WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy quality

  1. Energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, David I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops economic definitions of energy quality for individual fuels and energy aggregates. There are use- and exchange-value concepts, as well as marginal and total measures, of energy quality. A factor augmentation or quality coefficients approach corresponds to the use-value definition while indicators based on distance functions and relative prices are exchange-value based definitions. These indicators are identical when the elasticity of substitution between fuels is infinity but diverge or cannot be computed for other interfuel elasticities of substitution. When the elasticity of substitution is zero only the quality coefficients approach is defined. I also show that 1) the ratio of an energy volume index to aggregate joules cannot be considered a complete indicator of aggregate energy quality as it does not account for quality changes in the component fuels 2) demand curve integrals do not provide information on relative use-values or fuel qualities when the elasticity of substitution is unity or less. (author)

  2. Energy quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, David I. [Arndt-Corden Division of Economics, Crawford School of Economics and Government and Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper develops economic definitions of energy quality for individual fuels and energy aggregates. There are use- and exchange-value concepts, as well as marginal and total measures, of energy quality. A factor augmentation or quality coefficients approach corresponds to the use-value definition while indicators based on distance functions and relative prices are exchange-value based definitions. These indicators are identical when the elasticity of substitution between fuels is infinity but diverge or cannot be computed for other interfuel elasticities of substitution. When the elasticity of substitution is zero only the quality coefficients approach is defined. I also show that 1) the ratio of an energy volume index to aggregate joules cannot be considered a complete indicator of aggregate energy quality as it does not account for quality changes in the component fuels 2) demand curve integrals do not provide information on relative use-values or fuel qualities when the elasticity of substitution is unity or less. (author)

  3. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  4. Energy - quality of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsch, K.

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop the new potentials in life - short working hours, ample leisure time, high quantity of production - logically a tremendous multiplication of labour productivity is necessary. It was the 'industrial revolution' which created our present world by blending the powers of the mind with the powers of nature. Without the current means of energy release our mode of life is unthinkable. The Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference comes to the conclusion that under the premisses of a doupling of the world population by the year 2020 the demand for primary energy will increase 3.6 fold to 34 billion SKE (units of mineral coal). The outlook on world energy supply shows that even providing for all means of energy saving and application of alternative sources of energy the energy demand can not be satisfied without nuclear power. Without sufficient supply of energy securing a living of a certain quality for the increasing world population is not possible. Every progress, however, has its dangers. There is no technology without risk. (orig.) [de

  5. Quality assurance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    It consists of 14 chapters, which are outline of quality assurance of nuclear energy, standard of quality assurance, business quality assurance, design quality assurance, purchase quality assurance, production quality assurance, a test warranty operation warranty, maintenance warranty, manufacture of nuclear power fuel warranty, computer software warranty, research and development warranty and quality audit.

  6. Energy and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasten, Cesar; Santamarina, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Energy is required to sustain life. A human-centered analysis of the worldwide energy situation is conducted in terms of quality of life-related variables that are affected, but not directly determined, by energy consumption. Data since 1980 show a continuous global increase in both energy consumption and quality of life, and lower population growth in countries with higher quality of life. Based on these trends, we advance non-linear energy consumption predictions and identify various plausible scenarios to optimally steer future energy demands, in order to maximize quality of life. The scenarios consider the coupling between energy consumption rate per capita, quality of life, population growth, social inequality, and governments’ energy-for-life efficiency. The results show the energy cost of increasing quality of life in the developing world, energy savings that can be realized by limiting overconsumption without impacting quality of life, and the role of governments on increasing energy-for-life efficiency and reducing social inequality. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption is inherently coupled to quality of life and population growth. ► Limiting overconsumption can keep 2040 energy consumption at 2010 levels. ► Restricting population growth has a minor effect on future energy demand. ► Social inequality reduction increases quality of life with a minor energy use. ► Increasing energy-for-life efficiency can keep 2040 energy use at 2010 levels.

  7. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  8. Quality Circles and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesendanger, J.; Raveleau, G.

    1983-01-01

    A Circle of Quality is a small group of workers or employees made up of from five to ten volunteers from a given shop, office, or factory team, or sharing identical concerns. For every problem that is taken under advisement, these groups draft a solution, test its validity and propose its application, eventually monitoring its implementation and assessing the results achieved. The problems dealt with and the improvements introduced frequently concern details of the personnel's work routines, product quality, tool reliability. But these improvements become so numerous that, eventually, it is the efficiency of an entire office, shop, department or plant, and hence that of the company itself, that is enhanced thereby. Some of the features of a circle of quality are given. A Circle of quality is a contribution to the reliability of the individual, as also to innovation [fr

  9. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  10. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  11. Energy, EROI and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Jessica G.; Hall, Charles A.S.; Balogh, Stephen; Gupta, Ajay; Arnold, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The near- and long-term societal effects of declining EROI are uncertain, but probably adverse. A major obstacle to examining social implications of declining EROI is that we do not have adequate empirical understanding of how EROI is linked, directly or indirectly, to an average citizen′s ability to achieve well-being. To evaluate the possible linkages between societal well-being and net energy availability, we compare these preliminary estimates of energy availability: (1) EROI at a societal level, (2) energy use per capita, (3) multiple regression analyses and (4) a new composite energy index (Lambert Energy Index), to select indicators of quality of life (HDI, percent children under weight, health expenditures, Gender Inequality Index, literacy rate and access to improved water). Our results suggest that energy indices are highly correlated with a higher standard of living. We also find a saturation point at which increases in per capita energy availability (greater than 150 GJ) or EROI (above 20:1) are not associated with further improvement to society. - Highlights: • Large quantities of high quality energy appears to contribute to social well-being. • LEI examines the quantity, efficiency and distribution of energy within the system. • EROI SOC of SOC of 20–30:1, 100–200 GJ/capita and LEI 0.2–0.4. • Improvement in well-being levels off at: EROI SOC >30:1, >200 GJ/capita and LEI>0.4

  12. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance....... The purpose is to provide a useful tool for communication and argumentation in order to further integrated design of houses with good architecture and good environmental performance. ...

  13. Nuclear energy and the quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett Lewis, W [Scientific Advisory Committee of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and of the IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    1972-07-01

    By setting up goals for the quality of life and working hard towards them, the endeavour will guide the ways in which we develop nuclear energy (he writes). In its turn controlled nuclear energy will make possible ways of life for all mankind that can have the quality of our ideals. I will discuss the ' Quality of Life' first because some have doubts, recalling several aspersions on nuclear energy by detractors; in particular, that it will cause radioactive pollution, it will cause thermal pollution, from the radiation people will die of cancer, there are terrible genetic hazards, managing radioactive wastes is an unsolved problem and there is not enough uranium. Science can, however, be reassuring about all those points. There is also a false hope that fusion power from deuterium will be so clean and cheap and the supply so inexhaustible that man's energy problems will one day be solved for ever. The true state of affairs appears to be that without the further development of nuclear fission power there would be massively more starvation and malnutrition in the world, and all the diseases that go with them. Fortunately, however, there is no rational argument for stopping or delaying nuclear energy development. Recycled uranium and thorium are effectively inexhaustible sources.

  14. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  15. Weekly patterns, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Sinéad

    2014-07-01

    Human behaviour is made up of many repeated patterns and habitual behaviours. Our day to day lives are punctuated by work, education, domestic chores, sleep and food. Changes in daily patterns such as not working in paid employment or attending school on the weekend contribute significantly to changes in dietary patterns of food consumption, patterns of physical activity and ultimately energy balance. The aim of this paper is to adopt a life-course perspective and explore the changes in dietary quality and physical activity patterns across the week from young children to elderly adults with a focus on Western cultures. Research literature indicates that the dietary quality is somewhat poorer on the weekends, characterised by higher fat intakes, higher alcohol intakes and consequently higher energy intakes. This increase in energy intake is not necessarily offset by an increase in activity, rather an increase in sedentary behaviours. Some research has observed an increase of more than 100 cal per day over the weekend in American adults. Over the course of one year, this can result in a significant increase in body mass. Some of the interventions in tackling obesity and diet related behaviours must focus on the changes in the weekend behaviour of consumers in terms of both food and activity. These efforts should also focus on increasing consumer awareness of the long term consequences of the short lived weekend excess as well as putting in place practical measures and interventions that are evidence based and targeted to consumer needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  17. ISO specifications and unclear energy quality certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun

    2011-12-15

    This book indicates necessity of quality management and change of company environment, basic conception of quality management and thinking way, role of each class for quality management, necessity and purpose of introduction of ISO9000 family, authentication process and construct method of ISO9000 family, authentication effect of ISO9000 family, present condition of ISO9000 family, standard of quality certification and quality management and explanation of 2001 requirement of KSA9000.

  18. ISO specifications and unclear energy quality certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hun

    2011-12-01

    This book indicates necessity of quality management and change of company environment, basic conception of quality management and thinking way, role of each class for quality management, necessity and purpose of introduction of ISO9000 family, authentication process and construct method of ISO9000 family, authentication effect of ISO9000 family, present condition of ISO9000 family, standard of quality certification and quality management and explanation of 2001 requirement of KSA9000.

  19. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  20. Quality label 'Geothermal energy source' (quality-assurance system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugster, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE) plants is covered only marginally through the existing quality labels. And only for small and simple systems. Especially the middle and large sized BHE plants are excluded from the labels. And exactly those plants may be very difficult to treat and to handle. Two concepts of quality control are proposed. On one hand a quality label, which is based on an object sheet, that is both, a planning help and a quality proof. There is no duty for the heating/ventilation/air-conditioning (HVAC) engineers to acquire such a quality label. The label is based on a self quality declaration of the engineers. Therefore a controlling system is needed which induces costs to the labelled engineers. A market penetration of around 20% is predicted for the first three years. The second concept is based on a clear definition of the actual state of the art in designing a BHE plant in a formal standard by the Swiss Engineers and Architects Society (SIA). This concept is proposed for realisation. Nearly 90% of the Swiss BHE drilling market is penetrated by the labelled drilling companies which have agreed to demand from their HVAC engineers (planners) to apply the future SIA standard, either by their general drilling and delivery conditions or by a special agreement. This fact guarantees a fast spreading and application of such a new SIA standard. A collateral information offensive for the HVAC engineers working in the design of BHE plants needs to be stated in any way. This method is not only very cheap but also guarantees a fast and a broad market penetration which must have nearly the same grade as the quality label for drilling companies. But of course, the new standard has to be elaborated first, what should be possible within approximately one year. (author)

  1. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  2. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  3. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  4. Energy and the quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1981-06-01

    The supply of energy in the Republic of Korea is discussed. Because of historic and political factors, a 24-hour electrical supply became available in Korea in 1957, much later than many other countries. Nation-wide rural electrification was completed in 1978. As the Korean economy developed rapidly in the last two decades, energy requirements expanded apace. The country is not endowed with a great abundance of energy sources and this has forced Korea to depend on oil for more than half of its energy needs. The aggresssive nuclear power program (12 plants by 1991) is designed to reduce this high dependence on oil. Completion of this phase of the nuclear program will result in 13.8 percent of Korea's energy requirements being met by nuclear power in 1991

  5. Energy optimization of bread baking process undergoing quality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papasidero, Davide; Pierucci, Sauro; Manenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    International home energy rating regulations are forcing to use efficient cooking equipment and processes towards energy saving and sustainability. For this reason gas ovens are replaced by the electric ones, to get the highest energy rating. Due to this fact, the study of the technologies related to the energy efficiency in cooking is increasingly developing. Indeed, big industries are working to the energy optimization of their processes since decades, while there is still a lot of room in energy optimization of single household appliances. The achievement of a higher efficiency can have a big impact on the society only if the use of modern equipment gets widespread. The combination of several energy sources (e.g. forced convection, irradiation, microwave, etc.) and their optimization is an emerging target for oven manufacturers towards optimal oven design. In this work, an energy consumption analysis and optimization is applied to the case of bread baking. Each source of energy gets the due importance and the process conditions are compared. A basic quality standard is guaranteed by taking into account some quality markers, which are relevant based on a consumer viewpoint. - Highlights: • Energy optimization is based on a validated finite-element model for bread baking. • Quality parameters for the product acceptability are introduced as constraints. • Dynamic optimization leads to 20% energy saving compared to non-optimized case. • The approach is applicable to many products, quality parameters, thermal processes. • Other heating processes can be easily integrated in the presented model.

  6. High quality steel casting for energy technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, F.; Koefler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The casting of several chromium-molybdenum steels for steam and hydraulic turbines is discussed. Non-destructive testing of the castings is performed demonstrating the safety for use in nuclear technology. The effect of metallurgical parameters on steel casting quality, the heat treatment, and the effect of construction design on costs for fettling and repair weldings are considered. (Auth.)

  7. Indoor environmental quality and building energy efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available :  Air movement  Air quality Thermal Comfort A comprehensive international body of work has been developed over the past 100 years to obtain a measure of understanding of the seemingly elusive parameters that determine thermal comfort. A list... are:  Air temperature  Radiant temperature1  Humidity  Air movement  Metabolic rate  Clothing levels/insulation Uniformity of sensation can also play a role in perceived levels of comfort (CIBSE 2006). This refers to instances where...

  8. Energy quality and energy surplus in the extraction of fossil fuels in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of net energy analysis is to assess the amount of useful energy delivered by an energy system, net of the energy costs of delivery. The standard technique of aggregating energy inputs and outputs by their thermal equivalents diminish the ability of energy analysis to achieve the goal because different types of energy have different abilities to do work per heat equivalent. This paper describes physical and economic methods of calculating energy quality, and incorporate economic estimates of quality in the analysis of the energy return on investment (EROI) for the extraction of coal and petroleum resources in the US from 1954 to 1987. EROI is the ratio of energy delivered to energy used in the delivery process. The quality- adjusted EROI is used to answer the following questions: (1) are coal and petroleum resources becoming more scarce in the US? (2) is society's capability of doing useful economic work changing? and (3) is society's allocation of energy between the extraction of coal and petroleum optimal? The results indicate that petroleum and coal become more scarce in the 1970s, although the degree of scarcity depends on the type of quality factor used. The quality-adjusted EROI shed light on the coal-petroleum paradox: when energy inputs and outputs are measured in thermal equivalents, coal extraction has a much larger EROI than petroleum. The adjustment for energy quality reduces substantially the difference between the two fuels. The results also suggest that when corrections are made for energy quality, society's allocation of energy between coal and petroleum extraction meets the efficiency criteria described by neoclassical and biophysical economists. 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs

  9. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  10. Energy efficiency subsidies with price-quality discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan; Quirion, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We compare various designs of energy efficiency subsidies in a market subject to both energy-use externalities and price-quality discrimination by a monopolist. We find that differentiated subsidies can establish the social optimum. Unlike per-quality regimes, ad valorem regimes generate downstream interferences: Subsidising of the high-end good leads the monopolist to reduce the quality of the low-end good. For this reason, ad valorem differentiated rates should always decrease with energy efficiency, a result seemingly at odds with actual practice. In contrast, with per-quality differentiated subsidies, the rates can increase if the externality is large enough relative to the market share of “low” type consumers. Contrary to differentiated subsidies, what we shall call single-instrument subsidies only achieve second-best outcomes. A uniform ad valorem subsidy should have a rate higher than that needed to specifically internalise energy-use externalities. Lastly, if, as is often observed in practice, only the high-end good is to be incentivised, a per-quality regime should be preferred to an ad valorem one. An ad valorem tax on the high-end good may even be preferred to an ad valorem subsidy if the externality is small enough and low-end consumers dominate the market.

  11. Wind energy systems solutions for power quality and stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mohd Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases--and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering

  12. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  13. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  14. Ventilation, good indoor air quality and rational use of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Fernandes, E. D. O.; DeGids, W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information and advice to policy and decission makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on strategies for achieving a good balance between good indoor air quality (IAQ) and the rational use of Energy in buildings, available guidelines...

  15. New techniques for analyzing relationships between energy and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Water quality data for 65 variables were obtained for the period 1955 to 1977 and aggregated on a county basis. Measurements were taken primarily in New England and the Middle Atlantic States. When a subset of 138 counties with complete data was used, it was found that county aggregation statistical procedures resulted in data still able to describe the chemical characteristics of natural waters. Energy and socioeconomic data were merged with water quality data for these 138 counties. The path analytic methodology used by geneticists was adapted for use with these combined data to investigate for potential interactions between energy-related activities and water quality. A path diagram was proposed to provide insight into the possible causal nature of these interrelations. Direct and indirect pathways from energy production and use were traced to three factors describing functional attributes of water: conductivity, hardness, and dissolved metallic ions. This analysis explained 25 to 40% of the variance in three water quality factors and indicated the applicability of this technique to regional assessments of water quality impacts due to many human activities

  16. Integrated energy, air quality and greenhouse gas management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This report outlines the measures that the Resort Municipality of Whistler has taken to become a sustainable community. In 2000, the Municipality adopted the Natural Step, a tool developed by international scientists to integrate ecological principles into the practices of communities, organizations and individuals. In 2001, the Municipality adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. This report describes the efforts to manage energy, air quality, and greenhouse gases (GHG). More than 90 per cent of the common air contaminants that contribute to air quality problems in Whistler come from the combustion of fossil fuels. The community can reduce emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter by managing energy and GHG emissions. This report is divided into several sections dealing with corporate and community energy use. It presents a community profile for Whistler, its energy and emissions inventory from 2000, and an integrated energy plan. An energy and emissions forecast for 2000 to 2020 was also included along with an implementation strategy for a sustainable energy future for Whistler. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englemann, P. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  18. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  19. Energy Auditor and Quality Control Inspector Competency Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Heather R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Derek [U.S. Department of Energy; Cutchin, Kelly [Simonson Management Services

    2018-05-02

    The Energy Auditor (EA) and Quality Control Inspector (QCI) Competency model was developed to identify the soft skills, foundational competencies and define the levels of Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) required to successfully perform the tasks defined in the EA and QCI Job Task Analysis (JTAs), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used the U.S. Department of Labor's (DOL) Competency Model Clearinghouse resources to develop a QCI and EA Competency Model. To keep the QCI and EA competency model consistent with other construction and energy management competency models, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory used the existing 'Residential Construction Competency Model' and the 'Advanced Commercial Building Competency Model' where appropriate.

  20. Energy efficient window opening for air quality control in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    of naturally and mechanically ventilated classrooms during normal school hours with and without CO2 sensors that provided a green/yellow/red visual indication. At the end of each week children reported their perceptions and symptoms using a questionnaire. The classroom temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were......The aim of the present work was to study how to maximize indoor environmental quality and energy performance in classrooms, when having different ventilation alternatives combined with a visual CO2 feedback. In this effort, in heating and cooling seasons, field experiments were carried out in pairs...... continuously measured together with the outdoor conditions. Magnetic sensors recorded opening of windows and classrooms energy usage was recorded by the meters installed on water-based radiators. An energy simulation model was created in IDA-ICE-4 to reproduce and compare energy demands...

