patients for patients who had filters placed within 8 months of implementation of the project (n = 43) and (b) a prospective automated scheduling of a clinic visit at 4 weeks after filter placement for all new patients (n = 45). The effectiveness of these strategies was assessed by measuring the filter retrieval rates and estimated increase in revenue to interventional radiology. IVC filter retrieval rates increased from a baseline of 8% to 40% with the mailing of letters and to 52% with the automated scheduling of a clinic visit 4 weeks after IVC filter placement. The estimated revenue per 100 IVC filters placed increased from $2,249 to $10,518 with the mailing of letters and to $17,022 with the automated scheduling of a clinic visit. Using the DMAIC methodology, a simple and sustainable quality improvement intervention was devised that markedly improved IVC filter retrieval rates in eligible patients. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  15. Effects of various methodologic strategies: survey response rates among Canadian physicians and physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava-Gubins, Inese; Scott, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    To increase the overall 2007 response rate of the National Physician Survey (NPS) from the survey's 2004 rate of response with the implementation of various methodologic strategies. Physicians were stratified to receive either a long version (12 pages) or a short version (6 pages) of the survey (38% and 62%, respectively). Mixed modes of contact were used-58% were contacted by e-mail and 42% by regular mail-with multiple modes of contact attempted for nonrespondents. The self-administered, confidential surveys were distributed in either English or French. Medical residents and students received e-mail surveys only and were offered a substantial monetary lottery incentive for completing their surveys. A professional communications firm assisted in marketing the survey and delivered advance notification of its impending distribution. Canada. A total of 62 441 practising physicians, 2627 second-year medical residents, and 9162 medical students in Canada. Of the practising physicians group, 60 811 participants were eligible and 19 239 replied, for an overall 2007 study response rate of 31.64% (compared with 35.85% in 2004). No difference in rate of response was found between the longer and shorter versions of the survey. If contacted by regular mail, the response rate was 34.1%; the e-mail group had a response rate of 29.9%. Medical student and resident response rates were 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively (compared with 31.2% and 35.6% in 2004). Despite shortening the questionnaires, contacting more physicians by e-mail, and enhancing marketing and follow-up, the 2007 NPS response rate for practising physicians did not surpass the 2004 NPS response rate. Offering a monetary lottery incentive to medical residents and students was also unsuccessful in increasing their response rates. The role of surveys in gathering information from physicians and physicians-in-training remains problematic. Researchers need to investigate alternative strategies for achieving higher rates of

  16. Proposed Methodology for Assessing Cost of Synergies between Offshore Renewable Energy and Other Sea Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Hanssen, Jan Erik; O´Sullivan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Dragon and wind turbine, W2Power) and another (non-energy) sea use. The methodology described in the present study has the value of presenting synergies under an economic prospective. Synergies can be found both in structural, installation and maintenance costs. The CAPEX and OPEX for the energy...

  17. Simplified life cycle assessment models: methodological framework and applications to energy pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padey, Pierryves

    2013-01-01

    The energy transition debate is a key issue for today and the coming years. One of the challenges is to limit the environmental impacts of electricity production. Decision support tools, sufficiently accurate, simple to use, accounting for environmental aspects and favoring future energetic choices, must be implemented. However, the environmental assessment of the energy pathways is complex, and it means considering a two levels characterization. The 'energy pathway' is the first level and corresponds to its environmental distribution, to compare overall pathways. The 'system pathway' is the 2. level and compares environmental impacts of systems within each pathway. We have devised a generic methodology covering both necessary characterization levels by estimating the energy pathways environmental profiles while allowing a simple comparison of its systems environmental impacts. This methodology is based on the definition of a parameterized Life Cycle Assessment model and considers, through a Global Sensitivity Analysis, the environmental impacts of a large sample of systems representative of an energy pathway. As a second step, this methodology defines simplified models based on few key parameters identified as inducing the largest variability in the energy pathway environmental impacts. These models assess in a simple way the systems environmental impacts, avoiding any complex LCAs. This reduction methodology has been applied to the onshore wind power energy pathway in Europe and the photovoltaic energy pathway in France. (author)

  18. CSA C873 Building Energy Estimation Methodology - A simplified monthly calculation for quick building optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legault, A.; Scott, L.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; Hopkins, M.

    2014-01-01

    CSA C873 Building Energy Estimation Methodology (BEEM) is a new series of (10) standards that is intended to simplify building energy calculations. The standard is based upon the German DIN Standard 18599 that has 8 years of proven track record and has been modified for the Canadian market. The BEEM

  19. Practical methodologies for the calculation of capacity in electricity markets for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero B, Sergio; Giraldo V, Luis Alfonso; Isaza C, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Determining the real capacity of the generators in a power market is an essential task in order to estimate the actual system reliability, and to estimate the reward for generators due to their capacity in the firm energy market. In the wind power case, which is an intermittent resource, several methodologies have been proposed to estimate the capacity of a wind power emplacement, not only for planning but also for firm energy remuneration purposes. This paper presents some methodologies that have been proposed or implemented around the world in order to calculate the capacity of this energy resource.

  20. Methodology for determination of radon-222 production rate of residential building and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Thomas C.W.; Niu, J.L.; Burnett, J.; Lau, Judy O.W.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration is mainly associated with the radon production rate of building material, ventilation rate, and the outdoor radon concentrations. Radon production rate of a room is defined as the sum of the products of the radon emanation rates and the exposed areas of the materials. Since the selection of the building materials and the exposed areas are different from room to room, it makes the radon production rate of homes fall in a wide range. Here, the radon production rate of a room is suggested to be quantified by a sealing method, in which the systematic radon growth curve is obtained. The radon production rate of the room can be determined from the initial slope of the growth curve. Three rooms at different homes in Hong Kong were selected in the study for verifying the methodology. The uncertainty characterized by data scatter arisen from the coupling effect of the leakage rate and outdoor radon was also included in the discussion. During the measurements, no occupant was allowed into the home. No mechanical ventilation was involved in the measurement. The indoor and outdoor radon concentrations of the sampled homes were monitored simultaneously and lasted for more than three days. The radon production rates and the uncertainties of three rooms at Homes 1, 2, and 3 were found to be 232.8, 46.0, 414.6, and 20.3, 9.4, 59.2Bqh -1 , respectively. The approach is valid when the air leakage rate of the room is controlled below 0.1h -1

  1. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-12-20

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction, method used to quantify RFD, devices used for force/torque recording and ambient temperature. Another important aspect is our limited understanding of the mechanisms underpinning rapid muscle force production. Therefore, this review is primarily focused on (i) describing the main mechanical characteristics of RFD; (ii) analysing various physiological factors that influence RFD; and (iii) presenting and discussing central biomechanical and methodological factors affecting the measurement of RFD. The intention of this review is to provide more methodological and analytical coherency on the RFD concept, which may aid to clarify the thinking of coaches and sports scientists in this area. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Methodology for the Optimization of Flow Rate Injection to Looped Water Distribution Networks through Multiple Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian León-Celi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal function of a water distribution network is reached when the consumer demands are satisfied using the lowest quantity of energy, maintaining the minimal pressure required at the same time. One way to achieve this is through optimization of flow rate injection based on the use of the setpoint curve concept. In order to obtain that, a methodology is proposed. It allows for the assessment of the flow rate and pressure head that each pumping station has to provide for the proper functioning of the network while the minimum power consumption is kept. The methodology can be addressed in two ways: the discrete method and the continuous method. In the first method, a finite set of combinations is evaluated between pumping stations. In the continuous method, the search for the optimal solution is performed using optimization algorithms. In this paper, Hooke–Jeeves and Nelder–Mead algorithms are used. Both the hydraulics and the objective function used by the optimization are solved through EPANET and its Toolkit. Two case studies are evaluated, and the results of the application of the different methods are discussed.

  4. Methodological studies for long range environmental gamma rate survey in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Elder M.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Rochedo, Elaine R. R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to support the establishment of a methodology for gamma radiation survey over large areas in order to estimate public exposure to natural background radiation in Brazil. In a first stage, two different sites close to large water bodies were chosen, Guanabara Bay, RJ and Amazon River close to Santarem, PA. Early results showed similar results for over water surveys despite the type of water body. Dose rates over land are higher than those over water, due to the natural radioactivity on soil, pavements and other building materials. In this study the focus was on variability of measurements performed in the same area and variability for different types of area, including roads and urbanized environments. Several measurements have been performed of several areas, that included roads and towns in Para, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Measurements were done by car and on boats, using a AT6101C Scanner - Spectral Radiation Scanner. Differences were detected for different areas, with roads generally presenting lower dose rates than highly urbanized areas. Also, for roads close to granite rocks and mountains, dose rates are higher than those at both coastal areas and inland lowlands. Large towns present large variability, with individual measurements close to average dose rates from anomalous uranium sites. The results will be used to derive a methodology for assessing background radiation exposure for the Brazilian population. It can be concluded that surveys are to be based on population distribution grids rather than on a simple area based grid distribution, due to both the uneven population distribution and the variability on external dose rates throughout the Brazilian territory. (author)

  5. Energy rating procedure for PV-modules; Energy rating procedure voor PV-modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Jansen, M.J. [ECN Zon, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The performance of PV-modules is usually characterized by the nominal power at standard test conditions. However more relevant for the end-user is the energy production. To arrive at a so-called energy rating procedure the P(G{sub i},T{sub m}) matrix is defined, which makes it possible to calculate the expected annual energy production of a PV-module at any given location with known frequency distribution of horizontal irradiation and ambient temperature. In order to make the de P(G{sub i},T{sub m}) independent of the time and location of the tests the effective irradiation (G{sub i}) is measured with a device with the same characteristics as the module under test. Such a device can be a suitable reference cell or, even better, the module under test itself. The latter, however, is only possible in case the module under test is stable in time. Measurements were performed to test the applicability of the so-called self-reference for a-Si modules. Furthermore the difference between the effective irradiance and the real irradiance (measured with a pyranometer) was quantified for the test location Petten, the Netherlands. The conclusions are: Self-reference is not applicable for a-Si modules because of the time instability, even after 1 full year of degradation; Self-reference signals (the short circuit current of the module under test) can be calibrated outdoor by comparison with a pyranometer at irradiance levels above 800 W/m{sup 2}. The uncertainty of such a calibration is within 3%; The difference between the effective irradiance and the real irradiance on annual basis at Petten is virtually zero for x-Si modules and about 1% for a-Si modules. [Dutch] Het is gebruikelijk om de prestatie van PV-modules te karakteriseren met het nominale vermogen onder standaard testcondities (STC). Echter dit nominaal vermogen geeft geen directe indicatie voor de energieopbrengst. Om tot een karakteristiek voor de energie-opbrengst (energy rating) te komen wordt de prestatie van de

  6. Methodology for estimating biomass energy potential and its application to Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Salazar, Miguel Angel; Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele; Spina, Pier Ruggero; Venturini, Mauro; Finkenrath, Matthias; Poganietz, Witold-Roger

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology to estimate the biomass energy potential and its uncertainty at a country level. • Harmonization of approaches and assumptions in existing assessment studies. • The theoretical and technical biomass energy potential in Colombia are estimated in 2010. - Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to estimate the biomass energy potential and its associated uncertainty at a country level when quality and availability of data are limited. The current biomass energy potential in Colombia is assessed following the proposed methodology and results are compared to existing assessment studies. The proposed methodology is a bottom-up resource-focused approach with statistical analysis that uses a Monte Carlo algorithm to stochastically estimate the theoretical and the technical biomass energy potential. The paper also includes a proposed approach to quantify uncertainty combining a probabilistic propagation of uncertainty, a sensitivity analysis and a set of disaggregated sub-models to estimate reliability of predictions and reduce the associated uncertainty. Results predict a theoretical energy potential of 0.744 EJ and a technical potential of 0.059 EJ in 2010, which might account for 1.2% of the annual primary energy production (4.93 EJ)

  7. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  8. Study on reasonable curtailment rate of large scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    Energy curtailment rate of renewable energy generation is an important indicator to measure renewable energy consumption, it is also an important parameters to determine the other power sources and grids arrangement in the planning stage. In general, to consume the spike power of the renewable energy which is just a small proportion, it is necessary to dispatch a large number of peaking resources, which will reduce the safety and stability of the system. In planning aspect, if it is allowed to give up a certain amount of renewable energy, overall peaking demand of the system will be reduced, the peak power supply construction can be put off to avoid the expensive cost of marginal absorption. In this paper, we introduce the reasonable energy curtailment rate into the power system planning, and use the GESP power planning software, conclude that the reasonable energy curtailment rate of the regional grids in China is 3% -10% in 2020.

  9. A solar reserve methodology for renewable energy integration studies based on sub-hourly variability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Brinkman, Gregory; Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lew, Debra

    2012-07-01

    Increasing penetration of wind and solar energy are raising concerns among electric system operators because of the variability and uncertainty associated with the power sources. Previous work focused on the quantification of reserves for systems with wind power. This paper presents a new methodology that allows the determination of necessary reserves for high penetrations of photovoltaic power and compares it to the wind-based methodology. The solar reserve methodology was applied to Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. A summary of the results is included. (orig.)

  10. Reaction rate and energy-loss rate for photopair production by relativistic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Michal J.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Sikora, Marek

    1992-01-01

    The process of e(+/-) pair production by relativistic nuclei on ambient photons is considered. The process is important for cosmic-ray nuclei in interstellar and intergalactic space as well as in galactic and extragalactic compact objects. The rate of this process is given by an integral of the cross section over the photon angular and energy distribution. In the case of isotropic photons, the angular integration is performed to provide an expression for the rate at given photon energy in the nucleus rest frame. The total rate then becomes a single integral of that rate over the photon energy distribution. Formulas are also given for the fractional energy loss of a relativistic nucleus colliding with a photon of a given energy in the rest frame. The nucleus energy-loss rate is integrated over the photon angular distribution in the case of isotropic photons, and simple fits are provided.

  11. Energy optimization methodology of multi-chiller plant in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Myat, Aung; Khambadkone, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the potential energy savings in commercial buildings through optimized operation of a multi-chiller plant. The cooling load contributes 45–60% of total power consumption in commercial and office buildings, especially at tropics. The chiller plant operation is not optimal in most of the existing buildings because the chiller plant is either operated at design condition irrespective of the cooling load or optimized locally due to lack of overall chiller plant behavior. In this study, an overall energy model of chiller plant is developed to capture the thermal behavior of all systems and their interactions including the power consumption. An energy optimization methodology is proposed to derive optimized operation decisions for chiller plant at regular intervals based on building thermal load and weather condition. The benefits of proposed energy optimization methodology are examined using case study problems covering different chiller plant configurations. The case studies result confirmed the energy savings achieved through optimized operations is up to 40% for moderate size chiller plant and around 20% for small chiller plant which consequently reduces the energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • Energy optimization methodology improves the performance of multi-chiller plant. • Overall energy model of chiller plant accounts all equipment and the interactions. • Operation decisions are derived at regular interval based on time-varying factors. • Three case studies confirmed 20 to 40% of energy savings than conventional method.

  12. Window Energy Rating System and Calculation of Energy Performance of Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    The goal of reducing the energy consumption in buildings is the background for the introduction of an energy rating system of fenestration products in Denmark. The energy rating system requires that producers declare, among other things, the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy...... development, e.g. when the resulting effects of a reduced frame area are evaluated....

  13. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  14. Regional Energy Demand Responses To Climate Change. Methodology And Application To The Commonwealth Of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.D.; Ruth, M.; Kirshen, P.; Horwitz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Climate is a major determinant of energy demand. Changes in climate may alter energy demand as well as energy demand patterns. This study investigates the implications of climate change for energy demand under the hypothesis that impacts are scale dependent due to region-specific climatic variables, infrastructure, socioeconomic, and energy use profiles. In this analysis we explore regional energy demand responses to climate change by assessing temperature-sensitive energy demand in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The study employs a two-step estimation and modeling procedure. The first step evaluates the historic temperature sensitivity of residential and commercial demand for electricity and heating fuels, using a degree-day methodology. We find that when controlling for socioeconomic factors, degree-day variables have significant explanatory power in describing historic changes in residential and commercial energy demands. In the second step, we assess potential future energy demand responses to scenarios of climate change. Model results are based on alternative climate scenarios that were specifically derived for the region on the basis of local climatological data, coupled with regional information from available global climate models. We find notable changes with respect to overall energy consumption by, and energy mix of the residential and commercial sectors in the region. On the basis of our findings, we identify several methodological issues relevant to the development of climate change impact assessments of energy demand

  15. Regional Energy Demand Responses To Climate Change. Methodology And Application To The Commonwealth Of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, A.D.; Ruth, M. [Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD (United States); Kirshen, P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Anderson Hall, Medford, MA (United States); Horwitz, J. [Climatological Database Consultant, Binary Systems Software, Newton, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Climate is a major determinant of energy demand. Changes in climate may alter energy demand as well as energy demand patterns. This study investigates the implications of climate change for energy demand under the hypothesis that impacts are scale dependent due to region-specific climatic variables, infrastructure, socioeconomic, and energy use profiles. In this analysis we explore regional energy demand responses to climate change by assessing temperature-sensitive energy demand in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The study employs a two-step estimation and modeling procedure. The first step evaluates the historic temperature sensitivity of residential and commercial demand for electricity and heating fuels, using a degree-day methodology. We find that when controlling for socioeconomic factors, degree-day variables have significant explanatory power in describing historic changes in residential and commercial energy demands. In the second step, we assess potential future energy demand responses to scenarios of climate change. Model results are based on alternative climate scenarios that were specifically derived for the region on the basis of local climatological data, coupled with regional information from available global climate models. We find notable changes with respect to overall energy consumption by, and energy mix of the residential and commercial sectors in the region. On the basis of our findings, we identify several methodological issues relevant to the development of climate change impact assessments of energy demand.

  16. Energy Demand Modeling Methodology of Key State Transitions of Turning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand modeling of machining processes is the foundation of energy optimization. Energy demand of machining state transition is integral to the energy requirements of the machining process. However, research focus on energy modeling of state transition is scarce. To fill this gap, an energy demand modeling methodology of key state transitions of the turning process is proposed. The establishment of an energy demand model of state transition could improve the accuracy of the energy model of the machining process, which also provides an accurate model and reliable data for energy optimization of the machining process. Finally, case studies were conducted on a CK6153i CNC lathe, the results demonstrating that predictive accuracy with the proposed method is generally above 90% for the state transition cases.

  17. Quick-E-scan: A methodology for the energy scan of SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, E.; Trucco, P.; Trianni, A.; Sala, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the Quick-E-Scan methodology that has been developed to achieve the operational energy efficiency of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), characterized by being scarcely disposed to long energy audits and by a limited budget for energy management programs. On one side, through dividing the firm into functional units - either service (lighting, HVAC, etc.) or production units - the main consuming areas are identified and a criticality index is defined; conversely, an enhancement index highlights the gap of each unit towards the best available techniques (BATs) in energy management programs. Finally, a priority index, created with the junction of the two indexes, points out the most profitable areas in which energy saving measures should be implemented. The methodology, particularly quick and simple, has been successfully tested in 38 SMEs in Northern Italy.

  18. Development of analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Sook Kwan

    1995-04-01

    A study for the development of an analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release is performed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A methodology is suggested. For the post blowdown period a modified CONTRAST boil-off model is suggested. By using these computer code improved mass and energy release data are generated. Also, a RELAP5/MOD3 analysis for finally the FLOOD-3 computer code has been modified for use in the analysis of hot leg break. The results of analysis using modified FLOOD-3 are reasonable as we expected and their trends are good. 66 figs., 8 tabs. (Author) .new

  19. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  20. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  1. New statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Collins, J.J.; Brown, C.D.; Carnes, B.A.; Curtiss, J.B.; Devine, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present research develops new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases of relevance to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies, and uses these to identify, quantify, and pedict adverse health effects of energy related pollutants. Efforts are in five related areas including: (1) evaluation and development of statistical procedures for the analysis of death rate data, disease incidence data, and large scale data sets; (2) development of dose response and demographic models useful in the prediction of the health effects of energy technologies; (3) application of our method and models to analyses of the health risks of energy production; (4) a reanalysis of the Tri-State leukemia survey data, focusing on the relationship between myelogenous leukemia risk and diagnostic x-ray exposure; and (5) investigation of human birth weights as a possible early warning system for the effects of environmental pollution

  2. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...... parameters influence the performance of the WEC can also be investigated using this methodology.......This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests...... leads to testing campaigns that are not as extensive as desired. Therefore, the performance analysis should be robust enough to allow for not fully complete sea trials and sub optimal performance data. In other words, this methodology is focused at retrieving the maximum amount of useful information out...

  3. Multicriteria renewable energy planning using an integrated fuzzy VIKOR and AHP methodology: The case of Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: first, it is aimed at determining the best renewable energy alternative for Istanbul by using an integrated VIKOR-AHP methodology. Second, a selection among alternative energy production sites in this city is made using the same approach. In the proposed VIKOR-AHP methodology, the weights of the selection criteria are determined by pairwise comparison matrices of AHP. In energy decision making problems, the judgments of decision makers are usually vague. As it is relatively difficult for decision makers to provide exact values for the criteria, the evaluation data for the alternative energy policies should be expressed in linguistic terms. In order to model this kind of uncertainty in human preferences, fuzzy logic is applied very successfully. Thus, both classical VIKOR and classical AHP procedures are performed under fuzzy environment. The originality of the paper comes from the application of the proposed integrated VIKOR-AHP methodology to the selection of the best energy policy and production site. It is found that wind energy is the most appropriate renewable energy option and Catalca district is the best area among the alternatives for establishing wind turbines in Istanbul.

  4. 42 CFR 413.220 - Methodology for calculating the per-treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rate under the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011. 413.220 Section 413.220...-treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011. (a) Data sources. The methodology for determining the per treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system...

  5. Methodology to Calculate the Costs of a Floating Offshore Renewable Energy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro-Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a general methodology to calculate the life-cycle cost of floating offshore renewable energy devices, applying it to wave energy and wind energy devices. It is accounts for the contributions of the six main phases of their life-cycle: concept definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling, the costs of which have been defined. Moreover, the energy produced is also taken into account to calculate the Levelized Cost of Energy of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. The methodology proposed has been applied to two renewable energy devices: a floating offshore wave energy device and a floating offshore wind energy device. Two locations have been considered: Aguçadoura and São Pedro de Moel, both in Portugal. Results indicate that the most important cost in terms of the life-cycle of a floating offshore renewable energy farm is the exploitation cost, followed by the manufacturing and the installation cost. In addition, the best area in terms of costs is the same independently of the type of floating offshore renewable energy considered: Aguçadoura. However, the results in terms of Levelized Cost of Energy are different: Aguçadoura is better when considering wave energy technology and the São Pedro de Moel region is the best option when considering floating wind energy technology. The method proposed aims to give a direct approach to calculate the main life-cycle cost of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. It helps to assess its feasibility and evaluating the relevant characteristics that influence it the most.

  6. Regression Tree-Based Methodology for Customizing Building Energy Benchmarks to Individual Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskhedikar, Apoorva Prakash

    According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, commercial buildings represent about 40% of the United State's energy consumption of which office buildings consume a major portion. Gauging the extent to which an individual building consumes energy in excess of its peers is the first step in initiating energy efficiency improvement. Energy Benchmarking offers initial building energy performance assessment without rigorous evaluation. Energy benchmarking tools based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) database are investigated in this thesis. This study proposes a new benchmarking methodology based on decision trees, where a relationship between the energy use intensities (EUI) and building parameters (continuous and categorical) is developed for different building types. This methodology was applied to medium office and school building types contained in the CBECS database. The Random Forest technique was used to find the most influential parameters that impact building energy use intensities. Subsequently, correlations which were significant were identified between EUIs and CBECS variables. Other than floor area, some of the important variables were number of workers, location, number of PCs and main cooling equipment. The coefficient of variation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the new model. The customization technique proposed in this thesis was compared with another benchmarking model that is widely used by building owners and designers namely, the ENERGY STAR's Portfolio Manager. This tool relies on the standard Linear Regression methods which is only able to handle continuous variables. The model proposed uses data mining technique and was found to perform slightly better than the Portfolio Manager. The broader impacts of the new benchmarking methodology proposed is that it allows for identifying important categorical variables, and then incorporating them in a local, as against a global, model framework for EUI

  7. A study on the proliferation resistance evaluation methodology for nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su

    2007-02-01

    The framework of proliferation resistance evaluation methodology, based on attribute analysis and scenario analysis, for nuclear energy system is suggested in order to allow for the comprehensive assessment of proliferation resistance by addressing the intrinsic and extrinsic features of nuclear energy system. Proliferation resistance is viewed within the context of the success tree model of proliferator's diversion attempt and expressed by the value of top event probability of the success tree model. This study focused on the method that the value of top event is estimated. The methodology uses two different methods to quantify the likelihood of basic events constituting the top event. The likelihood of basic event success affected by intrinsic feature of nuclear energy system was assessed by using multi-attribute utility theory and likelihood of basic event related to the diversion detection measures was assessed by direct expert elicitation. The value of top event was calculated based on the intersection of probabilities of basic event success. Feasibility of the methodology was explored by applying it to selected reference nuclear energy systems. System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) system and Light Water Reactor (LWR) were chosen as reference systems and the value proliferation resistance of SMART and LWR were evaluated. Characteristics of inherent features and hypothesized safeguards measures of both systems were identified and used as input data to evaluate proliferation resistance. The results and conclusions are applicable only within the context of subjectivity of this methodology

  8. How methodological issues affect the energy indicator results for different electricity generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Gagnon, Luc; Bakken, Tor Haakon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the basis for the comparison of energy products. The paper will discuss important methodological issues with regard to various energy indicators and it will, by means of a few selected energy indicators, show examples of results for hydropower, wind power and electricity from biomass, gas and coal. Lastly it will suggest methods to achieve results which are more consistent when comparing electricity production technologies. In general, methodological issues can affect the results of life cycle assessments. In this paper, the authors have focused on the effect of system boundaries for energy indicators and found that the internal ranking of cases within one electricity generation technology is dependent on the indicator used. These variations do not, however, alter the general ranking of the major technologies studied. The authors suggest that future assessments should focus on a smaller set of indicators: the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), which is the most “universal” indicator, Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) for assessment of upstream activities, and a suggested “Cumulative Fossil Energy Demand” (CFED) for resource depletion assessments. There is also a need for stricter standardisation and increased transparency in the assessment of energy products. - Highlights: • There is a need for stricter standardisation of energy performance assessments. • System boundaries for renewable sources should be harmonised. • One should focus on a smaller set of indicators. CED should be included

  9. International Energy Prices(Exchange Rate and PPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Han; Yoo, Dong Heon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Energy is to be specially important to the Korean economy. In the past the major purpose of Korea's energy policies was to ensure that the energy was supplied at the low cost to encourage and sustain economic development and growth. Therefore, energy prices are distorted by government intervention. And this was the cause of inefficiency in usage of energy. In order to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of energy consumption, new energy pricing should be needed to the energy industry and the Korean economy. It is necessary to compare the domestic energy prices with other countries to improve the energy pricing system including tax, the relative structure of energy price, etc. In order to compare the domestic energy prices to those of other countries, the exchange rate, purchasing power parity and Big Mac index are used for calculation of common currency. We select 12 countries, which are Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Mexico and England. The oil products(gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil and light fuel oil), natural gas and electricity are selected to compare the price. (author). 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  10. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Extending the input–output energy balance methodology in agriculture through cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojacá, Carlos Ricardo; Casilimas, Héctor Albeiro; Gil, Rodrigo; Schrevens, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The input–output balance methodology has been applied to characterize the energy balance of agricultural systems. This study proposes to extend this methodology with the inclusion of multivariate analysis to reveal particular patterns in the energy use of a system. The objective was to demonstrate the usefulness of multivariate exploratory techniques to analyze the variability found in a farming system and, establish efficiency categories that can be used to improve the energy balance of the system. To this purpose an input–output analysis was applied to the major greenhouse tomato production area in Colombia. Individual energy profiles were built and the k-means clustering method was applied to the production factors. On average, the production system in the study zone consumes 141.8 GJ ha −1 to produce 96.4 GJ ha −1 , resulting in an energy efficiency of 0.68. With the k-means clustering analysis, three clusters of farmers were identified with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. The most energy efficient cluster grouped 56.3% of the farmers. It is possible to optimize the production system by improving the management practices of those with the lowest energy use efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques demonstrated to be a complementary pathway to improve the energy efficiency of a system. -- Highlights: ► An input–output energy balance was estimated for greenhouse tomatoes in Colombia. ► We used the k-means clustering method to classify growers based on their energy use. ► Three clusters of growers were found with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. ► Overall system optimization is possible by improving the energy use of the less efficient.