  1. Quality on the energy use; Qualidade no uso da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Plinio Barbosa [Secretaria de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Energia]. E-mail: pliniopires@sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This work seeks to show as the Government of the State of Sao Paulo is using, inside of a Program of Quality in the Use of the Energy, the conservation concepts and introduction of efficient systems, as a political and administrative instrument in its units linked for, later on, to enlarge its atmosphere of performance. The political subject will be shown inside in the incentive of such practices of the current positioning of the State where initially it is placed as example and reference of the application of those actions and measures. The administrative vision considers the importance of the reduction of the consumption and rationalization of the use of the energy as essential elements in the effort of modernization of the State, instituting these concepts in the organs of the direct public administration, autarchies, instituted foundations or maintained by the Public Power and of the companies in whose capital the State has majority participation, as well as of the other entities for him direct or indirectly controlled. The recognition of the Quality in the Use of the Energy as essential element for the modernization of the organs linked the Government of the State of Sao Paulo (about 4,0% of the consumption of electric energy of the State), it allowed to address the development of technical, managerial and behavioral actions related to the input electricity initially (86,0% of the consumption of energy in the public section). The adopted actions have as objectives: the viability of the State effective role as police agent of the society, a new understanding direction in the use of the energy in organs linked the Government, reduction of the wastes, improvements of the work conditions and attendance, introduction of concepts and efficient systems in the use of energy resources, adoption of a new posture (of great and good customer) front to the vendors and an effective reduction of the public expenses with the bill energy. (author)

  2. Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits of Apartments in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Monthly gas and electricity use data from a set of 13 study apartments and 20 control apartments from three apartment buildings (B1 B3) in California were analyzed. The study apartments were retrofit with simultaneous energy savings and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) improvements as the goal. The control apartments were not retrofit. Pre-retrofit modeling indicated annual energy savings of 21percent, 17percent, and 27percent for the study apartments in B1-B3, respectively. Based on a comparison of changes in energy use of study apartments to energy use changes of control apartments, total measured savings of gas energy plus site electrical energy were 28percent in B1, 5percent in B2, and 3percent in B3. Given the small number of study apartments and the substantial changes in energy use within control apartments, the project yielded no conclusive evidence of energy savings. Apartment energy use increased with number of occupants and with floor area; however, the association with occupancy was most evident. Climate differences did not appear to be the major driver for the variability in energy use among apartments. Changes in occupant behaviors affecting energy use may have overwhelmed and obscured the energy savings in this small number of buildings. Much larger prior studies employing similar retrofits indicate that the retrofits usually do save energy.

  3. Indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Berge, Magnar

    2012-07-01

    There is currently a major focus on measures to reduce global warming. Several international studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings is the easiest and most cost-effective climate action. Passive houses are characterized of that the buildings are more airtight, have more insulation and has balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. This report discusses about this one-sided focus on energy conservation, and if {sup c}hange{sup }in building methods can have a negative impact on indoor air quality and people's health. (Author)

  4. Analytical quality control services of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency provides quality control services to analytical laboratories. These services which include the provision of reference materials and the organisation of intercomparisons are rendered for the purpose of assisting laboratories in determining the accuracy of their analytical work. The following classes of materials are presently available: nuclear materials, environmental materials, animal and plant materials, materials for biomedical studies and materials of marine origin. (orig.) [de

  5. Urgent Improvement on the quality of energy service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Ryun [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    A bold self-innovation in the energy community has to be done to have a permanent development and to play its role as the national basic industry. First, the transparency of decision making process to the general public, i.e. consumer, should be secured. Second, the concern on the quality of direct service to the end-users should be expanded. Third, while deregulation should be processed continuously, the range of government regulation (interference) should be presented objectively and logically.

  6. Drying characteristics of osmotically pretreated cranberries : Energy and quality aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, S.; Marcotte, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, St. Hyacinthe, PQ (Canada). Food Research and Development Centre; Poirier, M.; Kudra, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which osmotically pretreated cranberries were dried. The osmotic treatment included dehydration and sugar infusion. The process involved pretreating halved cranberries in a standard osmotic solution followed by freeze-drying, vacuum-drying and air-drying in various dryers, such as cabinet-air-through, fluid bed, pulsed fluid bed, and vibrated fluid bed dryers. The intent was to identify the best drying technology. The comparison criteria selected were energy consumption and product quality. Product quality for freeze-dried berries was quantified based on anthocyanins content, rehydration ratio, color, and taste. Unit heat consumption could be used for selecting the drying method, as all other drying methods yielded similar but slightly lower quality products. The highest energy efficiency was obtained with the vibrated fluid bed and the pulsed fluid bed. It was noted that drying rates were reduced during the second drying period when sugar was infused into the cranberries during osmotic pretreatment, but the total energy consumption was reduced by osmotic dehydration. 22 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  8. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E; Jennings, Merrisa

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  9. Indoor climate quality after renovation for improved energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Løck, Sebastian; Kolarik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The building sector is responsible for approximately 40 % of the Danish energy consumption. As every year less than 1 % of the building stock is rebuild after demolition of old buildings, improved energy efficiency of existing buildings are in focus. In the late seventies to mid-eighties unwise...... performance. The indoor quality classifications show minor improvements. By using design tools beyond the simple legal requirements, the rental dwelling marked is a far step ahead of most retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings and houses. The fear of indoor climate degradation from retrofitted energy saving...... measures may be countered by the use of modern design tools and attention to inner moisture membranes and needs for renovation of ventilation systems....

  10. The relation between food price, energy density and diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Bolarić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy density diet, high in fruits and vegetables, is related to lower obesity risk and to better health status, but is more expensive. High energy density diet, high in added sugar and fats, is more affordable, but is related to higher obesity and chronic diseases risk. The aim of this study was to report prices according to energy density (low vs. high of food items and to show how food affordability could affect food choice and consumers’ health. Data was collected for 137 raw and processed foods from three purchase sites in Zagreb (one representative for supermarket, one smaller shop and green market. Results showed that low energy density food is more expensive than high energy density food (for example, the price of 1000 kcal from green zucchini (15 kcal/100 g is 124.20 kn while the price of 1000 kcal from sour cream (138 kcal/100 g is 13.99 kn. Food energy price was significantly different (p<0.05 between food groups with highest price for vegetable products (159.04 ± 36.18 kn/1000 kcal and raw vegetables (97.90 ± 50.13 kn/1000 kcal and lowest for fats (8.49 ± 1.22 kn/1000 kcal and cereals and products (5.66 ± 0.76 kn/1000 kcal. Negative correlation (Spearman r=-0.72, p<0.0001 was observed for energy density (kcal/100 g and price of 1000 kcal. Therefore, it is advisable to develop strategies in order to reduce price of low energy density food and encourage its intake since it would improve diet quality, which could lead to better costumers’ health.

  11. The quality of high-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Supplement 17 of the British Journal of Radiology is a survey of central-axis depth doses for radiotherapy machines, patterned largely on BJR Supplement 11 (1972). Inspection of high-energy X-ray depth doses for a 10 x 10 cm field at an SSD of 100 cm disclosed large differences between the two sets of data, especially for qualities above 8 MV, e.g. a depth dose of 80% at 10 cm is rated at about 19 MV according to BJR Supplement 11, and 23 MV according to BJR Supplement 17. It was found that Supplement 17 depth-dose data above 8 MV were erratic, but Supplement 11 data could be represented by an analytical expression, providing a unique means of assigning MV quality. It was also found that dose-weighted average energy of the filtered beam plotted smoothly against depth dose. For dosimetric purposes, it is suggested that this parameter be used as a true measure of beam quality, removing discrepancies introduced by the use of nominal MV for this purpose. (author)

  12. Energy and indoor environmental quality in relocatable classrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael; Hodgson, Alfred; Shendell, Derek; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hochi, Toshifumi; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna; Rainer, Leo; Schmidt, Richard; Sullivan, Douglas; Diamond, Richard; Fisk, William

    2002-01-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly utilized by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. Four energy-efficient RCs were designed and constructed for this study to demonstrate technologies that simultaneously attempt to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each RC had two HVAC systems, alternated weekly, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The hypothesized advantages of the IDEC include continuous outside air ventilation at(ge)7.5 L s(sup -1) per person,(approx)70% less cooling energy and efficient particle filtration. Measurements include: carbon dioxide, particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. Preliminary IEQ monitoring results are reported

  13. Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2014-07-01

    The present obesity "epidemic" has been attributed to a growing trend for snacking. Snacking may contribute to excess energy intake and weight gain through different ways, for example: context/environment of eating, frequency of consumption and quality of food choices. The present article reviews data and hypotheses about the role of snacks in diet quality and body weight control. One obvious difficulty in this field is the diversity of definitions and approaches used in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. A brief paragraph reviews the prevalence of snacking in various countries and its recent evolution. The literature addressing the contribution of snacks to daily energy and nutrient intake presents two contrasting pictures. In many reports, snacking appears to facilitate the adjustment of energy intake to needs, and to contribute carbohydrates, rather than fats, to the diet, in addition to valuable micronutrients. Such results are usually reported in healthy, normal-weight children and adults. By contrast, snacking often appears to contribute much energy but little nutrition in the diet of other consumers, particularly obese children and adults. In addition to selecting energy-dense foods, eating in the absence of hunger in response to external non-physiological cues, in an irregular fashion, in contexts (e.g. while watching television) that do not favor attention to the act of eating, might be crucial factors determining the nutritional effects of snacking. While efforts should be continued to harmonize definitions and minimize the influence of under-reporting, interventions aimed at decreasing detrimental snacking should address both food-related aspects and behavioral components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Availability and quality of water related to western energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the nation's energy resources is contained in seven states of the western United States. Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota contain 40% of the nation's coal and 90% of its uranium and shale oil. Although rich in energy resources, these states are chronically deficient in water. Coal mining and subsequent land reclamation require relatively small amounts of water. Plans that require large quantities of water to transport and convert the coal to energy include the operation of coal-slurry pipelines, thermal-electric power generation, and coal gasification. Production of oil from shale by conventional mining techniques may require about three or four unit volumes of water for each unit volume of shale oil produced. Nearly half of this water would be needed to reestablish vegetation on waste material. In-situ extraction of oil would require substantially less water. Extracting and processing uranium require relatively small amounts of water. There may be problems of the quality of local groundwater where solution mining is practiced and where uranium ore is removed from water-saturated rocks that are then exposed to oxidation. Estimates of amounts of water required to support the development of western energy resources are highly variable and depend on the conversion technology, the level of anticipated development, and the quality of the water required by any given use or process. Conservative estimates exceed 2000 cu hm/year by the year 2000. Although water supplies in the amounts anticipated as being needed for energy development are available within the seven states, their availability locally may depend on satisfying environmental objections, modifying legal and institutional arrangements that presently control water distribution and use, and constructing additional reservoirs and distribution systems

  15. Effectiveness of energy healing on Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Johannessen, Helle; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2014-01-01

    and alternative medicine (CAM), and faith/spirituality at baseline, 1 week, and 2 months post-intervention. They also indicated, at baseline, whether they considered QoL, depressive symptoms, mood, and sleep quality as important outcomes to them. Results: Multilevel linear models revealed no overall effect......Purpose: Our aim was to explore the effectiveness of energy healing, a commonly used complementary and alternative therapy, on well-being in cancer patients while assessing the possible influence on the results of participating in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: 247 patients treated...... of healing on QoL (p = 0.156), depressive symptoms (p = 0.063), mood (p = 0.079), or sleep quality (p = 0.346) in the intervention groups (RH, SH) compared with control (SC). Effects of healing on mood were only found for patients who had a positive attitude toward CAM and considered the outcome in question...

  16. Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smart grids with renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandoman, Foad H.; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, emerging use of renewable and distributed energy sources in electricity grid has created new challenges for the utility regarding the power quality, voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. Power electronic converters are extensively utilized to interface...... the power quality. Also, distributed FACTSs play an important role in improving the power factor, energy utilization, enhancing the power quality, and ensuring efficient energy utilization and energy management in smart grids with renewable energy sources. This paper presents a literature survey of FACTS...... technology tools and applications for power quality and efficient renewable energy system utilization....

  17. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  18. Energy and Quality-Aware Multimedia Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Yunus

    Today's mobile devices have to support computation-intensive multimedia applications with a limited energy budget. In this dissertation, we present architecture level and algorithm-level techniques that reduce energy consumption of these devices with minimal impact on system quality. First, we present novel techniques to mitigate the effects of SRAM memory failures in JPEG2000 implementations operating in scaled voltages. We investigate error control coding schemes and propose an unequal error protection scheme tailored for JPEG2000 that reduces overhead without affecting the performance. Furthermore, we propose algorithm-specific techniques for error compensation that exploit the fact that in JPEG2000 the discrete wavelet transform outputs have larger values for low frequency subband coefficients and smaller values for high frequency subband coefficients. Next, we present use of voltage overscaling to reduce the data-path power consumption of JPEG codecs. We propose an algorithm-specific technique which exploits the characteristics of the quantized coefficients after zig-zag scan to mitigate errors introduced by aggressive voltage scaling. Third, we investigate the effect of reducing dynamic range for datapath energy reduction. We analyze the effect of truncation error and propose a scheme that estimates the mean value of the truncation error during the pre-computation stage and compensates for this error. Such a scheme is very effective for reducing the noise power in applications that are dominated by additions and multiplications such as FIR filter and transform computation. We also present a novel sum of absolute difference (SAD) scheme that is based on most significant bit truncation. The proposed scheme exploits the fact that most of the absolute difference (AD) calculations result in small values, and most of the large AD values do not contribute to the SAD values of the blocks that are selected. Such a scheme is highly effective in reducing the energy

  19. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward

    2002-05-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of end-use equipment in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can reduce air pollution emissions and greenhouse gases significantly. Because energy efficiency is an effective means of reducing multi-pollutant emissions, it is important to ensure that energy efficiency is a fully engaged component of emission-reduction programs. However, while energy-efficiency measures are perceived by many stakeholders to be important options for improving air quality, some members in the air quality community are concerned about the ability of these measures to fit in a regulatory framework-in particular, the ability of emissions reductions from energy-efficiency measures to be real, quantifiable, certifiable, and enforceable. Hence, there are few air quality programs that include energy efficiency as a tool for complying with air quality regulations. This paper describes the connection between energy consumption and air quality, the potential role of energy-efficiency measures to meet air quality regulations, the barriers and challenges to the use of these measures in the air quality regulatory environment, and the potential role that the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Building Technology, State and Community Programs (EERE-Buildings) could play in this area. EERE-Buildings can play a very important role in promoting energy efficiency in the air quality community, in ways that are fully consistent with its overall mission. EERE-Buildings will need to work with other stakeholders to aggressively promote energy efficiency via multiple means: publications, analytical tools, pilot programs, demonstrations, and program and policy analysis and evaluation. EERE-Buildings and state energy officials have considerable experience in implementing and monitoring energy-savings projects, as well as in designing documentation and verification requirements of energy-efficiency improvements

  20. Review of Comprehensive Evaluation Methods for Power Quality and Its Trend in New Generation Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruihua; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qunying; Yang, Li; Xi, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzhou; Zhao, Zhoufang; Zhou, Ying

    2018-02-01

    With China’s new energy generation grid connected capacity being in the forefront of the world and the uncertainty of new energy sources, such as wind energy and solar energy, it is be of great significance to study scientific and comprehensive assessment of power quality. On the foundation of analysizing the current power quality index systematically and objectively, the new energy grid power quality analysis method and comprehensive evaluation method, this paper tentatively explored the trend of the new generation of energy system power quality comprehensive evaluation.

  1. Transforming Argonne's waste management organization - the road to energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, T.A.; Sodaro, M.A.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Waste Management Department began its journey to excellence in 1990. The department was organized to provide for waste cleanup, waste handling, decontamination, and other services. The staff was principally workers and foremen with few professional staff. The department has transitioned into a highly effective organization that has competed for the President's Energy Quality Award. The department is currently staffed by 58 people, including professional staff and waste mechanics. The department began by recognizing and addressing the problems that existed: There was no formal waste safety program or waste reduction culture. Formal procedures did not cover all aspects of waste operations, waste handling procedures and acceptance criteria were out of date, and the Waste Management Department did not have a customer-centered culture. The department began a step by step program to improve the waste management organization

  2. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) involves injection and withdrawal of temperature-conditioned water into and from a permeable water-bearing formation. The groundwater quality and associated geological characteristics were assessed as they may affect the feasibility of ATES system development in any hydrologic region. Seven physical and chemical mechanisms may decrease system efficiency: particulate plugging, chemical precipitation, clay mineral dispersion, piping corrosion, aquifer disaggregation, mineral oxidation, and the proliferation of biota. Factors affecting groundwater quality are pressure, temperature, pH, ion exchange, evaporation/transpiration, and commingling with diverse waters. Modeling with the MINTEQ code showed three potential reactions: precipitation of calcium carbonate at raised temperatures; solution of silica at raised temperature followed by precipitation at reduced temperatures; and oxidation/precipitation of iron compounds. Low concentrations of solutes are generally favorable for ATES. Near-surface waters in high precipitation regions are low in salinity. Groundwater recharged from fresh surface waters also has reduced salinity. Rocks least likely to react with groundwater are siliceous sandstones, regoliths, and metamorphic rocks. On the basis of known aquifer hydrology, ten US water resource regions are candidates for selected exploration and development, all characterized by extensive silica-rich aquifers

  3. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, P.; Sheldon, E.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveys or other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We also release open-source code of the web application and host an online demo version at http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net.

  4. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  5. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality is demonst......This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...

  6. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  7. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  8. Energy and environmental quality: case histories of impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    A discussion of energy source devlopments and environmental protection dealing with impacts, and legal aspects of pollution controls and resource management, and case history studies of major energy projects is presented

  9. Towards sustainability in cold chains: Development of a quality, energy and environmental assessment tool (QEEAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Brown, T.; Leducq, D.; Verlinden, B.E.; Evans, J.; Van Der Sluis, S.; Wissink, E.B.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Thuault, D.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; M. Nicolai, B.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for

  10. Facing a Problem of Electrical Energy Quality in Ship Networks-measurements, Estimation, Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz Tarasiuk; Janusz Mindykowski; Xiaoyan Xu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, electrical energy quality and its indices in ship electric networks are introduced, especially the meaning of electrical energy quality terms in voltage and active and reactive power distribution indices. Then methods of measurement of marine electrical energy indices are introduced in details and a microprocessor measurement-diagnosis system with the function of measurement and control is designed. Afterwards, estimation and control of electrical power quality of marine electrical power networks are introduced. And finally, according to the existing method of measurement and control of electrical power quality in ship power networks, the improvement of relative method is proposed.

  11. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Salleh, Nurhazwani; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Forde, Ciaran G

    2018-01-31

    Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet ("Cheng Teng") or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m²). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments ( p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality ( p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  12. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  13. Power quality and reliability issues in a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining power quality and reliability in Ontario's new competitive electricity market was the focus of this paper. The intention of Ontario's deregulation is to lower costs and give customers more power and choice. However, some fear that costs pressures may lead to poorer quality. This paper reviewed the causes, costs, and responsibilities, and made some suggestions concerning how customers can protect their interests as the market opens. It was suggested that in order to assure power quality, especially during the transition period, customers need to take care to design their systems and equipment to tolerate some quality variations. Conversely, utilities need to strive for at least minimum industry standards under most conditions. Contracts should be carefully crafted, with responsibilities for reliability and quality clearly stated. 2 refs

  14. Grenelle Environnement: passing the energy transition with success; 50 measures for developing renewable energies with a high environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Grenelle Environnement Forum conclusions is to double the contribution of renewable energies in France by 2020, and reach the level of 20 percent of the final energy consumption. 50 measures have been decided by the French government in order to meet this objective while ensuring a high environmental quality. The 50 measures are detailed: heat production (biomass, geothermal and solar energy, wastes, biogas) and electric power generation (hydroelectricity, terrestrial and marine wind turbines, biomass, photovoltaic solar energy, geothermal and marine energies) are concerned

  15. Indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment building before and after energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Földváry, Veronika; Langer, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings in central Europe built in the 20th century do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide remedial measures are taken to improve the energy ef...... exchange rates and acceptable and healthy IAQ. Without these considerations, energy reconstruction can adversely affect the quality of the indoor environment....... efficiency of these buildings and reduce their energy consumption. Since the impact of these measures on the indoor air quality is rarely considered, they often compromise indoor air quality due to decreased ventilation and infiltration rate. We compared the indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment...... building in Slovakia before and after energy renovation, during two subsequent winters. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of CO2, formaldehyde, NO2, and volatile organic compounds were performed during one week in January 2015 in 20 apartments in one multifamily building...

  16. Image quality comparison between single energy and dual energy CT protocols for hepatic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Pelc, Norbert J.; Ng, Joshua M.; Megibow, Alec J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enables volumetric scans in a single breath hold and is clinically useful for hepatic imaging. For simple tasks, conventional single energy (SE) computed tomography (CT) images acquired at the optimal tube potential are known to have better quality than dual energy (DE) blended images. However, liver imaging is complex and often requires imaging of both structures containing iodinated contrast media, where atomic number differences are the primary contrast mechanism, and other structures, where density differences are the primary contrast mechanism. Hence it is conceivable that the broad spectrum used in a dual energy acquisition may be an advantage. In this work we are interested in comparing these two imaging strategies at equal-dose and more complex settings. Methods: We developed numerical anthropomorphic phantoms to mimic realistic clinical CT scans for medium size and large size patients. MDCT images based on the defined phantoms were simulated using various SE and DE protocols at pre- and post-contrast stages. For SE CT, images from 60 kVp through 140 with 10 kVp steps were considered; for DE CT, both 80/140 and 100/140 kVp scans were simulated and linearly blended at the optimal weights. To make a fair comparison, the mAs of each scan was adjusted to match the reference radiation dose (120 kVp, 200 mAs for medium size patients and 140 kVp, 400 mAs for large size patients). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of liver against other soft tissues was used to evaluate and compare the SE and DE protocols, and multiple pre- and post-contrasted liver-tissue pairs were used to define a composite CNR. To help validate the simulation results, we conducted a small clinical study. Eighty-five 120 kVp images and 81 blended 80/140 kVp images were collected and compared through both quantitative image quality analysis and an observer study. Results: In the simulation study, we found that the CNR of pre-contrast SE image mostly

  17. Quality of Experience on Smartphones : Network, Application, and Energy Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ickin, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have become crucial enablers for users to exploit online services such as learning, leisure, communicating, and socializing. The user-perceived quality of applications and services is an important factor to consider, in order to achieve lean resource management, to prevent user churn and revenue depletion of service or network providers. This is often studied within the scope of Quality of Experience (QoE), which has attracted researchers both in academia and industry. The objecti...

  18. Dynamic Analyses of Result Quality in Energy-Aware Approximate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIngenburg, Michael F.

    Energy efficiency is a key concern in the design of modern computer systems. One promising approach to energy-efficient computation, approximate computing, trades off output precision for energy efficiency. However, this tradeoff can have unexpected effects on computation quality. This thesis presents dynamic analysis tools to study, debug, and monitor the quality and energy efficiency of approximate computations. We propose three styles of tools: prototyping tools that allow developers to experiment with approximation in their applications, online tools that instrument code to determine the key sources of error, and online tools that monitor the quality of deployed applications in real time. Our prototyping tool is based on an extension to the functional language OCaml. We add approximation constructs to the language, an approximation simulator to the runtime, and profiling and auto-tuning tools for studying and experimenting with energy-quality tradeoffs. We also present two online debugging tools and three online monitoring tools. The first online tool identifies correlations between output quality and the total number of executions of, and errors in, individual approximate operations. The second tracks the number of approximate operations that flow into a particular value. Our online tools comprise three low-cost approaches to dynamic quality monitoring. They are designed to monitor quality in deployed applications without spending more energy than is saved by approximation. Online monitors can be used to perform real time adjustments to energy usage in order to meet specific quality goals. We present prototype implementations of all of these tools and describe their usage with several applications. Our prototyping, profiling, and autotuning tools allow us to experiment with approximation strategies and identify new strategies, our online tools succeed in providing new insights into the effects of approximation on output quality, and our monitors succeed in

  19. potential for quality protein maize for reducing protein- energy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    social systems hampering QPM promotion and adoption and to identify ... affects growth and development. Protein- energy ... to purchase QPM seed leading to PEU reduction. Education ..... decision support framework “targetCSA”. Agricultural ...

  20. [Problems of the effective energy used as a quality expression of diagnostic X-ray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Hayashi, Naoki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Ando, Sho; Miyamoto, Mami; Wakasugi, Nao; Suzuki, Shizuma

    2011-01-01

    The effective energy has been generally used as a method of handily expressing an X-ray quality by one numerical value. The effective energy is a concept derived from "Half Value Layer (HVL)" that is the expressing parameter of beam quality based on the attenuation of the primary X-ray by a material. When beam quality is expressed by using HVL and / or the effective energy, it is necessary to describe the tube potential, the rectification method, and the homogeneity coefficient, etc. in parallel. However, recently feelings are that the effective energy should be handled like an absolute numerical value to physical characteristics of X-rays. In this paper, it was theoretically clarified that the effective energy had a different value depending on the absorber material used for the HVL measurement. In addition, the errors when physical characteristics of the X-rays were evaluated using the effective energy was also examined. Physical characteristics, such as interactions to the material of mono-energetic X-ray, are not equal to that of X-rays with a wide energy spectrum. It is not an easy comparison to express the quality of the diagnostic X-rays, and to calculate physical characteristics of the X-rays by using the effective energy. It is necessary to design a new method of expressing the quality of X-rays that takes the place of the "effective energy."

  1. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, A.L.; Kummler, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  2. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  3. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  4. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  5. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of

  6. Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping

    In supermarkets, control strategies determine both the energy consumption of refrigeration systems and the quality loss of refrigerated foodstuffs. The question is, what can be done to optimize the balance between quality loss and energy consumption? This thesis tries to answer this question...... by applying two main optimization strategies to traditional refrigeration systems. The first strategy is a new defrost-on-demand scheme, which based on an objective function between quality loss and energy consumption, continuously seeks an optimal time interval for defrosting in dynamic situation. The second...... strategy is through utilization of the thermal mass of the refrigerated foodstuffs, the day-night temperature variation and the capacity control of the compressor, to realize a trade-off between system energy consumption and food quality loss....

  7. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  8. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  9. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  10. Towards sustainability in cold chains : development of a quality, energy and environmental assessment tool (QEEAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Gwanpua , S.G.; Verboven , P.; Brown , T.; Leducq , D.; Verlinden , B.E.; Evans , J.; Van Der Sluis , S.; Wissink , E.B.; Taoukis , P.; Gogou , E.; Stahl , V.; El Jabri , M.; Thuault , D.; Claussen , I.; Indergard , E.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for evaluating refrigeration technologies. As a starting point, a reference product was chosen for the different main food categories in the European cold chain. Software code to ...

  11. Energy quality management for building clusters and districts (BCDs) through multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hai; Alanne, Kari; Martinac, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy quality management is applied from individual building to district. • A novel time-effective multi-objective design optimization scheme is proposed. • The scheme searches for exergy efficient and environmental solution for districts. • System reliability is considered and addressed in this paper. - Abstract: Renewable energy systems entail a significant potential to meet the energy requirements of building clusters and districts (BCDs) provided that local energy sources are exploited efficiently. Besides improving the energy efficiency by reducing energy consumption and improving the match between energy supply and demand, energy quality issues have become a key topic of interest. Energy quality management is a technique that aims at optimally utilizing the exergy content of various renewable energy sources. In addition to minimizing life-cycle CO 2 emissions related to exergy losses of an energy system, issues such as system reliability should be addressed. The present work contributes to the research by proposing a novel multi-objective design optimization scheme that minimizes the global warming potential during the life-cycle and maximizes the exergy performance, while the maximum allowable level of the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) is predefined by the user as a constraint. The optimization makes use of Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finally, a case study is presented, where the above methodology has been applied to an office BCD located in Norway. The proposed optimization scheme is proven to be efficient in finding the optimal design and can be easily enlarged to encompass more relevant objective functions

  12. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  13. Energy performance certification as a signal of workplace quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Aidan; De Jong, Robert; Cooke, Alison; Guthrie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Energy performance labelling and certification have been introduced widely to address market failures affecting the uptake of energy efficient technologies, by providing a signal to support decision making during contracting processes. The UK has recently introduced the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) as a signal of building energy performance. The aims of this article are: to evaluate how valid EPC’s are signals of occupier satisfaction with office facilities; and to understand whether occupant attitudes towards environmental issues have affected commercial office rental values. This was achieved by surveying occupant satisfaction with their workplaces holistically using a novel multi-item rating scale which gathered 204 responses. Responses to this satisfaction scale were matched with the corresponding EPC and rental value of occupier’s workplaces. The satisfaction scale was found to be both a reliable and valid measure. The analysis found that EPC asset rating correlates significantly with occupant satisfaction with all facility attributes. Therefore, EPC ratings may be considered valid signals of overall facility satisfaction within the survey sample. Rental value was found to correlate significantly only with facility aesthetics. No evidence suggests rental value has been affected by occupants' perceptions towards the environmental impact of facilities. - Highlights: • A novel, internally consistent, and valid measure of office facility satisfaction. • EPC’s found to be a valid signal of overall facility satisfaction. • Historic rental value found to be an invalid measure of overall facility satisfaction. • No evidence suggests rental value has been affected by occupants' perceptions towards the environmental impact of facilities. • Occupants with stronger ties to landlords found to be more satisfied with office facilities

  14. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  15. An energy performance assessment for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance in air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an acceptable indoor environmental quality (IEQ) for air-conditioned office buildings consumes a considerable amount of thermal energy. This study correlates thermal energy consumption with the overall occupant acceptance of IEQ in some air-conditioned offices. An empirical expression of an IEQ index associated with thermal comfort, indoor air quality, aural and visual comfort is used to benchmark the offices. Employing input parameters obtained from the building stocks of Hong Kong, the office portfolios regarding the thermal energy consumption and the IEQ index are determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, an energy-to-acceptance ratio and an energy-to-IEQ improvement ratio are proposed to measure the performance of energy consumption for the IEQ in the air-conditioned offices. The ratios give the thermal energy consumption corresponding to a desirable percentage of IEQ acceptances and to an IEQ upgrade, respectively. The results showed a non-linear increasing trend of annual thermal energy consumption for IEQ improvement at the offices of higher IEQ benchmarks. The thermal energy consumption for visual comfort and indoor air quality would also be significant in these offices. This study provides useful information that incorporates the IEQ in air-conditioned offices into the development of performance evaluation measures for thermal energy consumption.

  16. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China's cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Krol, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; de Bruine, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411965085; Geng, Guangpo; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China's cement industry is the second largest energy

  17. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......In order to achieve nearly net zero energy use, both new and energy refurbished existing buildings will in the future need to be still more efficient and optimized. Since such buildings can be expected to be already well insulated, airtight, and have heat recovery systems installed, one of the next......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...

  18. Indoor environmental quality and energy consumption relation in offices: case study of two offices in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafian, Touraj; Moazzen Ferdos, Nazanin [Islamic Azad University Tabriz branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: t.ashrafian@gmail.com, email: moazzen_arch@yahoo.com; Haghlesan, Masoud [Islamic Azad University, Ilkhichi Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: mhaghlesan@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, therefore the quality of the indoor environment has a significant impact on human health. However, improving indoor environment quality (IEQ) requires a higher energy consumption through increasing lighting, heating and cooling. The aim of this study is to determine an appropriate level of IEQ with the least energy consumption possible. The relation between energy consumption and IEQ in 2 offices in Iran has been studied through the use of questionnaires and simulations. It was found that IEQ has a great impact on workers' productivity and that diminishing the energy consumption does not necessarily translate into economic benefits. In addition it was found that lighting and heating are the main sources of energy consumption and that noise and light are what most influence worker productivity. This study highlighted the relation between energy consumption and IEQ and pointed out the most important factors.

  19. 2017 Sustainable LA Environmental Report Card for Los Angeles County: Energy & Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Federico, Felicia; Rauser, Casandra; Gold, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Sustainable LA Environmental Report Card (ERC) for Los Angeles County (LA County) on Energy and Air Quality offers an in-depth look at the region’s sustainability efforts focusing on the energy we use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the air we breathe. The LA County Environmental Report Card is the only comprehensive environmental report card for a megacity in the world. This ERC assesses 21 indicators that fall into five categories: Stationary Energy Use; Transportation; Renewable En...

  20. Survey of occupant behaviour, energy use and indoor air quality in Greenlandic dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    , they provide their occupants with poor indoor air quality. A questionnaire survey was performed in the town of Sisimiut-Greenland, which with its location and population represents Greenlandic conditions quite well. The aim of the survey was to investigate the energy consumption and indoor air quality...... in arctic dwellings and to study the influence of occupant behaviour of people living in arctic climates on energy consumption and indoor air quality. The results have shown that the average electricity consumption is 20% higher than in DK, ventilation systems are insufficient and that the inhabitants often......In cold arctic regions people usually spend over 70% of their time indoors. The effect of poor indoor air quality on occupants’ health and comfort is therefore considerable. Dwellings in Greenland consume very large amounts of energy (in average over 370 kWh/year per m2) and in addition...

  1. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  2. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing the Energy and Throughput of a Water-Quality Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Segun O; Joubert, Trudi-H

    2018-04-13

    This work presents a new approach to the maximization of energy and throughput in a wireless sensor network (WSN), with the intention of applying the approach to water-quality monitoring. Water-quality monitoring using WSN technology has become an interesting research area. Energy scarcity is a critical issue that plagues the widespread deployment of WSN systems. Different power supplies, harvesting energy from sustainable sources, have been explored. However, when energy-efficient models are not put in place, energy harvesting based WSN systems may experience an unstable energy supply, resulting in an interruption in communication, and low system throughput. To alleviate these problems, this paper presents the joint maximization of the energy harvested by sensor nodes and their information-transmission rate using a sum-throughput technique. A wireless information and power transfer (WIPT) method is considered by harvesting energy from dedicated radio frequency sources. Due to the doubly near-far condition that confronts WIPT systems, a new WIPT system is proposed to improve the fairness of resource utilization in the network. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the mathematical formulations for the optimization problem, which maximize the energy harvested and the overall throughput rate. Defining the performance metrics of achievable throughput and fairness in resource sharing, the proposed WIPT system outperforms an existing state-of-the-art WIPT system, with the comparison based on numerical simulations of both systems. The improved energy efficiency of the proposed WIPT system contributes to addressing the problem of energy scarcity.

  4. Optimizing the Energy and Throughput of a Water-Quality Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun O. Olatinwo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach to the maximization of energy and throughput in a wireless sensor network (WSN, with the intention of applying the approach to water-quality monitoring. Water-quality monitoring using WSN technology has become an interesting research area. Energy scarcity is a critical issue that plagues the widespread deployment of WSN systems. Different power supplies, harvesting energy from sustainable sources, have been explored. However, when energy-efficient models are not put in place, energy harvesting based WSN systems may experience an unstable energy supply, resulting in an interruption in communication, and low system throughput. To alleviate these problems, this paper presents the joint maximization of the energy harvested by sensor nodes and their information-transmission rate using a sum-throughput technique. A wireless information and power transfer (WIPT method is considered by harvesting energy from dedicated radio frequency sources. Due to the doubly near–far condition that confronts WIPT systems, a new WIPT system is proposed to improve the fairness of resource utilization in the network. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the mathematical formulations for the optimization problem, which maximize the energy harvested and the overall throughput rate. Defining the performance metrics of achievable throughput and fairness in resource sharing, the proposed WIPT system outperforms an existing state-of-the-art WIPT system, with the comparison based on numerical simulations of both systems. The improved energy efficiency of the proposed WIPT system contributes to addressing the problem of energy scarcity.

  5. Special section on quality management in the energy distribution sector in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorborg, L.

    1996-01-01

    So far, energy distribution companies in the Netherlands have lagged behind regarding total quality management (TQM), but this is gradually changing. Is TQM a fad, or does permanent attention to the customers and their needs indeed make companies stronger. And do companies evidently earn more money as a result of TQM? In four brief articles various aspects of quality management are dealt with in this special section. Quality manuals and protocols prove to be less fearsome than expected. Companies involved in quality management appear to make higher profits. And it should be possible to obtain a good return on investment within a short period of time. 1 fig., 3 ills

  6. House Owners’ Interests and Actions in Relation to Indoor Temperature, Air Quality and Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    in saving energy for the sake of the environment and for their own economy, and quite a lot of households indicate that they know their own energy consumption, though only few follow it closely. Thus being concerned about energy is not necessarily related to an interest in detailed feedback on one’s own......In order to make better and more realistic predictions of energy consumption in dwellings, more knowledge is needed about how individuals and households control the indoor environment. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the objective of studying the interest and actions taken in relation...... to indoor temperature, air quality and energy consumption by Danish house owners living in single-family detached houses with district heating. The house owners state that they are interested in, and concerned about, the indoor temperature and air quality and that it is an important element in caring...

  7. Stability of electron-beam energy monitor for quality assurance of the electron-beam energy from radiotherapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Saito, Haruo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Mitsuya, Masatoshi; Sakakida, Hideharu; Yamada, Shogo; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Information on electron energy is important in planning radiation therapy using electrons. The Geske 3405 electron beam energy monitor (Geske monitor, PTW Nuclear Associates, Carle Place, NY, USA) is a device containing nine ionization chambers for checking the energy of the electron beams produced by radiotherapy accelerators. We wondered whether this might increase the likelihood of ionization chamber trouble. In spite of the importance of the stability of such a quality assurance (QA) device, there are no reports on the stability of values measured with a Geske monitor. The purpose of this paper was therefore to describe the stability of a Geske monitor. It was found that the largest coefficient of variation (CV) of the Geske monitor measurements was approximately 0.96% over a 21-week period. In conclusion, the stability of Geske monitor measurements of the energy of electron beams from a linear accelerator was excellent. (author)

  8. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  9. Energy, Externalities and Environmental Quality: Will Development Cure the Ills It Creates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G. [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental quality in the context of economic development was discussed. Factors that influence environmental quality were emphasized. Main empirical studies performed in this area, including studies that have produced the inverted U-shaped environmental ``Kuznet Curve``were reviewed. The `Kuznet curve` represents the hypothesized relationship between inequality of income distribution and economic development. This author attempted to incorporate environmental quality into this relationship, and to look for the policy implications of these estimates. Determinants of environmental quality such as the supply of environmental quality, waste receptors and energy resources, the demand for environmental quality, environmental quality outcomes, environmental and quality/development models were discussed, and an attempt was made to answer the question of whether or not these Kuznet curves really imply that development will automatically cure environmental ills. One of the main conclusions was that as income rises, the demand for environmental quality rises proportionately faster, while the supply of environmentally destructive activities decreases. Other conclusions called for the improvement of the data base on environmental quality, especially by developing countries. There was also a call for more studies to be done to understand the factors that affect environmental quality and policy in different developmental situations.