  12. Prediction of work metabolism from heart rate measurements in forest work: some practical methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubeau, Denise; Auger, Isabelle; Leone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Individual heart rate (HR) to workload relationships were determined using 93 submaximal step-tests administered to 26 healthy participants attending physical activities in a university training centre (laboratory study) and 41 experienced forest workers (field study). Predicted maximum aerobic capacity (MAC) was compared to measured MAC from a maximal treadmill test (laboratory study) to test the effect of two age-predicted maximum HR Equations (220-age and 207-0.7 × age) and two clothing insulation levels (0.4 and 0.91 clo) during the step-test. Work metabolism (WM) estimated from forest work HR was compared against concurrent work V̇O2 measurements while taking into account the HR thermal component. Results show that MAC and WM can be accurately predicted from work HR measurements and simple regression models developed in this study (1% group mean prediction bias and up to 25% expected prediction bias for a single individual). Clothing insulation had no impact on predicted MAC nor age-predicted maximum HR equations. Practitioner summary: This study sheds light on four practical methodological issues faced by practitioners regarding the use of HR methodology to assess WM in actual work environments. More specifically, the effect of wearing work clothes and the use of two different maximum HR prediction equations on the ability of a submaximal step-test to assess MAC are examined, as well as the accuracy of using an individual's step-test HR to workload relationship to predict WM from HR data collected during actual work in the presence of thermal stress.

  13. Methodological differences behind energy statistics for steel production – Implications when monitoring energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfeldt, Johannes; Silveira, Semida

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency indicators used for evaluating industrial activities at the national level are often based on statistics reported in international databases. In the case of the Swedish iron and steel sector, energy consumption statistics published by Odyssee, Eurostat, the IEA (International Energy Agency), and the United Nations differ, resulting in diverging energy efficiency indicators. For certain years, the specific energy consumption for steel is twice as high if based on Odyssee statistics instead of statistics from the IEA. The analysis revealed that the assumptions behind the allocation of coal and coke used in blast furnaces as energy consumption or energy transformation are the major cause for these differences. Furthermore, the differences are also related to errors in the statistical data resulting from two different surveys that support the data. The allocation of coal and coke has implications when promoting resource as well as energy efficiency at the systems level. Eurostat's definition of energy consumption is more robust compared to the definitions proposed by other organisations. Nevertheless, additional data and improved energy efficiency indicators are needed to fully monitor the iron and steel sector's energy system and promote improvements towards a greener economy at large. - Highlights: • Energy statistics for the iron and steel sector diverge in international databases. • Varying methods have implications when monitoring energy and resource efficiency. • Allocation of blast furnaces as transformation activities is behind the differences. • Different statistical surveys and human error also contribute to diverging results

  14. A Sustainable Home Energy Prosumer-Chain Methodology with Energy Tags over the Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Won Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to provide a power trade system that will promote a sustainable electrical energy transaction ecosystem between prosumers and consumers of smart homes. We suggest a blockchain-based peer-to-peer (P2P energy transaction platform be implemented to enable efficient electrical energy transaction between prosumers. We suggest the platform be built on the blockchain, as this technology allows a decentralized and distributed trading system, and allows a more transparent, trustworthy and secure P2P trading environment. We believe that such characteristics of the blockchain are necessary in electrical energy transactions within the smart home environment because the smart home aims to enhance user comfort and security, along with energy conservation and cost-savings. First, we classify the two different types of P2P trade to identify which will best benefit from the use of the suggested blockchain-based P2P energy-transaction platform. Within the two types of P2P trade, that we classify (pure P2P trade and hybrid P2P trade, the hybrid P2P trade will benefit more from a blockchain-based P2P energy-transaction platform. In the blockchain-based P2P energy-transaction platform, a smart contract is embedded in the blockchain and called an energy tag. The energy tag will set conditions for making every future energy transaction more cost-efficient while maintaining the most ideal and high-quality energy selection. With the blockchain-based energy tag in the energy-transaction process, multiple energy resources and home appliances will be democratically connected in order to provide users with high-quality, low-cost energy at all times and locations. In this paper, we provide simulation results that compare the unit price of electrical energy on the suggested platform to the unit price of electrical energy set by currently existing conventional power-generation companies. Additionally, we present simulation results that calculate how long

  15. Methodology for choice of harvesting system for energy wood from early thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, J

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to develop a methodology for estimating the procurement cost of forest chips from early thinnings. The most common logging systems and supply chains of forest chips used in early thinnings in Finland were compared at stand and regional level using productivity models and cost parameters obtained mainly from the substudies of this thesis. Furthermore, a decision tree was constructed for selecting harvesting method for energy wood originating from early thinnings. Forwarding productivity following mechanised cutting was significantly higher compared to productivity after motor-manual cutting. Mechanised cutting by the harvester enables felling and bunching of whole trees into large grapple loads close to strip roads, which facilitates increasing forwarding output and reducing costs. The two-machine system comprised of a harvester and a forwarder was the most cost-efficient logging system due to higher efficiency in cutting and especially in the forwarding phase. The cost of motor-manual whole-tree cutting was equal to mechanised whole-tree cutting, while forwarding cost after motor-manual cutting was almost double that after mechanised cutting. Using a forwarderbased harwarder resulted in the highest logging costs. However, with large tree volumes and removals its costs were almost equal to those of motor-manual-based logging. In order to achieve a breakthrough for the harwarder system, costs must be reduced by improving both machine technology and working techniques. Available volumes and procurement costs of fuel chips made of small-diameter trees were compared at regional level. The trees were harvested either by the multi-stem delimbed shortwood or whole-tree method and chipped by a truck-mounted drum chipper at the roadside. Based on the availability analysis, delimbing reduced regional cutting recovery by 42% compared to whole tree harvesting, when the minimum concentration of energy wood was set at 25 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1

  16. Energy performance ratings and house prices in Wales: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; McAllister, Pat; Nanda, Anupam; Wyatt, Pete

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) ratings on residential prices in Wales. Drawing on a sample of approximately 192,000 transactions, the capitalisation of energy efficiency ratings into house prices is investigated using two approaches. The first adopts a cross-sectional framework to investigate the effect of EPC rating on price. The second approach applies a repeat-sales methodology to investigate the impact of EPC rating on house price appreciation. Statistically significant positive price premiums are estimated for dwellings in EPC bands A/B (12.8%) and C (3.5%) compared to houses in band D. For dwellings in band E (−3.6%) and F (−6.5%) there are statistically significant discounts. Such effects may not be the result of energy performance alone. In addition to energy cost differences, the price effect may be due to additional benefits of energy efficient features. An analysis of the private rental segment reveals that, in contrast to the general market, low-EPC rated dwellings were not traded at a significant discount. This suggests different implicit prices of potential energy savings for landlords and owner-occupiers.

  17. Development of a methodology for dissemination and formation favourable of using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Belinda Maria; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de, E-mail: belindalobo@usp.br, E-mail: araquino@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Space Nuclear Technology (ENT), located in the IPEN is the basis for the study of a reporting methodology of Nuclear Energy Technology, for the public get some physical-chemical knowledge, benefits of using radioactivity and the activities carried out by the Institute Energy and Nuclear Research - National Commission of Nuclear Energy (IPEN / CNEN), for increased acceptance of its use. This article reports the survey in two schools, with groups of teachers from different areas of elementary and secondary education of the Sao Paulo state. The strategies used to establish communication by means of an environment of trust are: a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the presentation, one sensationalised reporting, Cesium -137 -Linha Direta, aired by Rede Globo TV, in 2007, theoretical foundation of physics and chemistry, picturesque figures and photos as the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1. The contributions of this research will improve the methodology for future presentations. (author)

  18. Systemic design methodologies for electrical energy systems analysis, synthesis and management

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular analysis and system management, modeling and sizing tools. It includes 8 chapters: after an introduction to the systemic approach (history, basics & fundamental issues, index terms) for designing energy systems, this book presents two different graphical formalisms especially dedicated to multidisciplinary devices modeling, synthesis and analysis: Bond Graph and COG/EMR. Other systemic analysis approaches for quality and stability of systems, as well as for safety and robustness analysis tools are also proposed. One chapter is dedicated to energy management and another is focused on Monte Carlo algorithms for electrical systems and networks sizing. The aim of this book is to summarize design methodologies based in particular on a systemic viewpoint, by considering the system as a whole. These methods and tools are proposed by the most important French research laboratories, which have many scientific partn...

  19. Development of a methodology for dissemination and formation favourable of using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Belinda Maria; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2015-01-01

    Space Nuclear Technology (ENT), located in the IPEN is the basis for the study of a reporting methodology of Nuclear Energy Technology, for the public get some physical-chemical knowledge, benefits of using radioactivity and the activities carried out by the Institute Energy and Nuclear Research - National Commission of Nuclear Energy (IPEN / CNEN), for increased acceptance of its use. This article reports the survey in two schools, with groups of teachers from different areas of elementary and secondary education of the Sao Paulo state. The strategies used to establish communication by means of an environment of trust are: a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the presentation, one sensationalised reporting, Cesium -137 -Linha Direta, aired by Rede Globo TV, in 2007, theoretical foundation of physics and chemistry, picturesque figures and photos as the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1. The contributions of this research will improve the methodology for future presentations. (author)

  20. Methodology to Calculate the ACE and HPQ Metrics Used in the Wave Energy Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, Dale S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bull, Dianna [Sandia National Laboratories; Dallman, Ann [Sandia National Laboratories; Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Laboratories; Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Laboratories; Newborn, David [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division; Quintero, Miguel [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division; LaBonte, Alison [U.S. Department of Energy; Karwat, Darshan [U.S. Department of Energy; Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research Ltd.

    2018-03-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wave Energy Prize Competition encouraged the development of innovative deep-water wave energy conversion technologies that at least doubled device performance above the 2014 state of the art. Because levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metrics are challenging to apply equitably to new technologies where significant uncertainty exists in design and operation, the prize technical team developed a reduced metric as proxy for LCOE, which provides an equitable comparison of low technology readiness level wave energy converter (WEC) concepts. The metric is called 'ACE' which is short for the ratio of the average climate capture width to the characteristic capital expenditure. The methodology and application of the ACE metric used to evaluate the performance of the technologies that competed in the Wave Energy Prize are explained in this report.

  1. The empirical relationship between energy futures prices and exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between energy futures prices and exchange rates. Results are presented to show that futures prices for crude oil, heating oil and unleaded gasoline are co-integrated with a trade-weighted index of exchange rates. This is important because it means that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between these four variables. Granger causality results for both the long- and short-run are presented. Evidence is also presented that suggests exchange rates transmit exogenous shocks to energy futures prices. 22 refs

  2. Methodology to produce a water and energy stream map (WESM in the South African manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water and energy in South Africa, and the capacity constraints and restrictions of both resources, have led to a rapid increase in their cost. The manufacturing industry remains South Africa’s third-largest consumer of water and second- largest consumer of national energy. The improvement of water and energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important theme for both organisational success and national economic sustainability. This paper presents the ‘lean based water and energy stream mapping framework’ developed for the manufacturing industry, with the specific objective of decreasing its water and energy intensity. As with the traditional value stream mapping tool, the water and energy stream mapping focuses on eliminating water- and energy-specific wastes within a process. Water and energy waste categories that will be used in conjunction with the framework will also be discussed. The key objective of this paper is to detail the process of creating the water and energy stream mapping, and the statistical forecasting methodology used to develop the baseline water and energy demand data. The outcome of the implementation of the framework is the future state water and energy stream mapping, which is effectively a blueprint for increased water and energy efficiency within a studied process.

  3. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  4. Air traffic energy efficiency differs from place to place: analysis of historical trends by geographical zones using a macro-level methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal; Chevallier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses energy efficiency coefficients and their evolution in the air transport sector. The proposed 'macro-level' methodology allows obtaining energy efficiency coefficients and their growth rates (corresponding to the evolution of energy gains) from 1983 to 2006 for eight distinct geographical regions and at the world level. During the whole period, energy efficiency improvements have been equal to 2.88% per year at the world level, with strong differences between regions. Moreover, our results indicate that domestic air travels are less energy efficient (i.e. more carbon intensive) than international air travels. This result applies in all regions. (authors)

  5. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  6. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Rates from strong Point Sources by Airborne IPDA-Lidar Measurements: Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a new method and on the first demonstration to quantify emission rates from strong greenhouse gas (GHG) point sources using airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Lidar measurements. In order to build trust in the self-reported emission rates by countries, verification against independent monitoring systems is a prerequisite to check the reported budget. A significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emission of CO2 and CH4 originates from localized strong point sources of large energy production sites or landfills. Both are not monitored with sufficiently accuracy by the current observation system. There is a debate whether airborne remote sensing could fill in the gap to infer those emission rates from budgeting or from Gaussian plume inversion approaches, whereby measurements of the GHG column abundance beneath the aircraft can be used to constrain inverse models. In contrast to passive sensors, the use of an active instrument like CHARM-F for such emission verification measurements is new. CHARM-F is a new airborne IPDA-Lidar devised for the German research aircraft HALO for the simultaneous measurement of the column-integrated dry-air mixing ratio of CO2 and CH4 commonly denoted as XCO2 und XCH4, respectively. It has successfully been tested in a serious of flights over Central Europe to assess its performance under various reflectivity conditions and in a strongly varying topography like the Alps. The analysis of a methane plume measured in crosswind direction of a coal mine ventilation shaft revealed an instantaneous emission rate of 9.9 ± 1.7 kt CH4 yr-1. We discuss the methodology of our point source estimation approach and give an outlook on the CoMet field experiment scheduled in 2017 for the measurement of anthropogenic and natural GHG emissions by a combination of active and passive remote sensing instruments on research aircraft.

  7. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact of Stressors. INPRO Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on assessing of sustainability of a nuclear energy system (NES) in the area of environmental impact of stressors. The INPRO methodology is a comprehensive tool for the assessment of sustainability of an NES. Basic principles, user requirements and criteria have been defined in different areas of INPRO methodology. These include economics, infrastructure, waste management, proliferation resistance, environmental impact of stressors, environmental impact from depletion of resources, and safety of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The ultimate goal of the application of the INPRO methodology is to check whether the assessed NES fulfils all the criteria, and hence the user requirements and basic principles, and therefore presents a system for a Member State that is sustainable in the long term

  8. How accurate are forecasts of costs of energy? A methodological contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddons, Craig; Allan, Grant; McIntyre, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Forecasts of the cost of energy are typically presented as point estimates; however forecasts are seldom accurate, which makes it important to understand the uncertainty around these point estimates. The scale of the differences between forecasts and outturns (i.e. contemporary estimates) of costs may have important implications for government decisions on the appropriate form (and level) of support, modelling energy scenarios or industry investment appraisal. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the accuracy of cost forecasts. We apply this to levelised costs of energy for different generation technologies due to the availability of comparable forecasts and contemporary estimates, however the same methodology could be applied to the components of levelised costs, such as capital costs. The estimated “forecast errors” capture the accuracy of previous forecasts and can provide objective bounds to the range around current forecasts for such costs. The results from applying this method are illustrated using publicly available data for on- and off-shore wind, Nuclear and CCGT technologies, revealing the possible scale of “forecast errors” for these technologies. - Highlights: • A methodology to assess the accuracy of forecasts of costs of energy is outlined. • Method applied to illustrative data for four electricity generation technologies. • Results give an objective basis for sensitivity analysis around point estimates.

  9. Fracture patterns and the energy release rate of phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Hong, Jiawang; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-03-14

    Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorus, has been enjoying popularity in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, it's relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure have limited its application in mechanical devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the fracture patterns and energy release rate of phosphorene. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate phosphorene's fracture mechanism. The results indicate that fracture under uniaxial tension along the armchair direction is attributed to a break in the interlayer bond angles, while failure in the zigzag direction is triggered by the break in both intra-layer angles and bonds. Furthermore, we developed a modified Griffith criterion to analyze the energy release rate of phosphorene and its dependence on the strain rates and orientations of cracks. Simulation results indicate that phosphorene's energy release rate remains almost unchanged in the armchair direction while it fluctuates intensively in the zigzag direction. Additionally, the strain rate was found to play a negligible role in the energy release rate. The geometrical factor α in the Griffith's criterion is almost constant when the crack orientation is smaller than 45 degree, regardless of the crack orientation and loading direction. Overall, these findings provide helpful insights into the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene.

  10. A Sustainable Home Energy Prosumer-Chain Methodology with Energy Tags over the Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Won Park; Sanghoon Lee; Hangbae Chang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to provide a power trade system that will promote a sustainable electrical energy transaction ecosystem between prosumers and consumers of smart homes. We suggest a blockchain-based peer-to-peer (P2P) energy transaction platform be implemented to enable efficient electrical energy transaction between prosumers. We suggest the platform be built on the blockchain, as this technology allows a decentralized and distributed trading system, and allows a more transparent, trust...

  11. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

  12. Methodology for energy audits in the framework of the energy efficiency directive

    OpenAIRE

    Méchaussie, Elfie; Maréchal, François; Van Eetvelde, Greet

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU (EED) was released in October 2012 and transposed in June 2014 by Member States. The Directive requires large companies to carry out an energy audit before December 2015, which has to be repeated every 4 years. A possibility for companies to be exempted from regular energy audits is to be or become certified by an approved energy management system (EnMS), most likely the international standard ISO 50001. In both cases it means that companies have to ...

  13. Genetic algorithm-based fuzzy-PID control methodologies for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The simplicity in coding the heuristic judgment of experienced operator by means of fuzzy logic can be exploited for enhancement of energy efficiency. Fuzzy logic has been used as an effective tool for scheduling conventional PID controllers gain coefficients (F-PID). However, to search for the most desirable fuzzy system characteristics that allow for best performance of the energy system with minimum energy input, optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) could be utilized and the control methodology is identified as GA-based F-PID (GA-F-PID). The objective of this study is to examine the performance of PID, F-PID, and GA-F-PID controllers for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system. The performance evaluation of the controllers is accomplished by means of two cost functions that are based on the quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a setpoint temperature, referred to as energy and comfort costs, respectively. The GA-F-PID controller is examined in two different forms, namely, global form and local form. For the global form, all possible combinations of fuzzy system characteristics in the search domain are explored by GA for finding the fittest chromosome for all discrete time intervals during the entire operation period. For the local form, however, GA is used in each discrete time interval to find the fittest chromosome for implementation. The results show that the global form GA-F-PID and local form GA-F-PID control methodologies, in comparison with PID controller, achieve higher energy efficiency by lowering energy costs by 51.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. Similarly, the comfort costs for deviation from setpoint are enhanced by 54.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. It is determined that GA-F-PID performs better in local from than global form.

  14. Magnetospheric storm dynamics in terms of energy output rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigancova, A.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Using hourly values of both the global magnetospheric disturbance characteristic DR, and AE index of auroral ionospheric currents during magnetic storm intervals, the energy output rate dynamics is evaluated for a magnetic storm main/recovery phase and a whole storm interval. The magnetospheric response to the solar wind energy input rate under varying interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions is considered from the temporal variability point of view. The peculiarities of the response are traced separately. As far as quantitative characteristics of energy output rate are concerned, the time dependence pattern of the ring current decay parameter is emphasized to be fairly important. It is pointed out that more insight into the plasma processes, especially at L = 3 - 5, is needed for adequate evidence of the dependence. (Author)

  15. Personalized Energy Services : A Data-Driven Methodology towards Sustainable, Smart Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srirangam Narashiman, A.U.N.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid pace of urbanization has an impact on climate change and other environmental issues. Currently, 54% of the global population lives in cities accounting for two-thirds of global energy demand. Sustainable energy generation and consumption is the top humanity’s problem for the next 50 years.

  16. IAEA Tools and Methodology for Energy System Planning and Nuclear Energy System Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Energy is essential for all human activities, and its availability is critical to economic and social development. Energy is the engine for the production of goods and services across all economic sectors. It is vital to the provision of basic civic services in education, health care, clean water supply and sanitation, and also for wealth creation. Lack of energy is a contributing factor to the poverty of individuals, communities, nations and regions. While not an end itself, energy, jointly with appropriate technologies and infrastructure, generates the services modern societies demand (transportation, lighting, air conditioning, information exchange, etc.). Meeting the United Nations Millennium Development Goals can be only accomplished with access to affordable energy services. Energy planning aims at ensuring that decisions on energy demand and supply infrastructures involve all stake holders, consider all possible energy supply and demand options, and are consistent with overall goals for national sustainable development. The concept of sustainable development encompasses three interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars : social development, economic development and environmental protection, linked by effective government institutions. (author)

  17. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  18. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate and compare network tariff designs. Four design attributes are proposed for this aim: (i) network cost recovery; (ii) deferral of network reinforcements; (iii) efficient consumer resp...

  19. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: Description and design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Chapman, P. D.; Lewison, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  20. Methodological possibilities for using the electron and ion energy balance in thermospheric complex measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimov, K.B.; Serafimova, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Combination of ground based measurements for determination of basic thermospheric characteristics is proposed . An expression for the energy transport between components of space plasma is also derived and discussed within the framework of the presented methodology which could be devided into the folowing major sections: 1) application of ionosonde, absorption measurements, TEC-measurements using Faradey radiation or the differential Doppler effect; 2) ground-based airglow measurements; 3) airglow and palsma satelite measurements. 9 refs

  1. New approach to brown coal pricing using internal rate of return methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejbl, Jan; Bemš, Julius; Králík, Tomáš; Starý, Oldřich; Vastl, Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We showed that brown coal is the substitute for black coal only at the time of the investment decision. • We compiled the model used in a calculation of the economically justified price for the productive and extractive component. • The resulting economically justified price is on a par with the current black coal price. • The proposed methodological approach is applicable to solve similar tasks not only in the energy sector. - Abstract: Brown coal is one of the dominant local strategic raw materials in Europe, used, to a large extent, in the power-generating industry. The current situation, where the price of gas and electricity precludes the efficient use of gas sources, leads to the extraction of older sources, chiefly brown coal ones. In tandem with a turning away from nuclear power, brown coal is experiencing a renaissance and the issue of brown coal price setting is, and will be, relevant. This paper deals with a proposal of a new method for determining the base price, consisting of defining the reference fuel chain for electricity and heat production based on brown coal. It builds on the notion that the degree of risk of the involved parties should be reflected in the modified amount of revenue per capital invested. The resulting price is then an economically justified price which encourages a respect for the specific features of the market in question and set the base price of the commodity in a way that is acceptable for both the extractive and the productive components of the fuel chain

  2. Energy Dissipation Rate in an Agitated Crucible Containing Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Shimasaki, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2017-10-01

    The energy dissipation rate (EDR) is an important parameter for characterizing the behavior of inclusion coagulation in agitated molten metal. To clarify the inclusion coagulation mechanism, we review previous water model studies by particularly focusing on the relation between the impeller torque and the EDR of the fluid, which indicates the ratio of energy dissipated in the viscous medium to the energy inputted by the rotating impeller. In the present study, simulations coupled with experiments were performed to determine the relation between the torque and the effective EDR for water and liquid Al in crucibles with and without baffles.

  3. A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation.

  4. A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation. (technical note)

  5. A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    2003-11-14

    This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.

  6. SITE: a methodology for assessment of energy facility siting patterns. Regional studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1975-08-01

    The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of clustered facilities in energy centers is also possible within the SITE analysis framework. An application of the SITE methodology to Northern Illinois is presented. Also included is a description of the ongoing extension of SITE for the accumulative evaluation of alternative regional energy siting patterns and fuel cycle options. An appendix provides documentation and user information for the SITE computer program

  7. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008 Pledges: Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, B.; Bilello, D. E.; Cowlin, S. C.; Mann, M.; Wise, A.

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) was held in Washington, D.C., from March 4-6, 2008, and involved nearly 9,000 people from 125 countries. The event brought together worldwide leaders in renewable energy (RE) from governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to discuss the role that renewables can play in alleviating poverty, growing economies, and passing on a healthy planet to future generations. The conference concluded with more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy. The U.S. government authorized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) savings that would result from the pledges made at the 2008 conference. This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions derived from those pledges.

  8. Framework methodology for increased energy efficiency and renewable feedstock integration in industrial clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Harvey, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Framework methodology for energy efficiency of process plants and total sites. • Identification of suitable biorefinery based on host site future energy systems. • Case study results show large energy savings of site wide heat integration. • Case study on refrigeration systems: 15% shaft work savings potential. • Case study on biorefinery integration: utility savings potential of up to 37%. - Abstract: Energy intensive industries, such as the bulk chemical industry, are facing major challenges and adopting strategies to face these challenges. This paper investigates options for clusters of chemical process plants to decrease their energy and emission footprints. There is a wide range of technologies and process integration opportunities available for achieving these objectives, including (i) decreasing fossil fuel and electricity demand by increasing heat integration within individual processes and across the total cluster site; (ii) replacing fossil feedstocks with renewables and biorefinery integration with the existing cluster; (iii) increasing external utilization of excess process heat wherever possible. This paper presents an overview of the use of process integration methods for development of chemical clusters. Process simulation, pinch analysis, Total Site Analysis (TSA) and exergy concepts are combined in a holistic approach to identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency and integrate renewable feedstocks within such clusters. The methodology is illustrated by application to a chemical cluster in Stenungsund on the West Coast of Sweden consisting of five different companies operating six process plants. The paper emphasizes and quantifies the gains that can be made by adopting a total site approach for targeting energy efficiency measures within the cluster and when investigating integration opportunities for advanced biorefinery concepts compared to restricting the analysis to the individual constituent plants. The

  9. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  10. Optimization of Korean energy planning for sustainability considering uncertainties in learning rates and external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyok; Koo, Jamin; Lee, Chang Jun; Yoon, En Sup

    2012-01-01

    During the last few decades, energy planning has focused on meeting domestic demand at lower total costs. However, global warming and the shared recognition of it have transformed the problem of energy planning into a more complex task with a greater number of issues to be considered. Since the key issue is to reduce greenhouse effects, governments around the world have begun to make investments in renewable energy systems (e.g., hydro, wind, solar, and/or biomass power). The relatively high costs of renewable energy systems and the uncertain outlook of their rate of diffusion in the market make it difficult to heavily rely on them. The uncertain variations in production cost over time are especially challenging. To handle uncertainties, the concept of the learning rate was adopted in this study so as to compute the costs of energy systems in the future and Monte Carlo simulation was performed. The aim of this study was to optimize plans of conventional and prospective renewable energy systems with respect to production cost. The production cost included capital, fixed, variable, and external costs. For the case study, the energy situation in South Korea was used. The results of the case study where the proposed methodology was applied could provide useful insights economically and strategies of sustainable energy management for ambiguous environments. -- Highlights: ► We propose energy planning method for sustainability. ► We consider uncertainties such as learning rate, fuel prices, and CO 2 prices. ► We consider the possibility of CO 2 trading. ► The proposed method is applied to South Korea case. ► The added capacities of energy systems depend on uncertainties.

  11. Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyal, Shahid Hussain; Mentis, Dimitris; Howells, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We spatially quantified and visualized the economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden. • Possible land use constraints to wind energy were taken into account. • Economic indicators were estimated on the basis of two wind turbines. • We used a GIS-based methodology for this analysis and found it very useful. • Results suggest that Sweden holds economic feasible wind energy resource, specially in the southern and central regions. - Abstract: Due to modern advancements in renewable energy systems and increasing prices of fossil fuels wind energy is getting a lot of attention all over the world. In this regard, Sweden also fixed motivated targets to get energy supply from local renewable energy resources. So, local wind power could help the country in achieving the targets. In this study, economic indicators of wind energy were spatially estimated for Sweden by using ArcGIS tool. In order to do this, as input data one-year high resolution modeled annual average wind data was processed by means of Rayleigh distribution, wind turbine power curve, land use constraints, technical constraints and economic parameters. Based on the input data, it was concluded that Sweden possesses economically feasible wind energy resource. The results of the study indicate that southern and central regions could produce economically viable wind electricity in all aspects as compared to the northern region of the country. Lastly, it was recommended to speed up wind energy penetration in Sweden, communal awareness and acceptance regarding the resource should be increased to avoid possible misunderstanding. Additionally, the capability of the national electric grid should be enhanced to take up the large scale unpredictable wind energy resource.

  12. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  13. Measuring cognitive task demands using dual task methodology, subjective self-ratings, and expert judgments : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English

  14. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  15. Strategic analysis methodology for energy systems with remote island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumdieck, Susan; Hamm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A strategic analysis methodology is presented for adaptive energy systems engineering to realize an optimal level of service in the context of a community's social, economic, and environmental position. The groundwork stage involves characterizing the social context, assessing available energy resources, identifying environmental issues, setting eco-resource limits, and quantifying socio-economic constraints for a given region. A spectrum of development options is then constructed according to the range of energy service levels identified for the sector under study. A spectrum of conceptual energy systems is generated and infrastructure investments and resource use are modeled. The outcome is a matrix of energy system investment possibilities for the range of energy demand levels reflecting the values, ideas, and expectations expressed by the community. These models are then used to assess technical feasibility and economic, environmental and social risk. The result is an easily understood graphical depiction of local aspirations, investment options, and risks which clearly differentiates development opportunities from non-viable concepts. The approach was applied to a case study on Rotuma, an isolated Pacific Island. The case study results show a clear development opportunity space for Rotuma where desired energy services are in balance with investment sources, resource availability, and environmental constraints.