  10. Energy, Externalities and Environmental Quality: Will Development Cure the Ills It Creates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, P.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental quality in the context of economic development was discussed. Factors that influence environmental quality were emphasized. Main empirical studies performed in this area, including studies that have produced the inverted U-shaped environmental ''Kuznet Curve''were reviewed. The 'Kuznet curve' represents the hypothesized relationship between inequality of income distribution and economic development. This author attempted to incorporate environmental quality into this relationship, and to look for the policy implications of these estimates. Determinants of environmental quality such as the supply of environmental quality, waste receptors and energy resources, the demand for environmental quality, environmental quality outcomes, environmental and quality/development models were discussed, and an attempt was made to answer the question of whether or not these Kuznet curves really imply that development will automatically cure environmental ills. One of the main conclusions was that as income rises, the demand for environmental quality rises proportionately faster, while the supply of environmentally destructive activities decreases. Other conclusions called for the improvement of the data base on environmental quality, especially by developing countries. There was also a call for more studies to be done to understand the factors that affect environmental quality and policy in different developmental situations

  11. Department of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program: Quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Quality Assurance Program developed for the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program Support Contractor Office (HAZWRAP SCO). Key topics discussed include an overview of the HAZWRAP SCO mission and organization, the basic quality assurance program requirements and the requirements for the control of quality for the Department of Energy and Work for Others hazardous waste management programs, and the role of ensuring quality through the project team concept for the management of remedial response actions. The paper focuses on planning for quality assurance for this remedial waste management process from preliminary assessments of remedial sites to feasibility studies. Some observations concerning the control of quality during the implementation of remedial actions are presented. (2 refs.)

  12. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  13. Design of a dynamic model for nuclear energy management based on European Foundation for Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fam, I. M.; Shekari, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Business excellence model has been developed to improve and promote business levels. In business excellence model such as European Foundation for Quality Management model, the important role of resource management is emphasizes. In this paper, we have tried with consideration to tendency progressive concepts of nuclear energy management; a dynamic model has been presented for energy management within the scope of European Foundation for Quality Management model. Population growth could cause increasing of the level of energy demands. No doubt, the confidence of this developed phenomenon with the limits of environment will create greater challenges for the world and its inhabitants. Considering the shortage of energy supply all over the world, nuclear energy management has been studied with a view to fourth and fifth criterions included in European Foundation for Quality Management model (Partnership and resource and Process criteria's). In addition to it, a dynamic model has been presented for nuclear energy management within the scope of European Foundation for Quality Management model. In this dynamic model, with differential equation definition for each of the presented communications of defined causal model, input variable impacts on output ones have been determined and considered. They can be reviewed, based on six scenario plans, the importance of nuclear energy management of a business has been properly shown, and similarly the rate of investment on systems as a factor affecting the level of attention paid to the future of business enterprises, has been specified. This paper conceives nuclear energy management as an instrument to contribute to the growth and fall of a business. It is therefore, imperative to attach more importance at nuclear energy demand management in the business and an attempt should be made to keep it under our control

  14. Power quality improvement by using STATCOM control scheme in wind energy generation interface to grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Sheeraz; Kumar, Brijesh

    2018-01-01

    “Electric Power Quality (EPQ) is a term that refers to maintaining the near sinusoidal waveform of power distribution bus voltages and currents at rated magnitude and frequency”. Today customers are more aware of the seriousness that the power quality possesses, this prompt the utilities to assure good quality of power to their customer. The power quality is basically customer centric. Increased focus of utilities toward maintaining reliable power supply by employing power quality improvement tools has reduced the power outages and black out considerably. Good power quality is the characteristic of reliable power supply. Low power factor, harmonic pollution, load imbalance, fast voltage variations are some common parameters which are used to define the power quality. If the power quality issues are not checked i.e. the parameters that define power quality doesn't fall within the predefined standards than it will lead into high electricity bill, high running cost in industries, malfunctioning of equipments, challenges in connecting renewable. Capacitor banks, FACTS devices, harmonic filters, SVC’s (static voltage compensators), STATCOM (Static-Compensator) are the solutions to achieve the power quality. The performance of Wind turbine generators is affected by poor quality power, at the same time these wind power generating plant affects the power quality negatively. This paper presents the STATCOM-BESS (battery energy storage system) system and studies its impact on the power quality in a system which consists of wind turbine generator, non linear load, hysteresis controller for controlling the operation of STATCOM and grid. The model is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink. This scheme mitigates the power quality issues, improves voltage profile and also reduces harmonic distortion of the waveforms. BESS level out the imbalances caused in real power due to intermittent nature of wind power available due to varying wind speeds.

  15. Different Modeling Aspects and Energy Systems of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC): An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Payal; Shrivastava, Amit; Khare, Anula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This paper highlights the classification of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) to enhance the electric power quality at distribution levels. It aims to present a broad overview on the different possible UPQC system configurations for single-phase (two-wire) and three-phase (three-wire and four-wire) networks, different modeling approaches and backup energy storages, and recent developments in the field. It is noticed that several researchers have used different names for the U...

  16. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis: optimization of beam quality for dose and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S Jr

    2011-01-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis is a promising technique to obtain three-dimensional functional information from the breast with high resolution and speed. To optimize this new method, this study searched for the beam quality that maximized image quality in terms of mass detection performance. A digital tomosynthesis system was modeled using a fast ray-tracing algorithm, which created simulated projection images by tracking photons through a voxelized anatomical breast phantom containing iodinated lesions. The single-energy images were combined into dual-energy images through a weighted log subtraction process. The weighting factor was optimized to minimize anatomical noise, while the dose distribution was chosen to minimize quantum noise. The dual-energy images were analyzed for the signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR) of iodinated masses. The fast ray-tracing explored 523 776 dual-energy combinations to identify which yields optimum mass SdNR. The ray-tracing results were verified using a Monte Carlo model for a breast tomosynthesis system with a selenium-based flat-panel detector. The projection images from our voxelized breast phantom were obtained at a constant total glandular dose. The projections were combined using weighted log subtraction and reconstructed using commercial reconstruction software. The lesion SdNR was measured in the central reconstructed slice. The SdNR performance varied markedly across the kVp and filtration space. Ray-tracing results indicated that the mass SdNR was maximized with a high-energy tungsten beam at 49 kVp with 92.5 μm of copper filtration and a low-energy tungsten beam at 49 kVp with 95 μm of tin filtration. This result was consistent with Monte Carlo findings. This mammographic technique led to a mass SdNR of 0.92 ± 0.03 in the projections and 3.68 ± 0.19 in the reconstructed slices. These values were markedly higher than those for non-optimized techniques. Our findings indicate that dual-energy

  17. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, H.R.; Kim, A.R.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    Power quality enhancement of a renewable energy source power network is performed by a real-toroidal-type SMES coil. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation. The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality. This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  18. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Annex 68, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy...... performance whilst providing comfortable and healthy indoor environments. New paradigms for demand control of ventilation will be investigated, which consider the pollution loads and occupancy in buildings. The thermal and moisture conditions of such will be considered because of interactions between...

  19. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency and Food Product Quality Using Adsorption Dryer with Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Djaeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a basic operation in wood, food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Currently, several drying methods are often not efficient in terms of energy consumption (energy efficiency of 20-60% and have an impact on product quality degradation due to the introduction of operational temperature upper 80oC. This work discusses the development of adsorption drying with zeolite to improve the energy efficiency as well as product quality. In this process, air as drying medium is dehumidified by zeolite. As a result humidity of air can be reduced up to 0.1 ppm. So, for heat sensitive products, the drying process can be performed in low or medium temperature with high driving force. The study has been conducted in three steps: designing the dryer, performing laboratory scale equipment (tray, spray, and fluidised bed dryers with zeolite, and evaluating the dryer performance based on energy efficiency and product quality. Results showed that the energy efficiency of drying process is 15-20% higher than that of conventional dryer. In additon, the dryer can speed up drying time as well as retaining product quality.

  20. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design bui...

  2. Predictive control techniques for energy and indoor environmental quality management in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 3, Romanou str., 73133, Hania, Crete (Greece); Pouliezos, A. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece); Stavrakakis, G.; Lazos, C. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present paper is to present a model-based predictive controller, combined with a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). The overall system predicts the indoor environmental conditions of a specific building and selects the most appropriate actions so as to reach the set points and contribute to the indoor environmental quality by minimizing energy costs. The controller is tested using a BEMS installation in Hania, Crete, Greece. (author)

  3. Energy Quality Management for a Micro Energy Network Integrated with Renewables in a Tourist Area: A Chinese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For a tourist area (TA, energy utilization is mostly concentrated in certain period of time. Therefore, the peak load is several times more than the average load. A Micro Energy Network Integrated with Renewables (MENR system is considered as a potential solution to mitigate this problem. To design an appropriate MENR system, a multi-objective energy quality management (EQM method based on the Genetic Algorithm is proposed. Here, EQM aims at reducing the primary energy consumption and optimizing the energy shares of various renewables in a MENR system. In addition to minimizing life-cycle costs and maximizing the exergy efficiency of a MENR system, the issue of system reliability is addressed. Then, a case study is presented, where the EQM method is applied to a TA located in Dali, China. Three possible reference MENR scenarios are analyzed. After confirming the reference scenarios, advanced MENR scenarios with improved system reliability are discussed. The rest of the work is dedicated to investigating the effects of various energy storage systems (ESSs parameters and the number of electric vehicles (EVs on MENR scenarios. The results suggest that there are significant differences between various MENR scenarios depending on the number of EVs and the investment reduction of ESSs.

  4. Morphological analysis of energy services: Paving the way to quality differentiation in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Florian; Flath, Christoph M.; Schuller, Alexander; Will, Christian; Weinhardt, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The activation of the still predominantly passive demand side is necessary to further guarantee a stable power system in the short term and ensure capacity adequacy in the long run. A system with a high share of generators with nearly no marginal costs requires new services that facilitate transmitting the right economic signals to the system stakeholders. To this end we refine the notion of energy services and propose a framework to systematically design quality differentiated energy services for consumers. This approach facilitates a value-based economic assessment of energy services that deviates from the marginal-cost-paradigm. We further illustrate pricing options for these new energy service products and outline infrastructural needs and additional use case-specific product properties. Moreover, we discuss how the morphological approach can be formalised using a mathematical programming formulation and introduce a complexity measure that facilitates assessing potential adoption obstacles for end consumers. Additionally, we illustrate the practical applicability of these findings by using a prototypical implementation of a decision support system. To foster differentiated energy services, we recommend a more lenient regulatory regime lowering the barriers for new market entrants. - Highlights: • Activating the demand side is necessary to further guarantee a stable power system. • We refine the notion of energy services helping to tackle this obstacle. • A morphological box to design quality differentiated energy services is proposed. • We extend this framework by implementing a prototypical decision support system. • A more lenient regulatory regime is needed to foster differentiated energy services.

  5. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Impact of curved shaped energy dissipaters downstream of head structures on both water energy dissipation and irrigation water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashour Mohamed A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using energy dissipaters on the soled aprons downstream of head structures is the main technique for accelerating hydraulic jump formation and dissipating a great amount of the residual harmful kinetic energy occurring downstream of head structures. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to investigate some untested shapes of curved dissipaters with different angles of curvature and arrangements from two points of view. The first is to examine its efficiency in dissipating the kinetic water energy. The second is to examine the most effective shape and arrangement obtained from the aforementioned step in enriching the flow with dissolved oxygen for enhancement of the irrigation water quality. The study was held in the irrigation and hydraulic laboratory of the Civil Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, using a movable bed tilting channel 20 m long, 30 cm wide, and 50 cm high, using 21 types of curved dissipaters with different arrangements. A total of 660 runs were carried out. Results were analysed, tabulated and graphically presented, and new formulas were introduced to estimate the energy dissipation ratio, as well as the DO concentrations. Results in general showed that the dissipater performance is more tangible in dissipating the residual energy when the curvature is in the opposite direction to that of the flow. Also, the energy loss ratio increases with an increase in curvature angle (θ, until it reaches (θ = 120°, then it decreases again. The study also showed that using three rows of dissipaters give nearly the same effect as using four rows, concerning both the relative energy dissipation and dissolved oxygen content. So, it is recommended to use three rows of the curved dissipater with the angle of curvature (θ = 120° in the opposite direction to that of the flow to obtain the maximum percentage of water energy dissipation downstream of head structures, and maximum dissolved oxygen content too

  7. Improvement of material decomposition and image quality in dual-energy radiography by reducing image noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Jo, B.D.; Jeon, P.-H.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.

    2016-01-01

    Although digital radiography has been widely used for screening human anatomical structures in clinical situations, it has several limitations due to anatomical overlapping. To resolve this problem, dual-energy imaging techniques, which provide a method for decomposing overlying anatomical structures, have been suggested as alternative imaging techniques. Previous studies have reported several dual-energy techniques, each resulting in different image qualities. In this study, we compared three dual-energy techniques: simple log subtraction (SLS), simple smoothing of a high-energy image (SSH), and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR) with respect to material thickness quantification and image quality. To evaluate dual-energy radiography, we conducted Monte Carlo simulation and experimental phantom studies. The Geant 4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) v 6.0 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolation polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for simulation studies and digital radiography, and human chest phantoms were used for experimental studies. The results of the simulation study showed improved image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) values and bone thickness estimation accuracy by applying the ACNR and SSH methods. Furthermore, the chest phantom images showed better image quality with the SSH and ACNR methods compared to the SLS method. In particular, the bone texture characteristics were well-described by applying the SSH and ACNR methods. In conclusion, the SSH and ACNR methods improved the accuracy of material quantification and image quality in dual-energy radiography compared to SLS. Our results can contribute to better diagnostic capabilities of dual-energy images and accurate material quantification in various clinical situations.

  8. An automated procedure for the quality assurance of electron beam output and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M.K.; Videla, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we report on the development of a simple and accurate method for quality assurance of electron beam output and energy. Aluminum disks of thicknesses d max or d 50 of the particular electron energy are positioned sequentially over a parallel-plate ion chamber and the ratio of the two signals is compared to the standard. The positioning of the aluminum disks is carried out remotely and automatically to eliminate the necessity of multiple setups. One method utilizes the remote control feature of the treatment couch and another employs a motor-driven carousel. The superior sensitivity over a commercially available energy monitor is illustrated

  9. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  10. Neutron quality parameters versus energy below 4 MeV from microdosimetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Borak, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Charged-particle production by neutrons and the resulting energy-deposition spectra in micron-sized spheres of tissue of varying diameters were calculated from thermal energies to 4 MeV. These data were used to obtain dose-average values of several quality-indicating parameters as functions of neutron energy and of tissue sphere diameter. The contrast among the parameters is shown and discussed. Applications are made to two neutron spectra, one a fission spectrum in air and the other a moderated spectrum at the center of an irradiated cube of water

  11. Design of Energy Storage Control Strategy to Improve the PV System Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Random fluctuation of PV power is becoming a more and more serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of grid as the PV penetration keeps increasing recent years. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a control strategy of energy storage system based on Model Predictive Contr...

  12. Comparison of the results for quality implementation of low energy X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonseca, M; Ochoa, R; Almeida, C.E. de; Peixoto, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    It describes the comparison of the results for qualities implementation of low energy X rays, using a pan tak tube, HF 160, which has tungsten white, beryllium window, is water-cooled and it has a 160 K B generator [es

  13. Indoor air quality handbook: for designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences to achieve the goals of energy efficiency and maintenance of high indoor air quality simultaneously. The handbook helps in identifying and controlling potential problems of indoor air quality. It identifies sources and discusses effective ways to decrease concentrations of air contaminants. It focuses on indoor air quality in both single and multifamily energy-efficient residences. Information about commercial structures such as hospitals and office buildings is presented when it also applies to residences. Basic concepts of contaminants and their concentrations, sources and removal mechanisms, contaminant distribution, heat transfer, and air exchange are discussed. The effects of the building system on indoor air quality are examined. The effects of the external environment, building envelope, environmental control systems, interior design, furnishings, and inhabitants on the emission, dispersion, and removal of indoor air contaminants as well as direct and indirect effects of energy-efficient features are discussed. The health effects of specific air contaminants and the health standards developed for them are examined. Available methods for predicting and measuring contaminants and for evaluating human responses are discussed. Methods and equipment available for the control of indoor air pollution once the contaminants have been identified are also evaluated. The potential legal aspects, including regulatory intervention and civil lawsuits, of failure to evaluate and control indoor air pollution are discussed. A list of references, a glossary, and an index are also included

  14. SMES [Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage] systems applications to improve quality service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P.; Gutierrez-Iglesias, J.L. [ASINEL (Spain); Bautista, A. [IBERDROLA (Spain); Rodriguez, J.M.; Urretavizcaya, E. [Red Electrica de Espana (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    This article presents the contribution of SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) systems to improvement quality of service, either as a mitigating element or as a power support for critical loads. It also describes these systems and its operation. Finally, a description is shown of the state of the art of this technology in Spain, as developed until now in the AMAS500 project. (Author)

  15. Effect of microwave energy on grain quality of four Spanish rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osca, J.M.; Marzal, A.; Castell, V.; Martínez, J.; Benedito, C.; Balbastre, J.V.; Sánchez-Hernández, D.

    2005-01-01

    A microwave system can be used as an alternative method to methyl bromide to control rice storage pests. Four rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) grown in Spain (‘Bomba’, ‘Senia’, ‘Puntal’ and ‘Thainato’) were irradiated with three levels of microwave energy (0, 70 and 100 J g –1 ). Rice quality attributes were analysed to establish hypothetical quality changes in order to use microwave energy as an alternative method to control pests. Results of the factorial analysis showed that the analysed attributes differed more within varieties than among microwave treatments of the varieties, except for ‘Thainato’ which, after applying microwave energy of 100 J g –1 , presented a different adhesiveness from the other two treatments determined by factor 1 and ‘Puntal’ treated with microwaves presented a different water uptake and loss of solids in cooking water determined by factor 3 than the control. The increase in hardness and decrease in adhesiveness as a consequence of the microwave treatment could possibly damage rice quality. This aspect must be taken into account with this method. In conclusion, microwave energy can be used as an alternative method of insect control because it does not seriously affect rice quality. Microwave treatments did not leave undesirable residues and could be as effective at controlling insect infestation as any procedure currently available. (author) [es

  16. [Reduce Energy Costs While Maintaining Healthy IAQ.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) Feature Article: Reduce Energy Costs while Maintaining Healthy IAQ; (3) Insight into Excellence: North East Independent School District ; (4) School Building Week 2009; and (5) Have Your Questions Answered!

  17. Influence of User Behaviour on Indoor Environmental Quality and Heating Energy Consumptions in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    Models of occupants’ interactions with heating controls based on measurements were implemented in a simulation program. Simulation results were given as probability distributions of energy consumption and indoor environmental quality depending on user behaviour. Heating set-point behaviour of 13...

  18. Energy performance and Indoor Air Quality in Modern Buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students “Apisseq” was built in the town of Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students. Thanks to its complex monitoring system it enables researchers to evaluate the building’s energy performance and indoor air quality...

  19. Protein-energy nutritional status and kidney disease-specific quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, A.H.A.; de Wit, G.A.; Penne, E.L.; van der Weerd, N.C.; Grooteman, M.P.C.; van den Dorpel, M.A.; Nube, M.J.; Buskens, E.; Levesque, R.; ter Wee, P.M.; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.

    Objective: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome in dialysis care. Previous research has related protein-energy nutritional status to generic HRQOL domains, but it is still not clear as to how it relates to HRQOL domains that are unique to hemodialysis patients. Therefore,

  20. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  1. Quality factor for charged particle recoils as a function of neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Stinchcomb, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    A method has been developed for computing the quality factor for any neutron spectrum with a maximum energy of 4 MeV. Calculated values for 41 adjacent neutron energy intervals from thermal to 4 MeV are tabulated. The table includes the fraction of absorbed dose and neutron dose equivalent produced by hydrogen recoils in soft tissue with the remaining fraction due to heavier particles. The production rate of 2.2 MeV photons from hydrogen capture in tissue is also given. The quality factor for a neutron spectrum of interest can be obtained from a weighted integration over the values listed. The total dose equivalent must include the contributions of absorbed dose from photons having a quality factor of unity. (author)

  2. Cross-layer Energy Optimization Under Image Quality Constraints for Wireless Image Transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Demirkol, Ilker; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    Wireless image transmission is critical in many applications, such as surveillance and environment monitoring. In order to make the best use of the limited energy of the battery-operated cameras, while satisfying the application-level image quality constraints, cross-layer design is critical. In this paper, we develop an image transmission model that allows the application layer (e.g., the user) to specify an image quality constraint, and optimizes the lower layer parameters of transmit power and packet length, to minimize the energy dissipation in image transmission over a given distance. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by applying the proposed energy optimization to a reference ZigBee system and a WiFi system, and also by comparing to an energy optimization study that does not consider any image quality constraint. Evaluations show that our scheme outperforms the default settings of the investigated commercial devices and saves a significant amount of energy at middle-to-large transmission distances.

  3. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  4. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Loureiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  5. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kassio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.; Neto, Augusto; de Souza, José Neuman

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare,environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. PMID:23385410

  6. The demand for environmental quality in driving transitions to low-polluting energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the long run demand for energy-related environmental quality, its influence on legislation and on transitions to low polluting energy sources. It presents a series of episodes in British history where a demand for improvements in energy-related environmental quality existed. These episodes helped to identify a few cases where markets partially drove transitions to low polluting energy sources, in specific economic conditions. More generally, they showed that, when pushed, governments will introduce environmental legislation, although it tends to be weak and poorly enforced. In the case of air pollution, strong and binding legislation occurred roughly one hundred years later than was socially optimal. Based on this evidence, for a transition to a low carbon economy, governments will probably need to introduce focussed and binding legislation, and this cannot be expected without strong and sustained demand for climate stability. This demand will need to be spearheaded by pressure groups to introduce legislation, to enforce it and to avoid it being over-turned by future governments. - Highlights: ► Reviews demand for improvements in environmental quality in British history. ► In special cases, demand may drive transitions through markets. ► Demand will probably have to drive transitions to low polluting energy through legislation. ► Need for strong and sustained demand spearheaded through pressure groups.

  7. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 4 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state states understand the methods, models, opportunities, and issues associated with assessing the GHG, air pollution, air quality, and human health benefits of clean energy options.

  8. Quantifying Co-benefits of Renewable Energy through Integrated Electricity and Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, D.

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on the coordination of electricity sector changes with air quality and health improvement strategies through the integration of electricity and air quality models. Two energy models are used to calculate emission perturbations associated with changes in generation technology (20% generation from solar photovoltaics) and demand (future electricity use under a warmer climate). Impacts from increased solar PV penetration are simulated with the electricity model GridView, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Generation results are used to scale power plant emissions from an inventory developed by the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO). Perturbed emissions and are used to calculate secondary particulate matter with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We find that electricity NOx and SO2 emissions decrease at a rate similar to the total fraction of electricity supplied by solar. Across the Eastern U.S. region, average PM2.5 is reduced 5% over the summer, with highest reduction in regions and on days of greater PM2.5. A similar approach evaluates the air quality impacts of elevated electricity demand under a warmer climate. Meteorology is selected from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and input to a building energy model, eQUEST, to assess electricity demand as a function of ambient temperature. The associated generation and emissions are calculated on a plant-by-plant basis by the MyPower power sector model. These emissions are referenced to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to be modeled in CMAQ for the Eastern U.S. and extended to health impact evaluation with the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). All results focus on the air quality and health consequences of energy system changes, considering grid-level changes to meet climate and air quality goals.

  9. Impact of energy taxation on economy, environmental and public health quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoqing; Liu, Bowei; Niu, Honghong; Liu, Jianfeng; Yao, Shu

    2018-01-15

    This paper argues computable general equilibrium model and assess impact of energy taxation on economy, environmental and public health quality in Tianjin. In order to investigate different energy taxation based on medical cost and labor loss, the computable general equilibrium model integrating with input-output table and social accounting matrix (SAM) was constructed. The medical expense caused by air pollution of Tianjin in 2007 is 396 million yuan and death for 18104 people, which accounted for the total GDP and population 0.754‰ and 1.6‰, respectively. The results show that the enery taxes levy can improve the GDP, but it is only slightly. The energy taxes have adverse impact on energy sector because that the energy cost is increased. The scale of production is reduced, and the capital and labor resources are transferred to low energy consumption low emissions sector. The energy tax levy can reduce air pollutants concentration and improve air environmental quality. The PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 concentration in the energy taxes 5%-30% was reduced by 0.24%-0.24%, 0.09-0.52% and 0.29%-0.52% respectively. The medical expense has little impact on GDP, but labor loss has a certain effect on GDP. For higher energy taxes rate, the health effects on GDP can reach 0.06%-0.16%. This simultaneous economic and environmental improvement and health effect would thus have positive implications regarding energy taxes of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  11. Energy use, air infiltration, and indoor air quality in well-insulated residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Nagda, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports two unoccupied bilevel houses of identical design and construction studied to determine the relationships among air exchange, energy consumption, and indoor air quality. The experimental house was retrofitted to increase building tightness and was equipped with an air-to-air heat exchanger; the control house was kept in its initial state of construction. Infiltration, energy, indoor air quality, and environmental parameters were monitored in both houses before and after the retrofit. It was found that the retrofit decreased air infiltration rates by nearly 25 percent, heating energy savings of 12 to 20 percent were achieved through the retrofit, and among the pollutants monitored, only radon and radon progeny increased in proportion to the reduced infiltration. Similarly, when the heat exchanger was operated, radon and radon progeny were the only pollutants reduced in proportion to the added air exchange

  12. New device architecture of a thermoelectric energy conversion for recovering low-quality heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Park, Sung-Geun; Jung, Buyoung; Hwang, Junphil; Kim, Woochul

    2014-03-01

    Low-quality heat is generally discarded for economic reasons; a low-cost energy conversion device considering price per watt, /W, is required to recover this waste heat. Thin-film based thermoelectric devices could be a superior alternative for this purpose, based on their low material consumption; however, power generated in conventional thermoelectric device architecture is negligible due to the small temperature drop across the thin film. To overcome this challenge, we propose new device architecture, and demonstrate approximately 60 Kelvin temperature differences using a thick polymer nanocomposite. The temperature differences were achieved by separating the thermal path from the electrical path; whereas in conventional device architecture, both electrical charges and thermal energy share same path. We also applied this device to harvest body heat and confirmed its usability as an energy conversion device for recovering low-quality heat.

  13. Parametric analysis of energy quality management for district in China using multi-objective optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hai; Yu, Zitao; Alanne, Kari; Xu, Xu; Fan, Liwu; Yu, Han; Zhang, Liang; Martinac, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A time-effective multi-objective design optimization scheme is proposed. • The scheme aims at exploring suitable 3E energy system for the specific case. • A realistic case located in China is used for the analysis. • Parametric study is investigated to test the effects of different parameters. - Abstract: Due to the increasing energy demands and global warming, energy quality management (EQM) for districts has been getting importance over the last few decades. The evaluation of the optimum energy systems for specific districts is an essential part of EQM. This paper presents a deep analysis of the optimum energy systems for a district sited in China. A multi-objective optimization approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed for the analysis. The optimization process aims to search for the suitable 3E (minimum economic cost and environmental burden as well as maximum efficiency) energy systems. Here, life cycle CO 2 equivalent (LCCO 2 ), life cycle cost (LCC) and exergy efficiency (EE) are set as optimization objectives. Then, the optimum energy systems for the Chinese case are presented. The final work is to investigate the effects of different energy parameters. The results show the optimum energy systems might vary significantly depending on some parameters

  14. Free Energy Adjusted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (FEA-PSNR) for Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), the de facto universal image quality metric has been widely criticized as having poor correlation with human subjective quality ratings. In this paper, it will be illustrated that the low performance of PSNR as an image quality metric is partially due to its inability of differentiating image contents. And it is revealed that the deviation between subjective score and PSNR for each type of distortions can be systematically captured by perceptual complexity of the target image. The free energy modelling technique is then introduced to simulate the human cognitive process and measure perceptual complexity of an image. Then it is shown that performance of PSNR can be effectively improved using a linear score mapping process considering image free energy and distortion type. The proposed free energy adjusted peak signal to noise ratio (FEA-PSNR) does not change computational steps the of ordinary PSNR and therefore it inherits the merits of being simple, derivable and physically meaningful. So FEA-PSNR can be easily integrated into existing PSNR based image processing systems to achieve more visually plausible results. And the proposed analysis approach can be extended to other types of image quality metrics for enhanced performance.

  15. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  16. Solar shading for low energy use and daylight quality in offices: Simulations, measurements and design tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of solar shading devices on energy use and daylight quality in office rooms. The impact on energy use is analysed through computer simulations with the dynamic energy simulation program Derob-LTH while the impact on daylight quality is investigated through measurements in full-scale experimental office rooms and simulations with the program Radiance. This thesis also includes a literature review of research on solar shading as well as design tools to incorporate shading devices at an early stage in the design of buildings. This thesis indicates that, in cold countries, shading devices may provide more annual energy savings than any solar-protective (reflective, tinted) glazing and that the optimum glazing transmittance is orientation- and climate-dependent. For example, high annual energy savings are obtained on the south facade with higher transmittance glazings (compared with the east and west facade) because the potential for passive solar gain utilisation in the winter is high in comparison with the annual cooling demand. Exterior shading devices like awnings and overhangs may reduce the cooling demand dramatically but they are not suitable as daylight (glare) control devices. Devices like screens and venetian blinds are preferable because they cover the entire window area, which prevents sunlight patches in the room and the direct view of the bright sky. Screens and venetian blinds also reduce daylight in the room to levels that are suitable for computer work. However, it is essential that the screen is of a diffusing type since screens with a strong (specular) transmittance component result in poor daylight quality. The study on daylight quality also indicated that a screen transmittance of around 15 % may be optimum for a standard (3.5 by 6.0 m{sup 2}) south-oriented office room with a window covering around 25 % of the facade area (12 % of the floor area)

  17. A quality control method for detecting energy changes of medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    A description is presented of a simple and sensitive method for detecting a change in the energy of the electrons bombarding the target of medical accelerators. This technique is useful for x-ray beams with end point energy in the range of 15.7 to 25 MeV. The method is based on the photoactivation of 16 O and 14 N in a small sample of ammonium nitrate. It was found that the ratio of the activity induced in the oxygen divided by that produced in the nitrogen can be used as a quality control technique to detect a change in the energy of the electrons that bombard the target of the accelerator. An electron energy change of the order of 0.2 MeV can be determined using this method. (author)

  18. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China’s cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Krol, Maarten; Bruine, Marco de; Geng, Guangpo; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated model was used to model the co-benefits for China’s cement industry. • PM_2_._5 would decrease by 2–4% by 2030 through improved energy efficiency. • 10,000 premature deaths would be avoided per year relative to the baseline scenario. • Total benefits are about two times higher than the energy efficiency costs. - Abstract: Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China’s cement industry is the second largest energy consumer and key emitter of CO_2 and air pollutants, which accounts for 7% of China’s total energy consumption, 15% of CO_2, and 14% of PM_2_._5, respectively. In this study, a state-of-the art modeling framework is developed that comprises a number of different methods and tools within the same platform (i.e. provincial energy conservation supply curves, the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies, ArcGIS, the global chemistry Transport Model, version 5, and Health Impact Assessment) to assess the potential for energy savings and emission mitigation of CO_2 and PM_2_._5, as well as the health impacts of pollution arising from China’s cement industry. The results show significant heterogeneity across provinces in terms of the potential for PM_2_._5 emission reduction and PM_2_._5 concentration, as well as health impacts caused by PM_2_._5. Implementation of selected energy efficiency measures would decrease total PM_2_._5 emissions by 2% (range: 1–4%) in 2020 and 4% (range: 2–8%) by 2030, compared to the baseline scenario. The reduction potential of provincial annual PM_2_._5 concentrations range from 0.03% to 2.21% by 2030 respectively, when compared to the baseline scenario. 10,000 premature deaths are avoided by 2020 and 2030 respectively relative to baseline scenario. The

  19. Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, J.L.; Gale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ''The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,'' describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ''Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,'' discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality

  20. A quality control method by ultrasonic vibration energy and diagnosis system at trimming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Min; Song, Gil Ho; Pyoun, Young Shik

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics in mechanical properties of ultrasonic cold forging treatment (UCFT) used for the trimming knife and the effects of ultrasonic vibration energy (UVE) into the trimming process on the state of the strip cutting face were studied. And a diagnosis system to quality control for trimming knife and strip cutting face was developed and installed in plant. By the plant application of UCFT, service life of knife was more increased over 100% than that of conventional knife and using the developed diagnosis system, the knife breakage and saw ear have been perfectly detected and quality control of trimming face is effectively obtained

  1. Using Smart Meters Data for Energy Management Operations and Power Quality Monitoring in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    purposes, integrating HAN/BAN communications, alarms and power quality indicators in some cases. All those characteristics make this widely spread equipment a free, accurate and flexible source of information that can replace expensive and dedicated devices. Therefore, this paper presents the integration...... of a commercial advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) in the context of a smart building with an energy management system (EMS). Furthermore, power quality monitoring based on this AMI is explained. All the details regarding the implementation in a laboratory scale application, as well as the obtained results...

  2. Complete characterization of voltage sags: an alternative to achieve energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Medina, Edgar Andres; Vasco Garcia, Carlos Andres

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the meaning of the power quality and its negative influence in the automation processes are presented. Voltage sags, the problems they cause and a methodology to characterize the phenomenon are also presented. Once the problems associated with the different sensible loads connected to a power system are identified, the cause of the bad quality of the electrical energy provided those loads is then established; voltage sags are one of the most common phenomenon that requires characterization in order to diminish their negative impact on the industrial processes

  3. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  4. A silicon strip detector array for energy verification and quality assurance in heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrot, Emily; Newall, Matthew; Guatelli, Susanna; Petasecca, Marco; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of depth dose profiles for range and energy verification of heavy ion beams is an important aspect of quality assurance procedures for heavy ion therapy facilities. The steep dose gradients in the Bragg peak region of these profiles require the use of detectors with high spatial resolution. The aim of this work is to characterize a one dimensional monolithic silicon detector array called the "serial Dose Magnifying Glass" (sDMG) as an independent ion beam energy and range verification system used for quality assurance conducted for ion beams used in heavy ion therapy. The sDMG detector consists of two linear arrays of 128 silicon sensitive volumes each with an effective size of 2mm × 50μm × 100μm fabricated on a p-type substrate at a pitch of 200 μm along a single axis of detection. The detector was characterized for beam energy and range verification by measuring the response of the detector when irradiated with a 290 MeV/u 12 C ion broad beam incident along the single axis of the detector embedded in a PMMA phantom. The energy of the 12 C ion beam incident on the detector and the residual energy of an ion beam incident on the phantom was determined from the measured Bragg peak position in the sDMG. Ad hoc Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup were also performed to give further insight into the detector response. The relative response profiles along the single axis measured with the sDMG detector were found to have good agreement between experiment and simulation with the position of the Bragg peak determined to fall within 0.2 mm or 1.1% of the range in the detector for the two cases. The energy of the beam incident on the detector was found to vary less than 1% between experiment and simulation. The beam energy incident on the phantom was determined to be (280.9 ± 0.8) MeV/u from the experimental and (280.9 ± 0.2) MeV/u from the simulated profiles. These values coincide with the expected energy of 281 MeV/u. The sDMG detector

  5. Energy and rice quality aspects during drying of freshly harvested paddy with industrial inclined bed dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, M.S.H.; Ibrahim, M. Nordin; Ab. Aziz, N.; Mohd. Salleh, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We presented performance evaluation approach for industrial inclined bed paddy dryer. • Specific electrical energy consumption was 1.44–1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated. • Specific thermal energy consumption was 2.77–3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated. • Dryer yielded 1–4% higher head rice at drying temperature of 38–39 °C than 41–42 °C. • Dryers should be operated at 38–39 °C for 1–4% higher head rice at reasonable energy. - Abstract: The performance evaluation of any industrial dryer regarding energy consumption and product quality should be assessed to check its present status and to suggest for further efficient operation. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the impact of drying temperature and air flow on energy consumption and quality of rice during paddy drying with industrial inclined bed dryer (IBD) with average holding capacity of 15 ton in the selected complexes of Padiberas Nasional Berhad (BERNAS)-the national paddy custodian of Malaysia. In reducing paddy moisture content (mc) from 22% to 23% wet basis (wb) down to around 12.5% wb, the final mc, the specific electrical (in terms of primary energy) and the specific thermal energy consumption were found to be varied between 1.44 to 1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated and 2.77 to 3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated, respectively. Analysis revealed that the specific electrical energy consumption was around 20% lesser and the specific thermal energy consumption of IBDs was around 10% higher during drying with air temperature of 41–42 °C than drying with 38–39 °C in reducing paddy mc from 22% to 23% (wb) down to around 12.5% (wb). However, paddy being with almost same initial mc dried using drying temperature of 38–39 °C, IBDs yielded 1–4% higher head rice yield while milling recovery and whiteness were comparable at acceptable milling degree and transparency. The bed air flows between 0.27 and 0.29 m 3 m −2 s −1 resulted in higher head rice yield slightly while its

  6. Improving energy performance of school buildings while ensuring indoor air quality ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Rachel; Goldberger, Itamar [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Structural Engineering and Construction Management; Paciuk, Monica [National Building Research Institute, Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2007-09-15

    Energy conscious design of school buildings, as well as deemed-to-satisfy provisions in a Performance Based Energy Code, should address the problem known as the energy efficiency - thermal comfort - indoor air quality dilemma (EE-TC-IAQ Dilemma). In warm and moderate climates, the large internal heat sources usually found in school buildings prevent achieving thermal comfort without active cooling in summer, but are not sufficient to eliminate the need for heating in winter. Commonly used air-conditioners do not improve air quality, while natural ventilation induces uncontrolled energy losses. In this study, a step by step process was used for the development of deemed-to-satisfy design solutions, which cope with the EE-TC-IAQ Dilemma, for a performance based code. A distinction is made between improving building design variables and improving ventilation schemes. Results indicate that implementation of improved ventilation schemes in an otherwise well designed energy-conscious building result in savings of 28-30% and 17-18% for northern and southern classroom orientations, respectively. (author)

  7. Energy and water quality management systems for water utility's operations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Bros, Christopher M; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-04-15

    Holistic management of water and energy resources is critical for water utilities facing increasing energy prices, water supply shortage and stringent regulatory requirements. In the early 1990s, the concept of an integrated Energy and Water Quality Management System (EWQMS) was developed as an operational optimization framework for solving water quality, water supply and energy management problems simultaneously. Approximately twenty water utilities have implemented an EWQMS by interfacing commercial or in-house software optimization programs with existing control systems. For utilities with an installed EWQMS, operating cost savings of 8-15% have been reported due to higher use of cheaper tariff periods and better operating efficiencies, resulting in the reduction in energy consumption of ∼6-9%. This review provides the current state-of-knowledge on EWQMS typical structural features and operational strategies and benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. The review also highlights the challenges encountered during installation and implementation of EWQMS and identifies the knowledge gaps that should motivate new research efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy performance and indoor air quality in modern buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students "Apisseq" was built in Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students, but thanks to its complex monitoring system, it enables researchers to evaluate the building's energy performance and indoor air quality. Some......, which have negative effects on the energy performance and indoor air quality. The heat demand in 2011 was 26.5% higher than expected. One of the main causes of the extra heat demand is the fact that the ventilation system was over-dimensioned, and although it is running on the lowest fan power...... of the installed technologies are not commonly used in the current Greenlandic building stock. Therefore, evaluation of their performance under local conditions is essential for further use and development. The first year of operation has disclosed some errors made during the design process and construction phase...