  16. Methodology for getting the end use of energy in the industrial sector from Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag Filho, A.

    1990-03-01

    A methodology for a survey on the utilization of energy in the industrial sector from Parana state, at low costs, and aiming the supply of data with the desired reliability and disaggregation is presented. The obtained data shall provide elements for the adoption of short term actions as well as serve as a basis for the elaboration of medium and long terms scenarios. The survey shall be conducted throughout the state, comprising all fields of activity and having the following objectives: determine the state's energetic consumption profile by industrial segment and by end use of energy; determine the state's energetic profile with the spatial distribution of consumption and detect the industrial segments which are more sensitive to the energetic substitution programs and/or of energy conservation. (author)

  17. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  18. Methodology to develop a training program as a tool for energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rosario Berenguer-Ungaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paperaims to present the methodology to develop a training program improve labor skills that enhance the efficient use of energy resources, which aims to make training a timely and meet the training needs as they arise and that the protagonist of it is he who receives training. It is based on the training-action and action research method and model for evaluating training Krikpatrick, it evaluates four levels, reaction, learning, behavior and results. The methodology is structured in three stages: 1 diagnosis of knowledge, 2 intervention based on the results and 3 evaluation and feedback for continuous improvement. Each stage has identified the objectives and implementation tools. Evaluation is transverse to the entire program and it is through it that decisions for feedback loops are taken.

  19. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  20. Quantifying Adoption Rates and Energy Savings Over Time for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter Petri, Alberta C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Riddle, Matt [Argonne National Laboratory; Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-10-09

    Energy-efficient manufacturing technologies can reduce energy consumption and lower operating costs for an individual manufacturing facility, but increased process complexity and the resulting risk of disruption means that manufacturers may be reluctant to adopt such technologies. In order to quantify potential energy savings at scales larger than a single facility, it is necessary to account for how quickly and how widely the technology will be adopted by manufacturers. This work develops a methodology for estimating energy-efficient manufacturing technology adoption rates using quantitative, objectively measurable technology characteristics, including energetic, economic and technical criteria. Twelve technology characteristics are considered, and each characteristic is assigned an importance weight that reflects its impact on the overall technology adoption rate. Technology characteristic data and importance weights are used to calculate the adoption score, a number between 0 and 1 that represents how quickly the technology is likely to be adopted. The adoption score is then used to estimate parameters for the Bass diffusion curve, which quantifies the change in the number of new technology adopters in a population over time. Finally, energy savings at the sector level are calculated over time by multiplying the number of new technology adopters at each time step with the technology's facility-level energy savings. The proposed methodology will be applied to five state-of-the-art energy-efficient technologies in the carbon fiber composites sector, with technology data obtained from the Department of Energy's 2016 bandwidth study. Because the importance weights used in estimating the Bass curve parameters are subjective, a sensitivity analysis will be performed on the weights to obtain a range of parameters for each technology. The potential energy savings for each technology and the rate at which each technology is adopted in the sector are quantified

  1. Economic impact of the energy transition at the local level. Methodologies and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Christiane; Ustinskaya, Elina

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms that link the energy transition to the stimulation of the economy on the ground is indispensable in terms of more efficient targeting of local energy transition policies. Objective evidence of economic results is required, as is a better understanding of economic analysis methods, in order to equip local and regional authorities with the tools required to demonstrate the economic benefits for all the key players. With the 'Economic impact of the energy transition at a local level - Methodologies and case studies' study, Energy Cities illustrates numerous socio-economic aspects of the energy transition and confirms the local economic benefits, through the use of data. As with any complex, new and diffuse process, this field of research is still not fully understood. Appropriate, high-quality analysis at the local level has rarely been carried out to date and a critical assessment of the methods used is necessary. This study will fill a gap and provide suggestions on potential areas for further research in a range of fields which should be further explored and examined in collaboration with local authorities and voluntary partners. Methodology and results The first part of the study sets out the scope of the study and contains a general description of the impact observed and the potential outcome of transition policies in the main green growth sectors: eco-innovation, the energy performance of buildings, renewable energy, sustainable mobility, recycling and industrial ecology. The analysis then focuses on the feedback of six towns and regions with a policy of active sustainable development (building renovation, support for eco-industries, promotion of soft mobility etc.), presented from the point of view of the economic results observed and the evaluation methods used. The study comprises five European authorities - Brussels, Copenhagen, Hannover, Kirklees and the Greater Paris Region, and one North American authority - Nolan County

  2. Methodology for Analysing Energy Demand in Biogas Production Plants—A Comparative Study of Two Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lindkvist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a circular economy because of the opportunity to produce a renewable fuel from organic waste. However, the production of biogas may require energy in the form of heat and electricity. Therefore, resource-effective biogas production must consider both biological and energy performance. For the individual biogas plant to improve its energy performance, a robust methodology to analyse and evaluate the energy demand on a detailed level is needed. Moreover, to compare the energy performance of different biogas plants, a methodology with a consistent terminology, system boundary and procedure is vital. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for analysing the energy demand in biogas plants on a detailed level. In the methodology, the energy carriers are allocated to: (1 sub-processes (e.g., pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, gas cleaning, (2 unit processes (e.g., heating, mixing, pumping, lighting and (3 a combination of these. For a thorough energy analysis, a combination of allocations is recommended. The methodology was validated by applying it to two different biogas plants. The results show that the methodology is applicable to biogas plants with different configurations of their production system.

  3. A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Novello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.

  4. Wind Energy Development in India and a Methodology for Evaluating Performance of Wind Farm Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With maturity of advanced technologies and urgent requirement for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable price, India is moving towards a trend of generating electricity from renewable resources. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved from a marginal activity into a multibillion dollar industry today. Wind energy power plants, also known as wind farms, comprise multiple wind turbines. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations across the world, evaluating their performance is a complex task and is an important focus for stakeholders. In this work an attempt is made to estimate the performance of wind clusters employing a multicriteria approach. Multiple factors that affect wind farm operations are analyzed by taking experts opinions, and a performance ranking of the wind farms is generated. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by pairwise comparison matrices of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The proposed methodology evaluates wind farm performance based on technical, economic, environmental, and sociological indicators. Both qualitative and quantitative parameters were considered. Empirical data were collected through questionnaire from the selected wind farms of Belagavi district in the Indian State of Karnataka. This proposed methodology is a useful tool for cluster analysis.

  5. A methodology for selection of wind energy system locations using multicriterial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansevic, M.; Rabadan, Lj. Pilic [Croatia Univ., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of a wind turbine generator depends not only on its performance but also on the site`s wind resource. Thus the problem of location selection should be approached systematically, by considering a set of relevant parameters particularly those having a significant economical and ecological impact. This paper presents the methodology used in location selection for the operation of wind energy system. It is based on a multicriterial analysis which enables comparison and ranking of locations according to a set of different parameters. Principal objectives (criteria) in location selection are: energy-economical, technical-technological, physical planning and environment and life protection objectives. For the mathematical modeling of this multicriterial problem the PROMETHEE method is chosen which is developed especially for the solution of rather ``poorly`` structured problems, thus justifying its application in the preliminary stage of site selection for the wind energy systems. The developed methodology is applied in selecting the locations in the island of Rhodes using the available database of the Geographic Information System and the wind potential data obtained by means of the AIOLOS program. (Author)

  6. New evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chengqun; Wang, Guolin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two different contribution ratio evaluation parameters according to the deceleration braking process are proposed. • Methodologies for calculating the contribution made by regenerative brake to improve vehicle energy efficiency are proposed. • Road test results imply that the proposed parameters are effective. - Abstract: Comprehensive research is conducted on the design and control of a regenerative braking system for electric vehicles. The mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to improve electric vehicle’s energy efficiency are discussed and analyzed by the energy flow. Methodologies for calculating the contribution made by regenerative brake are proposed. Additionally a new regenerative braking control strategy called “serial 2 control strategy” is introduced. Moreover, two control strategies called “parallel control strategy” and “serial 1 control strategy” are proposed as the comparative control strategy. Furthermore, two different contribution ratio evaluation parameters according to the deceleration braking process are proposed. Finally, road tests are carried out under China typical city regenerative driving cycle standard with three different control strategies. The serial 2 control strategy offers considerably higher regeneration efficiency than the parallel strategy and serial 1 strategy.

  7. Neutrino energy loss rate in a stellar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, S.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Picardi, I.; Pisanti, O.

    2003-01-01

    We review the purely leptonic neutrino emission processes, contributing to the energy loss rate of the stellar plasma. We perform a complete analysis up to the first order in the electromagnetic coupling constant. In particular the radiative electromagnetic corrections, at order α, to the process e + e - →νν-bar at finite density and temperature have been computed. This process gives one of the main contributions to the cooling of stellar interior in the late stages of star evolution. As a result of the analysis we find that the corrections affect the energy loss rate, computed at tree level, by a factor (-4-1)% in the temperature and density region where the pair annihilation is the most efficient cooling mechanism

  8. Fault on-off versus strain rate and earthquakes energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doglioni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the brittle-ductile transition (BDT controls the seismic cycle. In particular, the movements detected by space geodesy record the steady state deformation in the ductile lower crust, whereas the stick-slip behavior of the brittle upper crust is constrained by its larger friction. GPS data allow analyzing the strain rate along active plate boundaries. In all tectonic settings, we propose that earthquakes primarily occur along active fault segments characterized by relative minima of strain rate, segments which are locked or slowly creeping. We discuss regional examples where large earthquakes happened in areas of relative low strain rate. Regardless the tectonic style, the interseismic stress and strain pattern inverts during the coseismic stage. Where a dilated band formed during the interseismic stage, this will be shortened at the coseismic stage, and vice-versa what was previously shortened, it will be dilated. The interseismic energy accumulation and the coseismic expenditure rather depend on the tectonic setting (extensional, contractional, or strike-slip. The gravitational potential energy dominates along normal faults, whereas the elastic energy prevails for thrust earthquakes and performs work against the gravity force. The energy budget in strike-slip tectonic setting is also primarily due elastic energy. Therefore, precursors may be different as a function of the tectonic setting. In this model, with a given displacement, the magnitude of an earthquake results from the coseismic slip of the deformed volume above the BDT rather than only on the fault length, and it also depends on the fault kinematics.

  9. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A.; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter α that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential. (orig.)

  10. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.

  11. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates in different special care settings: a comparative study of methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago Pereira Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Hand hygiene compliance was reasonably high in these units, as measured by direct observation. However, a lack of correlation with results obtained by other methodologies brings into question the validity of direct observation results, and suggests that periodic audits using other methods may be needed.

  12. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...... on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power...

  13. Proton-proton reaction rates at extreme energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Motohiko

    1993-01-01

    Results on proton-antiproton reaction rates (total cross-section) at collision energies of 1.8 TeV from experiments at Fermilab have suggested a lower rate of increase with energy compared to the extrapolation based on results previously obtained at CERN's proton-antiproton collider (CERN Courier, October 1991). Now an independent estimate of the values for the proton-proton total cross-section for collision energies from 5 to 30 TeV has been provided by the analysis of cosmic ray shower data collected over ten years at the Akeno Observatory operated by the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of University of Tokyo. These results are based on the inelastic cross-section for collisions of cosmic ray protons with air nuclei at energies in the range10 16-18 eV. A new extensive air shower experiment was started at Akeno, 150 km west of Tokyo, in 1979 with a large array of detectors, both on the ground and under a 1-metre concrete absorber. This measured the total numbers of electrons and muons of energies above 1GeV for individual showers with much better accuracy than before. Data collection was almost continuous for ten years without any change in the triggering criteria for showers above10 16 eV. The mean free path for proton-air nuclei collisions has been determined from the zenith angle of the observed frequency of air showers which have the same effective path length for development in the atmosphere and the same primary energy

  14. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  15. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for

  16. Using the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) to evaluate CHENATH, the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme Simulation Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsante, A.E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Highett, VIC (Australia). Div. of Building Construction and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) uses a simulation program as its reference tool to evaluate the energy demand of buildings. The Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) developed software called CHENATH, is a significantly enhanced version of the CHEETAH simulation program. As part of the NatHERS development process, it was considered important to subject CHENATH to further testing. Two separate evaluation projects were undertaken. This paper describes one of these projects. CHENATH was compared with a reference set of eight internationally recognized simulation programs using the BESTEST methodology. Annual heating and cooling energy requirements were compared for a specified set of variations on a simple double-glazed building. Annual incident and transmitted solar radiation was also compared, for which CHENATH agreed very well with the reference set. It also agreed well for heating energy, but tended to over-predict cooling energy. This is largely because it controls an environmental temperature rather than the required air temperature. For the same reason CHENATH over-predicted heating and cooling demands. No major discrepancies were found that would suggest bugs in the program. (author). 4 tabs., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Numerical simulation and analysis of fuzzy PID and PSD control methodologies as dynamic energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardehali, M.M.; Saboori, M.; Teshnelab, M.

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency enhancement is achieved by utilizing control algorithms that reduce overshoots and undershoots as well as unnecessary fluctuations in the amount of energy input to energy consuming systems during transient operation periods. It is hypothesized that application of control methodologies with characteristics that change with time and according to the system dynamics, identified as dynamic energy efficiency measures (DEEM), achieves the desired enhancement. The objective of this study is to simulate and analyze the effects of fuzzy logic based tuning of proportional integral derivative (F-PID) and proportional sum derivative (F-PSD) controllers for a heating and cooling energy system while accounting for the dynamics of the major system components. The procedure to achieve the objective includes utilization of fuzzy logic rules to determine the PID and PSD controllers gain coefficients so that the control laws for regulating the heat exchangers heating or cooling energy inputs are determined in each time step of the operation period. The performances of the F-PID and F-PSD controllers are measured by means of two cost functions that are based on quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a set point temperature. It is found that application of the F-PID control algorithm, as a DEEM, results in lower costs for energy input and deviation from a set point temperature by 24% and 17% as compared to a PID and 13% and 8% as compared to a PSD, respectively. It is also shown that the F-PSD performance is better than that of the F-PID controller

  18. Energy density and rate limitations in structural composite supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. F.; Gienger, E.; Wetzel, E. D.; Xu, K.

    2012-06-01

    The weight and volume of conventional energy storage technologies greatly limits their performance in mobile platforms. Traditional research efforts target improvements in energy density to reduce device size and mass. Enabling a device to perform additional functions, such as bearing mechanical load, is an alternative approach as long as the total mass efficiency exceeds that of the individual materials it replaces. Our research focuses on structural composites that function as batteries and supercapacitors. These multifunctional devices could be used to replace conventional structural components, such as vehicle frame elements, to provide significant system-level weight reductions and extend mission times. Our approach is to design structural properties directly into the electrolyte and electrode materials. Solid polymer electrolyte materials bind the system and transfer load to the fibers while conducting ions between the electrodes. Carbon fiber electrodes provide a route towards optimizing both energy storage and load-bearing capabilities, and may also obviate the need for a separate current collector. The components are being integrated using scalable, cost-effective composite processing techniques that are amenable to complex part shapes. Practical considerations of energy density and rate behavior are described here as they relate to materials used. Our results highlight the viability as well as the challenges of this multifunctional approach towards energy storage.

  19. Energy assessment of nitrogen variable rate fertilization on wheat; Analise energetica da aplicacao de nitrogenio em taxa variavel em trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, A.F.; Karam, E.H.; Romanelli, T.L.; Molin, J.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Biossistemas], Email: andrecolaco@usp.br; Povh, F.P. [Fundacao ABC Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Agropecuario, Castro, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Precision Agriculture (PA) is a technique that can reduce the inputs utilization in agriculture production, including the nitrogen fertilizer consume. Great importance is given to this fertilizer, due to its contribution on energy input in agriculture. Methodologies based on the calculation of energy flow of agriculture systems are capable to identify management practices that use energy more efficiently. So, this study's objective is to evaluate the variable-rate nitrogen fertilization on wheat, using energy assessment. This study was carried on in two wheat fields, in which the fertilization was done adopting strips alternated by conventional method (single nitrogen dose) and by nitrogen variable-rate technology. Thus, the input and output energy in the system, energy balance, energy return on investment (EROI) and incorporated energy were determined for each geo-referenced point within the fields. Results showed that less energy was demanded when using variable-rate technology, due to the nitrogen saving, providing greater energy balance, EROI and lower incorporated energy on the areas managed using PA. The energy assessment showed to be an important tool to evaluate systems that use PA, because it is capable of monitoring crops energy potential. (author)

  20. Methodology for reducing energy and resource costs in construction of trenchless crossover of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper suggests a set of measures to select the equipment and its components in order to reduce energy costs in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well in the constructing the trenchless pipeline crossings of various materials using horizontal directional drilling technology. A methodology for reducing energy costs has been developed by regulating the operation modes of equipment during the process of pulling the working pipeline into a drilled and pre-expanded well. Since the power of the drilling rig is the most important criterion in the selection of equipment for the construction of a trenchless crossover, an algorithm is proposed for calculating the required capacity of the rig when operating in different modes in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well.

  1. Application of methodology for calibration of instruments utilized in dosimetry of high energy beams, for radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria P.A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation qualities recommended by the IEC 1267 standard for the calibration of instruments used in diagnostic radiology measurements were established using a neo-diagnomax X-ray system (125 kV). The RQR radiation qualities are recommended to test ionization chambers used in non attenuated beams, and the RQA radiation qualities in attenuated beams (behind a phantom). To apply the methodology, 6 ionization chambers commonly used in diagnostic radiology were tested. The higher energy dependence (17%) was obtained for an ionization chamber recommended for mammography beams, that is not the case of the X radiation system used in this work. The other ionization chambers presented good performance in terms of energy (maximum of 5%), therefore within the limits of the international recommendations for this kind of instrument. (author)

  2. Some critical methodological issues in secondary analysis of world health organization data on elderly suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-07-01

    Suicides may be misclassified as accidental deaths in countries with strict legal definitions of suicide, with cultural and religious factors leading to poor registration of suicide and stigma attached to suicide. The concordance between four different definitions of suicides was evaluated by examining the relationship between pure suicide and accidental death rates, gender differences, age-associated trends and potential distil risk and protective factors by conducting secondary analysis of the latest World Health Organisation data on elderly death rates. The four definitions of suicide were: (i) one-year pure suicides rates; one-year combined suicide rates (pure suicide rates combined with accidental death rates); (iii) five-year average pure suicide rates; and (iv) five-year average combined suicides rates (pure suicides rates combined with accidental death rates). The predicted negative correlation between pure suicide and accidental death rates was not observed. Gender differences were similar for all four definitions of suicide. There was a highly significant concordance for the findings of age-associated trends between one-year pure and combined suicide rates, one-year and five-year average pure suicide rates, and five-year average pure and combined suicide rates. There was poor concordance between pure and combined suicide rates for both one-year and five-year average data for the 14 potential distil risk and protective factors, but this concordance between one-year and five-year average pure suicide rates was highly significant. The use of one-year pure suicide rates in cross-national ecological studies examining gender differences, age-associated trends and potential distil risk and protective factors is likely to be practical, pragmatic and resource-efficient.

  3. Life-cycle energy optimisation : A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Göransson, Peter; Funazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Edlund, Stefan; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lundow, Jan-Olov; Cerin, Pontus; Cameron, Christopher J.; Wennhage, Per; Potting, José

    2016-01-01

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately...

  4. Compilation and review of methodologies for estimating the comparative electric power system costs for renewable energy systems. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Working Material provides a review of methodologies for estimating the costs of renewable energy systems and the state of art knowledge on stochastic features and economic evaluation methodologies of renewable energy systems for electricity generation in a grid integrated system. It is expected that this material facilitates the wider access by interested persons to sources for relevant comparative assessment activities which are progressing in the IAEA. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. A review on recent size optimization methodologies for standalone solar and wind hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-falahi, Monaaf D.A.; Jayasinghe, S.D.G.; Enshaei, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Possible combinations and configurations for standalone PV-WT HES were discussed. • Most recently used assessment parameters for standalone PV-WT HES were explained. • Optimization algorithms and software tools were comprehensively reviewed. • The recent trend of using hybrid algorithms over single algorithms was discussed. • Optimization algorithms for sizing standalone PV-WT HES were critically compared. - Abstract: Electricity demand in remote and island areas are generally supplied by diesel or other fossil fuel based generation systems. Nevertheless, due to the increasing cost and harmful emissions of fossil fuels there is a growing trend to use standalone hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs). Due to the complementary characteristics, matured technologies and availability in most areas, hybrid systems with solar and wind energy have become the popular choice in such applications. However, the intermittency and high net present cost are the challenges associated with solar and wind energy systems. In this context, optimal sizing is a key factor to attain a reliable supply at a low cost through these standalone systems. Therefore, there has been a growing interest to develop algorithms for size optimization in standalone HRESs. The optimal sizing methodologies reported so far can be broadly categorized as classical algorithms, modern techniques and software tools. Modern techniques, based on single artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, are becoming more popular than classical algorithms owing to their capabilities in solving complex optimization problems. Moreover, in recent years, there has been a clear trend to use hybrid algorithms over single algorithms mainly due to their ability to provide more promising optimization results. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review on recent developments in size optimization methodologies, as well as a critical comparison of single algorithms, hybrid algorithms, and software tools

  6. Integration of Methodologies for the Evaluation of Offer Curves in Energy and Capacity Markets through Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabaldón

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of improving the efficiency, and integration, of renewable sources by 2030–2050 are complex in practice and should be linked to an increase of demand-side flexibility. The main challenges to achieving this flexibility are the lack of incentives and an adequate framework. For instance, customers’ revenue is usually low, the volatility of prices is high and there is not any practical feedback to customers from smart meters. The possibility of increasing customer revenue could reduce the uncertainty with respect to economic concerns, improving investments in efficiency, enabling technology and thus, engaging more customers in these policies. This objective could be achieved by the participation of customers in several markets. Moreover, Demand Response and Energy Efficiency can share ICT technologies but this participation needs to perform an aggregation of demand. The idea of this paper is to present some methodologies for facilitating the definition and evaluation of energy versus cost curves; and subsequently to estimate potential revenues due to Demand Response. This can be accomplished by models that estimate: demand and energy aggregation; economic opportunities and benefits; impacts on customer convenience; customer feedback and price analysis. By doing so, we would have comprehensive information that can help customers and aggregators to define energy packages and their monetary value with the objective of fostering their market participation.

  7. Defense nuclear energy systems selection methodology for civil nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarborough, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology developed to select a preferred nuclear power system for a US Department of Defense (DOD) application has been used to evaluate preferred nuclear power systems for a remote island community in Southeast Asia. The plant would provide ∼10 MW of electric power, possibly low-temperature process heat for the local community, and would supplement existing island diesel electric capacity. The nuclear power system evaluation procedure was evolved from a disciplined methodology for ranking ten nuclear power designs under joint development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOD. These included six designs proposed by industry for the Secure Military Power Plant Program (now termed Multimegawatt Terrestrial Reactor Program), the SP-100 Program, the North Warning System Program, and the Modular Advanced High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) and Liquid-Metal Reactor (LMR) programs. The 15 evaluation criteria established for the civil application were generally similar to those developed and used for the defense energy systems evaluation, except that the weighting factor applied to each individual criterion differed. The criteria and their weighting (importance) functions for the civil application are described

  8. Measurement and verification of low income energy efficiency programs in Brazil: Methodological challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto De; Rodrigues da Silva, Ana Lucia; Melo, Conrado Augustus de; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Dourado Maia Gomes, Rodolfo (State Univ. of Campinas, International Energy Initiative (Brazil))

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities in Brazil are investing about 80 million dollars annually in low-income energy efficiency programs, about half of their total compulsory investments in end-use efficiency programs under current regulation. Since 2007 the regulator has enforced the need to provide evaluation plans for the programs delivered. This paper presents the measurement and verification (MandV) methodology that has been developed to accommodate the characteristics of lighting and refrigerator programs that have been introduced in the Brazilian urban and peri-urban slums. A combination of household surveys, end-use measurements and metering at the transformers and grid levels were performed before and after the program implementation. The methodology has to accommodate the dynamics, housing, electrical wiring and connections of the population as well as their ability to pay for the electricity and program participation. Results obtained in slums in Rio de Janeiro are presented. Impacts of the programs were evaluated in energy terms to households and utilities. Feedback from the evaluations performed also permitted the improvement in the design of new programs for low-income households.

  9. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  10. Pollution prevention through energy efficiency: methodology for evaluating greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widge, V.; Arnold, F.; Karmali, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines an analytical framework for evaluating the potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions through investments in energy efficiency. In particular, it will describe a model called the Energy and Technology Switching (ETS) model which has been developed at ICF Incorporated. The ETS model has several useful capabilities - it can assess the implications of changing the energy efficiency of new shipments and existing stock of equipment and appliances, or even changes in patterns of fuel use. The ETS model predicts energy use, emissions of related carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and private and social costs (such as energy costs, avoided capital and fuel costs). It also tracks changes in fuel and technology use over time for a user specified end-use application. The paper is organized into three parts: - The first part of the paper describes the methodology used in estimating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the associated net costs of policies that could affect energy use. - In order to demonstrate the model's capabilities, in the second part of the paper, a sample analysis is presented. ICF incorporated has used the ETS model to estimate for the Global Change Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the residential and commercial sectors of the U.S. economy, encompassing a wide range of technologies and fuel-types. The assumptions and results of this analysis are presented. - Finally, the paper outlines some of the potential uses of this model in assessing pollution prevention opportunities through energy efficient measures. 11 figs

  11. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  12. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  13. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  14. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... methodology report, however, for convenience the key points of the methodology are listed below with the... fundamentally different sampling plans and research methodologies? Are there ways to encourage owners and...

  15. Tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The challenge of climate change implies to accelerate the pace of innovation and consequently to lead long-term basic and applied research with a planning horizon of several decades, far beyond the conditions of current market development. In such a context, the availability of efficient decision-aiding tools and methodologies, far more advanced than those presently operated, is a critical stake.The different categories of tools will have to be more complementary by design and the overall decision-aiding processes will have to integrate numerous system analysis approaches in order to take into account more deeply all economical, environmental and societal impacts. The general goal of the workshop was to address this imperative to break new ground in decision-aiding tools and methodologies to help us to prioritize energy R and D options, comparing the needs jointly with the state of art and with the potentiality of breakthroughs, mainly in environmental and social sciences. The expected outcome was to characterize the scope and limits of existing decision-aiding processes, to highlight the perspectives towards more advanced new ones, and, as such, to foster interdisciplinary cooperation by linking more closely social and environmental sciences with energy socio-economic modelling research. The workshop included four parts. The first three addressed specialized sessions, outlining three different categories of tools. The fourth one was dedicated to the perspective of a combined use of these complementary tools in order to have methodologies available for covering the whole field of energy and social sciences issues. After this last session, there was a closing synthesis of the two day's work on the challenges to take up and the ways to go. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: H2A Project/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (G. Sverdrup); E3DataBase/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (J. Schindler); Micro-economic modelling for evaluation

  16. Tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The challenge of climate change implies to accelerate the pace of innovation and consequently to lead long-term basic and applied research with a planning horizon of several decades, far beyond the conditions of current market development. In such a context, the availability of efficient decision-aiding tools and methodologies, far more advanced than those presently operated, is a critical stake.The different categories of tools will have to be more complementary by design and the overall decision-aiding processes will have to integrate numerous system analysis approaches in order to take into account more deeply all economical, environmental and societal impacts. The general goal of the workshop was to address this imperative to break new ground in decision-aiding tools and methodologies to help us to prioritize energy R and D options, comparing the needs jointly with the state of art and with the potentiality of breakthroughs, mainly in environmental and social sciences. The expected outcome was to characterize the scope and limits of existing decision-aiding processes, to highlight the perspectives towards more advanced new ones, and, as such, to foster interdisciplinary cooperation by linking more closely social and environmental sciences with energy socio-economic modelling research. The workshop included four parts. The first three addressed specialized sessions, outlining three different categories of tools. The fourth one was dedicated to the perspective of a combined use of these complementary tools in order to have methodologies available for covering the whole field of energy and social sciences issues. After this last session, there was a closing synthesis of the two day's work on the challenges to take up and the ways to go. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: H2A Project/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (G. Sverdrup); E3DataBase/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (J. Schindler); Micro-economic modelling for evaluation of

  17. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  18. Research to reduce the suicide rate among older adults: methodology roadblocks and promising paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Lenze, Eric J; Waern, Margda; Duberstein, Paul; Bruce, Martha L; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention have requested input into the development of a national suicide research agenda. In response, a working group of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry has prepared recommendations to ensure that the suicide prevention dialogue includes older adults, a large and fast-growing population at high risk of suicide. In this Open Forum, the working group describes three methodology roadblocks to research into suicide prevention among elderly persons and three paradigms that might provide directions for future research into suicide prevention strategies for older adults.