  9. The effects of an energy efficiency retrofit on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S E; Destaillats, H; Cohn, S; Ahrentzen, S; Fraser, M P

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit, indoor air quality and resident health were evaluated at a low-income senior housing apartment complex in Phoenix, Arizona, before and after a green energy building renovation. Indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out simultaneously with a questionnaire to characterize personal habits and general health of residents. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit routinely exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long-term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long-term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who report smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Robust Synchronization to Enhance the Power Quality of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the power grid requires high-quality power injection under various grid conditions. The synchronization method, usually a phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithm, is directly affecting the response of the grid-side converter of the RES....... This paper proposes a new PLL algorithm that uses an advanced decoupling network implemented in the stationary reference frame with limited requirements for processing time to enable a fast and accurate synchronization even under harmonic distorted voltage and low-voltage grid faults. The robust response...... of the proposed PLL is validated, and the effect of the proposed synchronization on the performance of the grid-connected renewable energy system is investigated. This investigation proves that the robust, accurate, and dynamic response of the new PLL can enhance the quality of the injected power from the RES...

  11. Dual energy CT intracranial angiography: image quality, radiation dose and initial application results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xue; Zhang Longjiang; Lu Guangming; Zhou Changsheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of dual-energy intracranial CT angiography (CTA). Methods: Forty-one patients suspected of intracranial vascular diseases underwent dual-energy intracranial CT angiography, and 41 patients who underwent conventional subtraction CT were enrolled as the control group. Image quality of intracranial and skull base vessels and radiation dose between dual-energy CTA and conventional subtraction CTA were compared using two independent sample nonparametric test and independent-samples t test, respectively. Prevalence and size of lesions detected by dual-energy CTA and digital subtraction CTA were compared using paired-samples t test and Spearman correlative analysis. Results: The percentage of image quality scored 5 was 70.7% (29/41) for dual-energy CTA and 75.6% (31/41) for conventional subtraction CTA. There was no significant difference between the two groups (Z= -0.455, P=0.650). Image quality of vessels at the skull base in conventional subtraction CTA was superior to that in dual-energy CTA, especially for the petrosal and syphon segment (Z=-4.087, P=0.000). Radiation exposure of dual energy CTA and conventional CTA were (396.54±17.43) and (1090.95±114.29) mGy·cm respectively. Radiation exposure was decreased by 64% (t=-38.52, P=0.000) by dual energy CTA compared with conventional subtraction CTA. Out of the 41 patients, 19 patients were diagnosed as intracranial aneurysm, 2 patients as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 3 patients with Moya-moya's disease, and the remaining 17 patients with negative results. Nine patients with intracranial aneurysm, 2 patients with AVM, 3 patients with Moya-moya's disease, and 2 patients with negative findings underwent DSA or operation, with concordant findings from both techniques. Diameter of aneurysm neck, long axis and minor axis by dual-energy CTA was (2.90±1.61), (5.23±1.68) and (3.83±1.69) mm, respectively; Diameter of aneurysm neck, long axis and minor axis by DSA was (2.95±1

  12. A GPRS-Based Low Energy Consumption Remote Terminal Unit for Aquaculture Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Dan; Li , Daoliang; Fei , Biaoqing; Wang , Yang; Peng , Fa

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The monitoring of water quality parameters such as DO, pH, salinity and temperature are necessary for the health of seafood such as sea cucumber. However, traditional monitoring system is based on cable data acquisition that has many disadvantages. Nowadays, GPRS is the most commonly accepted way for wireless transmission. Based on it, a type of low energy consumption RTU is developed and applied. In this paper, details of the design are introduced. In hardware design ...

  13. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; O'Connor, William K [Lebanon, OR

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  14. Boise, Idaho: Improving Air Quality through Alternative Fuels & Reduced Vehicular Travel (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "Boise, Idaho: Improving Air Quality through Alternative Fuels & Reduced Vehicular Travel" explains how the City of Boise used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  15. The importance of ingestion rates for estimating food quality and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Chalise, Mukesh K; Koenig, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Testing ecological or socioecological models in primatology often requires estimates of individual energy intake. It is a well established fact that the nutrient content (and hence the energy content) of primate food items is highly variable. The second variable in determining primate energy intake, i.e., the ingestion rate, has often been ignored, and few studies have attempted to estimate the relative importance of the two predictors. In the present study individual ingestion rates were measured in two ecologically very different populations of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) at Jodhpur, India, and Ramnagar, Nepal. Protein and soluble sugar concentrations in 50 and 100 food items. respectively, were measured using standardized methods. Variation in ingestion rates (gram of dry matter per minute) was markedly greater among food items than among langur individuals in both populations, but did not differ systematically among food item categories defined according to plant part and age. General linear models (GLMs) with ingestion rate, protein, and soluble sugar content explained 40-80% of the variation in energy intake rates (kJ/min). The relative importance of ingestion rates was either similar (Ramnagar) or much greater (Jodhpur) than the role of sugar and/or protein content in determining the energy intake rates of different items. These results may impact socioecological studies of variation in individual energy budgets, investigations of food choice in relation to chemical composition or sensory characteristics, and research into habitat preferences that measures habitat quality in terms of abundance of important food sources. We suggest a definition of food quality that includes not only the amount of valuable food contents (energy, vitamins, and minerals) and the digestibility of different foods, but also the rate at which the food can be harvested and processed. Such an extended definition seems necessary because time may constrain primates when

  16. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Quality Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenlaw, P.D.; Minick, S.K.

    1998-07-01

    This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML`s results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. This report presents the results from the analysis of the 48th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP XLVIII) that were received on or before June 1, 1998.

  17. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Quality Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlaw, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML's results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. A summary of the reported results is available to the participants 4 days after the reporting deadline via the Internet at www.eml.doe.gov. This report presents the results from the analysis of the 47th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP XLVII) that were received on or before December 1, 1997

  18. On beam quality and stopping power ratios for high-energy x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, S.A.; Ceberg, C.P.; Knoeoes, T.; Nilsson, P.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to quantitatively compare two commonly used beam quality indices, TPR(20/10) and %dd(10) x , with respect to their ability to predict stopping power ratios (water to air), s w,air , for high-energy x-rays. In particular, effects due to a varied amount of filtration of the photon beam will be studied. A new method for characterizing beam quality is also presented, where the information we strive to obtain is the moments of the spectral distribution. We will show how the moments enter into a general description of the transmission curve and that it is possible to correlate the moments to s w,air with a unique and simple relationship. Comparisons with TPR(20/10) and %dd(10) x show that the moments are well suited for beam quality specification in terms of choosing the correct s w,air . (author)

  19. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Quality Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlaw, P.D.; Minick, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML's results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. This report presents the results from the analysis of the 48th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP XLVIII) that were received on or before June 1, 1998

  20. Dynamic linkages between road transport energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental quality: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish; Baloch, Muhammad Awais

    2018-03-01

    The focus of the present research work is to investigate the dynamic relationship between economic growth, road transport energy consumption, and environmental quality. To this end, we rely on time series data for the period 1971 to 2014 in the context of Pakistan. To use sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission from transport sector as a new proxy for measuring environmental quality, the present work employs time series technique ARDL which allows energy consumption from the transport sector, urbanization, and road infrastructure to be knotted by symmetric relationships with SO 2 emissions and economic growth. From the statistical results, we confirm that road infrastructure boosts economic growth. Simultaneously, road infrastructure and urbanization hampers environmental quality and causes to accelerate emission of SO 2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, economic growth has a diminishing negative impact on total SO 2 emission. Moreover, we did not find any proof of the expected role of transport energy consumption in SO 2 emission. The acquired results directed that care should be taken in the expansion of road infrastructure and green city policies and planning are required in the country.

  1. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Assessing thermal comfort and energy efficiency in buildings by statistical quality control for autocorrelated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbeito, Inés; Zaragoza, Sonia; Tarrío-Saavedra, Javier; Naya, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intelligent web platform development for energy efficiency management in buildings. • Controlling and supervising thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. • Statistical quality control procedure to deal with autocorrelated data. • Open source alternative using R software. - Abstract: In this paper, a case study of performing a reliable statistical procedure to evaluate the quality of HVAC systems in buildings using data retrieved from an ad hoc big data web energy platform is presented. The proposed methodology based on statistical quality control (SQC) is used to analyze the real state of thermal comfort and energy efficiency of the offices of the company FRIDAMA (Spain) in a reliable way. Non-conformities or alarms, and the actual assignable causes of these out of control states are detected. The capability to meet specification requirements is also analyzed. Tools and packages implemented in the open-source R software are employed to apply the different procedures. First, this study proposes to fit ARIMA time series models to CTQ variables. Then, the application of Shewhart and EWMA control charts to the time series residuals is proposed to control and monitor thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings. Once thermal comfort and consumption variability are estimated, the implementation of capability indexes for autocorrelated variables is proposed to calculate the degree to which standards specifications are met. According with case study results, the proposed methodology has detected real anomalies in HVAC installation, helping to detect assignable causes and to make appropriate decisions. One of the goals is to perform and describe step by step this statistical procedure in order to be replicated by practitioners in a better way.

  3. Stored Energy and Quality Factor of Spherical Wave Functions–in Relation to Spherical Antennas With Material Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels V.; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    wave, the excitation coefficients for the internal and external spherical waves, the radiated power, the internal and external stored electric and magnetic energies, the difference of total electric and total magnetic energy, the cavity and radiating resonance conditions, and the quality factor. We...... investigate the variation of the internal/external and electric/magnetic stored energies with the electrical size of the antenna to study their relative significance for the quality factor....

  4. Application of Islanding Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbance in Hybrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. B.; Wu, Z. S.; Yang, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Islanding and power quality (PQ) disturbances in hybrid energy system become more serious with the application of renewable energy sources. In this paper, a novel method based on wavelet transform (WT) and modified feed forward neural network (FNN) is proposed to detect islanding and classify PQ problems. First, the performance indices, i.e., the energy content and SD of the transformed signal are extracted from the negative sequence component of the voltage signal at PCC using WT. Afterward, WT indices are fed to train FNNs midfield by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) which is a novel heuristic optimization method. Then, the results of simulation based on WT-PSOFNN are discussed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulations on the hybrid power system show that the accuracy can be significantly improved by the proposed method in detecting and classifying of different disturbances connected to multiple distributed generations.

  5. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  6. Preoperative nutritional interventions in morbid obesity: impact on body weight, energy intake, and eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez-Araújo, Mariana Silva; de Matos Arruda, Sérgio Lincoln; de Oliveira Kelly, Emily; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi

    2012-12-01

    Although the benefits of preoperative weight loss and adequacy of dietary patterns in bariatric surgery is well-recognized, the nutritional strategies in the preoperative period have been scarcely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of intensive and standard nutritional interventions on body weight, energy intake, and eating quality. This is a retrospective study in which 32 patients undergoing intensive nutritional intervention, with low-calorie diet (10 kcal/kg) and biweekly visits, were pair-matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 32 patients under a standard nutritional intervention, based on a general dietary counseling. Twenty-four-hour food recall was used to assess energy intake and to derive healthy eating index (HEI). The follow-up preoperative period varied from 8 to 16 weeks. Weight loss was observed in 72% of the patients from the intensive intervention group and 75% of the patients from the standard intervention group. According to the mixed model analysis, time effect on weight loss in both groups was significant (P = 0.0002); however, no difference was found between the intervention groups (P = 0.71). The time effect was significant in both groups for energy intake reduction as well (P eating quality was expressed by the nutrient score of the HEI that increased significantly overtime (P = 0.02), also without distinction between the groups (P = 0.61). Both intensive and standard nutritional interventions promoted weight loss, energy intake reduction, and improvement of eating quality in morbidly obese patients during preoperative period.

  7. Quality assurance of underground energy storage. The development of a quality mark by Kiwa and IF Technology; Kwaliteitsborging ondergrondse energieopslag. Kiwa en IF Technology ontwikkelen een kwaliteitskeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakema, G. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, A.G. [KIWA Inspectie, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    In the last few years the market for energy storage showed a strong development from an innovative technology to a demonstrated technology. In the coming years the number of energy storage systems will increase. Therefore, quality control and assurance will be necessary and the development of a quality mark is required. [Dutch] De markt voor energieopslag heeft de laatste jaren een sterke ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. De opslag van energie is doorgegroeid van een innovatieve technologie naar een bewezen techniek. De verwachting is dat het aantal systemen zich de komende jaren nog sterk zal gaan uitbreiden. Kwaliteitsborging is een logisch gevolg, en een kwaliteitskeur een eerste aanzet.

  8. Generating a quality management system for application in the field of management of nuclear energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, L.; Arias, M.

    2013-01-01

    The actual work has as a main objective to present the development of a quality management system to be applicable to the Nuclear Energy Management confines at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Argentina Republic. The GAEN Quality Management Section (SGC) has as main central tasks to streamline, collaborate and facilitate the development of activities and their applications on quality management systems in all the sections and projects belonging to GAEN. This achievement will tend to accredit, certificate and qualify them. Groups of work cooperating with each other integrate the GAEN. They are at present dealing with several tasks. Some outstanding ones are research activities, technology development, design, engineering, assembling, starting, services, and human resources development on Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Supplies, particularly on powerful nuclear reactors. In 2012, at the annual CNEA Presidential meeting, it was presented one of the several projects from the SGC. It consists in the development of a quality management system available to every area belonging to the GAEN. To carry this project out, it was first begun with the elaboration of Guide Documents which were available for everybody. The documents establish the criteria and general requirements for obtaining guaranteed quality results about the performed activities. At the same time, several areas, sections and Management groups of work have been working united and well-disposed towards the application on their own Management System using the Guide Documents and considering, in addition, some own regards. In conclusion, this first step shows that the developed work facilitates the implementation of Management Systems around the GAEN. (author)

  9. Dual energy computer tomography. Objectve dosimetry, image quality and dose efficiency; Dual Energy Computertomographie. Objektive Dosimetrie, Bildqualitaet und Dosiseffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenzle, Jan Christian

    2012-05-24

    The aim of the present studies was an objective reflection of newly developed methods of modern imaging techniques concerning radiation exposure to the human body. Dual Source computed tomography has opened up a broad variety of new diagnostic possibilities. Using two X-ray sources with an angular offset of about 90 in a single gantry, images with a high spatiotemporal resolution can be achieved, for example in patients suffering acute chest pain. The Dual Energy Mode is based on the acquisition of two data sets with two different X-ray spectra which make it possible to identify certain substances with different spectral properties like bone, iodine or other organic material. [6-17] There is no doubt that this technical innovation will make an essential contribution to clinical diagnostics, but it remained to be proven that there is no additional dose. An anthropomorphic Phantom and thermoluminiscent detectors were used to objectively quantify the radiation dose resulting from the different examination protocols. For Dual Energy CT examinations, it was possible to verify dose neutrality in combination with comparable image quality and even improved contrast to noise ratio. Nowadays, this protocol is used in clinical routine examinations, e.g. for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism. A milestone in dose reduction was reached with modern triple rule out protocols. Causes of acute chest pain such as heart attack, pulmonary embolism or aortic rupture can be differentiated in a single examination with a high precision and a fractional amount of dose compared to conventional methods.

  10. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.A.A.