  19. Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, L; Piccolroaz, A; Mishuris, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated

  20. A methodology to determine the power performance of wave energy converters at a particular coastal location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, R.; Iglesias, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a method to accurately compute the power output of a WEC at a site. ► The analysis of the wave resource is integrated seamlessly with the WEC efficiency. ► The intra-annual variability of the resource is considered. ► The method is illustrated with a case study: a WEC projected to be built in Spain. - Abstract: The assessment of the power performance of a wave energy converter (WEC) at a given site involves two tasks: (i) the characterisation of the wave resource at the site in question, and (ii) the computation of its power performance. These tasks are generally seen as disconnected, and tackled as such; they are, however, deeply interrelated – so much so that they should be treated as two phases of the same procedure. Indeed, beyond the characterisation of the wave resource of a certain area lies a crucial question: how much power would a WEC installed in that area output to the network? This work has two main objectives. First, to develop a methodology that integrates both tasks seamlessly and guarantees the accurate computation of the power performance of a WEC installed at a site of interest; it involves a large dataset of deepwater records and the implementation of a high-resolution, nested spectral model, which is used to propagate 95% of the total offshore wave energy to the WEC site. The second objective is to illustrate this methodology with a case study: an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) projected to be constructed at the breakwater of A Guarda (NW Spain). It is found that the approach presented allows to accurately determine the power that the WEC will output to the network, and that this power exhibits a significant monthly variability, so an estimate of the energy production based on mean annual values may be misleading.

  1. Motor systems energy efficiency supply curves: A methodology for assessing the energy efficiency potential of industrial motor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Aimee; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States, Canada, the European Union, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil, bottom-up energy efficiency supply curve models were constructed to estimate the cost-effective electricity efficiency potentials and CO 2 emission reduction for three types of motor systems (compressed air, pumping, and fan) in industry for the selected countries/region. Based on these analyses, the share of cost-effective electricity saving potential of these systems as compared to the total motor system energy use in the base year varies between 27% and 49% for pumping, 21% and 47% for compressed air, and 14% and 46% for fan systems. The total technical saving potential varies between 43% and 57% for pumping, 29% and 56% for compressed air, and 27% and 46% for fan systems. - Highlights: → Development of conservation supply curves for the industrial motor systems. → An innovative approach combining available aggregate country-level data with expert opinion. → Results show both cost-effective and technical potential for energy saving and their costs. → Policy implication of the results are briefly discussed.

  2. Do African and European energy stakeholders agree on key energy drivers in Africa? Using Q methodology to understand perceptions on energy access debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret N.; Pinedo-Pascua, Irene; Vervaeke, Jonathan; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Szabó, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Q methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on how best to address energy issues in Africa. We sampled a group of stakeholders involved in various energy sub-sectors to uncover perspectives on how to achieve and promote access to modern energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy in Africa, whether the perceptions could be correlated to educational or geographical background and implications such patterns could have on policies and current dialogues. We found that all stakeholders agree on the need to prioritise sustainability but had different views on how to achieve sustainable energy for all in Africa, depending on the relevance given to each energy driver. Stakeholders could be categorised into four groups: (I) preference of large-scale high-impact projects; (II) supporters of targeted sectoral solutions with preference for small-scale technology and microfinance; (III) supporters of centralised solutions with preference for grid extension, and (IV) supporters of local entrepreneurship with scepticism about centralised solutions. The results show that differences in stakeholders’ perceptions can be associated with respondents’ educational but not geographical background. This implies that dialogues on energy in Africa should focus on inter-disciplinary understanding while further examining the trans-continent consensus that appears to have been established. - Highlights: • We use Q-methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on energy issues in Africa. • We assess whether background results in different perceptions among stakeholders. • We identify four main factor groups and only one group supports grid extension. • Results challenge assumptions that African and European viewpoints differ. • More interdisciplinary dialogue is needed while supporting geographic consensus

  3. Heart rate variability in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusik, P S; Matusik, P T; Stein, P K

    2018-07-01

    Aim The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge about the scientific findings and potential clinical utility of heart rate variability measures in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched for the terms associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and heart rate variability, including controlled vocabulary, when appropriate. Articles published in English and available in full text were considered. Finally, 11 publications were selected, according to the systematic review protocol and were analyzed. Results In general, heart rate variability, measured in the time and frequency domains, was reported to be decreased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus compared with controls. In some systemic lupus erythematosus studies, heart rate variability was found to correlate with inflammatory markers and albumin levels. A novel heart rate variability measure, heart rate turbulence onset, was shown to be increased, while heart rate turbulence slope was decreased in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Reports of associations of changes in heart rate variability parameters with increasing systemic lupus erythematosus activity were inconsistent, showing decreasing heart rate variability or no relationship. However, the low/high frequency ratio was, in some studies, reported to increase with increasing disease activity or to be inversely correlated with albumin levels. Conclusions Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have abnormal heart rate variability, which reflects cardiac autonomic dysfunction and may be related to inflammatory cytokines but not necessarily to disease activity. Thus measurement of heart rate variability could be a useful clinical tool for monitoring autonomic dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus, and may potentially provide prognostic information.

  4. Novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique for shutdown dose rate analyses of fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Develop the novel Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic method for multi-step shielding analyses. •Accurately calculate shutdown dose rates using full-scale Monte Carlo models of fusion energy systems. •Demonstrate the dramatic efficiency improvement of the MS-CADIS method for the rigorous two step calculations of the shutdown dose rate in fusion reactors. -- Abstract: The rigorous 2-step (R2S) computational system uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the R2S neutron transport calculation. However, the prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their ability to accurately predict the SDDR in fusion energy systems using full-scale modeling of an entire fusion plant. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic methodology that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) methodology speeds up the R2S neutron Monte Carlo calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminary results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the efficiency enhancement compared to analog Monte Carlo is higher than a factor of 10,000

  5. Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the world’s population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

  6. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  7. Find-rate methodology and resource base estimates of the Hydrocarbon Supply Model (1990 update). Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.

    1991-02-01

    The Hydrocarbon Supply Model is used to develop long-term trends in Lower-48 gas production and costs. The model utilizes historical find-rate patterns to predict the discovery rate and size distribution of future oil and gas field discoveries. The report documents the methodologies used to quantify historical oil and gas field find-rates and to project those discovery patterns for future drilling. It also explains the theoretical foundations for the find-rate approach. The new field and reserve growth resource base is documented and compared to other published estimates. The report has six sections. Section 1 provides background information and an overview of the model. Sections 2, 3, and 4 describe the theoretical foundations of the model, the databases, and specific techniques used. Section 5 presents the new field resource base by region and depth. Section 6 documents the reserve growth model components

  8. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  9. Pilot States Program report: Home energy ratings systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.

    2000-04-04

    This report covers the accomplishments of the home energy ratings systems/energy-efficient mortgages (HERS/EEMs) pilot states from 1993 through 1998, including such indicators as funding, ratings and EEMs achieved, active raters, and training and marketing activities. A brief description of each HERS program's evolution is included, as well as their directors' views of the programs' future prospects. Finally, an analysis is provided of successful HERS program characteristics and factors that appear to contribute to HERS program success.

  10. Mixing rates of particle systems with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigo, A; Khanin, K; Szász, D

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics is the derivation of macroscopic transport equations in the hydrodynamic limit. The rigorous study of such limits requires detailed information about rates of convergence to equilibrium for finite sized systems. In this paper, we consider the finite lattice {1, 2, …, N}, with an energy x i ∈ (0, ∞) associated with each site. The energies evolve according to a Markov jump process with nearest neighbour interaction such that the total energy is preserved. We prove that for an entire class of such models the spectral gap of the generator of the Markov process scales as O(N -2 ). Furthermore, we provide a complete classification of reversible stationary distributions of product type. We demonstrate that our results apply to models similar to the billiard lattice model considered in Gaspard and Gilbert (2009 J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. 2009 24), and hence provide a first step in the derivation of a macroscopic heat equation for a microscopic stochastic evolution of mechanical origin. (paper)

  11. Risk vs. Reward: A Methodology to Assess Investment in Marine Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hutcheson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of WEC (wave energy converter projects are expensive and pose a large risk to a developer. Currently no developers have been successful in commercialising a WEC. So far, many wave energy feasibility studies have only considered the LCOE (levelised cost of electricity, assessing investment in marine energy technologies from a purely financial point of view. No previous studies have, however, explicitly accounted for development risk as well as the LCOE to determine the feasibility of a project. This paper proposes a new methodology that can be used to account for both risk and the LCOE to give a clearer picture of the feasibility of a WEC development. By combining the LCOE and risk score for a particular development, the “value for risk” can be calculated, presented here as the “RR ratio” (“Risk/Reward ratio”. A number of case studies were chosen to test the model, investigating the RR ratio for a number of different WEC technologies and ranking them to suggest an optimal development path for the industry. Results showed that projects that combine many innovative technologies provide the best “value for risk”. These devices overall had the highest risk, suggesting that multiple developers are likely required to collaborate in order to reduce the risk down to acceptable levels for each.

  12. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  13. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internal contamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy 109 Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 π proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin 109 Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  14. A RISK BASED METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS IN TRADITIONALLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Herrera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the CO2 reduction targets set by the Scottish government, it will be necessary to improve the energy efficiency of existing buildings. Within the total Scottish building stock, historic and traditionally constructed buildings are an important proportion, in the order of 19 % (Curtis, 2010, and represent cultural, emotional and identity values that should be protected. However, retrofit interventions could be a complex operation because of the several aspects that are involved in the hygrothermal performance of traditional buildings. Moreover, all these factors interact with each other and therefore need to be analysed as a whole. Upgrading the envelope of traditional buildings may produce severe changes to the moisture migration leading to superficial or interstitial condensation and thus fabric decay and mould growth. Retrofit projects carried out in the past have failed because of the misunderstanding, or the lack of expert prediction, of the potential consequences associated to the envelope's alteration. The evaluation of potential risks, prior to any alteration on building's physics in order to improve its energy efficiency, is critical to avoid future damage on the wall's performance or occupants' health and well being. The aim of this PhD research project is to point out the most critical aspects related to the energy efficiency improvement of traditional buildings and to develop a risk based methodology that helps owners and practitioners during the decision making process.

  15. Testing a SEA methodology for the energy sector: a waste incineration tax proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Bjoerklund, Anna; Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been preoccupied with SEA as a procedure and there are relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. This paper applies and tests an analytical framework for an energy sector SEA. In a case study on a policy proposal for waste-to-energy taxation in Sweden, it studies changes in the energy system as a result of implementing the suggested tax by testing three analytical pathways: an LCA pathway, a site-dependent pathway, and a qualitative pathway. In addition, several valuation methods are applied. The assessment indicates that there are some overall environmental benefits to introducing a tax, but that benefits are modest compared to the potential. The methods are discussed in relation to characteristics for effective policy learning and knowledge uptake. The application shows that in many ways they complement each other rather than substitute for each other. The qualitative pathway is useful for raising awareness and getting a comprehensive view of environmental issues, but has limited potential for decision support. The precision increased as we went to LCA and to site-dependent analysis, and a hierarchy emerged in which the qualitative pathway filled rudimentary functions whereas the site-dependent analysis gave more advanced decision support. All methods had limited potential in supporting a choice between alternatives unless data was aggregated through a valuation exercise

  16. A methodology for analysis of impacts of grid integration of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Mel; Banerjee, Rangan

    2011-01-01

    Present electricity grids are predominantly thermal (coal, gas) and hydro based. Conventional power planning involves hydro-thermal scheduling and merit order dispatch. In the future, modern renewables (hydro, solar and biomass) are likely to have a significant share in the power sector. This paper presents a method to analyse the impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. A load duration curve based approach has been developed. Renewable energy sources have been treated as negative loads to obtain a modified load duration curve from which capacity savings in terms of base and peak load generation can be computed. The methodology is illustrated for solar, wind and biomass power for Tamil Nadu (a state in India). The trade-offs and interaction between renewable sources are analysed. The impacts on capacity savings by varying the wind regime have also been shown. Scenarios for 2021-22 have been constructed to illustrate the methodology proposed. This technique can be useful for power planners for an analysis of renewables in future electricity grids. - Research highlights: → A new method to analyse impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. → Effects of wind, solar PV and biomass power on load duration curve and capacity savings are shown. → Illustration of intermittent renewables and their interplay for sites in India and the UK. → Future scenarios constructed for generation expansion planning with higher levels of renewable.

  17. A Methodology for Comparative Assessment of Energy Options: The Case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Francois, Juan-Luis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology to measure the sustainability of alternatives for electricity generation. It is based on the evaluation of indicators in three dimensions of sustainability. No single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all indicators and it was necessary the application of a method to make the aggregation of all the indicators, taking into account the relative importance in the decision. In this study, a fuzzy logic inference system was developed to build a decision function that depends on all the indicators. The purpose is to rank the energy options in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. All the decision elements are combined and integrated in an inference logic system that takes into account weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to evaluate the sustainability of nuclear, wind, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil technologies under Mexican conditions. When only the economic dimension is considered nuclear is the best option, if the environmental dimension is also considered the nuclear option is the best alternative too. When the social dimension is also taken into account the nuclear option is the worst. These results are obtained using the same weight to each dimension to accomplish with the equilibrium principle of the sustainability. (authors)

  18. Calculating economy-wide energy intensity decline rate: The role of sectoral output and energy shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, Soham; Green, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We specify formulas for computing the rate of decline in economy-wide energy intensity by aggregating its two determinants-technical efficiency improvements in the various sectors of the economy, and shifts in economic activity among these sectors. The formulas incorporate the interdependence between sectoral shares, and establish a one-to-one relation between sectoral output and energy shares. This helps to eliminate future energy intensity decline scenarios which involve implausible values of either sectoral share. An illustrative application of the formulas is provided, using within-sector efficiency improvement estimates suggested by Lightfoot-Green and Harvey

  19. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...

  20. Investigation of the existing methodology of value estimation and methods of discount rate estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Plikus, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The subject of research is the current practice of determining the fair value of assets and liabilities at the present (discounted) cost. One of the most problematic places is the determination of the discount rate, which belongs to the jurisdiction of a professional accountant judgment.The methods of formalization, hypothetical assumption, system approach and scientific abstraction in substantiating the formation of accounting policy with respect to the choice of the discount rate are used i...

  1. An analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Chung, Hae Yong; Lee, Sang Jong

    1996-07-01

    An analysis methodology for the hot leg break mass and energy release is developed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A analysis is suggested. For the post-blowdown period a new computer model named COMET is developed. Differently from previous post-blowdown analysis model FLOOD3, COMET is capable of analyzing both cold leg and hot leg break cases. The cold leg break model is essentially same as that of FLOOD3 with some improvements. The analysis results by the newly proposed hot leg break model in the COMET is in the same trend as those observed in scaled-down integral experiment. And the analyses results for the UCN 3 and 4 by COMET are qualitatively and quantitatively in good agreement with those predicted by best-estimate analysis by using RELAP5/MOD3. Therefore, the COMET code is validated and can be used for the licensing analysis. 6 tabs., 82 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  2. A Physics-Based Engineering Methodology for Calculating Soft Error Rates of Bulk CMOS and SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, David E.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for characterizing the electrical behavior and soft error rate (SER) of CMOS and SiGe HBT integrated circuits that are struck by ions. A typical engineering design problem is to calculate the SER of a critical path that commonly includes several circuits such as an input buffer, several logic gates, logic storage, clock tree circuitry, and an output buffer. Using multiple 3D TCAD simulations to solve this problem is too costly and time-consuming for general engineering use. The new and simple methodology handles the problem with ease by simple SPICE simulations. The methodology accurately predicts the measured threshold linear energy transfer (LET) of a bulk CMOS SRAM. It solves for circuit currents and voltage spikes that are close to those predicted by expensive 3D TCAD simulations. It accurately predicts the measured event cross-section vs. LET curve of an experimental SiGe HBT flip-flop. The experimental cross section vs. frequency behavior and other subtle effects are also accurately predicted.

  3. Comparison of methodological quality rating of systematic reviews on neuropathic pain using AMSTAR and R-AMSTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Vucic, Katarina; Markovina, Nikolina; Pieper, Dawid; Puljak, Livia

    2018-05-08

    quality ratings. Our results point out to weaknesses in the methodology of existing SRs on interventions for the management NeuP and call for future improvement by better adherence to analyzed quality checklists, either AMSTAR or R-AMSTAR.

  4. National status report: Home energy rating systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.

    2000-04-27

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 included several provisions promoting the use of HERS and EEMs, which strengthened efforts to develop a national infrastructure for HERS and to promote the use of EEMs. This report documents HERS and EEMs activities since 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, mortgage lenders, and other organizations. Though the process of establishing HERS has faced some barriers, this report shows that, as of November 1999, home energy ratings were available in 47 states and the District of Columbia, which represents a significant increase from 1993 when home energy ratings were available in 17 states. Both national and state organizations have developed HERS and related residential energy-efficiency programs. The availability and use of EEMs has also increased significantly. The number of EEMs supported by the Federal Housing Administration has increased more than eight times in the last three years. More than $2.5 billion in federally supported EEMs have been issued to date. Several national lenders offer EEMs, and six states have state-specific EEM or loan programs. EEMs have been used to finance energy-efficient homes in every state.

  5. Synergy between building rating systems and design methodology for intellingent and green buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Plesser, S.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong need for more efficient and more sustainable buildings. At present it is difficult to define the performance of buildings in an objective way to efficiency and sustainability. Goal of this project is to examine and to understand differences between different building rating systems

  6. Implementation of a Refined Shear Rating Methodology for Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Lower than desirable shear ratings at the ends of prestressed concrete beams have been the topic of ongoing research between MnDOT and the University of Minnesota. A recent study by the University of Minnesota entitled Investigation of Shear Distribu...

  7. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports re......, which may aid to clarify the thinking of coaches and sports scientists in this area....

  8. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, John [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Molecular and Radiological Biosciences Building, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We propose a radiation detection system which generates its own discrete sampling distribution based on past measurements of background. The advantage to this approach is that it can take into account variations in background with respect to time, location, energy spectra, detector-specific characteristics (i.e. different efficiencies at different count rates and energies), etc. This would therefore be a 'machine learning' approach, in which the algorithm updates and improves its characterization of background over time. The system would have a 'learning mode,' in which it measures and analyzes background count rates, and a 'detection mode,' in which it compares measurements from an unknown source against its unique background distribution. By characterizing and accounting for variations in the background, general purpose radiation detectors can be improved with little or no increase in cost. The statistical and computational techniques to perform this kind of analysis have already been developed. The necessary signal analysis can be accomplished using existing Bayesian algorithms which account for multiple channels, multiple detectors, and multiple time intervals. Furthermore, Bayesian machine-learning techniques have already been developed which, with trivial modifications, can generate appropriate decision thresholds based on the comparison of new measurements against a nonparametric sampling distribution. (authors)

  9. Variationally Optimized Free-Energy Flooding for Rate Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, James; Valsson, Omar; Tiwary, Pratyush; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to obtain kinetic properties of infrequent events from molecular dynamics simulation. The procedure employs a recently introduced variational approach [Valsson and Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 090601 (2014)] to construct a bias potential as a function of several collective variables that is designed to flood the associated free energy surface up to a predefined level. The resulting bias potential effectively accelerates transitions between metastable free energy minima while ensuring bias-free transition states, thus allowing accurate kinetic rates to be obtained. We test the method on a few illustrative systems for which we obtain an order of magnitude improvement in efficiency relative to previous approaches and several orders of magnitude relative to unbiased molecular dynamics. We expect an even larger improvement in more complex systems. This and the ability of the variational approach to deal efficiently with a large number of collective variables will greatly enhance the scope of these calculations. This work is a vindication of the potential that the variational principle has if applied in innovative ways.

  10. Improvement of energy expenditure prediction from heart rate during running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Keyne; Borne, Rachel; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chapelot, Didier; Pichon, Aurélien; Cornolo, Jérémy; Brugniaux, Julien Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to develop new equations that predict exercise-induced energy expenditure (EE) more accurately than previous ones during running by including new parameters as fitness level, body composition and/or running intensity in addition to heart rate (HR). Original equations predicting EE were created from data obtained during three running intensities (25%, 50% and 70% of HR reserve) performed by 50 subjects. Five equations were conserved according to their accuracy assessed from error rates, interchangeability and correlations analyses: one containing only basic parameters, two containing VO 2max  or speed at VO 2max  and two including running speed with or without HR. Equations accuracy was further tested in an independent sample during a 40 min validation test at 50% of HR reserve. It appeared that: (1) the new basic equation was more accurate than pre-existing equations (R 2  0.809 versus. 0,737 respectively); (2) the prediction of EE was more accurate with the addition of VO 2max  (R 2  = 0.879); and (3) the equations containing running speed were the most accurate and were considered to have good agreement with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, EE estimation during running might be significantly improved by including running speed in the predictive models, a parameter readily available with treadmill or GPS. (paper)

  11. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares; Lima, Wagner da Silva

    1999-01-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  12. Saving money vs investing money: Do energy ratings influence consumer demand for energy efficient goods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzone, Luca A.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses economic barriers leading to the energy efficiency gap in the market for energy-using products by observing several million transactions in the UK over two years. The empirical exercise estimates AIDS models for refrigerators, washing machines, TVs, and light bulbs. Results indicate that market barriers are crucial in the demand for energy efficient options, and consumer response to changes in appliance prices, total expenditures, and energy prices depends on the possibility of behavioural adjustments in consumption. In contrast with the induced innovation hypothesis, current electricity prices can fail to induce innovation because of their short-term impact on disposable income, while consumers invest in energy efficiency when expecting electricity prices to rise in the future. - Highlights: • The article analyses economic barriers to energy efficiency in the UK. • Data refers to 2-year sales of refrigerators, washing machines, TV, and light bulbs. • Demand parameters by efficiency rating are estimated from four AIDS models. • Future (not present) electricity prices induce investments in energy efficiency. • Behavioural efficiency adjustments explain differences in market response

  13. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Knol, Dirk L; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2012-05-01

    The COSMIN checklist is a standardized tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. It contains 9 boxes, each dealing with one measurement property, with 5-18 items per box about design aspects and statistical methods. Our aim was to develop a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist to calculate quality scores per measurement property when using the checklist in systematic reviews of measurement properties. The scoring system was developed based on discussions among experts and testing of the scoring system on 46 articles from a systematic review. Four response options were defined for each COSMIN item (excellent, good, fair, and poor). A quality score per measurement property is obtained by taking the lowest rating of any item in a box ("worst score counts"). Specific criteria for excellent, good, fair, and poor quality for each COSMIN item are described. In defining the criteria, the "worst score counts" algorithm was taken into consideration. This means that only fatal flaws were defined as poor quality. The scores of the 46 articles show how the scoring system can be used to provide an overview of the methodological quality of studies included in a systematic review of measurement properties. Based on experience in testing this scoring system on 46 articles, the COSMIN checklist with the proposed scoring system seems to be a useful tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies included in systematic reviews of measurement properties.

  14. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1734-000] Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. Current status and methodological aspects on the measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, M.; Hignette, C.; Kolar, P.; Prigent, A.; Paillard, M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) contribute to our understanding of kidney physiology and pathophysiology . Moreover, determination of GFR is of clinical importance in assessing the diagnosis and the progression of renal disease. The purpose of this article is to review the technical performance and results of GFR measurements, including the classical inulin clearance technique and more recent alternative clearance techniques using radioisotope-labelled filtration markers, bolus infusion and spontaneous bladder emptying. Some simplified techniques avoiding urinary collection are also described. We conclude that estimation of GFR from renal and in some cases plasmatic clearances is accurate and more convenient than the classical inulin clearance technique. Such measurements of GFR should be included both in clinical practice and clinical research. (authors). 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Evaluation of the impact of disease prevention measures: a methodological note on defining incidence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Bun Cheung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In studies of recurrent events, it is common to consider a person who has suffered a disease episode and received curative treatment to be not at risk of suffering a new episode for a duration of time. It is a common practice to deduct this duration from the person’s observation time in the statistical analysis of the incidence data. Methods We examined the concepts of incidence and protective efficacy from a real life point of view. We developed simple formulae to show the relationship between the incidence rate and protective efficacy between analyses with and without deducting the curative treatment time from the observation time. We used a malaria chemoprevention and a malaria vaccine study, both previously published, to illustrate the differences. Results Applying the formulae we derived to a range of disease incidence that covered the two case studies, we demonstrated the divergence of the two sets of estimates when incidence rate is approximately 1 per person-year or higher. In the malaria chemoprevention study, incidence was 5.40 per person-year after the deduction of curative treatment time from observation time but 4.48 per person-year without the deduction. The chemoprevention offered 56.6 and 50.7% protection calculated with and without the deduction, respectively. In the malaria vaccine study, where disease incidence was much lower than one, the results between the two ways of analysis were similar. For answering real life questions about disease burden in the population in a calendar year and the reduction that may be achieved if an intervention is implemented, the definition without deduction of curative treatment time should be used. Conclusions The practice of deducting curative treatment time from observation time is not wrong, but it is not always the best approach. Investigators should consider the appropriateness of the two analytic procedures in relation to the specific research aims and the intended

  17. Methodological aspects of crossover and maximum fat-oxidation rate point determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallet, A-S; Tonini, J; Regnier, J; Guinot, M; Favre-Juvin, A; Bricout, V; Halimi, S; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2008-11-01

    Indirect calorimetry during exercise provides two metabolic indices of substrate oxidation balance: the crossover point (COP) and maximum fat oxidation rate (LIPOXmax). We aimed to study the effects of the analytical device, protocol type and ventilatory response on variability of these indices, and the relationship with lactate and ventilation thresholds. After maximum exercise testing, 14 relatively fit subjects (aged 32+/-10 years; nine men, five women) performed three submaximum graded tests: one was based on a theoretical maximum power (tMAP) reference; and two were based on the true maximum aerobic power (MAP). Gas exchange was measured concomitantly using a Douglas bag (D) and an ergospirometer (E). All metabolic indices were interpretable only when obtained by the D reference method and MAP protocol. Bland and Altman analysis showed overestimation of both indices with E versus D. Despite no mean differences between COP and LIPOXmax whether tMAP or MAP was used, the individual data clearly showed disagreement between the two protocols. Ventilation explained 10-16% of the metabolic index variations. COP was correlated with ventilation (r=0.96, P<0.01) and the rate of increase in blood lactate (r=0.79, P<0.01), and LIPOXmax correlated with the ventilation threshold (r=0.95, P<0.01). This study shows that, in fit healthy subjects, the analytical device, reference used to build the protocol and ventilation responses affect metabolic indices. In this population, and particularly to obtain interpretable metabolic indices, we recommend a protocol based on the true MAP or one adapted to include the transition from fat to carbohydrate. The correlation between metabolic indices and lactate/ventilation thresholds suggests that shorter, classical maximum progressive exercise testing may be an alternative means of estimating these indices in relatively fit subjects. However, this needs to be confirmed in patients who have metabolic defects.

  18. A small-world methodology of analysis of interchange energy-networks: The European behaviour in the economical crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.

    2013-01-01

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and reliable supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted a proper energy policy for Europe supported by several documents and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and systemic view of energy interchanges between states was missing. In this paper, a Small-World methodology of analysis of Interchange Energy-Networks (IENs) is presented, with the aim of providing a useful tool for planning sustainable energy policies. A proof case is presented to validate the methodology by considering the European IEN behaviour in the period of economical crisis. This network is approached as a Small World Net from a modelling point of view, by supposing that connections between States are characterised by a probability value depending on economic/political relations between countries. - Highlights: • Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. • Panel data from 1996 to 2010 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. • The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. • Interesting systemic tool for ruling and governing energy flows between countries

  19. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for changing feedwater check valve leakage rate testing methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.; Harrell, J.

    1996-12-01

    The current design and testing requirements for the feedwater check valves (FWCVs) at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station are established from original licensing requirements that necessitate extremely restrictive air testing with tight allowable leakage limits. As a direct result of these requirements, the original high endurance hard seats in the FWCVs were modified with elastomeric seals to provide a sealing surface capable of meeting the stringent air leakage limits. However, due to the relatively short functional life of the elastomeric seals compared to the hard seats, the overall reliability of the sealing function actually decreased. This degraded performance was exhibited by frequent seal failures and subsequent valve repairs. The original requirements were based on limited analysis and the belief that all of the high energy feedwater vaporized during the LOCA blowdown. These phenomena would have resulted in completely voided feedwater lines and thus a steam environment within the feedwater leak pathway. To challenge these criteria, a comprehensive design basis accident analysis was developed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. Realistic assumptions were used to more accurately model the post-accident fluid conditions within the feedwater system. The results of this analysis demonstrated that no leak path exists through the feedwater lines during the reactor blowdown phase and that sufficient subcooled water remains in various portions of the feedwater piping to form liquid water loop seals that effectively isolate this leak path. These results provided the bases for changing the leak testing requirements of the FWCVs from air to water. The analysis results also established more accurate allowable leakage limits, determined the real effective margins associated with the FWCV safety functions, and led to design changes that improved the overall functional performance of the valves.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for changing feedwater check valve leakage rate testing methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Harrell, J.