    2005-11-07

    Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants. Hot air batch drying is the most common drying method for these plants but affects the essential oil content and color. The drying conditions affect essential oil content and color as well as the energy consumption and costs. Process engineers and farmers need to know how they have to dry to obtain the best quality. The objective of this work is to investigate the conditions for optimal drying in terms of quality, energy consumption and costs. Adsorption and desorption experiments were done to find the equilibrium moisture content and water exchange between the material and surrounding air during drying and storage at temperatures of 25C to 70C and relative humidities of 5% to 90%. Drying of tarragon leaves and chopped plants was investigated separately and the best model was selected from the drying equations in literature. The effect of drying temperature and relative humidity on the essential oil content and color change was studied. Experiments were done at temperatures of 40C to 90C and the optimal conditions were. Long-term effects of the drying conditions were also investigated during the storage time. Material dried at 45, 60 and 90C was stored and the essential oil content and color of the material was measured after 15, 30, 60 and 120 days of storage. Drying at 45C was found as the best condition based on the changes of essential oil and color during drying and storage. Optimization of drying of tarragon was studied based on the results of the sorption isotherms, drying equations and the changes of essential oil content and color during drying and storage. Models were made for the drying process, energy consumption and cost calculation. The current conditions

  11. Global Scenarios of Air Pollution until 2030: Combining Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Access Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Klimont, Z.; Riahi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to global health outcomes. This has led to the implementation of a number of air quality policies worldwide, with total air pollution control costs in 2005 estimated at US$195 billion. More than 80% of the world's population is still found to be exposed to PM2.5 concentrations exceeding WHO air quality guidelines and health impacts resulting from these exposures estimated at around 2-5% of the global disease burden. Key questions to answer are 1) How will pollutant emissions evolve in the future given developments in the energy system and how will energy and environmental policies influence such emission trends. 2) What implications will this have for resulting exposures and related health outcomes. In order to answer these questions, varying levels of stringency of air quality legislation are analyzed in combination with policies on universal access to clean cooking fuels and limiting global temperature change to 2°C in 2100. Bottom-up methodologies using energy emissions modeling are used to derive sector-based pollutant emission trajectories until 2030. Emissions are spatially downscaled and used in combination with a global transport chemistry model to derive ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Health impacts of these exposures are further estimated consistent with WHO data and methodology. The results indicate that currently planned air quality legislation combined with rising energy demand will be insufficient in controlling future emissions growth in developing countries. In order to achieve significant reductions in pollutant emissions of the order of more than 50% from 2005 levels and reduce exposures to levels consistent with WHO standards, it will be necessary to increase the stringency of such legislations and combine them with policies on energy access and climate change. Combined policies also result in reductions in air pollution control costs as compared to those associated

  12. An energy security management model using quality function deployment and system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Juneseuk; Shin, Wan-Seon; Lee, Changyong

    2013-01-01

    An energy security management model using quality function deployment (QFD) and system dynamics (SD) is suggested for application in public policymaking in developing economies. Through QFD, experts are guided toward identifying key energy security components, including indicators and policies, and in making these components consistent, focused, and customized for a particular country. Using these components as inputs, we construct an intermediate complex system dynamics model with a minimal number of crucial interactions. Key policies are simulated and evaluated in terms of the improvement of key indicators. Even with little data, our approach provides a coherent, useful, and customized energy security management model to help policymakers more effectively manage national energy security. To demonstrate its advantages, the model is applied to the Korean gas sector as an example. - Highlights: ► We suggest an energy security management model for developing economies. ► We identify a consistent set of key components, indicators and policies by using QFD. ► A coherent and practical system dynamics model based on QFD's output is constructed. ► The model is applied to the Korean gas sector as an example

  13. Cities of tomorrow: low energy cities with a high quality of life for all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Gerard

    2010-11-01

    Just as hard as describing the city of today, describing the city of tomorrow represents a real challenge. Energy Cities is active at both local and European levels, therefore we will only address the European-type cities in our reflection. Central to the vision of Energy Cities is of course the (sustainable and livable) energy issue. Therefore, our starting point is the consideration of energy issue as an essential component of urban and regional development as well as an excellent scanner of how the city and its periphery/region are organised. In 2050, cities will not look that much different than those of the beginning of the century. However, a lot of invisible radical changes will have occurred. These changes are already underway in an increasing number of cities, especially some which are committed with the Covenant of Mayors. These are 'weak signals' that pave the way for tomorrow. This paper aims at understanding these logics and at showing up paths of improvement in the domains of energy supply, urban form, buildings, mobility, public space, economy, consumption, governance, local authorities, multilevel governance and Territorial cohesion, quality of Life, peace and security

  14. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Sampling Algorithm in a Sensor Network for Automated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tongxin; Xia, Min; Chen, Jiahong; Silva, Clarence de

    2017-11-05

    Power management is crucial in the monitoring of a remote environment, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested to sustain a monitoring system. However, without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and, as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. This paper develops and applies a novel adaptive sampling algorithm for power management in the automated monitoring of the quality of water in an extensive and remote aquatic environment. Based on the data collected on line using sensor nodes, a data-driven adaptive sampling algorithm (DDASA) is developed for improving the power efficiency while ensuring the accuracy of sampled data. The developed algorithm is evaluated using two distinct key parameters, which are dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery lifetime can be effectively prolonged while maintaining a required level of sampling accuracy. According to the simulation results, compared to a fixed sampling rate, approximately 30.66% of the battery energy can be saved for three months of continuous water quality monitoring. Using the same dataset to compare with a traditional adaptive sampling algorithm (ASA), while achieving around the same Normalized Mean Error (NME), DDASA is superior in saving 5.31% more battery energy.

  15. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  16. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR

  17. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Sampling Algorithm in a Sensor Network for Automated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxin Shu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power management is crucial in the monitoring of a remote environment, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested to sustain a monitoring system. However, without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and, as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. This paper develops and applies a novel adaptive sampling algorithm for power management in the automated monitoring of the quality of water in an extensive and remote aquatic environment. Based on the data collected on line using sensor nodes, a data-driven adaptive sampling algorithm (DDASA is developed for improving the power efficiency while ensuring the accuracy of sampled data. The developed algorithm is evaluated using two distinct key parameters, which are dissolved oxygen (DO and turbidity. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery lifetime can be effectively prolonged while maintaining a required level of sampling accuracy. According to the simulation results, compared to a fixed sampling rate, approximately 30.66% of the battery energy can be saved for three months of continuous water quality monitoring. Using the same dataset to compare with a traditional adaptive sampling algorithm (ASA, while achieving around the same Normalized Mean Error (NME, DDASA is superior in saving 5.31% more battery energy.

  18. New statistical potential for quality assessment of protein models and a survey of energy functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykunov Dmitry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoring functions, such as molecular mechanic forcefields and statistical potentials are fundamentally important tools in protein structure modeling and quality assessment. Results The performances of a number of publicly available scoring functions are compared with a statistical rigor, with an emphasis on knowledge-based potentials. We explored the effect on accuracy of alternative choices for representing interaction center types and other features of scoring functions, such as using information on solvent accessibility, on torsion angles, accounting for secondary structure preferences and side chain orientation. Partially based on the observations made, we present a novel residue based statistical potential, which employs a shuffled reference state definition and takes into account the mutual orientation of residue side chains. Atom- and residue-level statistical potentials and Linux executables to calculate the energy of a given protein proposed in this work can be downloaded from http://www.fiserlab.org/potentials. Conclusions Among the most influential terms we observed a critical role of a proper reference state definition and the benefits of including information about the microenvironment of interaction centers. Molecular mechanical potentials were also tested and found to be over-sensitive to small local imperfections in a structure, requiring unfeasible long energy relaxation before energy scores started to correlate with model quality.

  19. Dosimetry quality audit of high energy photon beams in greek radiotherapy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourdakis, Constantine J.; Boziari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dosimetry quality audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy centers is a useful tool in order to enhance the confidence for an accurate therapy and to explore and dissolve discrepancies in dose delivery. This is the first national comprehensive study that has been carried out in Greece. During 2002 - 2006 the Greek Atomic Energy Commission performed a dosimetry quality audit of high energy external photon beams in all (23) Greek radiotherapy centers, where 31 linacs and 13 Co-60 teletherapy units were assessed in terms of their mechanical performance characteristics and relative and absolute dosimetry. Materials and Methods: The quality audit in dosimetry of external photon beams took place by means of on-site visits, where certain parameters of the photon beams were measured, calculated and assessed according to a specific protocol and the IAEA TRS 398 dosimetry code of practice. In each radiotherapy unit (Linac or Co-60), certain functional parameters were measured and the results were compared to tolerance values and limits. Doses in water under reference and non reference conditions were measured and compared to the stated values. Also, the treatment planning systems (TPS) were evaluated with respect to irradiation time calculations. Results: The results of the mechanical tests, dosimetry measurements and TPS evaluation have been presented in this work and discussed in detail. This study showed that Co-60 units had worse performance mechanical characteristics than linacs. 28% of all irradiation units (23% of linacs and 42% of Co-60 units) exceeded the acceptance limit at least in one mechanical parameter. Dosimetry accuracy was much worse in Co60 units than in linacs. 61% of the Co60 units exhibited deviations outside ±3% and 31% outside ±5%. The relevant percentages for the linacs were 24% and 7% respectively. The results were grouped for each hospital and the sources of errors (functional and human) have been investigated and

  20. Dosimetry quality audit of high energy photon beams in greek radiotherapy centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, Constantine J; Boziari, A

    2008-04-01

    Dosimetry quality audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy centers is a useful tool in order to enhance the confidence for an accurate therapy and to explore and dissolve discrepancies in dose delivery. This is the first national comprehensive study that has been carried out in Greece. During 2002--2006 the Greek Atomic Energy Commission performed a dosimetry quality audit of high energy external photon beams in all (23) Greek radiotherapy centers, where 31 linacs and 13 Co-60 teletherapy units were assessed in terms of their mechanical performance characteristics and relative and absolute dosimetry. The quality audit in dosimetry of external photon beams took place by means of on-site visits, where certain parameters of the photon beams were measured, calculated and assessed according to a specific protocol and the IAEA TRS 398 dosimetry code of practice. In each radiotherapy unit (Linac or Co-60), certain functional parameters were measured and the results were compared to tolerance values and limits. Doses in water under reference and non reference conditions were measured and compared to the stated values. Also, the treatment planning systems (TPS) were evaluated with respect to irradiation time calculations. The results of the mechanical tests, dosimetry measurements and TPS evaluation have been presented in this work and discussed in detail. This study showed that Co-60 units had worse performance mechanical characteristics than linacs. 28% of all irradiation units (23% of linacs and 42% of Co-60 units) exceeded the acceptance limit at least in one mechanical parameter. Dosimetry accuracy was much worse in Co60 units than in linacs. 61% of the Co60 units exhibited deviations outside +/-3% and 31% outside +/-5%. The relevant percentages for the linacs were 24% and 7% respectively. The results were grouped for each hospital and the sources of errors (functional and human) have been investigated and discussed in details. This quality audit proved to be a

  1. Interrelationships between man, energy, and water quality: a new methodology for integrative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The STORET/MSP option was used to obtain county aggregated information on ambient water quality for sixty parameters during the period 1950 to 1978. Masks, extended EXTRACT specifications and bounds on allowable values limited inclusion of erroneous data. Remark codes were required to aggregate STORET parameters to obtain increased numbers of observations. Numerous statistical analyses led to the conclusions that medians were more useful than means, that trimming on number of observations was required to eliminate counties with extreme values, and that many parameters required logarithmic transformation to be useful in regional analyses. County aggregated data for nineteen water quality parameters were examined in terms of their ability to describe qualitative chemical characteristics of water. Anion--cation balances as well as expected relationships between conductivity and other parameters were correctly accounted for. Factor analysis indicated the existence of three principal components describing patterns between metal ions, non-metal ions, and alkalinity-bicarbonate, respectively. These factors were used in place of the original complete set of water quality parameters in a structural equation approach describing relationships between variables of mans activites. It was found that counties with high industrial electric consumption, farming and mineral shipments tended to have increased levels of most water quality parameters. It was also found that simpler path diagrams may be indicated to reduce the effects of redundancy in adequately describing energy--water relationships

  2. Quality assurance manual for the Department of Energy laboratory accreditation program for personnel dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The overall purpose of this document is to establish a uniform approach to quality assurance. This will ensure that uniform, high-quality personnel dosimetry practices are followed by the participating testing laboratories. The document presents guidelines for calibrating and maintaining measurement and test equipment (M and TE), calibrating radiation fields, and subsequently irradiating and handling personnel dosimeters in laboratories involved in the DOE dosimetry systems testing program. Radiation energies for which the test procedures apply are photons with approximately 15 keV to 2 MeV, beta particles above 0.3 MeV, neutrons with approximately 1 keV to 2 MeV. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  3. A status report on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry quality control in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Ro, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Sung Su; Kim, Kyoung Ah

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used technical instrument for evaluating bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in patients of all ages. In 2016, DEXA devices operating is 5617 in Korea. In this study we investigated the quality of management practices survey for DEXA equipment and we analyzed it. We got a survey response rate of 12.6%. Accurate bone densitometry test is used data for estimation a patient's risk of fracture. However, improper bone densitometry will increase the possibility of causing a false positive. Therefore. it is essential to use the proper aids accurate bone densitomenty to be performed, and the quality control of the device to reduce the error factor of the tester through the training to reduce error for the device and the attitude

  4. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohl Wagner, B.; Phillips, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h -1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO 2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h -1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  5. A status report on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry quality control in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Dept. of Radiogic Technology, Chungbuk Health and Science University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Su [Dept. of Healthcare Management, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Ah [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used technical instrument for evaluating bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in patients of all ages. In 2016, DEXA devices operating is 5617 in Korea. In this study we investigated the quality of management practices survey for DEXA equipment and we analyzed it. We got a survey response rate of 12.6%. Accurate bone densitometry test is used data for estimation a patient's risk of fracture. However, improper bone densitometry will increase the possibility of causing a false positive. Therefore. it is essential to use the proper aids accurate bone densitomenty to be performed, and the quality control of the device to reduce the error factor of the tester through the training to reduce error for the device and the attitude.

  6. Energy drinks: psychological effects and impact on well-being and quality of life-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.

  7. The Importance of Seedlings Quality in Timber and Bio-energy Production on marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Margarita; Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issues that the forest sector is facing is to achieve a balance between the demand for biomass &wood production and the need to preserve the sustainability and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The purposes of the new approaches are to ensure more efficient management of ecosystems and implement intensive forestry that will increase biomass production & timber yields. To achieve this, we need to determine the macroeconomic potential of the various options available, including the use of biotechnology and genetics. The success of the forests plantations capacity may be solved through forest certification, based on: a) Stabilization of the forests and soils structure. b) Hierarchy of biomass production in the forest's management process. c) Οrganization and implementation of effective plantation on marginal lands. d) Maintenance or increase of forest productivity by introducing new items as and when they are required. It is important to evaluate of the influence of factors such as the quality of soils of plantation areas, the utilization of the genetic resources and the management of forest operations with the environmental economic criteria such as net present value of benefits (NPV) and the corresponding flow annuities (EACF).The existing evaluations studies showed that the quality of the plantation areas has the most influence and through validated quality seed production can generate an increase in the NPV up to 73%. The importance of seedlings quality in timber and bio-energy production on marginal lands based on the literature it is estimated according to the heredity of the characteristics of the wood structure (except shrinkage). This clearly indicate that seedlings with the appropriate morphological characteristics can significantly improve the growth performance and help to support the development of biomass plantations oriented in tailor-made timber and bio-energy production.

  8. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

    2008-04-04

    effective removal of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, on average lowering the concentrations by 57 percent relative to the levels in the 10 SEER classrooms. The average IHPAC to 10 SEER formaldehyde ratio was about 67 percent, indicating only a 33 percent reduction of this compound in indoor air. The IHPAC thermal control system provided less variability in occupied classroom temperature than the 10 SEER thermostats. The average room temperatures in all seasons tended to be slightly lower in the IHPAC classrooms, often below the lower limit of the ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort band. State-wide and national energy modeling provided conservative estimates of potential energy savings by use of the IHPAC system that would provide payback a the range of time far lower than the lifetime of the equipment. Assuming electricity costs of $0.15/kWh, the perclassroom range of savings is from about $85 to $195 per year in California, and about $89 to $250 per year in the U.S., depending upon the city. These modelsdid not include the non-energy benefits to the classrooms including better air quality and acoustic conditions that could lead to improved health and learning in school. Market connection efforts that were part of the study give all indication that this has been a very successful project. The successes include the specification of the IHPAC equipment in the CHPS portable classroom standards, the release of a commercial product based on the standards that is now being installed in schools around the U.S., and the fact that a public utility company is currently considering the addition of the technology to its customer incentive program. These successes indicate that the IHPAC may reach its potential to improve ventilation and save energy in classrooms.

  9. Measurements of Energy Performance and Indoor Environmental Quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the first results from a large Danish project regarding measurements of energy performance and indoor environmental quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses. The project includes both qualitative and quantitative analyses. This paper describes the first results from the quantitative...... part. The house considered in this paper has an air change rate (ACR) of 0.34 h-1 and the results from the first few months of measurements show excellent results when relative humidity (RH) and CO2-levels are considered. When the temperatures are assessed problems with slight overheating are found...... used for heating domestic hot water is very similar to conventional houses....

  10. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2...

  11. Image quality optimization and evaluation of linearly mixed images in dual-source, dual-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lifeng; Primak, Andrew N.; Liu Xin; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    In dual-source dual-energy CT, the images reconstructed from the low- and high-energy scans (typically at 80 and 140 kV, respectively) can be mixed together to provide a single set of non-material-specific images for the purpose of routine diagnostic interpretation. Different from the material-specific information that may be obtained from the dual-energy scan data, the mixed images are created with the purpose of providing the interpreting physician a single set of images that have an appearance similar to that in single-energy images acquired at the same total radiation dose. In this work, the authors used a phantom study to evaluate the image quality of linearly mixed images in comparison to single-energy CT images, assuming the same total radiation dose and taking into account the effect of patient size and the dose partitioning between the low-and high-energy scans. The authors first developed a method to optimize the quality of the linearly mixed images such that the single-energy image quality was compared to the best-case image quality of the dual-energy mixed images. Compared to 80 kV single-energy images for the same radiation dose, the iodine CNR in dual-energy mixed images was worse for smaller phantom sizes. However, similar noise and similar or improved iodine CNR relative to 120 kV images could be achieved for dual-energy mixed images using the same total radiation dose over a wide range of patient sizes (up to 45 cm lateral thorax dimension). Thus, for adult CT practices, which primarily use 120 kV scanning, the use of dual-energy CT for the purpose of material-specific imaging can also produce a set of non-material-specific images for routine diagnostic interpretation that are of similar or improved quality relative to single-energy 120 kV scans.

  12. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard; Nural, Akchurin

    2013-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report on the project Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. The project was carried out by a consortium of US and Italian physicists, led by Dr. Richard Wigmans (Texas tech University). This consortium built several particle detectors and tested these at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The idea arose to use scintillating crystals as dual-readout calorimeters. Such crystals were of course already known to provide excellent energy resolution for the detection of particles developing electromagnetic (em) showers. The efforts to separate the signals from scintillating crystals into scintillation and Cerenkov components led to four different methods by which this could be accomplished. These methods are based on a) the directionality, b) spectral differences, c) the time structure, and d) the polarization of the signals

  13. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  14. Analysis of problems in the implementation of management systems of quality in the energy industry, oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhi, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe the problem in the development of systems of quality management based on ISO 9001:2008 to implement in energy companies involved in the extraction, distribution and processing of oil and gas.