    1996-01-01

    The current design and testing requirements for the feedwater check valves (FWCVs) at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station are established from original licensing requirements that necessitate extremely restrictive air testing with tight allowable leakage limits. As a direct result of these requirements, the original high endurance hard seats in the FWCVs were modified with elastomeric seals to provide a sealing surface capable of meeting the stringent air leakage limits. However, due to the relatively short functional life of the elastomeric seals compared to the hard seats, the overall reliability of the sealing function actually decreased. This degraded performance was exhibited by frequent seal failures and subsequent valve repairs. The original requirements were based on limited analysis and the belief that all of the high energy feedwater vaporized during the LOCA blowdown. These phenomena would have resulted in completely voided feedwater lines and thus a steam environment within the feedwater leak pathway. To challenge these criteria, a comprehensive design basis accident analysis was developed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. Realistic assumptions were used to more accurately model the post-accident fluid conditions within the feedwater system. The results of this analysis demonstrated that no leak path exists through the feedwater lines during the reactor blowdown phase and that sufficient subcooled water remains in various portions of the feedwater piping to form liquid water loop seals that effectively isolate this leak path. These results provided the bases for changing the leak testing requirements of the FWCVs from air to water. The analysis results also established more accurate allowable leakage limits, determined the real effective margins associated with the FWCV safety functions, and led to design changes that improved the overall functional performance of the valves

  1. From quantum chemical formation free energies to evaporation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. Large efforts have been made during the past few years to identify which molecules are behind this phenomenon, but the actual birth mechanism of the particles is not yet well known. Quantum chemical calculations have proven to be a powerful tool to gain new insights into the very first steps of particle formation. In the present study we use formation free energies calculated by quantum chemical methods to estimate the evaporation rates of species from sulfuric acid clusters containing ammonia or dimethylamine. We have found that dimethylamine forms much more stable clusters with sulphuric acid than ammonia does. On the other hand, the existence of a very deep local minimum for clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules and two dimethylamine molecules hinders their growth to larger clusters. These results indicate that other compounds may be needed to make clusters grow to larger sizes (containing more than three sulfuric acid molecules.

  2. Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Project in Offshore Southeast Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinick, Charles; Riccobono, Antonino, MS; Messing, Charles G., Ph.D.; Walker, Brian K., Ph.D.; Reed, John K., Ph.D.

    2012-02-28

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC was awarded a grant by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Golden Field Office for a project titled 'Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Project in Offshore Southeast Florida,' corresponding to DOE Grant Award Number DE-EE0002655 resulting from DOE funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-0000069 for Topic Area 2, and it is referred to herein as 'the project.' The purpose of the project was to enhance the certainty of the survey requirements and regulatory review processes for the purpose of reducing the time, efforts, and costs associated with initial siting efforts of marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion facilities that may be proposed in the Atlantic Ocean offshore Southeast Florida. To secure early input from agencies, protocols were developed for collecting baseline geophysical information and benthic habitat data that can be used by project developers and regulators to make decisions early in the process of determining project location (i.e., the siting process) that avoid or minimize adverse impacts to sensitive marine benthic habitat. It is presumed that such an approach will help facilitate the licensing process for hydrokinetic and other ocean renewable energy projects within the study area and will assist in clarifying the baseline environmental data requirements described in the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (formerly Minerals Management Service) final regulations on offshore renewable energy (30 Code of Federal Regulations 285, published April 29, 2009). Because projects generally seek to avoid or minimize impacts to sensitive marine habitats, it was not the intent of this project to investigate areas that did not appear suitable for the siting of ocean renewable energy projects. Rather, a two-tiered approach was designed with the first step consisting of gaining overall insight

  3. A Methodology for Production and Cost Assessment of a Farm of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beels, C.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    to the sea through hydro turbines. It is observed that the cable cost is relatively small compared to the cost of the WD–WECs. As a result, WD–WECs should be installed in a lay-out to increase power production rather than decrease cable cost, taking spatial and safety considerations into account. WD......To generate a substantial amount of power, Wave Energy Converters (WECs) are arranged in several rows or in a ‘farm’. Both the power production and cost of a farm are lay-out dependent. In this paper, the wave power redistribution in and around three farm lay-outs in a near shore North Sea wave...... climate, is assessed numerically using a time-dependent mild-slope equation model. The modelling of the wave power redistribution is an efficient tool to assess the power production of a farm. Further, for each lay-out an optimal (low cost) submarine cable network is designed. The methodology to assess...

  4. Calibration methodology for energy management system of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Benming; Wang, Qingnian; Zeng, Xiaohua; Gong, Yinsheng; Song, Dafeng; Wang, Junnian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration theory of EMS is proposed. • A comprehensive evaluating indicator is constructed by radar chart method. • Optimal Latin hypercube design algorithm is introduced to obtain training data. • An approximation model is established by using a RBF neural network. • Offline calibration methodology improves the actual calibration efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents a new analytical calibration method for energy management strategy designed for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. This method improves the actual calibration efficiency to reach a compromise among the conflicting calibration requirements (e.g. emissions and economy). A comprehensive evaluating indicator covering emissions and economic performance is constructed by using a radar chart method. A radial basis functions (RBFs) neural network model is proposed to establish a precise model among control parameters and the comprehensive evaluation indicator. The optimal Latin hypercube design is introduced to obtain the experimental data to train the RBFs neural network model. And multi-island genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization model. Finally, an offline calibration example is conducted. Results validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach in improving vehicle performance and calibration efficiency.

  5. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; McMaster, K. M.

    1981-10-01

    The utility owned solar electric system methodology is generalized and updated. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs (including a specified return on investment). Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero. While the model was designed for photovoltaic generators with a possible thermal energy byproduct, it applicability is not limited to such systems. The resulting owner-dependent methodology for energy generation system assessment consists of a few equations that can be evaluated without the aid of a high-speed computer.

  6. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Mcmaster, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The utility owned solar electric system methodology is generalized and updated. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs (including a specified return on investment). Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero. While the model was designed for photovoltaic generators with a possible thermal energy byproduct, it applicability is not limited to such systems. The resulting owner-dependent methodology for energy generation system assessment consists of a few equations that can be evaluated without the aid of a high-speed computer.

  7. Estimating Energy Expenditure from Heart Rate in Older Adults: A Case for Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. Objective To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using diffe...

  8. A methodology for the design and testing of atmospheric boundary layer models for wind energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sanz Rodrigo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS 1, 2 and 3 are used to develop a methodology for the design and testing of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS atmospheric boundary layer (ABL models for wind energy applications. The first two GABLS cases are based on idealized boundary conditions and are suitable for verification purposes by comparing with results from higher-fidelity models based on large-eddy simulation. Results from three single-column RANS models, of 1st, 1.5th and 2nd turbulence closure order, show high consistency in predicting the mean flow. The third GABLS case is suitable for the study of these ABL models under realistic forcing such that validation versus observations from the Cabauw meteorological tower are possible. The case consists on a diurnal cycle that leads to a nocturnal low-level jet and addresses fundamental questions related to the definition of the large-scale forcing, the interaction of the ABL with the surface and the evaluation of model results with observations. The simulations are evaluated in terms of surface-layer fluxes and wind energy quantities of interest: rotor equivalent wind speed, hub-height wind direction, wind speed shear and wind direction veer. The characterization of mesoscale forcing is based on spatially and temporally averaged momentum budget terms from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF simulations. These mesoscale tendencies are used to drive single-column models, which were verified previously in the first two GABLS cases, to first demonstrate that they can produce similar wind profile characteristics to the WRF simulations even though the physics are more simplified. The added value of incorporating different forcing mechanisms into microscale models is quantified by systematically removing forcing terms in the momentum and heat equations. This mesoscale-to-microscale modeling approach is affected, to a large extent, by the input uncertainties of the mesoscale

  9. Environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection: methodology and user's guide. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report is designed to facilitate assessments of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of fossil energy conversion facilities which might be implemented at potential sites. The discussion of methodology and the User's Guide contained herein are presented in a format that assumes the reader is not an energy technologist. Indeed, this methodology is meant for application by almost anyone with an interest in a potential fossil energy development - planners, citizen groups, government officials, and members of industry. It may also be of instructional value. The methodology is called: Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems (SELECS) and is organized in three levels of increasing sophistication. Only the least complicated version - the Level 1 SELECS - is presented in this document. As stated above, it has been expressly designed to enable just about anyone to participate in evaluating the potential impacts of a proposed energy conversion facility. To accomplish this objective, the Level 1 calculations have been restricted to ones which can be performed by hand in about one working day. Data collection and report preparation may bring the total effort required for a first or one-time application to two to three weeks. If repeated applications are made in the same general region, the assembling of data for a different site or energy conversion technology will probably take much less time.

  10. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  11. INPRO Methodology to evaluate the Mexico nuclear energy system; Metodologia INPRO para evaluar el sistema de energia nuclear de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz S, R. R.; Martin del C, C., E-mail: crzslns.ricardoruben@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has developed the so-called International Project on Fuel Cycles and Innovative Nuclear Reactors (INPRO), in order to make nuclear energy available to meet the energy needs of the 21 century, in a sustainable way. One of the tasks of the project is the evaluation of the nuclear systems, to check whether they meet the objectives of the project and whether they are sustainable. This paper explains the rationale and general characteristics of the project in the evaluation of nuclear energy systems based on the concept of sustainable development. It describes the methodology developed to carry out this evaluation, divided into seven areas, such as economic, environmental, security, etc., which together make up the sustainable development of energy through nuclear systems. The economic area is analyzed and the evaluation criteria and parameters established by INPRO are discussed, in order to evaluate the Mexican nuclear energy system using Nest (software developed within the same project) as a tool to support the economic evaluation of nuclear systems. Based on the energy strategy proposed by the Energy Secretary of the Mexican Government which seeks to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the national electricity generation park, two types of reactor of currently available technology (A BWR and AP1000), were compared and these in turn with other alternative energy generation technologies, such as combined cycle, geothermal and wind plants. Also, the results of the application of the INPRO methodology are presented. Finally, the recommendations on actions that could lead the Mexican nuclear energy system towards sustainable development and conclusions on the application of the methodology to the Mexican case are mentioned. (Author)

  12. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2413-000] Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  13. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2167-000] Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2168-000] Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  16. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1750-000] Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1348-000] Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-28-000] Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. GIS-based site selection methodology for hybrid renewable energy systems: A case study from western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Nazli Yonca; Kentel, Elcin; Sebnem Duzgun, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposed a site selection methodology for renewable energy systems. ► Fuzzy logic and geographic information system tools are used. ► Alternative locations are evaluated in terms of economic and environmental criteria. - Abstract: Renewable energy sources are presently being considered as alternatives to fossil fuels, because they are perpetual, environmentally friendly, and release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere while producing energy. A disadvantage of renewable energy systems, however, is that continuous energy generation is not possible by using only one type of renewable energy system, since renewable energy resources depend on climate and weather conditions. Two or more renewable energy systems can be integrated into a hybrid system to overcome this problem so that when one resource is not available, the other can continue producing energy. Another disadvantage of renewable energy sources is that they are not available at every geographic location. Their use is mostly advantageous at remote locations that often are of high ecological value. Thus, identification of preferable locations for renewable energy systems is a decision-making problem that requires evaluation of the potential of the resource together with economic and environmental limitations. This paper introduces a methodology for site selection of hybrid wind solar–PV renewable energy systems. First, environmental acceptability and economic feasibility objectives are identified through a comprehensive review of the literature, current Turkish laws and legislations, and interviews with the General Directorate of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration of Turkey. Second, viable locations in terms of environmental acceptability and economic feasibility are determined through a fuzzy decision-making procedure that uses ordered weighted averaging algorithm for aggregating multiple objectives. Then, priority sites are identified

  20. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Multi-Probe Methodology and Simulated Likelihood Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, E.; et al.

    2017-06-28

    We present the methodology for and detail the implementation of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) 3x2pt DES Year 1 (Y1) analysis, which combines configuration-space two-point statistics from three different cosmological probes: cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and galaxy clustering, using data from the first year of DES observations. We have developed two independent modeling pipelines and describe the code validation process. We derive expressions for analytical real-space multi-probe covariances, and describe their validation with numerical simulations. We stress-test the inference pipelines in simulated likelihood analyses that vary 6-7 cosmology parameters plus 20 nuisance parameters and precisely resemble the analysis to be presented in the DES 3x2pt analysis paper, using a variety of simulated input data vectors with varying assumptions. We find that any disagreement between pipelines leads to changes in assigned likelihood $\\Delta \\chi^2 \\le 0.045$ with respect to the statistical error of the DES Y1 data vector. We also find that angular binning and survey mask do not impact our analytic covariance at a significant level. We determine lower bounds on scales used for analysis of galaxy clustering (8 Mpc$~h^{-1}$) and galaxy-galaxy lensing (12 Mpc$~h^{-1}$) such that the impact of modeling uncertainties in the non-linear regime is well below statistical errors, and show that our analysis choices are robust against a variety of systematics. These tests demonstrate that we have a robust analysis pipeline that yields unbiased cosmological parameter inferences for the flagship 3x2pt DES Y1 analysis. We emphasize that the level of independent code development and subsequent code comparison as demonstrated in this paper is necessary to produce credible constraints from increasingly complex multi-probe analyses of current data.

  1. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource. Phase 2. Application of the methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Makari, M; Newton, K; Ravenscroft, F; Whittaker, J

    1993-12-31

    This report presents the results of the second phase of a programme to estimate the UK wind energy resource. The overall objective of the programme is to provide quantitative resource estimates using a mesoscale (resolution about 1km) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain, in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations. A network of suitable meteorological stations has been established and long term wind data obtained. Digitised terrain data for the whole UK were obtained, and wind flow modelling using the NOABL computer program has been performed. Maps of extractable wind power have been derived for various assumptions about wind turbine characteristics. Validation of the methodology indicates that the results are internally consistent, and in good agreement with available comparison data. Existing isovent maps, based on standard meteorological data which take no account of terrain effects, indicate that 10m annual mean wind speeds vary between about 4.5 and 7 m/s over the UK with only a few coastal areas over 6 m/s. The present study indicates that 28% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. The results will be useful for broad resource studies and initial site screening. Detailed resource evaluation for local sites will require more detailed local modelling or ideally long term field measurements. (12 figures, 14 tables, 21 references). (Author)

  2. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  3. Methodology for the economic evaluation of the application of the eolic energy and lot in the desalinization of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros Ramirez, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The methodology that is presented allows the preliminary evaluation of the cost of the water of sea ($/m3) of a non connected system to the net, fed with renewable energy (eolic and photovoltaic lot) or with an electric generator. The production capacities they are limited to the 100 m 3 /d. The desalinisation plant can be fed by a single energy source or for but of one of them, what will constitute in this last case a system with feeding hybrid. In all the cases it was considered the necessity of energy storage to inclination of batteries to exception of when the feeding was by means of a generator electric. In the annex a chart is presented with the result of the application of the methodology

  4. Development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This project was supported as a Concerted Action under the EC DGVI AIR programme from 1993-1996. It has successfully developed a standard methodology to help integrate non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. The methodology was used to compare the costs of different energy crop production and conversion options across the six participating nations. The partners provide a representative cross-section of European agriculture and energy expertise. All partners agreed on three niche markets favourable for biomass and biofuels: small-scale heat markets (less than 1 MW th ) for agro-industry, domestic and commercial buildings, medium-scale heat markets (1-10MW th ), including cogeneration for light industry and district heating, and liquid biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels in transport, heat and power applications. (Author)

  5. Metodologia de rating em cooperativas agropecuárias: um estudo de caso Rating methodology in agricultural cooperatives: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rogério de Moura Costa

    2009-12-01

    information asymmetry among cooperatives and the financial markets agents. In this way, developing a rating methodology applied to agricultural cooperatives in Brazil to reduce moral hazard and adverse selection that creates business and contractual organizational inefficiency among cooperatives and financial markets agents. The 'five C' method was used which considers organizational financial capacity, corporate governance characteristics, relations with members, and commodity market characteristics, among others. A weighting and evaluation were associated with each variable. The result was applied to an agricultural cooperative case study which concluded that this methodology is applicable and that results, evaluations and weights, could be discussed in cooperative rating committees. As a final consideration, an agenda is discussed for new applications of this methodology, for testing in other agricultural cooperative organizations and to consolidate it as a market financial information signal.

  6. More Colleges Lock in Energy Rates to Avoid Volatile Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In July, when energy prices were sky-high and some pundits were predicting a continued rise, Charles Riordan, facilities director at Loyola College of Maryland, and his colleagues locked in a chunk of their electricity prices--about a quarter of the college's consumption--to cover the next two years. Now that energy prices have fallen, the…

  7. Systematic screening methodology and energy efficient design of ionic liquid-based separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    in size of the target solute was investigated using the same separation process and IL entrainer to obtain the same product purity. The proposed methodology has been evaluated through a case study of binary alcoholic aqueous azeotropic separation: water+ethanol and water+isopropanol.......A systematic methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers and for the design of ILs-based separation processes in various homogeneous binary azeotropic mixtures has been developed. The methodology focuses on the homogeneous binary aqueous azeotropic systems (for example, water...

  8. [Regional differences of ADHD diagnosis rates in health insurance data from 2005 to 2015 : Methodological considerations and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Thomas G

    2017-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are among the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents. For a number of years there has been evidence of regional differences in Germany. This article provides current results on the frequency of diagnosis and treatment and also discusses methodological aspects. The analysis is based on routine data of a statutory health insurance company including annual diagnoses and drug prescriptions from 2005 to 2015 of at least 1.34 million children and adolescents between 0 and 19 years of age. Small-area results of ADHD diagnosis rates and methylphenidate prescriptions are presented with a standardized differentiation according to 413 districts pursuant to territorial status from the end of 2008. From 2005 to 2014, ADHD diagnoses were documented for an increasing proportion of 0 to 19-year-olds in Germany. In 2015 the proportion was 4.2%; boys aged 10 were affected most frequently with a proportion of 11.1%. Regional diagnosis rates vary considerably. Two counties showed diagnosis and prescription rates that were more than twice as high as regionally expected for all years in question; other districts showed rates that were continually lower than expected by at least a third. Analyses on the level of administratively defined districts have some advantages but alternative regional structuring would be desirable due to very heterogeneous population figures. Regarding ADHD diagnoses and documented methylphenidate prescriptions on an outpatient basis, significant regional differences in Germany were detected, for which plausible medical justifications do not yet exist. Specialist discussions seem urgently needed.

  9. Exchange rate risks and their impact upon the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al-Zabidi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of international business in Slovakia brought not only the opening of markets and expansion of enterprise possibilities but also an increase in the competition and new risks. One of such risks is also the exchange rate risk. The business that realizes a financial transaction exceeding borders of the state or derives his buying or selling prices in Slovak crowns from the foreign currency, is subjected to the exchange rate risks. The exchange rate risks are caused by volatility of exchange courses of Slovak crowns related to foreign currencies. The progress of exchange rates can considerably influence a real result of a transaction negatively; therefore it is important for enterprises to identify possible risks resulting from changes in exchange rates, so they could react accordingly.The proposed article is aimed at the explanation of basic techniques of minimizing exchange rate risks with the use of financial tools available on the financial market.

  10. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  11. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  12. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  13. A methodology for estimating potential doses and risks from recycling U.S. Department of Energy radioactive scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinney, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering writing regulations for the controlled use of materials originating from radioactively contaminated zones which may be recyclable. These materials include metals, such as steel (carbon and stainless), nickel, copper, aluminum and lead, from the decommissioning of federal, and non-federal facilities. To develop criteria for the release of such materials, a risk analysis of all potential exposure pathways should be conducted. These pathways include direct exposure to the recycled material by the public and workers, both individual and collective, as well as numerous other potential exposure pathways in the life of the material. EPA has developed a risk assessment methodology for estimating doses and risks associated with recycling radioactive scrap metals. This methodology was applied to metal belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper will discuss the draft EPA risk assessment methodology as a tool for estimating doses and risks from recycling. (author)

  14. A systematic methodology for the robust quantification of energy efficiency at wastewater treatment plants featuring Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S; Hospido, A; Lema, J M; Mauricio-Iglesias, M

    2018-05-10

    This article examines the potential benefits of using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for conducting energy-efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). WWTPs are characteristically heterogeneous (in size, technology, climate, function …) which limits the correct application of DEA. This paper proposes and describes the Robust Energy Efficiency DEA (REED) in its various stages, a systematic state-of-the-art methodology aimed at including exogenous variables in nonparametric frontier models and especially designed for WWTP operation. In particular, the methodology systematizes the modelling process by presenting an integrated framework for selecting the correct variables and appropriate models, possibly tackling the effect of exogenous factors. As a result, the application of REED improves the quality of the efficiency estimates and hence the significance of benchmarking. For the reader's convenience, this article is presented as a step-by-step guideline to guide the user in the determination of WWTPs energy efficiency from beginning to end. The application and benefits of the developed methodology are demonstrated by a case study related to the comparison of the energy efficiency of a set of 399 WWTPs operating in different countries and under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodological proposal for territorial distribution of the percentage reduction in gross inland energy consumption according to the EU energy policy strategic goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolon-Becerra, A.; Lastra-Bravo, X.; Botta, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    A 20% reduction in the consumption of energy is one of the main goals of the European Union's (EU) 20/20/20 Energy Strategy. But the uniform application of this overall goal to all of the countries is neither fair nor equitable, as it does not take into consideration the characteristics of the energy system in each Member State. This article therefore proposes a nonlinear distribution methodology with objective, dynamic goals for reducing gross inland energy consumption, according to the context and characteristics of each member state. We hope it will open discussion on how these overall goals can be weighted. Then we analyse the situation of the energy indicators related to energy efficiency in the reference year (2005) used by the EU for reaching its goal of reducing the gross inland consumption by 20% by 2020, and its progress from 1996 to 2007. Finally, the methodology proposed is applied to the year 2020 on the NUTS0 territorial level, that is, to members of the EU, according to the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS). Weighting is done based on energy intensity, per capita gross inland consumption and per capita energy intensity in two scenarios, the EU-15 and EU-27.

  16. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin; Heilmeier, Hermann; Bringezu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  17. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  18. A methodology for the electrical energy system planning of Tamil Nadu state (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.; Dicorato, M.; Forte, G.; Iniyan, S.; Trovato, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an energy planning optimisation procedure of a selected territory is illustrated and applied using an energy flow optimisation model. The developed approach takes into account various electricity generating options to meet the energy needs of various demand sectors. Energy saving techniques and hybrid technologies are considered and various scenarios are developed by assessing the contribution of renewable energy technologies over the planning period. The procedure aims to reduce the total actualised cost of energy generation over selected time horizon and predicts the additional installations required along with the existing facilities to meet the energy demand. At the same time the role of renewable energy technologies and of energy saving measures is evaluated by imposing suitable constraints on CO 2 emissions and primary energy sources exploitation. The procedure is applied to the territory of Tamil Nadu state (India) by considering different energy planning scenarios

  19. Experimental Methodology for Estimation of Local Heat Fluxes and Burning Rates in Steady Laminar Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay V; Gollner, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided.

  20. Designing incentive schemes for promoting energy-efficient appliances: A new methodology and a case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galarraga, Ibon; Abadie, Luis M.; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The energy-efficiency gap has been high on research and policy agendas for several decades. Incentive schemes such as subsidies, taxes and bonus-malus schemes are widely used to promote energy-efficient appliances. Most research, however, considers instruments in isolation, and only rarely in the context of political constraints on instrument use, or for alternative policy goals. This paper presents a methodology for the optimal design of incentive schemes based on the minimisation of Dead Weight Loss for different policy goals and policy restrictions. The use of the methodology is illustrated by designing optimal combinations of taxes and subsidies in Spain for three types of appliance: dishwashers, refrigerators and washing machines. The optimal policies are designed subject to different policy goals such as achieving a fixed reduction in emissions or a certain increased market share for efficient appliances, and for policy constraints such as budget neutrality. The methodology developed here can also be used to evaluate past and current incentive schemes. - Highlights: • A new methodology for the optimal design of incentive schemes is presented. • This is done minimising the Dead Weight Loss for different goals and restrictions. • Efficient bonus malus schemes can be designed with this method.

  1. Strain energy storage and dissipation rate in active cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, A.; Ambrosi, D.; Turzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    When living cells are observed at rest on a flat substrate, they can typically exhibit a rounded (symmetric) or an elongated (polarized) shape. Although the cells are apparently at rest, the active stress generated by the molecular motors continuously stretches and drifts the actin network, the cytoskeleton of the cell. In this paper we theoretically compare the energy stored and dissipated in this active system in two geometric configurations of interest: symmetric and polarized. We find that the stored energy is larger for a radially symmetric cell at low activation regime, while the polar configuration has larger strain energy when the active stress is beyond a critical threshold. Conversely, the dissipation of energy in a symmetric cell is always larger than that of a nonsymmetric one. By a combination of symmetry arguments and competition between surface and bulk stress, we argue that radial symmetry is an energetically expensive metastable state that provides access to an infinite number of lower-energy states, the polarized configurations.

  2. Final report of the documentation of the methodology designed by PESENCA for the development of local concepts of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A report is presented about the methodology designed by PESENCA for the development of local concepts of energy supply in the Atlantic Costa of Colombia; are includes localization, executor institutions, their organization, the global studies and database in the different projects. It is indicated the selection of investigation and planning areas, the consulted entities and the design of methodological instruments as forms of surveys control. The sampling strategies and the design of preparation of databases are described. It is indicated the selection, training and the specific activities for each area like the delimitation of the work area, the design of the work and the field work; equally the analysis of results in electric power terms, firewood and rest of biomass. An analysis of the socioeconomic situation of the area is made and concepts are elaborated on energy solutions

  3. Methodology of Continuous-Energy Adjoint Monte Carlo for Neutron, Photon, and Coupled Neutron-Photon Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J. Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Adjoint Monte Carlo may be a useful alternative to regular Monte Carlo calculations in cases where a small detector inhibits an efficient Monte Carlo calculation as only very few particle histories will cross the detector. However, in general purpose Monte Carlo codes, normally only the multigroup form of adjoint Monte Carlo is implemented. In this article the general methodology for continuous-energy adjoint Monte Carlo neutron transport is reviewed and extended for photon and coupled neutron-photon transport. In the latter cases the discrete photons generated by annihilation or by neutron capture or inelastic scattering prevent a direct application of the general methodology. Two successive reaction events must be combined in the selection process to accommodate the adjoint analog of a reaction resulting in a photon with a discrete energy. Numerical examples illustrate the application of the theory for some simplified problems

  4. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    for research and policy analysis. An improved understanding of the quality and reliability of Chinese economic and energy data is becoming more important to to understanding global energy markets and future greenhouse gas emissions. China’s national statistical system to track such changes is however still...... developing and, in some instances, energy data remain unavailable in the public domain. This working paper discusses China’s energy and economic statistics in view of identifying suitable indicators to develop a simplified regional energy systems for China from a variety of publicly available data. As China......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used...

  5. Comparing avian and bat fatality rate estimates among North American wind energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Shawn

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind energy development has expanded rapidly, and so have concerns over bird and bat impacts caused by wind turbines. To assess and compare impacts due to collisions, investigators use a common metric, fatalities/MW/year, but estimates of fatality rates have come from various wind turbine models, tower heights, environments, fatality search methods, and analytical methods. To improve comparability and asses large-scale impacts, I applied a common set of assumptions and methods to data in fatality monitoring reports to estimate fatality rates of birds and bats at 71 wind projects across North America (52 outside the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, APWRA). The data were from wind turbines of 27 sizes (range 0.04-3.00 MW) and 28 tower heights (range 18.5-90 m), and searched at 40 periodic intervals (range 1-90 days) and out to 20 distances from turbines (range 30-126 m). Estimates spanned the years 1982 to 2010, and involved 1-1,345 turbines per unique combination of project, turbine size, tower height, and search methodology. I adjusted fatality rates for search detection rates averaged from 425 detection trials, and for scavenger removal rates based on 413 removal trials. I also adjusted fatality rates for turbine tower height and maximum search radius, based on logistic functions fit to cumulative counts of carcasses that were detected at 1-m distance intervals from the turbine. For each tower height, I estimated the distance at which cumulative carcass counts reached an asymptote, and for each project I calculated the proportion of fatalities likely not found due to the maximum search radius being short of the model-predicted distance asymptote. I used the same estimator in all cases. I estimated mean fatalities/MW/year among North American wind projects at 12.6 bats (80% CI: 8.1-17.1) and 11.1 birds (80% CI: 9.5-12.7), including 1.6 raptors (80% CI: 1.3-2.0), and excluding the Altamont Pass I estimated fatality rates at 17.2 bats (80% CI: 9

  6. Energy transfer rates in inhomogeneous van der Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desfrancois, C.; Schermann, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The internal energy exchange inside an inhomogeneous van der Waals cluster are investigated by means of molecular dynamic calculations. The very long time scales for relaxation of the high frequency degrees of freedom are examined within the framework of Nekhoroshev's theorem. (orig.)

  7. Development and application of a statistical methodology to evaluate the predictive accuracy of building energy baseline models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area Div.; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area Div.

    2014-03-01

    This paper documents the development and application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-­building energy savings. The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline 14 and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the model to predict total electricity consumption during a subsequent ``prediction period.’’ We illustrate the methodology by evaluating five baseline models using data from 29 buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption were compared to meter data to determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  8. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  9. Evaluating energy security in the Asia-Pacific region: A novel methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes an 'energy security assessment instrument' based on a new and expanded conceptualisation of energy security. The instrument is a systematic interrogative tool for evaluating energy security of individual states or regions. It consists of eleven broad energy security dimensions associated with the current global energy system. These energy security dimensions take into account numerous quantitative and qualitative attributes of each country's energy security and policy, and include both traditional energy security concerns and many new factors, such as environmental, socio-cultural and technological. Another dimension, largely absent from previous analyses, is the existence of, and the issues addressed in, energy security policy in each country. This instrument serves as an assessment system with which to evaluate energy security in the Asia-Pacific region. The existing studies on energy security in the Asia-Pacific region suffer from serious limitations. No study to date examines regional energy security policies by adopting a more comprehensive energy security definition as a starting point. Most studies also focus on a single country or issue. Even if they examine energy security in major regional economies, they lack critical comparative analysis. The instrument is valuable as it may be utilised to draw a comprehensive map of regional energy security situation, which can also include comparative analysis of energy security characteristics across the Asia-Pacific region. Ultimately, it may be utilised to set up a framework for improved regional energy cooperation with the aim of providing regional leaders with a blueprint for improving regional energy security and policy.

  10. Methodology for calibration of ionization chambers for X-ray of low energy in absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The beams of low energy X-ray (10 to 150 kV) are used in several places in the world to treat a wide variety of surface disorders, and between these malignancies. As in Brazil, at this moment, there is no calibration laboratory providing the control service or calibration of parallel plate ionization chambers, the aim of this project was to establish a methodology for calibration of this kind of ionization chambers at low energy X-ray beams in terms of absorbed dose to water using simulators in the LCI. (author)

  11. Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments

  12. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Relativistic Calculations and Measurements of Energies, Auger Rates, and Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Research and Industry, Denton, Texas, 8-10 November 1982. 7. B. Crasemann: "Efectos Relativ’sticos y de QED Sobre las Transiciones Rayos - X y Auger Entre...INNER-SHELL IONIZATION BY PROTONS X -RAY EMISSION BREIT INTERACTION AUGER TRANSITIONS DIRAC-HARTREE-SLATER COMPUTATIONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESONANT...computations, including relativistic and quantum- electrodynamic effects, of atomic energy levels and of x -ray and Auger transitions in atoms with one or

  14. Energy consumption control automation using Artificial Neural Networks and adaptive algorithms: Proposal of a new methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Miriam; Cesarotti, Vittorio; Introna, Vito; Serranti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to enable energy consumption control automation is proposed. • The methodology is based on the use of Artificial Neural Networks. • A method to control the accuracy of the model over time is proposed. • Two methods to enable automatic retraining of the network are proposed. • Retraining methods are evaluated on their accuracy over time. - Abstract: Energy consumption control in energy intensive companies is always more considered as a critical activity to continuously improve energy performance. It undoubtedly requires a huge effort in data gathering and analysis, and the amount of these data together with the scarceness of human resources devoted to Energy Management activities who could maintain and update the analyses’ output are often the main barriers to its diffusion in companies. Advanced tools such as software based on machine learning techniques are therefore the key to overcome these barriers and allow an easy but accurate control. This type of systems is able to solve complex problems obtaining reliable results over time, but not to understand when the reliability of the results is declining (a common situation considering energy using systems, often undergoing structural changes) and to automatically adapt itself using a limited amount of training data, so that a completely automatic application is not yet available and the automatic energy consumption control using intelligent systems is still a challenge. This paper presents a whole new approach to energy consumption control, proposing a methodology based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and aimed at creating an automatic energy consumption control system. First of all, three different structures of neural networks are proposed and trained using a huge amount of data. Three different performance indicators are then used to identify the most suitable structure, which is implemented to create an energy consumption control tool. In addition, considering that

  15. Application of a Resilience Framework to Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    determined and then used as a proxy for the many different generator sizes and combinations. 2.2.3 Solar Photovoltaic Systems There are two varieties...source plus energy storage system is that the energy storage system needs to be sized for the longest expected outage duration at the worst time of...centralized or distributed generation, etc.), the DoD could improve its guidance for sizing energy systems and conducting energy load analysis. For single

  16. Methodology for Prioritization of Investments to Support the Army Energy Strategy for Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    kind of energy source onto its own footprint. Whether this is a solar, wind, biomass, geothermal , or any other kind of renewable energy source, it...more common. Right now extortion and disgruntled employers are the attacked and not sophisticated enemies such as China . Our current nation power...users to: • Estimate the NPV cost of energy (COE) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a range of solar, wind and geothermal electricity generation

  17. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  18. Issues in radioactivity for fusion energy: remote maintenance rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, D.W.; Maninger, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Recent technical progress in fusion research has been sufficient to encourage the development of conceptual designs for fusion power systems. These design efforts suggest that more attention should be paid to the safety and environmental effects of the radioactivity induced in the structural materials by the fusion neutrons. In particular, radioactivity from neutron activation of the structural components of a fusion power system will be a concern for occupational exposure of personnel. Careful choice of structural materials can significantly reduce this exposure. We propose the Remote Maintenance Rating (RMR) as a numerical means of comparing materials and machine designs with respect to occupational exposures. The RMR is defined as the dose rate at the surface of a uniformly activated, thick, infinite slab with the same composition and density as the machine component. We used the RMR rating system to evaluate the suitability of several different iron-based alloys. The specific fusion power system design used in our evaluation was a conceptual design from the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). We determined that HT-9 is significantly better in terms of radiological dose rates at early times than the other iron-based alloys (by a factor of 3 to 7). We also calculated the behavior of both silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum (Al), two low activation materials often proposed for reactors

  19. A density-based topology optimization methodology for thermoelectric energy conversion problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Christian; Sigmund, Ole

    2018-01-01

    , temperature dependent material parameters and relevant objective functions. Comprehensive implementation details of the methodology are provided, and seven different design problems are solved and discussed to demonstrate that the approach is well-suited for optimizing TEGs and TECs. The study reveals new...

  20. Design methodology for flexible energy conversion systems accounting for dynamic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Casati, Emiliano; Casella, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodology to help in the definition of the optimal design of power generation systems. The innovative element is the integration of requirements on dynamic performance into the system design procedure. Operational flexibility is an increasingly important specification...

  1. Uncertainty in Odyssee indicators and energy savings. Development of a methodology and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia. Energy indicators that relate energy consumption to a physical output (ton of steel), a performance (person-km driven per car) or the number of energy using devices (refrigerators) can show the increase in energy efficiency realised, and the amount of energy saved. By aggregating indicators, Odyssee calculates energy efficiency indices by sector and for the whole economy (so-called ODEX), in order to evaluate overall energy efficiency progress. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Service Directive. Because of the central role of Odyssee indicators in policy evaluations it becomes more important to know how reliable the Odyssee figures are, or in other words, what is the uncertainty margin for the indicator values and the related savings. This report presents a first analysis of uncertainty margins in the indicators and savings figures. The work builds on earlier work in the preceding Odyssee project with regard to the quality of input data used in Odyssee.

  2. Energy structure, marginal efficiency and substitution rate: An empirical study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhiyong; Fan Ying; Jiao Jianling; Yan Jisheng; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important factor in developing energy policies as it represents the extent to which resources support economic output. In recent literature, relevant studies have mainly focused on aggregate energy efficiency, but rarely touched on the marginal efficiency of diverse energy resources and their comparative substitution rate. During 1978-2003, China's energy efficiency continually increased; and consequently became a hot topic in contemporary literature. However, there is no empirical study on the relationship between energy structure and energy efficiency. In order to close the gap, this paper reports the empirical study of the impact of China's energy structure on its energy efficiency from 1978 to 2003. The work covered primary estimation of the marginal efficiency of coal and petroleum in China, as well as the comparative substitution rate. Results indicate that the substitution rate between petroleum and coal is a factor of 5.38

  3. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to 'heavy' industry; 'light' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency

  4. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias [Energy Management Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to ''heavy'' industry; ''light'' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency. (author)

  5. Energy minimization of mobile video devices with a hardware H.264/AVC encoder based on energy-rate-distortion optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghun; Lee, Jungeon; Jung, Jongpil; Lee, Chul-Hee; Kyung, Chong-Min

    2014-09-01

    In mobile video systems powered by battery, reducing the encoder's compression energy consumption is critical to prolong its lifetime. Previous Energy-rate-distortion (E-R-D) optimization methods based on a software codec is not suitable for practical mobile camera systems because the energy consumption is too large and encoding rate is too low. In this paper, we propose an E-R-D model for the hardware codec based on the gate-level simulation framework to measure the switching activity and the energy consumption. From the proposed E-R-D model, an energy minimizing algorithm for mobile video camera sensor have been developed with the GOP (Group of Pictures) size and QP(Quantization Parameter) as run-time control variables. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides up to 31.76% of energy consumption saving while satisfying the rate and distortion constraints.

  6. Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinckard, Margaret J.; Brown, Richard E.; Mills, Evan; Lutz, James D.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Atkinson, Celina; Bolduc, Chris; Homan, Gregory K.; Coughlin, Katie

    2005-07-13

    The Home Energy Saver (HES, http://HomeEnergySaver.lbl.gov) is an interactive web site designed to help residential consumers make decisions about energy use in their homes. This report describes the underlying methods and data for estimating energy consumption. Using engineering models, the site estimates energy consumption for six major categories (end uses); heating, cooling, water heating, major appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment. The approach taken by the Home Energy Saver is to provide users with initial results based on a minimum of user input, allowing progressively greater control in specifying the characteristics of the house and energy consuming appliances. Outputs include energy consumption (by fuel and end use), energy-related emissions (carbon dioxide), energy bills (total and by fuel and end use), and energy saving recommendations. Real-world electricity tariffs are used for many locations, making the bill estimates even more accurate. Where information about the house is not available from the user, default values are used based on end-use surveys and engineering studies. An extensive body of qualitative decision-support information augments the analytical results.

  7. A Comparison Study of a Generic Coupling Methodology for Modeling Wake Effects of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verbrugghe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave Energy Converters (WECs need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, by diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC array is complex; it is difficult, or in some cases impossible, to simulate both these near-field and far-field wake effects using a single numerical model, in a time- and cost-efficient way in terms of computational time and effort. Within this research, a generic coupling methodology is developed to model both near-field and far-field wake effects caused by floating (e.g., WECs, platforms or fixed offshore structures. The methodology is based on the coupling of a wave-structure interaction solver (Nemoh and a wave propagation model. In this paper, this methodology is applied to two wave propagation models (OceanWave3D and MILDwave, which are compared to each other in a wide spectrum of tests. Additionally, the Nemoh-OceanWave3D model is validated by comparing it to experimental wave basin data. The methodology proves to be a reliable instrument to model wake effects of WEC arrays; results demonstrate a high degree of agreement between the numerical simulations with relative errors lower than 5 % and to a lesser extent for the experimental data, where errors range from 4 % to 17 % .

  8. Measuring the Social Value of Nuclear Energy using Contingent Valuation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eun Ju; Kim, Won Joon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to unstable energy supply and volatile energy prices, environmental concerns make energy security as the principal objective of energy policy in many nations. The International Energy Agency (2007) released what is probably its most pessimistic World Energy Outlook to date saying that oil and natural gas imports, coal use and greenhouse gas emissions are set to grow inexorably through 2030 - trends that threaten to undermine energy security and accelerate climate change, if countries do not change their energy use policies. In near term, nuclear is expected to be accepted as one of the promising alternatives which can achieve both energy security and prevention of climate change. However, nuclear energy has some vulnerable points in the view of social acceptance due to the history of its development and previous. Many countries which use nuclear power as one the major energy sources have been solving the problem of low social acceptance of nuclear energy by allocating enormous subsidy to local government. Korea decided to give 300 million dollar to the local government, Gyeongjoo, for constructing low level waste management facilities. Japan also paid 120 million dollar to Rokkasho-mura area for constructing nuclear waste repository. Sellarfield in England, Cabril in Spain also received subsidy every year from the related industries and their government. However these subsidies were provided without any appropriate estimation for the value of risk taking of nuclear energy. In addition, those subsidies are expected to increase and burden the central government for the further development and usage of nuclear. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the value of nuclear energy in view of social acceptance in order to contribute to effective application for the future nuclear development and policy making. We estimate the Willingness-To-Pay of nuclear energy using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). We find high social cost of nuclear

  9. Methodology proposal for territorial distribution of greenhouse gas reduction percentages in the EU according to the strategic energy policy goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolon-Becerra, A.; Lastra-Bravo, X.; Bienvenido-Barcena, F.

    2010-01-01

    A 20% reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2020 is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) energy policy. However, this overall objective does not specify how it should be distributed among the Member States, according to each one's particular characteristics. Consequently, in this article a non-linear distribution methodology with dynamic objective targets for reducing GHG emissions is proposed. The goal of this methodology is to promote debate over the weighting of these overall objectives, according to the context and characteristics of each member state. First, an analysis is conducted of the situation of greenhouse gas emissions in the reference year (1990) used by the EU for reaching its goal of reducing them by 20% by 2020, and its progress from 1990 to 2007. Then, the methodology proposed was applied for the year 2020 on two territorial aggregation levels following the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), in the EU-15 and EU-27 member countries and on a regional level in 19 Spanish Autonomous Communities and Cities (NUTS-2). Weighting is done based on CO 2 intensity, GHG emissions per capita and GHG emissions per GDP. Finally, several recommendations are provided for the formulation of energy policies.

  10. A quantitative, non-destructive methodology for habitat characterisation and benthic monitoring at offshore renewable energy developments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Sheehan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs. Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a "flying array" that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects. The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth, then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms⁻¹ current, the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath

  11. A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs). Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs) could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a “flying array” that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects). The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth), then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m) high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms−1 current), the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath MPAs and

  12. Methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection of Generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Nishimura, R.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum an international experts group has been chartered to develop an evaluation methodology for PR and PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR and PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The assessment framework consists of identifying the threats to be considered, defining the PR and PP measures required to evaluate the resistance of a nuclear system to proliferation, theft or sabotage, and establishing quantitative methods to evaluate the proposed measures. The defined PR and PP measures are based on the design of the system (e.g., materials, processes, facilities), and institutional measures (e.g., safeguards, access control). The assessment methodology uses analysis of pathways' with respect to specific threats to determine the PR and PP measures. Analysis requires definition of the threats (i.e. objective, capability, strategy), decomposition of the system into its relevant elements (e.g., reactor core, fuel recycle facility, fuel storage), and identification of targets. (author)

  13. Methodological considerations in evaluating a proliferation resistance of innovative nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Takaki, Naoyuki; Murajiri, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Tokiwai, Moriyasu

    2004-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, INFCE studied the evaluation methodology of proliferation resistance. Recently, INPRO and GEN-IV coordinated by the IAEA and the USDOE respectively seek an appropriate innovative fuel cycle system for next generation that is furnished safer, sustainable, economical and reliable features. The evaluation methodology of the proliferation resistance is also assigned as an essential part of both studies. The IAEA established and has been strictly implementing the verification measures with accurate material accountancy system from the early of the 1970s in order to detect diversion of plutonium that is individually separated from irradiated nuclear material and recycled as MOX fuel. This paper firstly identifies the impedibility of intrinsic features of innovative fuel cycles and the safeguardability of selected nonproliferation measures as two individual essential parameters for evaluation of a proliferation resistance capability. As a next step, this paper also shows methodological considerations in evaluating the proliferation resistance levels as a multiple model of several clusters that are identified the ability of each parameter. (author)

  14. A meta model-based methodology for an energy savings uncertainty assessment of building retrofitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caucheteux Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, energy retrofitting of building stock presents significant potential for energy savings. In the design stage, energy savings are usually assessed through Building Energy Simulation (BES. The main difficulty is to first assess the energy efficiency of the existing buildings, in other words, to calibrate the model. As calibration is an under determined problem, there is many solutions for building representation in simulation tools. In this paper, a method is proposed to assess not only energy savings but also their uncertainty. Meta models, using experimental designs, are used to identify many acceptable calibrations: sets of parameters that provide the most accurate representation of the building are retained to calculate energy savings. The method was applied on an existing office building modeled with the TRNsys BES. The meta model, using 13 parameters, is built with no more than 105 simulations. The evaluation of the meta model on thousands of new simulations gives a normalized mean bias error between the meta model and BES of <4%. Energy savings are assessed based on six energy savings concepts, which indicate savings of 2–45% with a standard deviation ranging between 1.3% and 2.5%.

  15. Methodology for predicting market transformation due to implementation of energy efficiency standards and labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2004-01-01

    There are many papers that have been published on energy efficiency standards and labels. However, a very limited number of articles on the subject have discussed the transformation of appliance energy efficiency in the market after the programs are implemented. This paper is an attempt to investigate the market transformation due to implementation of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labels. Even though the paper only investigates room air conditioners as a case study, the method is also applicable for predicting market transformation for other household electrical appliances

  16. Simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in a tree due to an explosive seed dispersal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Eduardo; Goncalves Hönnicke, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    There are different forms to introduce/illustrate the energy concepts for the basic physics students. The explosive seed dispersal mechanism found in a variety of trees could be one of them. Sibipiruna trees carry out fruits (pods) who show such an explosive mechanism. During the explosion, the pods throw out seeds several meters away. In this manuscript we show simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in the Sibipiruna tree due to such a process. Two different physics approaches were used to carry out this study: by monitoring indoor and in situ the explosive seed dispersal mechanism and by measuring the elastic constant of the pod shell. An energy of the order of kJ was found to be stored in a single tree due to such an explosive mechanism.

  17. Using integrated control methodology to optimize energy performance for the guest rooms in UAE hospitality sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlFaris, Fadi; Abu-Hijleh, Bassam; Abdul-Ameer, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency in 4 and 5 star luxury hotels in the United Arab Emirates. • The normalized energy use index (EUI) ranges between 241.5 and 348.4 kWh/m"2/year for post 2003 hotels. • The normalized energy use index (EUI) ranges between 348.4 and 511.1 kWh/m"2/year for pre 2003 hotels. • Integrated HVAC and lighting control strategies can reduce total energy consumption by up to 31.5%. - Abstract: The hospitality sector is growing rapidly in the UAE and especially in Dubai. As a result, it contributes substantially in the UAE's carbon footprint. This research was conducted to measure, evaluate and increase the energy efficiency in 4 and 5 star luxury hotels in UAE. Energy benchmarking analysis was used to analyze the energy data of 19 hotel buildings to differentiate between usual and best practice of energy performance. Moreover, the normalized energy use index (EUI) kWh/m"2/year has been identified for the best, usual and poor practice hotels. It was found that the normalized EUI ranges between 241.5 kWh/m"2/year or less as a best practice to more than 361.3 kWh/m"2/year of the poor energy practice for the hotels constructed after the year of 2003. Whereas the hotels' energy data showed higher values for those constructed before 2003, as the normalized EUI varies between 348.4 kWh/m"2/year as best practice to more than 511.1 kWh/m"2/year. An integrated control strategy has been employed to improve the energy performance and assess the energy saving for the guestroom. This technique showed that the overall energy performance improvement reached to 31.5% out of entire energy consumption of the hotel including electricity and gas. This reduction resulted in 43.2% savings from the cooling system and 13.2% from the lighting system due to the installing of the integrated control system in the guestrooms.

  18. The Importance of using Discounted Cash Flow Methodology in Techno-economic Analyses of Energy and Chemical Production Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorka Novak Pintarič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the correct application of discounted cash flow methodology forevaluating and designing energy and chemical production plants. Such processes usuallycorrespond to capital intensive long-term projects. Simple economic criteria, like theprofit or production cost are insufficient for this type of decision making because they donot take into account the time value of money and underestimate the profitabilities of theevaluated plants. This paper shows that some of those criteria based on the discountedcash flows establish suitable compromises between long-term cash flow generation andprofitability. As several alternative options are usually evaluated in parallel, it is shownhow to rank mutually exclusive alternatives properly and how to select the best optionfrom among them. Two large-scale case studies demonstrate that using discounted cashflow methodology can result in substantially different decisions than non-discountedcriteria, however, these decisions are affected by several input parameters.

  19. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  20. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-11-07

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  1. Urban Planning for a Renewable Energy Future: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities from a Design Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandevijvere, H.; Stremke, S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning for a renewable energy future requires the collaboration of different disciplines both in research and practice. In the present article, the planning of a renewable energy future is approached from a designer’s perspective. A framework for analysis of the planning questions at hand is

  2. Measuring the social value of nuclear energy using contingent valuation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Joon Kim, Won; Hoon Jeong, Yong; Heung Chang, Soon

    2010-01-01

    As one of the promising energy sources for the next few decades, nuclear energy receives more attention than before as environmental issues become more important and the supply of fossil fuels becomes unstable. One of the reasons for this attention is based on the rapid innovation of nuclear technology which solves many of its technological constraints and safety issues. However, regardless of these rapid innovations, social acceptance for nuclear energy has been relatively low and unchanged. Consequently, the social perception has often been an obstacle to the development and execution of nuclear policy requiring enormous subsidies which are not based on the social value of nuclear energy. Therefore, in this study, we estimate the social value of nuclear energy-consumers' willingness-to-pay for nuclear energy-using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and suggest that the social value of nuclear energy increases approximately 68.5% with the provision of adequate information about nuclear energy to the public. Consequently, we suggest that the social acceptance management in nuclear policy development is important along with nuclear technology innovation.

  3. Methodology and emission scenarios employed in the development of the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the steps taken to model the National Energy Strategy (NES). It provides an overview of the NES process including the models used for the project. The National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM), which was used in analyzing environmental impacts, is discussed. The structure of NESEAM, as well as results and analyses are presented

  4. Workshop tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Maillard, D. [Energy and Raw Materials, 75 - Paris (France); Pumphrey, D. [Energy Cooperation, US Dept. of Energy (United States); Sverdrup, G.; Valdez, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Schindler, J. [LB-Systemtechnik (LBST), GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany); His, St.; Rozakis, St. [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Sagisaka, M. [LCA Research Centre (Japan); Bjornstad, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Madre, J.L. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite, 94 - Arcueil (France); Hourcade, J.Ch. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement le Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Ricci, A.; Criqui, P.; Chateau, B.; Bunger, U.; Jeeninga, H. [EU/DG-R (Italy); Chan, A. [National Research Council (Canada); Gielen, D. [IEA-International Energy Associates Ltd., Fairfax, VA (United States); Tosato, G.C. [Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP), 75 - Paris (France); Akai, M. [Agency of Industrial Science and technology (Japan); Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, DIW Berlin (Germany); Leban, R. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The aims of this workshop is to better characterize the future in integrating all the dynamic interaction between the economy, the environment and the society. It offers presentations on the Hydrogen chains evaluation, the micro-economic modelling for evaluation of bio-fuel options, life cycle assessment evolution and potentialities, the consumer valuation of energy technologies attributes, the perspectives for evaluation of changing behavior, the incentive systems and barriers to social acceptability, the internalization of external costs, the endogenous technical change in long-tem energy models, ETSAP/technology dynamics in partial equilibrium energy models, very long-term energy environment modelling, ultra long-term energy technology perspectives, the socio-economic toolbox of the EU hydrogen road-map, the combined approach using technology oriented optimization and evaluation of impacts of individual policy measures and the application of a suite of basic research portfolio management tools. (A.L.B.)

  5. Associations - Communities - Residents. Building together a citizen-based project of renewable energies - Methodological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramard, Dominique; Fleury, Laurianne; Peyret, Albert; Ghesquiere, Christine; Kauber, Markus; Jourdain, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    This guide first outlines the challenges and stakes of citizen-based renewable energies: example of a necessary energy transition in Brittany, interest of a local production of renewable energies, examples in other European countries, and emergence of a citizen-based energy movement in France. The second part presents the four main phases of such a project (diagnosis, development, construction, and exploitation), the main issues to be addressed, and the main steps of a citizen-based renewable energy project (technical, legal and financial, and citizen-related aspects during the different phases). The third part describes how to elaborate a citizen-based project: by addressing the project dimensions, by defining a legal specification, by performing a provisional business model, by choosing an appropriate legal structure, by creating a project company, and by mobilizing local actors). The last part addresses how to finance the project: by building up own funds, by asking banks for support, and by citizen participation to investment

  6. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact from Depletion of Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments

  7. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  8. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  9. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  10. Why heavy and light quarks radiate energy with similar rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The dead-cone effect has been predicted to reduce the magnitude of energy loss and jet quenching for heavy flavors produced with large p T in heavy-ion collisions. On the contrary, data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider demonstrate a strong suppression of high-p T electrons from charm and bottom decays. We show that vacuum radiation of a highly virtual quark produced at high p T with a stripped-off color field develops a much wider dead cone, which screens the one related to the quark mass. Lacking the field, gluons cannot be radiated within this cone until the color field is regenerated and the quark virtuality cools down to the scale of the order of the quark mass. However, this takes longer than is essential for the observed jet quenching, leading to similar nuclear effects for the light and charm quark jets. Open beauty is expected to radiate much less within the p T range studied so far in heavy-ion collisions.

  11. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  12. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  13. Theoretical estimation of Photons flow rate Production in quark gluon interaction at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; Hamza Hussein, Hyder; Mustafa Hussein, Saba

    2018-05-01

    photons emitted from higher energetic collisions in quark-gluon system have been theoretical studied depending on color quantum theory. A simple model for photons emission at quark-gluon system have been investigated. In this model, we use a quantum consideration which enhances to describing the quark system. The photons current rate are estimation for two system at different fugacity coefficient. We discussion the behavior of photons rate and quark gluon system properties in different photons energies with Boltzmann model. The photons rate depending on anisotropic coefficient : strong constant, photons energy, color number, fugacity parameter, thermal energy and critical energy of system are also discussed.

  14. Automatic heart rate normalization for accurate energy expenditure normalization : an analysis of activities of daily living and heart rate features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altini, M.; Penders, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Amft, O.D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Background: Energy Expenditure (EE) estimation algorithms using Heart Rate (HR) or a combination of accelerometer and HR data suffer from large error due to

  15. State-of-The-Art of Modeling Methodologies and Optimization Operations in Integrated Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-08-01

    Rapid advances in low carbon technologies and smart energy communities are reshaping future patterns. Uncertainty in energy productions and demand sides are paving the way towards decentralization management. Current energy infrastructures could not meet with supply and consumption challenges, along with emerging environment and economic requirements. Integrated Energy System(IES) whereby electric power, natural gas, heating couples with each other demonstrates that such a significant technique would gradually become one of main comprehensive and optimal energy solutions with high flexibility, friendly renewables absorption and improving efficiency. In these global energy trends, we summarize this literature review. Firstly the accurate definition and characteristics of IES have been presented. Energy subsystem and coupling elements modeling issues are analyzed. It is pointed out that decomposed and integrated analysis methods are the key algorithms for IES optimization operations problems, followed by exploring the IES market mechanisms. Finally several future research tendencies of IES, such as dynamic modeling, peer-to-peer trading, couple market design, sare under discussion.

  16. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  17. [Development of an optimized formulation of damask marmalade with low energy level using Taguchi methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Mario; Castro, Ruth; Junod, Julio

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this present study was the development of an optimized formula of damask marmalade low in calories applying Taguchi methodology to improve the quality of this product. The selection of this methodology lies on the fact that in real life conditions the result of an experiment frequently depends on the influence of several variables, therefore, one expedite way to solve this problem is utilizing factorial desings. The influence of acid, thickener, sweetener and aroma additives, as well as time of cooking, and possible interactions among some of them, were studied trying to get the best combination of these factors to optimize the sensorial quality of an experimental formulation of dietetic damask marmalade. An orthogonal array L8 (2(7)) was applied in this experience, as well as level average analysis was carried out according Taguchi methodology to determine the suitable working levels of the design factors previously choiced, to achieve a desirable product quality. A sensory trained panel was utilized to analyze the marmalade samples using a composite scoring test with a descriptive acuantitative scale ranging from 1 = Bad, 5 = Good. It was demonstrated that the design factors sugar/aspartame, pectin and damask aroma had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the sensory quality of the marmalade with 82% of contribution on the response. The optimal combination result to be: citric acid 0.2%; pectin 1%; 30 g sugar/16 mg aspartame/100 g, damask aroma 0.5 ml/100 g, time of cooking 5 minutes. Regarding chemical composition, the most important results turned out to be the decrease in carbohydrate content compaired with traditional marmalade with a reduction of 56% in coloric value and also the amount of dietary fiber greater than similar commercial products. Assays of storage stability were carried out on marmalade samples submitted to different temperatures held in plastic bags of different density. Non percetible sensorial, microbiological and chemical changes

  18. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part I: An MILP based spatial optimization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of multi-biomass supply chains and biomass to biofuel processing technologies. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the representation of the relationships between the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps, and on the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems. After a description of state of the art and research trends in urban energy systems and bioenergy modelling, an application of the methodology to a generic case study is proposed. With the assumed techno-economic parameters, biomass based thermal energy generation results competitive with natural gas, while district heating network results the main option for urban areas with high thermal energy demand density. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  19. Towards a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems in comparison with fossil energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Jungmeier, G.; Apps, M.; Bohlin, F.; Gustavsson, L.; Marland, G.; Pingoud, K.; Savolainen, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, which was prepared as part of IEA Bioenergy Task XV (''Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems''), we outline a standard methodology for comparing the greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems with those of fossil energy systems. Emphasis is on a careful definition of system boundaries. The following issues are dealt with in detail: time interval analysed and changes of carbon stocks; reference energy systems; energy inputs required to produce, process and transport fuels; mass and energy losses along the entire fuel chain; energy embodied in facility infrastructure; distribution systems; cogeneration systems; by-products; waste wood and other biomass waste for energy; reference land use; and other environmental issues. For each of these areas recommendations are given on how analyses of greenhouse gas balances should be performed. In some cases we also point out alternative ways of doing the greenhouse gas accounting. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations on how bioenergy systems should be optimized from a greenhouse-gas emissions point of view. (author)

  20. The regional (Europe) project on study of energy options using the IAEA planning methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, P.

    1997-01-01

    As a means to assist developing IAEA Member States in the Europe region in the broad area of energy, electricity and nuclear power planning, a new project has been implemented as part of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme. This paper describes the major objectives of this regional TC project and the activities to be organized in order to provide the required assistance. Focus is made on the present workshop and the current activities sponsored by the IAEA for further developments of the IAEA planning tools for energy, electricity and nuclear power planning with emphasis on the Energy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) and the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) packages. (author)

  1. The regional (Europe) project on study of energy options using the IAEA planning methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, P [Division of Nuclear Power, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    As a means to assist developing IAEA Member States in the Europe region in the broad area of energy, electricity and nuclear power planning, a new project has been implemented as part of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme. This paper describes the major objectives of this regional TC project and the activities to be organized in order to provide the required assistance. Focus is made on the present workshop and the current activities sponsored by the IAEA for further developments of the IAEA planning tools for energy, electricity and nuclear power planning with emphasis on the Energy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) and the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) packages. (author).

  2. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati-fard, T; Vazifehshenas, T

    2014-01-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field. (paper)

  3. Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

  4. Methodology developed for the energy-productive diagnosis and evaluation in health buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, I.; Discoli, C.; Rosenfeld, E. [Instituto de Estudios del Habitat (IDEHAB), Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The public health network in Argentina consists of a wide variety of buildings presenting a complex system of services and structures. In order to modulate and study the energy behaviour of each type of health facility, a database of Energy-Productive Building Modules (Modulos Edilicios Energeticos Productivos: MEEP) was built. This involved evaluating the interactions among physical spaces, building envelope, infrastructure, and equipment usage with the energy consumption, for each specialty service provided in the most common buildings present in the health service network. The MEEP database enables investigators to: (i) Obtain detailed information on each facility. (ii) Identify variables critical to an energy consumption perspective. (iii) Detect areas of over consumption and/or inadequate infrastructure. (iv) Gather essential reference material for the design of health facilities and other similar sectors. The information of each MEEP can be summarized in typological charts. (author)

  5. Considerations for a regional energy - environment game. [Development and application of methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J; Saaty, T; Blair, P; Ma, F; Ojalvo, S; Rahbar, F; Shimamoto, G

    1975-06-30

    The elements and structure of a small-scale regional energy-environment game are presented, with special emphasis on the definition of appropriate actors and state variables as well as characterization of the target region for which the game is designed. The results of this Phase I game will be used to aid the design of components in a more comprehensive game (Phase II) that can be used for investigating various energy-environment scenarios in a regional assessment study program. The principal results that will be used in the Phase II effort are: (1) definition of the target region; (2) development of reference scenarios describing energy-environment trends and mechanisms within the target region; (3) characterization of principal actors involved in the regional energy - environment system; and (4) definition of a set of factors or state variables that reflect the state of that system. (auth)

  6. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  7. A Combined Methodology of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm for Short-term Energy Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMPOUROPOULOS, K.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This document presents an energy forecast methodology using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA has been used for the selection of the training inputs of the ANFIS in order to minimize the training result error. The presented algorithm has been installed and it is being operating in an automotive manufacturing plant. It periodically communicates with the plant to obtain new information and update the database in order to improve its training results. Finally the obtained results of the algorithm are used in order to provide a short-term load forecasting for the different modeled consumption processes.

  8. Methodology for calculation of carbon emission and energy generation efficiency by fossil coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licks, Leticia A.; Pires, Marcal

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted by the burning of fossil coal in Brazil. So, a detailed methodology is proposed for calculation of CO 2 emissions from the carbon emission coefficients specific for the Brazilian carbons. Also, the using of secondary fuels (fuel oil and diesel oil) were considered and the power generation for the calculation of emissions and efficiencies of each power plant as well. The obtained results indicate carbon emissions for the year 2002 approximately of the order of 1,794 Gg, with 20% less than the obtained by the official methodology (MCT). Such differences are related to the non consideration of the humidity containment of the coals as well as the using of generic coefficients not adapted to the Brazilian coals. The obtained results indicate the necessity to review the emission inventories and the modernization of the burning systems aiming the increase the efficiency and reduction of the CO 2 and other pollutants, as an alternative for maintaining the sustainable form of using the fossil coal in the country

  9. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  10. Introduction to the Asian Energy Security project: Project organization and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Savage, Timothy; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The spectacular recent economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region in general, and in many of the economies of Northeast Asia in particular, has spurred a vast expansion in the need for energy services, and an expansion in the demand for the fuels that help to supply these services. Future projections suggest that the growth of fossil fuel use in Northeast Asia, especially in China, will have major consequences for financial and fuel markets and pollution both regionally and globally. Before the project described in this paper was initiated, there was no ongoing forum for energy experts from all of the countries of the region to meet, informally and in an unofficial capacity, to discuss openly and in a targeted fashion the energy situations in their countries, and to work together to evaluate the energy efficiency costs and benefits of different ways of meeting regional demand. The Asian Energy Security (AES) project provides such a forum, and as such constitutes a unique resource in the engagement of the countries of Northeast Asia on the topic of energy security.

  11. Methodological practices of positive energy territories. To articulate approaches and tools in order to implement energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This publication comments the results of a survey which aimed at understanding how French territories are properly implementing their local energy transition by using a variety of tools designed for the design and follow-up of their climate-energy policies, and other supports (regional programs, experts, local associations, and so on). Different aspects are addressed: the importance of support devices, the uneven level of knowledge or adequacy of tools, the role of external expertise, the way the great number of tools is managed, additional needs, issues related to financing and to mobilisation. In the second part, six examples are presented which correspond to different geographical situations and stakes

  12. Spontaneous Emission and Energy Transfer Rates Near a Coated Metallic Cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    BRADLEY, LOUISE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates of quantum systems in proximity to a dielectrically coated metallic cylinder are investigated using a Green's tensor formalism. The excitation of surface plasmon modes can significantly modify these rates. The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates are investigated as a function of the material and dimensions of the core and coating, as well as the emission wavelength of the donor. For the material of the core we consider...

  13. MEAPA - Integrated methodology for alternative energy sources map pin in the State of Para - Brazil; MEAPA - Metodologias integradas para o mapeamento de energias alternativas no Estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Claudio; Lopes, J. Pecas; Va, Kowk P.; Herold, Helmut [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). Power System Unit. E-mail: cmonteiro@inescn.pt; Rocha, Brigida; Pinheiro, Helten; Rocha, Olavo [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. E-mail: rocha@interconect.com.br; Silva, Isa O. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Meteorologia; Moraes, Sinfronio [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the MEAPA project for the development of methodologies which support the renewable energy sources integration in the Marajo island - Para - Brazil. The methodologies used will be described including the construction of a geographical database, renewable resources (wind, solar and biomass) mapping, transport costs, cost of electric power produced by various systems and electrification sceneries and comparison of electrification solutions.

  14. Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabak, Mehmet; Dağdeviren, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

  15. Methodologies on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and determining the net energy contents of feed ingredients in swine: a review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Liu, Hu; Li, Yakui; Lv, Zhiqian; Liu, Ling; Lai, Changhua; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry. The present review summarizes the NE research works conducted at MAFIC and compares these results with those from other research groups on methodological aspect. These research projects mainly focus on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and its impact on the determination, prediction, and validation of the NE content of several ingredients fed to swine. The estimation of maintenance energy is affected by methodology, growth stage, and previous feeding level. The fasting heat production method and the curvilinear regression method were used in MAFIC to estimate the NE requirement for maintenance. The NE contents of different feedstuffs were determined using indirect calorimetry through standard experimental procedure in MAFIC. Previously generated NE equations can also be used to predict NE in situations where calorimeters are not available. Although popular, the caloric efficiency is not a generally accepted method to validate the energy content of individual feedstuffs. In the future, more accurate and dynamic NE prediction equations aiming at specific ingredients should be established, and more practical validation approaches need to be developed.

  16. Environmental effects on energy metabolism and 86Rb elimination rates of fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between energy metabolism and the turnover rates of number of important chemical and radiological elements (particularly the Group IA alkali metals: K, Rb, and Cs) have been observed in fishes. Using response surface statistics and fractional factorial ANOVA, the author examined the relative influences of temperature, salinity, food intake rate, mass, and their first order interactions on routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates. Routine metabolic rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity, with a strong body mass effect and a significant effect of food intake. 86 Rb elimination rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity. There were no interactive effects between mass and either temperature or salinity for either routine energy metabolism or 86 Rb elimination rates. There was a significant interaction effect between temperature and salinity on routine energy metabolism rates, but not on 86 Rb elimination. The authors also observed a relationship between routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates that may possibly be exploited as a means of estimating energy metabolic rates of fishes in the field. The statistical techniques used in this experiment have broad potential applications in assessing the contributions of combinations of environmental variables on contaminant kinetics, as well as in multiple toxicity testing, in that they greatly simplify experimental designs compared with traditional full-factorial methods

  17. A methodology for low-speed broadband rotational energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction and frequency up-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Hailing; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy harvesting from vibration for low-power electronics has been investigated intensively in recent years, but rotational energy harvesting is less investigated and still has some challenges. In this paper, a methodology for low-speed rotational energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction and frequency up-conversion is analysed. The system consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam with a tip magnet and a rotating magnet on a revolving host. The angular kinetic energy of the host is transferred to the vibration energy of the piezoelectric beam via magnetic coupling between the magnets. Frequency up-conversion is achieved by magnetic plucking, converting low frequency rotation into high frequency vibration of the piezoelectric beam. A distributed-parameter theoretical model is presented to analyse the electromechanical behaviour of the rotational energy harvester. Different configurations and design parameters were investigated to improve the output power of the device. Experimental studies were conducted to validate the theoretical estimation. The results illustrate that the proposed method is a feasible solution to collecting low-speed rotational energy from ambient hosts, such as vehicle tires, micro-turbines and wristwatches. - Highlights: • A topology to harvest low-frequency broad-band rotational energy is studied. • Different configurations were considered; arrangement (a)-repulsive was the best. • Theoretical analysis shows the harvester has a wide bandwidth at low frequency. • The ripples of output power are related to the beam's natural frequency. • Experimental results show a good performance (over 20 μW) from 15 Hz to 35 Hz.

  18. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: Design, Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Balance (EB is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance” Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009, as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain.

  19. An energy-independent dose rate meter for beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Keller, M.

    1986-01-01

    An easy to handle dose rate meter has been developed at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre with a small probe for the energy-independent determination of the dose rate in mixed radiation fields. The dose rate meter contains a small ionisation chamber with a volume of 15.5 cm 3 . The window of the ionisation chamber consists of an aluminised plastic foil of 7 mg.cm -2 . The dose rate meter is suitable for determining the dose rate in skin. With a supplementary depth dose cap, the dose rate can be determined in tissue at a depth of 1 cm. The dose rate meter is energy-independent within +-20% for 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation and for gamma radiation in the energy range above 35 keV. (author)

  20. Modeling energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Methodological challenges and insights from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshall, Lily; Gurney, Kevin; Hammer, Stephen A.; Mendoza, Daniel; Zhou, Yuyu; Geethakumar, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    Local policy makers could benefit from a national, high-resolution inventory of energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions based on the Vulcan data product, which plots emissions on a 100 km 2 grid. We evaluate the ability of Vulcan to measure energy consumption in urban areas, a scale of analysis required to support goals established as part of local energy, climate or sustainability initiatives. We highlight the methodological challenges of this type of analytical exercise and review alternative approaches. We find that between 37% and 86% of direct fuel consumption in buildings and industry and between 37% and 77% of on-road gasoline and diesel consumption occurs in urban areas, depending on how these areas are defined. We suggest that a county-based definition of urban is preferable to other common definitions since counties are the smallest political unit for which energy data are collected. Urban counties, account for 37% of direct energy consumption, or 50% if mixed urban counties are included. A county-based definition can also improve estimates of per-capita consumption.

  1. Methodology of social and environmental external costs estimation in the Ukraine’s energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaieva Nataliia Veniaminivna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paper objective is analysis of the external costs assessment model for the eco-social damage, and/or human capital losses caused by environmental pollution from the energy enterprises in Ukraine. Using the given method, necessary initial socio-economic parameters were defined and used for calculating the social costs of capital health losses in Ukraine due to deterioration of the environment, and due to the negative impact of energy sector on the air quality for the period 2002-2013. On the proposed technique determines the range value of social losses due to the negative impact of energy on air quality in Ukraine excluding future external costs for years 2002 – 2013 ranges from 1.6 – 4.5% of GDP, and the range of values of taking into account future costs is 2.0 – 6.2% of GDP.

  2. 75 FR 36381 - Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding Rates, Accounting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding Rates, Accounting and Financial Reporting... the above-referenced docket regarding rates, accounting and financial reporting associated with... set method(s) of rate recovery, accounting and financial reporting. However, the same is not...

  3. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  4. Analysing methodological choices in calculations of embodied energy and GHG emissions from buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard; Malmqvist, Tove; Moncaster, Alice

    2018-01-01

    The importance of embodied energy and embodied greenhouse gas emissions (EEG) from buildings is gaining increased interest within building sector initiatives and on a regulatory level. In spite of recent har- monisation efforts, reported results of EEG from building case studies display large...... obtained, thus providing a framework for reinterpretation and more effective comparison. The collection of over 80 international case studies developed within the International Energy Agency’s EBC Annex 57 research programme is used as the quantitative foundation to present a comprehensive analysis......, and the combination potentials between these many parameters signifies a multitude of ways in which the outcome of EEG studies are affected....

  5. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  6. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  7. Study of influence of exchange rate change on the supply and demand of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y.H.; Shin, D.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The change of relative prices of trading goods and non-trading goods due to appreciation or depreciation of real exchange rates influences industrial structure and trading infrastructure by changing output, consumption, import and export, and prices of domestic economy. Considering that energy is used as intermediate input of all industrial sectors as well as in final consumption in the Korean economy which lacks energy resources and relies on imported energy resources, I believe that assessing the concrete effects of the real exchange rate change onto the energy industry must be a very important item in establishing effective energy policy. In this thesis, I measure the elasticity of the exchange rate as endogenous factors related to the energy industry using a CGE model that breaks down the energy industry. One (1) % depreciation of real exchange rate increases the domestic sales prices of all energy industry sectors, and the price increase ratios of petroleum and coal products are calculated as the highest among these. Petroleum and coal products show the highest price increase ratios while both the output and export decrease. On the other hand, depreciation increases the domestic sales prices of power generation, city gas, and heating sectors, but it is found to increase the output apart from petroleum and coal products. Depreciation of the real exchange rate is found to change the composition of the energy industry from petroleum and coal products to power generation, city gas, and heating sectors. 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  8. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a

  9. A methodology for online visualization of the energy flow in a machine tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Züst, Simon; Mayr, Josef

    2017-01-01

    the machining process and by this increasing its energy efficiency. This study intents to propose a method which has the capability of real-time monitoring of the entire energetic flows in a CNC machine tool including motors, pumps and cooling fluid. The structure of this approach is based on categorizing...

  10. Methodology for the energy analysis of compressed air systems; Metodologia para analisis energetico de sistemas de aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, T; Ambriz, J J; Romero, H [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper a methodology for the diagnosis of compressed air systems, for the identification of the potential energy saving is presented. The methodology consists in detecting the largest number of possible ways of energy saving. For this purpose it is divided into three parts: 1. Compressed air generation. 2. Compressed air distribution. 3. Compressed air users. For each one of the parts, the type of information required to perform the diagnosis study, as well as the necessary measuring equipment needed, is indicated. Afterwards, the possible saving ways that can be found and the ones that can be feasible, are analyzed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia para diagnosticar sistemas de aire comprimido, para identificar los potenciales de ahorro de energia. La metodologia consiste en detectar el mayor numero de posibles medidas de ahorro, para lo cual se divide en tres partes: 1. Generacion de aire comprimido. 2. Distribucion del aire comprimido. 3 Usuarios de aire comprimido. Para cada una de las partes se indica el tipo de informacion requerida para realizar el estudio de diagnostico, asi como el uso de equipo necesario de medicion. Despues se analizan las posibles medidas de ahorro que se pueden encontrar y las que pueden ser viables.

  11. Methodology for the energy analysis of compressed air systems; Metodologia para analisis energetico de sistemas de aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, T.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper a methodology for the diagnosis of compressed air systems, for the identification of the potential energy saving is presented. The methodology consists in detecting the largest number of possible ways of energy saving. For this purpose it is divided into three parts: 1. Compressed air generation. 2. Compressed air distribution. 3. Compressed air users. For each one of the parts, the type of information required to perform the diagnosis study, as well as the necessary measuring equipment needed, is indicated. Afterwards, the possible saving ways that can be found and the ones that can be feasible, are analyzed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia para diagnosticar sistemas de aire comprimido, para identificar los potenciales de ahorro de energia. La metodologia consiste en detectar el mayor numero de posibles medidas de ahorro, para lo cual se divide en tres partes: 1. Generacion de aire comprimido. 2. Distribucion del aire comprimido. 3 Usuarios de aire comprimido. Para cada una de las partes se indica el tipo de informacion requerida para realizar el estudio de diagnostico, asi como el uso de equipo necesario de medicion. Despues se analizan las posibles medidas de ahorro que se pueden encontrar y las que pueden ser viables.

  12. Estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults: a case for calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using different levels of calibration. Heart rate and energy expenditure were assessed across five levels of exertion in 290 adults participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Correlation and random effects regression analyses assessed the linearity of the relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure and cross-validation models assessed predictive performance. Heart rate and energy expenditure were highly correlated (r=0.98) and linear regardless of age or sex. Intra-person variability was low but inter-person variability was high, with substantial heterogeneity of the random intercept (s.d. =0.372) despite similar slopes. Cross-validation models indicated individual calibration data substantially improves accuracy predictions of energy expenditure from heart rate, reducing the potential for considerable measurement bias. Although using five calibration measures provided the greatest reduction in the standard deviation of prediction errors (1.08 kcals/min), substantial improvement was also noted with two (0.75 kcals/min). These findings indicate standard regression equations may be used to make population-level inferences when estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults but caution should be exercised when making inferences at the individual level without proper calibration.

  13. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Building energy efficiency rating systems have been established worldwide to systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings. This study aimed to develop a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings from two perspectives: (i) establishment of reasonable and fair criteria for the building energy efficiency rating system; and (ii) establishment of comparative incentive and penalty programs to encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. Based on the analysis of the conventional energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings, this study was conducted in five steps: (i) data collection and analysis; (ii) correlation analysis between the household size and the CO 2 emission density (i.e., CO 2 emission per unit area); (iii) cluster formation based on results of the correlation analysis using a decision tree; (iv) establishment of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings; and (v) establishment of incentive and penalty programs using advanced case-based reasoning. The proposed system can allow a policymaker to establish a reasonable and fair energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings and can encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. - Highlights: • A new energy efficiency rating system for the residential building was developed. • The incentive and penalty programs were established using an advanced CBR model. • The new system was established using reasonable and fair standards. • It allows all residents to voluntarily participate in the energy saving campaign. • It can be applied to any country or sector in the global environment

  14. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly

  15. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Mokkink, L.B.; Knol, D.L.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Bouter, L.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The COSMIN checklist is a standardized tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. It contains 9 boxes, each dealing with one measurement property, with 5-18 items per box about design aspects and statistical methods. Our aim was to develop a

  16. Influence of the Scientific and Technical Progress upon the Fuel and Energy Complex of Ukraine until 2050: Methodology of Assessment of Long-term Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko Leonid A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes an attempt, using new methodological initial grounds by the works of leading foreign authors, to present an aggregate of qualitatively different conditions of development of the fuel and energy complex of Ukraine until 2050 in the context of forecasts of development of USA until 2100. The authors justify factors that significantly differentiate trajectories of future development of the Ukrainian energy sector and USA energy sector, which envisages development of own methodology and realisation of forecasts officially already developed by Ukrainian scientists. On the basis of this the article presents the authors’ comparative analysis of fuel and energy complexes of Ukraine and China.

  17. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  18. Metodologija određivanja elektroenergetskog bilansa operacije / Methodology of determining electric energy balance of operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velenko Milanović

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Pored ubojnih i pogonskih sredstava, električna energija je treći bitan elemenat energije boja. Proračun i poznavanje elektroenergetskog bilansa jedinice podrazumeva određivanje potreba za električnom energijom (izvorima punjačima, ispravljačima, pretvaračima, omogućuje iznalaženje optimalnih rešenja pomoću raspoložive opreme i sredstava, a komandovanju obezbeđuje donošenje pravovremenih i kvalitetnih odluka i predstavlja bitan faktor borbene gotovosti jedinice. Poznavanje elektroenergetskog bilansa omogućuje određivanje autonomnosti jedinica, što je važno za planiranje i realizaciju određenih zadataka i aktivnosti. U ovom radu predstavljen je matematički model za određivanje elektroenergetskog bilansa bilo koje jedinice, za sve uslove i zadatke u kojima se može naći i koje može izvršavati. Bilans se može odrediti sa ili bez upotrebe informatičke opreme što mu obezbeđuje široku i svenivojsku primenu. / Besides explosives and propulsive devices, electric energy represents the third crucial element of battle energy. Calculation and understanding of electric energy balance of units imply determination of needs for electric energy (sources, chargers, transformers, converters, enable optimal solutions by the help of available equipment and in commanding they provide making timely and high-quality decisions thus representing an important factor of unit combat readiness. Furthermore, knowledge of electric energy balance provides unit autonomy, which is very important in planning and realization of particular missions and activities. This paper presents a mathematical model for electric energy balance determination for any type of units, all circumstances and missions they may be involved in. The model is applicable with or without use of computers, thus providing its wide and all level-application.

  19. Methodology and evaluation of priorities for energy and environmental research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagazyo, T.; Kaneko, K.; Akai, M.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate and prioritize energy-related projects, not only technological issues but also resource and social aspects must be included. We use an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for incorporating these two features. Technological issues are divided into three categories; resource and social aspects are divided into five categories. Each category is further subdivided, forming a tree-like hierarchy. Nineteen energy-related characteristics and seven environmental characteristics are used to describe a proposed research project. By utilizing the estimated relative importance of each selected characteristic, seven different planning perspectives have been identified: short-, intermediate-, and long-range strategies for Japan, short- and intermediate-range strategies for less developed countries (LDCs), and intermediate- and long-range global strategies. (author)

  20. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  1. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake

  2. Towards integration of methodologies for assessing and promoting the societal embedding of energy innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbong, G.; Mourik, R.; Raven, R.P.J.M.

    2006-10-01

    The necessity for system innovation is well acknowledged, but inducing system change proves to be very difficult. Three approaches have been developed for analysing and supporting radical innovations: Socrobust, Create Acceptance and Strategic Niche Management. This paper gives an overview of these complementary approaches and their theoretical background. The paper also identifies several potential contributions for social scientists to contribute to energy research and the implementation of more sustainable alternatives.

  3. Considering supply and demand of electric energy in life cycle assessments - a review of current methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehberger, M.; Hiete, M.

    2015-01-01

    A stable power grid requires a balance between electricity supply and demand. To compensate for changes in the demand the network operator puts on or takes off power plants from the net. Peak load plants operate only at times of high electricity demand. As levels for air pollutants emissions are typically lower for peak load plants for reasons of cost-effectiveness, one could argue that a unit of electric energy consumed during peak load has always been associated with a higher environmental impact than at other times. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies, smart approaches for improving the matching between electricity consumption and supply and new products such as electric vehicles or net zero emission buildings gain in importance. In life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental impacts associated with the production and possibly transmission of electricity are most often assessed based on temporally averaged national electricity mixes as electricity flows cannot be traced back to their origin. Neither fluctuations in the supply structure nor the composition of energy supply at a certain moment or regional differences are accounted for. A literature review of approaches for handling electricity in LCA is carried out to compare strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. A better understanding and knowledge about the source of electricity at a given time and place might be valuable information for further reducing environmental impacts, e.g. by shifting electricity consumption to times with ample supply of renewables. Integrating such information into LCA will allow a fairer assessment of a variety of new products which accept a lower energy efficiency to achieve a better integration of renewables into the grid. (authors)

  4. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mulcahy, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  5. Sampling and analytical methodologies for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of the different forms of ED-XFR as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of ED-XRF to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability. Emphasis is also placed on the sources of errors affecting the sampling of airborne particulate matter. The analytical part of the document describes the different forms of ED-XRF and their potential applications. Spectrum evaluation, a key step in X-ray spectrometry, is covered in depth, including discussion on several calibration and peak fitting techniques and computer programs especially designed for this purpose. 148 refs, 25 figs, 13 tabs

  6. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  7. Lumley's energy cascade dissipation rate model for boundary-free turbulent shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    True dissipation occurs mainly at the highest wavenumbers where the eddy sizes are comparatively small. These high wavenumbers receive their energy through the spectral cascade of energy starting with the largest eddies spilling energy into the smaller eddies, passing through each wavenumber until it is dissipated at the microscopic scale. However, a small percentage of the energy does not spill continuously through the cascade but is instantly passed to the higher wavenumbers. Consequently, the smallest eddies receive a certain amount of energy almost immediately. As the spectral energy cascade continues, the highest wavenumber needs a certain time to receive all the energy which has been transferred from the largest eddies. As such, there is a time delay, of the order of tau, between the generation of energy by the largest eddies and the eventual dissipation of this energy. For equilibrium turbulence at high Reynolds numbers, there is a wide range where energy is neither produced by the large eddies nor dissipated by viscosity, but is conserved and passed from wavenumber to higher wavenumbers. The rate at which energy cascades from one wavenumber to another is proportional to the energy contained within that wavenumber. This rate is constant and has been used in the past as a dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. However, this is true only in steady, equilibrium turbulence. Most dissipation models contend that the production of dissipation is proportional to the production of energy and that the destruction of dissipation is proportional to the destruction of energy. In essence, these models state that the change in the dissipation rate is proportional to the change in the kinetic energy. This assumption is obviously incorrect for the case where there is no production of turbulent energy, yet energy continues to cascade from large to small eddies. If the time lag between the onset on the energy cascade to the destruction of energy at the microscale can be

  8. Energy expenditure estimation in beta-blocker-medicated cardiac patients by combining heart rate and body movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Jos J; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Stut, Wim; Peek, Niels; Kemps, Hareld Mc; Bonomi, Alberto G

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure provides an opportunity to monitor physical activity during cardiac rehabilitation. However, the available assessment methods, based on the combination of heart rate (HR) and body movement data, are not applicable for patients using beta-blocker medication. Therefore, we developed an energy expenditure prediction model for beta-blocker-medicated cardiac rehabilitation patients. Sixteen male cardiac rehabilitation patients (age: 55.8 ± 7.3 years, weight: 93.1 ± 11.8 kg) underwent a physical activity protocol with 11 low- to moderate-intensity common daily life activities. Energy expenditure was assessed using a portable indirect calorimeter. HR and body movement data were recorded during the protocol using unobtrusive wearable devices. In addition, patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise test and resting metabolic rate assessment. Energy expenditure estimation models were developed using multivariate regression analyses based on HR and body movement data and/or patient characteristics. In addition, a HR-flex model was developed. The model combining HR and body movement data and patient characteristics showed the highest correlation and lowest error (r 2  = 0.84, root mean squared error = 0.834 kcal/minute) with total energy expenditure. The method based on individual calibration data (HR-flex) showed lower accuracy (i 2  = 0.83, root mean squared error = 0.992 kcal/minute). Our results show that combining HR and body movement data improves the accuracy of energy expenditure prediction models in cardiac patients, similar to methods that have been developed for healthy subjects. The proposed methodology does not require individual calibration and is based on the data that are available in clinical practice. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  9. Progressive Time-Weighted Dynamic Energy Efficiency, Energy Decoupling Rate, and Decarbonization: An Empirical Study on G7 and BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Tu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a critical factor of economic growth, but the overuse of it results in global warming and climate change. Hence, energy efficiency improvement can help mitigate climate change and prevent economic losses or even ecological extinction. The data envelopment analysis (DEA approach has been extensively applied for energy efficiency estimation, but past studies of this estimation employ a static mode that does not consider consecutive periods and the carry-over effect. This study estimates energy efficiency under a weight-restricted dynamic DEA (WrD-DEA model, creates a weight-restricted dynamic energy efficiency (WrD-EE indicator, and discusses issues concerning the energy decoupling rate and decarbonization. We utilize members in the Group of Seven (G7 and BRICS (Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa for our experimental observations. The main results herein are: (1 BRICS has larger room for improvement to achieve the standard ratio of the energy decoupling rate than the G7; (2 the G7 and BRICS do not converge to decarbonization; and (3 BRICS exhibits more rapid improvement on energy efficiency than the G7.

  10. Long-term forecasting of electric load within overall energy demand by the use of the combined MAED and WASP methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Molina, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies involved in carrying out an Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study (ENPPS), with emphasis on the MAED Model. It outlines the necessary steps for successfully conducting such a study, and describes its advantages with reference to the Algerian study. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will use this expertise in assisting developing Member States in the economic assessments of the role of nuclear energy within the national energy plan of the country. 6 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  11. Determination of αs from jet production rates and energy-energy correlations on the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1990-10-01

    This presentation uses data obtained from the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The strong coupling constant α s is determined in two different analyses of the Z 0 decay into multi-hadronic final states. The first uses the jet production rates and the second the asymmetry of energy-energy correlations. Both methods compare experimental data with second order of perturbative QCD predictions. The results are α s (M z ) = 0.114 ± 0.003 ± 0.004 ± 0.012 using the jet rates method and α s (M z ) = 0.106 ± 0.003 ± 0.003 ± 0.003 from the energy-energy correlations method

  12. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  13. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Adaptive real-time methodology for optimizing energy-efficient computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing [Los Alamos, NM; Feng, Wu-Chun [Blacksburg, VA

    2011-06-28

    Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an effective way to reduce energy and power consumption in microprocessor units. Current implementations of DVFS suffer from inaccurate modeling of power requirements and usage, and from inaccurate characterization of the relationships between the applicable variables. A system and method is proposed that adjusts CPU frequency and voltage based on run-time calculations of the workload processing time, as well as a calculation of performance sensitivity with respect to CPU frequency. The system and method are processor independent, and can be applied to either an entire system as a unit, or individually to each process running on a system.

  15. Joint sensor placement and power rating selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bushnaq, Osama M.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is on optimal sensor placement and power rating selection for parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We take into account the amount of energy harvested by the sensing nodes, communication link quality

  16. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  17. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  18. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  20. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  1. 77 FR 38280 - Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2071-000] Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA New York, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  3. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  4. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  6. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  7. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-25-000] Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  9. 77 FR 106 - California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-645-000] California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... California Ridge Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  11. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  12. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  13. Innovative Methodologies for thermal Energy Release Measurement: case of La Solfatara volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfe`, Barbara; Avino, Rosario; Belviso, Pasquale; Caliro, Stefano; Carandente, Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Peluso, Rosario

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improve the knowledge on the parameters that control the heat flux anomalies associated with the diffuse degassing processes of volcanic and hydrothermal areas. The methodologies currently used to measure heat flux (i.e. CO2 flux or temperature gradient) are either poorly efficient or effective, and are unable to detect short to medium time (days to months) variation trends in the heat flux. A new method, based on the use of thermal imaging cameras, has been applied to estimate the heat flux and its time variations. This approach will allow faster heat flux measurement than already accredited methods, improving in this way the definition of the activity state of a volcano and allowing a better assessment of the related hazard and risk mitigation. The idea is to extrapolate the heat flux from the ground surface temperature that, in a purely conductive regime, is directly correlated to the shallow temperature gradient. We use thermal imaging cameras, at short distances (meters to hundreds of meters), to quickly obtain a mapping of areas with thermal anomalies and a measure of their temperature. Preliminary studies have been carried out throughout the whole of the La Solfatara crater in order to investigate a possible correlation between the surface temperature and the shallow thermal gradient. We have used a FLIR SC640 thermal camera and K type thermocouples to assess the two measurements at the same time. Results suggest a good correlation between the shallow temperature gradient ΔTs and the surface temperature Ts depurated from background, and despite the campaigns took place during a period of time of a few years, this correlation seems to be stable over the time. This is an extremely motivating result for a further development of a measurement method based only on the use of small range thermal imaging camera. Surveys with thermal cameras may be manually done using a tripod to take thermal images of small contiguous areas and then joining

  14. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  15. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed

  16. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Matsumoto, Steven W.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool is a web-based system that is designed to allow building owners, managers, and operators to more accurately assess the energy performance of their commercial buildings. This document provide a step-by-step instruction on how to use the tool.

  17. Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...

  18. Ring current energy injection rate and solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Kan, J.R.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (i) formulate the ring current injection rate Usub(R) in terms of phisub(CT) (cross-tail potential drop) by assuming that the ring current formation is a direct consequence of an enhanced convection, (ii) examine the relationship between the injection rate Usub(R) and the power transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and (iii) demonstrate that an enhanced convection indeed leads to the formation of the ring current. (author)

  19. Determination of the rate of energy partition in deeply inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarini, A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss how excitation energy is partitioned in a deeply inelastic collision. Using the nucleon exchange mechanism for the deep inelastic scattering process, it is possible to draw on existing information about the evolution of the charge and mass distributions with energy loss and combine this with recent information on the partition of excitation energy in deeply inelastic collisions to obtain rates of heating for the two reaction partners

  20. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  1. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  2. Green Planet Architecture - A Methodology for Self-Sustainable Distributed Renewable Energy Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Johnson, Shawana; Venners, John P.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Our planet has been endowed with a host of natural mechanisms to keep the environment and climate in balance. Humans are now facing the need to restore this balance that has been upset in the past years because of a growing population and resource demands. To steer dependency away from freshwater crops and decrease environmental damage from humanity s fuel and energy demands, it is necessary to take advantage of the natural adaptive biomass resources that are already in place. Using methods of Green Planet Architecture, based on compilations of current research and procedures, could lead to new forms of energy and fueling as well as new sources for food and feed. Green Planet Architecture involves climatic adaptive biomass; geospatial intelligence; agri- and aqua-culture life cycles; and soil, wetland, and shoreline restoration. Plants such as Salicornia, seashore mallow, castor, mangroves, and perhaps Moringa can be modified (natural, model-assisted, or genetically modified) to thrive in salt-water and brackish water or otherwise not arable conditions, making them potentially new crops that will not displace traditional farming. These fueling sources also have potential to be used in other rapid-growth industries, such as the aviation industry, that have incentive to move towards more sustainable fuel supplies. This paper highlights an example of how synergistic development of biomass resources and geospatial intelligence high-performance computing capabilities can be focused to resolve potential drought-famine problems. These techniques, provide a basis for future e-science-based discovery (and access) through technology that can be expanded to support global societal applications.

  3. "Green Planet Architecture"-A Methodology for Self-Sustainable Distributed Renewable Energy Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Johnson, Shawana; Venners, John P.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This planet has been endowed with a host of natural mechanisms to keep the environment and climate in balance. Humans are now facing the need to restore this balance that has been upset in the past years because of a growing population and resource demands. To steer dependency away from freshwater crops and decrease environmental damage from humanity s fuel and energy demands, it is necessary to take advantage of the natural adaptive biomass resources that are already in place. Using methods of "Green Planet Architecture," based on compilations of current research and procedures, could lead to new forms of energy and fueling as well as new sources for food and feed. Green Planet Architecture involves climatic adaptive biomass; geospatial intelligence; agri- and aqua-culture life cycles; and soil, wetland, and shoreline restoration. Plants such as Salicornia, seashore mallow, castor, mangroves, and perhaps Moringa can be modified (naturally, model-assisted, or genetically) to thrive in salt water and brackish water or otherwise not arable conditions, making them potentially new crops that will not displace traditional farming. These fueling sources also have potential to be used in other rapid-growth industries, such as the aviation industry, that have incentive to move towards more sustainable fuel supplies. This report highlights an example of how synergistic development of biomass resources and geospatial intelligence high-performance computing capabilities can be focused to resolve potential drought-famine problems. These techniques provide a basis for future e-science-based discovery (and access) through technology that can be expanded to support global societal applications.

  4. Energy efficiency in U.S. residential rental housing: Adoption rates and impact on rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jongho; Seo, Youngme; Cetin, Kristen S.; Singh, Jasmeet

    2017-01-01

    , demonstrating a positive economic impact of these features, particularly for property owners. This was further subdivided into five types of energy efficiency upgrade and three housing types. Single family homes generally demanded higher premiums with energy efficient features, however there was not a consistent pattern across the types of efficient upgrades. The results of this work demonstrate that investment in energy efficient technologies has quantifiable benefits for rental property owners in the U.S. beyond just energy savings. This methodology and results can also be used in other cities and by property owners, utility companies, or others, ultimately encouraging further investment and positive economic impact in residential energy efficiency and in turn improving energy and resource conservation in the building sector.

  5. Methodology to evaluate the crack growth rate by stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metals weld in simulated environment of PWR nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Raphael G.; Figueiredo, Celia A.; Rabelo, Emerson G.

    2013-01-01

    Inconel alloys weld metal is widely used to join dissimilar metals in nuclear reactors applications. It was recently observed failures of weld components in plants, which have triggered an international effort to determine reliable data on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of this material in reactor environment. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology to determine the crack growth rate caused by stress corrosion in Inconel alloy 182, using the specimen (Compact Tensile) in simulated PWR environment. (author)

  6. Inability to match energy intake with energy expenditure at sustained near-maximal rates of energy expenditure in older men during a 14-d cycling expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads; Morville, Thomas; Riis Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The upper rates of energy expenditure (EE) and the corresponding regulation of energy intake (EI), as described in younger trained subjects, are not well elucidated in older subjects. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate EE in older men during prolonged cycling and determine whether...... it is sufficiently matched by EI to maintain energy balance. In addition, we investigated appetite ratings and concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones. DESIGN: Six men (mean ± SE age: 61 ± 3 y) completed 2706 km of cycling, from Copenhagen to Nordkapp, in 14 d. EE was measured by using doubly labeled water......, and food and drink intake was recorded by the accompanying scientific staff. Energy balance was calculated as the discrepancy between EI and EE and from changes in body energy stores as derived from deuterium dilution. Fasting hormones were measured before and after cycling, and appetite ratings were...

  7. A Combined Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-GRA Methodology for Hydrogen Energy Storage Method Selection in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac Yildiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to select the most appropriate Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES method for Turkey from among the alternatives of tank, metal hydride and chemical storage, which are determined based on expert opinions and literature review. Thus, we propose a Buckley extension based fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (Fuzzy-AHP and linear normalization based fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis (Fuzzy-GRA combined Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methodology. This combined approach can be applied to a complex decision process, which often makes sense with subjective data or vague information; and used to solve to solve HES selection problem with different defuzzification methods. The proposed approach is unique both in the HES literature and the MCDM literature.

  8. Study of an integrated multi-criteria evaluation methodology on energy and environmental system based on MFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jingquan; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Zhou, Yangping; Ouyang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation methodology based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), a graphical modeling language and embedding the perspective of sustainable development for energy and environmental system. A set of indicators reflecting resource utility efficiency, environmental effect, social and economic criteria according to the different concerns of stakeholder are defined. The graphical assessment process and outcome can provide help for general people to understand the evaluated object and its variables and to get better decision-making. Extension Evaluation Method is the first applied in the graphical assessment. The once-through option and reprocessing option of nuclear fuel cycle system will be examined by using the proposed approach. (author)

  9. The importance of ingestion rates for estimating food quality and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Chalise, Mukesh K; Koenig, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Testing ecological or socioecological models in primatology often requires estimates of individual energy intake. It is a well established fact that the nutrient content (and hence the energy content) of primate food items is highly variable. The second variable in determining primate energy intake, i.e., the ingestion rate, has often been ignored, and few studies have attempted to estimate the relative importance of the two predictors. In the present study individual ingestion rates were measured in two ecologically very different populations of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) at Jodhpur, India, and Ramnagar, Nepal. Protein and soluble sugar concentrations in 50 and 100 food items. respectively, were measured using standardized methods. Variation in ingestion rates (gram of dry matter per minute) was markedly greater among food items than among langur individuals in both populations, but did not differ systematically among food item categories defined according to plant part and age. General linear models (GLMs) with ingestion rate, protein, and soluble sugar content explained 40-80% of the variation in energy intake rates (kJ/min). The relative importance of ingestion rates was either similar (Ramnagar) or much greater (Jodhpur) than the role of sugar and/or protein content in determining the energy intake rates of different items. These results may impact socioecological studies of variation in individual energy budgets, investigations of food choice in relation to chemical composition or sensory characteristics, and research into habitat preferences that measures habitat quality in terms of abundance of important food sources. We suggest a definition of food quality that includes not only the amount of valuable food contents (energy, vitamins, and minerals) and the digestibility of different foods, but also the rate at which the food can be harvested and processed. Such an extended definition seems necessary because time may constrain primates when

  10. Neutrino energy loss rates due to key iron isotopes for core-collapse physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, J.-U.

    2008-07-01

    Accurate estimates of neutrino energy loss rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution, in particular for the cooling of neutron stars and white dwarfs. The energy spectra of neutrinos and antineutrinos arriving at the Earth can also provide useful information on the primary neutrino fluxes as well as neutrino mixing scenario. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for a microscopic calculation of stellar weak interaction rates of fp-shell nuclide, particularly iron isotopes, with success. Here I present the calculation of neutrino and antineutrino energy loss rates due to key iron isotopes in stellar matter using the pn-QRPA theory. The rates are calculated on a fine grid of temperature-density scale suitable for core-collapse simulators. The calculated rates are compared against earlier calculations. The neutrino cooling rates due to even-even isotopes of iron, 54,56 Fe, are in good agreement with the rates calculated using the large-scale shell model. The pn-QRPA calculated neutrino energy loss rates due to 55 Fe are enhanced roughly around an order of magnitude compared to the large-scale shell model calculation during the oxygen and silicon shell burning stages of massive stars and favor a lower entropy for the cores of massive stars. (author)

  11. Fracture Energy of Plain Concrete Beams at Different Rates of Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Madsen, S. H.

    . The beams are tested in a closed loop servo controlled materials testing system. The experimental results for these preliminary tests show that the bending tensile strength is increasing with the displacement rate and that the fracture energy is constant at lower displacement rates and then increasing...

  12. MEGASTAR: The meaning of growth. An assessment of systems, technologies, and requirements. [methodology for display and analysis of energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach methodology including the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption from the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario.

  13. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interrelationships between man, energy, and water quality: a new methodology for integrative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The STORET/MSP option was used to obtain county aggregated information on ambient water quality for sixty parameters during the period 1950 to 1978. Masks, extended EXTRACT specifications and bounds on allowable values limited inclusion of erroneous data. Remark codes were required to aggregate STORET parameters to obtain increased numbers of observations. Numerous statistical analyses led to the conclusions that medians were more useful than means, that trimming on number of observations was required to eliminate counties with extreme values, and that many parameters required logarithmic transformation to be useful in regional analyses. County aggregated data for nineteen water quality parameters were examined in terms of their ability to describe qualitative chemical characteristics of water. Anion--cation balances as well as expected relationships between conductivity and other parameters were correctly accounted for. Factor analysis indicated the existence of three principal components describing patterns between metal ions, non-metal ions, and alkalinity-bicarbonate, respectively. These factors were used in place of the original complete set of water quality parameters in a structural equation approach describing relationships between variables of mans activites. It was found that counties with high industrial electric consumption, farming and mineral shipments tended to have increased levels of most water quality parameters. It was also found that simpler path diagrams may be indicated to reduce the effects of redundancy in adequately describing energy--water relationships

  15. Development of a methodology to assess the climate evolution and its impacts on wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simard, I. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada); Yu, W. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Meteorological Research Div.; Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). K.C. Irving Chair in Sustainable Development

    2010-07-01

    Maps of wind resources were used to develop a method of evaluating climatic changes and their potential impacts on wind energy resources. Global IPCC climate change scenarios were used to predict climatic conditions for the future, while past wind resource availability was simulated and validated using NCEP and NCAR reanalysis data as well as observed meteorological data from Environment Canada. The simulations were used to compare each 5-year period with a 50-year reference period. Regional scale climate change impacts were evaluated using a statistical dynamic down-scaling method. Advanced meteorological models were used to predict wind flow patterns across specific landscapes. The evolution of past wind resource availability was then simulated. Five-year wind resource simulations for a 50-year period were simulated at 25 km{sup 2} wind speeds at 80 m above the ground. Average wind speed variations were then evaluated. The method has been used to simulate 5-year periods within a 50-year reference period in New Brunswick. Further studies will be conducted to simulate future wind resources availability. tabs., figs.

  16. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  17. Linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO2 emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bio-energy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bio-energy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO 2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO 2 emissions from bio-energy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bio-energy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO 2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO 2 emissions from bio-energy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bio-energy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bio-energy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years). (authors)

  18. Linking mortgage finance incentives to a voluntary home energy rating system: Insight into consensus building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenior, M.-M.

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative consensus process was created to implement a program linking voluntary home energy rating systems (HERS) to mortgage incentives. The participants involved many of the stakeholders or interest groups who have a role in implementing and who will be affected by energy efficiency mortgate incentive programs linked to HERS. The participants included representatives from the primary and secondary mortgage market; real estate, home building, and remodeling industries; utilities; state, local, consumer, and environmental organizations; and home energy rating providers. The participants defined the actions required to implement as well as the technical requirements of a program linking home energy ratings and mortgage finance. Building on the recommendations of the collaborative process, members of the collaborative continue to take initiatives to put a Home Energy Rating Systems Council into place, in planning pilot programs for developing and testing ways to link HERS and mortgage programs, and in making home buyers and owners aware of existing mortgage incentives. At the same time, mortgage providers are working to develop uniformity among mortgage incentive programs and with the US Department of Energy to develop procedures to verify the relative accuracy of HERS calculation tools and their application, and with the emerging HERS Council to develop the guidelines for voluntary HERS required under the Energy Policy Act of 1992

  19. Review of the energy rating of dwellings in the European Union as a mechanism for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Murillo, S.; Moran, J.C.; Granada, E. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n 36200 Vigo (Spain); Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.; Vicuna, J.E. [Depto de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad de La Rioja, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial de Logrono, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, E-26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} and other GHGs is one of the biggest environmental challenges facing the European Union as it strives for sustainable development. If that challenge is to be met, domestic energy consumption must be controlled: it currently accounts for 40% of the total, making it one of the biggest sources of emissions. EU Directives 93/76 and 2002/91 make it compulsory for energy rating systems to be set up to report on consumption in buildings. This paper looks at the various rating systems now up and running, with varying levels of success, in EU countries. However, Denmark's is the only system that can be considered as providing a full energy rating in the sense of awarding a graded score to buildings rather than a simple pass/fail rating, and proposing ways of improving the score obtained. Indeed, many regulations on energy saving in the residential sector are extremely recent, and it is too soon to assess their results. In some States they may also be modified by reforms currently being studied or processed. (author)

  20. Analysis of the Syrian long-term energy and electricity demand projection using the end-use methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Seif-Eldin, M.K.; Almoustafa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the possible future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand covering the period 1999-2030 is presented. The analysis was conducted using the IAEA's model MAED, which relies upon the end-use approach. This model has been validated during the last two decades through the successful application in many developing countries, even those having partial market economy and energy subsidy. Starting from the base year, final energy consumption distributed by energy forms and consumption sectors, the future energy and electricity demand has been projected according to three different scenarios reflecting the possible future demographic, socio-economic and technological development of the country. These scenarios are constructed to cover a plausible range, in which future evolution factors affecting energy demand are expected to lie. The first is a high economy scenario (HS) representing the reference case, which is characterized by high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate (average annual about 6%) and moderate improved technologies in the various consumption sectors. The second is an energy efficiency scenario (ES), which is identical to HS in all main parameters except these relating to the efficiency improvement and conservation measures. Here, high technology improvement and more effective conservation measures in all consumption sectors are proposed and the role of solar to substitute fossil energy for heating purposes is considered effectively. The third is a low economy scenario (LS) with low GDP growth rate (average annual about 3.5%) and less technology improvement in the consumption sectors. As a consequence, the improvement in the energy efficiency is low and the influence of conservation measures is less effective. Starting from about 10.5mtoe final energy in the base year, the analysis shows that the projected energy demand will grow annually at average rates of 5%, 4.5% and 3% for the HS, ES and LS

  1. Effect of ventilation rate on air cleanliness and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Tseng; Liang, Ching-Chieh; Chien, Tsung-Yi; Wu, Feng-Jen; Fan, Kuang-Chung; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-02-27

    The interrelationships between ventilation rate, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest are yet to be understood. We investigate the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality indices and energy consumption in ORs at rest. The study investigates the air temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM), and airborne bacteria at different ventilation rates in operation rooms at rest of a medical center. The energy consumption and cost analysis of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in the operation rooms at rest were also evaluated for all ventilation rates. No air-conditioned operation rooms had very highest PM and airborne bacterial concentrations in the operation areas. The bacterial concentration in the operation areas with 6-30 air changes per hour (ACH) was below the suggested level set by the United Kingdom (UK) for an empty operation room. A 70% of reduction in annual energy cost by reducing the ventilation rate from 30 to 6 ACH was found in the operation rooms at rest. Maintenance of operation rooms at ventilation rate of 6 ACH could save considerable amounts of energy and achieve the goal of air cleanliness.

  2. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  3. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, A.V.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Zhukovsky, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. (authors)

  4. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.

  6. Joule heat production rate and the particle energy injection rate as a function of the geomagnetic indices AE and AL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, B.; Akasofu, S.; Kamide, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the joint efforts of operating six meridian chains of magnetometers during the IMS, magnetic records from 71 stations are used to deduce the distribution of electric fields and currents in the polar ionosphere for March 17, 18, and 19, 1978. As a continuation of this project, we have constructed hourly distribution maps of the Joule heat production rate and their sum over the entire polar region on the three days. For this purpose the conductivity distribution is inferred at each instant partially on the basis of an empirical method devised by Ahn et al. (1982). The particle energy injection rate is estimated similarly by using an empirical method. The data set thus obtained allows us to estimate also the global Joule heat production rate U/sub J/, the global particle energy injection rate U/sub A/ and the sum U/sub Gamma/ of the two quantities. It is found that three global quantities (watt) are related almost linearly to the AE(nT) and AL(nT) indices. Our present estimates give the following relationships: U/sub J/ = 2.3 times 10 8 x AE 8 U/sub A/ = 0.6 times 10 8 x AE 8 and U/sub I/ = 2.9 times 10 8 x AE: U/sub J/ = 3.0 times 10 8 x AL 8 U/sub A/ = 0.8 times 10 8 x AL, and U/sub I/ = 3.8 times 10 8 x AL

  7. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. M. Wijlens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2 participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1 oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF for 1 or 8 min; and (2 energy content of gastric load (GL by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001. All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.002; fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02. In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  8. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-26

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  9. Unintended anchors: Building rating systems and energy performance goals for U.S. buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Leidy; Mack, Daniel; Klapthor, Brent; Tunstall, Casey; Harrison, Jennilee

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., where buildings account for 40% of energy use, commercial buildings use more energy per unit area than ever before. However, exemplary buildings demonstrate the feasibility of much better energy performance at no additional first cost. This research examines one possible explanation for this inconsistency. The aim is to investigate whether the anchoring bias, which refers to our tendency to gravitate towards a pre-defined standard regardless of its relevance, influences energy performance goals in building design. The scope examines professionals who help set energy performance goals for U.S. buildings. Prior to being asked to set an energy performance goal, these professionals were randomly directed to one of three series of questions. One series set an anchor of 90% energy reduction beyond standard practice, one set a 30% anchor, and one set no anchor. Respondents exposed to the 90% anchor, and respondents exposed to no anchor at all, set higher energy performance goals than respondents exposed to the 30% anchor. These results suggest that building rating systems that only reward incremental energy improvements may inadvertently create anchors, thereby discouraging more advanced energy performance goals and inhibiting energy performance that is technically and economically feasible.

  10. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M; Ambriz, J J; Romero P, H [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  11. Application of 'C.A.R.B. financial methodology' analysis for alternative energy technologies into UK housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanos, Ioannis; Duckers, Les; Holmes, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    Current energy trends in UK housing are reviewed and then assessed by introducing the 'CARB financial analysis' methodology. CARB is an acronym for 'Carbon Abatement', as it evaluates the potential carbon-dioxide reduction from different technologies; 'Relative', as all the technologies examined are dependant on various primary sources; and 'Balance', as the cost of surplus CO 2 is quantified. According to conventional financial analysis, most of the technologies examined have the potential to provide positive returns on the investments especially for those with an environmentally conscious agenda. Further reduction of up to 30% of most installed alternative energy systems cost is required to compete with an investment in, e.g., a UK pension scheme. Using the 'CARB financial analysis' the cost of reducing CO 2 has been quantified, and compared with the potential cost of climate change impact. Conventional installed solar technologies are not financially attractive both with a pay back period calculations and 'CARB financial analysis' under current market costs and governmental subsidy regimes. Heat recovery technologies could be sensible investments, both in financial and environmental terms under particular assumptions; especially if the investment budget is small. The use of cogeneration technologies provides a financial advantage in the attempt to minimise the cost of climate change impact, as pay back period of such investment could be less than 7 yr, and the cost of CO 2 saved could be two to seven times less than the global damage cost of carbon emissions. (author)

  12. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero P, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  13. EINSTEIN - Expert system for an Intelligent Supply of Thermal Energy in Industry. Audit methodology and software tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweiger, Hans; Danov, Stoyan (energyXperts.NET (Spain)); Vannoni, Claudia; Facci, Enrico (Sapienza Univ. of Rome, Dept. of Mechanics and Aeronautics, Rome (Italy)); Brunner, Christoph; Slawitsch, Bettina (Joanneum Research, Inst. of Sustainable Techniques and Systems - JOINTS, Graz (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    For optimising thermal energy supply in industry, a holistic integral approach is required that includes possibilities of demand reduction by heat recovery and process integration, and by an intelligent combination of efficient heat and cold supply technologies. EINSTEIN is a tool-kit for fast and high quality thermal energy audits in industry, composed by an audit guide describing the methodology and by a software tool that guides the auditor through all the audit steps. The main features of EINSTEIN are: (1) a basic questionnaire helps for systematic collection of the necessary information with the possibility to acquire data by distance; (2) special tools allow for fast consistency checking and estimation of missing data, so that already with very few data some first predictions can be made; (3) the data processing is based on standardised models for industrial processes and industrial heat supply systems; (4) semi-automatization: the software tool gives support to decision making for the generation of alternative heat and cold supply proposals, carries out automatically all the necessary calculations, including dynamic simulation of the heat supply system, and creates a standard audit report. The software tool includes modules for benchmarking, automatic design of heat exchanger networks, and design assistants for the heat and cold supply system. The core of the expert system software tool is available for free, as an open source software project. This type of software development has shown to be very efficient for dissemination of knowledge and for the continuous maintenance and improvement thanks to user contributions.

  14. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. U.S. Department of energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C.; Scofield, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments

  16. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  17. Translational and extensional energy release rates (the J- and M-integrals) for a crack layer in thermoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Gommerstadt, B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of papers have been presented on the evaluation of energy release rate for thermoelasticity and corresponding J integral. Two main approaches were developed to treat energy release rate in elasticity. The first is based on direct calculation of the potential energy rate with respect to crack length. The second makes use of Lagrangian formalism. The translational and expansional energy release rates in thermoelasticity are studied by employing the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics and the Crack Layer Approach.

  18. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development concept stage report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA)); Hall, J.D. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)) (comps.)

    1990-09-01

    The Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the project is to develop a flexible methodology for setting energy performance guidelines with which architects, engineers, planners, and owners can assess energy efficiency in commercial building design. This volume, the third in the four-volume report on the Targets project concept stage, contains the minutes of the workshops as well as summaries of the expert's written comments prepared at the close of each workshop. In Section 2, the building energy simulation workshop is summarized. Section 3 provides a summary of the building cost workshop.

  19. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  20. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  1. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...; Order No. 697-D] Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary... affiliates.\\3\\ \\1\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services...\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public...

  2. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  3. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3635-000] Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  5. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. 78 FR 62615 - Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-96-000] Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  7. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. 75 FR 76004 - Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2179-000] Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Planet Energy (New York) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  10. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  11. 75 FR 71425 - Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2088-000] Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  12. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1875-000] AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. 77 FR 2718 - CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-775-000] CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an...

  14. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  15. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  16. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  17. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-295-000] NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  19. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  20. 75 FR 74039 - FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... proceeding, of FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2160-000] FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...