  15. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  16. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  17. An energy impact assessment of indoor air quality acceptance for air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.; Hui, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of fresh air in ventilation systems for the air-conditioning consumes a considerable amount of energy and affects the indoor air quality (IAQ). The ventilation demand is primarily related to the occupant load. In this study, the ventilation demands due to occupant load variations and occupant acceptability were examined against certain IAQ objectives using the mass balance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations in an air-conditioned office. In particular, this study proposed a ventilation model for the consideration of the occupant load variations and occupant acceptability based on the regional survey of typical offices (422 samples) in Hong Kong. The model was applied to evaluate the relative energy performance of different IAQ objectives in ventilation systems for typical office buildings in Hong Kong. The results showed that the energy consumption of a ventilation system would be correlated with the occupant load and acceptability in the air-conditioned office. Indicative CO 2 levels of 800 ppmv, 1000 ppmv and 1200 ppmv corresponding to 83%, 97% and 99.7% survey samples were shown, corresponding to the thermal energy consumptions of 1500 MJ m -2 yr -1 , 960 MJ m -2 yr -1 and 670 MJ m -2 yr -1 , respectively. In regards to the monetary issue, an annual value of HK$ 762 million per year in electrical consumption could be saved in all office buildings in Hong Kong when the indoor target CO 2 concentration is increased from 1000 ppmv to 1200 ppmv. To achieve an excellent IAQ following the existing design standard, i.e. to decrease the CO 2 level from 1000 ppmv to 800 ppmv, 56% additional energy would be consumed, corresponding to an annual value of HK$ 1,419 million, even though the occupant acceptability is only improved from 81% to 86%. The development of the models in this study would be useful for the energy performance evaluation of ventilation systems in air-conditioned offices

  18. Effects of ultrasonic pretreatments on quality, energy consumption and sterilization of barley grass in freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-01-01

    Barley grass is a plant resource for rehabilitation therapy. Its processing requires retaining nutrition well for rehabilitation cure of consumers. To meet the aim as well as low energy consumption and microbiological safety of products, ultrasonic treatments (UT) were applied to bathing materials at different power levels (10, 30, 45, 60W/L) for 10mins. After treatments, the bathed barley grass (100g) was freeze-dried under vacuum -0.09MPa with fixed power of 2W/g. Parameters of color, microbial colony, energy consumption, glass transition temperature, moisture content, water activity, taste substances, contents of flavonoid and chlorophyll were determined after drying. In contrast with no treatment case, UT (45W/L) decreased drying time by 14% and decreased energy consumption by 19%; UT (60W/L) decreased total microbial colonies by 33%. Also, UT (30W/L) yielded contents of flavonoid (9.2/kg) and chlorophyll (10.5g/kg) of dried sample; UT power (10W/L) yielded the highest L ∗ (51.5) and the lowest a ∗ (-9.3) value. Simultaneously, UT leads to a higher glass transition temperature (Tg), lower water activity and produces less sourness and bitterness of dried products. Ultra-sonication is an alternative to improve quality, flavor and energy consumption of barley grass in freeze drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  20. Managing Quality Assurance in Higher Education: The Case of the University of Energy and Natural Resources, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anane, George Kwadwo; Addaney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses quality assurance in the University of Energy and Natural Resources in Ghana. The University is a public funded institution established by an act of parliament; Act 830, 2011. As a newly established public funded University, quality assurance plays a central role in satisfying the requirements of stakeholders on the supply and…

  1. The quality of school wellness policies and energy-balance behaviors of adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Yount, Byron W; Budd, Elizabeth L; Schwarz, Cynthia; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Green, Scoie; Elliott, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we 1) compared the quality of school wellness policies among schools participating in Moms for a Healthy Balance (BALANCE), a school- and home-based weight loss study conducted with postpartum adolescents in 27 states; and 2) assessed the relationship between policy quality with energy-balance behaviors and body mass index z scores of postpartum adolescents. As a part of BALANCE, we collected data on high-calorie food and beverage consumption, minutes spent walking, and height and weight for 647 participants. The School Wellness Policy Coding Tool was used to assess the strength and comprehensiveness of school district wellness policies from 251 schools attended by participating adolescent mothers. Schools averaged low scores for wellness policy comprehensiveness and strength. When compared with participants in schools with the lowest policy comprehensiveness scores, adolescent mothers in schools with the highest scores reported consuming significantly fewer daily calories from sweetened beverages while reporting higher consumption of water (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively). School wellness policy strength was associated with lower BMI z scores among adolescent mothers (P = .01). School wellness policies associated with BALANCE may be limited in their ability to promote a healthy school environment. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effect of the strength and comprehensiveness of policy language on energy balance in high-risk postpartum adolescents. Evidence from this work can provide additional guidance to federal or state government in mandating not only policy content, but also systematic evaluation.

  2. Performance of the mixed LED light quality on the growth and energy efficiency of Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ruixin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2018-06-01

    The effect of mixed light quality with red, blue, and green LED lamps on the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied, so as to lay the theoretical and technical basis for establishing a photo-bioreactor lighting system for application in space. Meanwhile, indexes, like morphology, growth rate, photosynthetic pigment compositions, energy efficiency, and main nutritional components, were measured respectively. The results showed that the blue light combined with red light could decrease the tightness of filament, and the effect of green light was opposite. The combination of blue light or green light with red light induced the filaments to get shorter in length. The 8R2B treatment could promote the growth of Arthrospira platensis significantly, and its dry weight reached 1.36 g L -1 , which was 25.93% higher than the control. What's more, 8R2B treatment had the highest contents of carbohydrate and lipid, while 8R2G was rich in protein. 8R0.5G1.5B had the highest efficiency of biomass production, which was 161.53 mg L -1  kW -1  h -1 . Therefore, the combination of red and blue light is more conducive to the growth of Arthrospira platensis, and a higher biomass production and energy utilization efficiency can be achieved simultaneously under the mixed light quality with the ratio of 8R0.5G1.5B.

  3. Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

  4. A quality assurance program for ancillary high technology devices on a dual-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Low, Daniel A.; Maag, Derek; Purdy, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Our facility has added high-technology ancillary devices to our dual-energy linear accelerator. After commissioning and acceptance testing of dual asymmetric jaws, dynamic wedge, portal imaging, and multileaf collimation (MLC), quality assurance programs were instituted. The programs were designed to be both periodic and patient specific when required. In addition, when dosimetric aspects were affected by these technologies, additional quality assurance checks were added. Positional accuracy checks (light and radiation) are done for both asymmetric jaws and MLC. Each patient MLC field is checked against the original simulation or digitally reconstructed radiographs. Off-axis factors and output checks are performed for asymmetric fields. Dynamic wedge transmission factors and profiles are checked periodically, and a patient diode check is performed for every new dynamic wedge portal. On-line imaging checks encompass safety checks along with periodic measurement of contrast and spatial resolution. The most important quality assurance activity is the annual review of proper operation and procedures for each device. Our programs have been successful in avoiding patient-related errors or device malfunctions. The programs are a team effort involving physicists, maintenance engineers, and therapists

  5. Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Talha; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Ji, Yun; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-12-01

    Here the first photometric study of road-lighting white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) integrated with semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is reported enabling higher luminance than conventional light sources, specifically in mesopic vision regimes essential to street lighting. Investigating over 100 million designs uncovers that quality road-lighting QD-WLEDs, with a color quality scale and color rendering index ≥85, enables 13-35% higher mesopic luminance than the sources commonly used in street lighting. Furthermore, these QD-WLEDs were shown to be electrically more efficient than conventional sources with power conversion efficiencies ≥16-29%. Considering this fact, an experimental proof-of-concept QD-WLED was demonstrated, which is the first account of QD based color conversion custom designed for street lighting applications. The obtained white LED achieved the targeted mesopic luminance levels in accordance with the road lighting standards of the USA and the UK. These results indicate that road-lighting QD-WLEDs are strongly promising for energy-saving quality road lighting.

  6. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota

  7. Indoor air quality in low-energy houses in the Netherlands: Does mechanical ventilation provide a healthy indoor environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, J.R.; Boxem, G.; Wit, de M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, B.W.; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness has led to new, energy-efficient building standards such as the German Passivhaus-standard. This study was designed to investigate the indoor air quality (IAQ) of four different Dutch low-energy houses built according to this standard. Air flow, indoor air

  8. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  9. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tony; Nielsen, Erik; Auberle, William; Solop, Frederic I.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: ► We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality

  10. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu [Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States); Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu [Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States); Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northern Arizona University, 2112 S Huffer Ln P.O. Box 15600, Flagstaff, AZ, 860011 (United States); Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu [Political Science Program, Department of Politics and International Affairs, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15036, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review

  11. Market turkey performance, air quality, and energy consumption affected by partial slotted flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, S L; Janni, K A; Halvorson, D A; Clanton, C J

    1997-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 600 male Large White turkeys to examine performance and health when reared from 5 to 18 wk of age on litter (L) partially slotted flooring (SF), and under two ventilation rates-control and reduced ventilation (80% control). In both experiments, body weights were improved significantly (P Ammonia levels were reduced with SF, whereas dust levels were increased. Ventilation rate did not affect turkey performance. Ammonia and carbon dioxide levels were increased with reduced ventilation in Experiment 1. Dust levels were not affected by ventilation rate. Supplemental energy use was decreased in the SF system or by reducing the ventilation rate. In comparison to the control ventilation/litter treatment, the greatest decrease in energy use was observed with SF at 80% ventilation rates. Results indicate that the use of SF in a cold climate can improve body weight and substantially reduce energy use when excessive litter moisture is a problem. However, a greater incidence of blisters will limit application of SF due to lowered carcass quality and value.

  12. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: Levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, M; Wyart, G; Le Ponner, E; Ramalho, O; Ribéron, J; Mandin, C

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), radon, temperature, and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during 1 week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household, and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, that is, alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration, and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Provisioning Strategies for Transparent Optical Networks Considering Transmission Quality, Security, and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirattigalachote, Amornrat

    2012-07-01

    The continuous growth of traffic demand driven by the brisk increase in number of Internet users and emerging online services creates new challenges for communication networks. The latest advances in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology make it possible to build Transparent Optical Networks (TONs) which are expected to be able to satisfy this rapidly growing capacity demand. The work in this thesis addresses three important aspects. In particular, this thesis focuses on routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) strategies specifically devised to target: (i) the lightpath transmission quality, (ii) the network security (i.e., in terms of vulnerability to physical-layer attacks), and (iii) the reduction of the network energy consumption. Our contributions are summarized below. A number of Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR) algorithms have been proposed in the literature to consider physical-layer impairments during the connection provisioning phase. Their objective is to prevent the selection of optical connections (referred to as lightpaths) with poor signal quality. These ICBR approaches always assign each connection request the least impaired lightpath and support only a single threshold of transmission quality, used for all connection requests. However, next generation networks are expected to support a variety of services with disparate requirements for transmission quality. To address this issue, in this thesis we propose an ICBR algorithm supporting differentiation of services at the Bit Error Rate (BER) level, referred to as ICBR-Diff. Our approach takes into account the effect of physical-layer impairments during the connection provisioning phase where various BER thresholds are considered for accepting/blocking connection requests, depending on the signal quality requirements of the connection requests. We tested the proposed ICBR-Diff approach in different network scenarios, including also a fiber heterogeneity. It is shown that it can

  14. Energy Balance and Diet Quality During the US Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command Individual Training Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepowitz, John J; Armstrong, Nicholes J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    This study characterized the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), energy intake (EI), body weight, and diet quality (using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 [HEI]) of 20 male US Marines participating in the 9-month US Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command Individual Training Course (ITC). TDEE was highest (ρ energy balance. Education regarding the importance of maintaining healthy eating patterns while in garrison, consuming more carbohydrate and protein, and better matching EI with TDEE during strenuous training exercises may be warranted. 2017.

  15. Hearing of the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES). The ombudsman for solar heating systems as a quality assurance element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger-Mariani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Following an invitation issued by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES),14 solar energy specialists hold a hearing on quality assurance for solar heating systems. Anticipating the introduction of taxes in favour of renewable energy sources and the expected rapid solar market development, the delegates discussed about the creation of a neutral ombudsman office for unsatisfied clients of the solar industry. Clearly, the solar heating system market can only expand if system quality is in accordance with the clients' expectations. The needed know-how may be found since several years in well presented reference books. However, at the moment, not all industry people follow these instructions yet [de

  16. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: galhardo@ufpa.br, E-mail: jtpinho@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  17. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in the ZEBRAlliance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. In this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in research houses located in Oak Ridge, TN, that were less than 2 years old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built, unoccupied, and unfurnished. The team identified air pollutants of concern in the test homes that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern from initial air sampling surveys. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74°F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused minimal to modest increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  18. Proposed quality control protocol of a dual energy bone densitometer from Spanish protocol for quality control of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, F.; Benito, M. A.; Collado, P.; Saez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose additional testing to complete the tests by the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control of Diagnostic Radiology, taking into account the particular characteristics of these units, and including these tests in the estimation of patient dose dose assessment area. There is also the possibility to independently verify the quality control tests that are done automatically.

  19. Search paths for the actions of energy retrofit and new quality of housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Milardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available HOPUS (Housing Praxis for Urban Sustainability is a research project conducted by the department DASTEC Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, with various community and local partners. The project aimed to implement and promote the use of design codes for building sustainable development in European cities and create a local support group for testing the codes. The objective to start this process was to establish a synergy between research centers, governments and enterprises, in order to understand and improve the relationships built with the new quality framework for social, urban, housing and energy. Objects of the experiments were some existing public residential buildings that are located in Reggio Calabria and built in different historical periods.

  20. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  1. Dual fan, dual-duct system meets air quality, energy-efficiency needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, M. [Pageau Morel and Associates, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    Canada`s Space Centre in Saint-Hubert Quebec is a 300,000 ft{sup 2} (27,871 m{sup 2}) complex that houses the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Astronaut Training Centre, mission ground control installations, research facilities, offices and the required support facilities. A comfortable, pleasant research environment was a primary concern for the Space Centre, given its elite clientele. The objectives were high indoor-air quality, design flexibility, energy efficiency and low capital costs. Dual duct systems which are the heart of the mechanical concept allowed the designers to meet these objectives. The Space Centre`s offices, laboratories and conference center are all served by dual-duct systems. All operate using an air economizer cycle. Gas boilers provide them with hot water for heating and steam for humidification while centrifugal chillers provide chilled water for cooling. This article describes the design.

  2. Absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for cylindrical chambers in high energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, J P; Ross, C K; Shortt, K R; Rogers, D W

    2000-12-01

    Recent working groups of the AAPM [Almond et al., Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999)] and the IAEA (Andreo et al., Draft V.7 of "An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water," IAEA, 2000) have described guidelines to base reference dosimetry of high energy photon beams on absorbed dose to water standards. In these protocols use is made of the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, kQ which scales an absorbed-dose calibration factor at the reference quality 60Co to a quality Q, and which is calculated based on state-of-the-art ion chamber theory and data. In this paper we present the measurement and analysis of beam quality conversion factors kQ for cylindrical chambers in high-energy photon beams. At least three chambers of six different types were calibrated against the Canadian primary standard for absorbed dose based on a sealed water calorimeter at 60Co [TPR10(20)=0.572, %dd(10)x=58.4], 10 MV [TPR10(20)=0.682, %dd(10)x=69.6), 20 MV (TPR10(20)=0.758, %dd(10)x= 80.5] and 30 MV [TPR10(20) = 0.794, %dd(10)x= 88.4]. The uncertainty on the calorimetric determination of kQ for a single chamber is typically 0.36% and the overall 1sigma uncertainty on a set of chambers of the same type is typically 0.45%. The maximum deviation between a measured kQ and the TG-51 protocol value is 0.8%. The overall rms deviation between measurement and the TG-51 values, based on 20 chambers at the three energies, is 0.41%. When the effect of a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve is taken into account in the calculations, the maximum deviation is 1.1% and the overall rms deviation between measurement and calculation 0.48%. When the beam is specified using TPR10(20), and measurements are compared with kQ values calculated using the version of TG-21 with corrected formalism and data, differences are up to 1.6% when no sleeve corrections are taken into account. For the NE2571 and the NE2611A chamber types, for which the most literature data are

  3. Influences of water quality and climate on the water-energy nexus: A spatial comparison of two water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Shannon; Wang, Haiying; Gardner, Kevin H; Mo, Weiwei

    2018-07-15

    As drinking water supply systems plan for sustainable management practices, impacts from future water quality and climate changes are a major concern. This study aims to understand the intraannual changes of energy consumption for water treatment, investigate the relative importance of water quality and climate indicators on energy consumption for water treatment, and predict the effects of climate change on the embodied energy of treated, potable water at two municipal drinking water systems located in the northeast and southeast US. To achieve this goal, a life cycle assessment was first performed to quantify the monthly energy consumption in the two drinking water systems. Regression and relative importance analyses were then performed between climate indicators, raw water quality indicators, and chemical and energy usages in the treatment processes to determine their correlations. These relationships were then used to project changes in embodied energy associated with the plants' processes, and the results were compared between the two regions. The projections of the southeastern US water plant were for an increase in energy demand resulted from an increase of treatment chemical usages. The northeastern US plant was projected to decrease its energy demand due to a reduced demand for heating the plant's infrastructure. The findings indicate that geographic location and treatment process may determine the way climate change affects drinking water systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  5. Moisture management, energy density and fuel quality in forest fuel supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvanainen, T. [Joensuu Science Park Ltd., Joensuu (Finland); Sikanen, L. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Roser, D. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided tools for reducing the moisture content (MC) in wood chips, as moisture is one of the main quality factors for woody biomass, along with energy density and cleanness. The amount of water in solid wood fuels has a considerable effect on transportation efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions. Under favourable storage conditions, MC can be decreased from typical fresh cut 50-55 per cent to 20-30 per cent in relatively short periods of storing by natural or artificial drying. Minor modifications can boost natural drying in fuel wood supply chains. This natural drying effect can have significant effects on the total energy efficiency and emissions of supply chains. The effect of improved packing density on transportation phase was discussed along with the need to control chip purity and size distribution. A procedure developed at the University of Joensuu and in the Finnish Forest Research Institute was used to estimate transportation costs and emissions according to transportation fleet and MC of the transported fuel. tabs., figs.

  6. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: from the macro- to the microscopic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    As a discussant for the 2013 IBRC Symposium on Eating Patterns, Diet Quality and Energy Balance at Purdue University, I describe here several reflections I had on the papers as a whole. I initially focus on the keynote address by Dr. Leonard. His address suggested that the evolutionary development of Homo sapiens during the past 2 million years may have "prepared" humans to seek and consume food beyond their immediate energy needs, a predisposition that may have rendered humans particularly vulnerable to modern food environments. Additional observations include: 1) the importance of differentiating between a given appetitive variable (e.g., snacking) as a potential cause versus consequence of an outcome of interest (e.g., obesity), 2) the need to move beyond research on the consummatory phase of appetite to the anticipatory phase of appetite, and 3) the opportunity that exists to take the many obesogenic nutritional influences documented in the symposium and "turn them on their heads" to facilitate, rather than undermine, long-term weight control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing train-speed trajectory with energy efficiency and service quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiannan; Yang, Kai; Yang, Lixing; Gao, Yuan; Li, Shukai

    2018-05-01

    With the development of automatic train operations, optimal trajectory design is significant to the performance of train operations in railway transportation systems. Considering energy efficiency and service quality, this article formulates a bi-objective train-speed trajectory optimization model to minimize simultaneously the energy consumption and travel time in an inter-station section. This article is distinct from previous studies in that more sophisticated train driving strategies characterized by the acceleration/deceleration gear, the cruising speed, and the speed-shift site are specifically considered. For obtaining an optimal train-speed trajectory which has equal satisfactory degree on both objectives, a fuzzy linear programming approach is applied to reformulate the objectives. In addition, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve the proposed train-speed trajectory optimization problem. Finally, a series of numerical experiments based on a real-world instance of Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway are implemented to illustrate the practicability of the proposed model as well as the effectiveness of the solution methodology.

  8. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  9. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  10. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O.; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein

    2014-01-01

    goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d......, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg0.75 was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP...

  11. Errors in estimating neutron quality factor using lineal energy distributions measured in tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Stinchcomb, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron dose equivalent is obtained from quality factors which are defined in terms of LET. It is possible to estimate the dose averaged quality factor, antiQ, directly from distributions in lineal energy, y, that are measured in tissue-equivalent proportional counters. This eliminates a mathematical transformation of the absorbed dose from D(y) to D(L). We evaluate the inherent error in computing Q from D(y) rather than D(L) for neutron spectra below 4 MeV. The effects of neutron energy and simulated tissue diameters within a gas cavity are examined in detail. (author)

  12. Feelings of energy are associated with physical activity and sleep quality, but not adiposity, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Binkowski, Jessica A; Rogers, Laura Q; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-03-01

    Feelings of fatigue and low energy are widespread among middle-aged women and have been shown to negatively affect quality of life. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among adiposity, physical activity, and feelings of fatigue and energy in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (N = 74; mean [SD] age, 58.9 [3.8] y) were assessed for adiposity (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), steps per day, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (via an accelerometer), prior week intensity of psychological vigor (via the Profile of Mood States-Short Form), and prior month frequency of energy feelings (via the vitality scale of the 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey--Short Form). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale. Adiposity was negatively related to steps per day (r = -0.55, P quality was also a significant predictor of vitality (both P < 0.05). Engaging in recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day is associated with higher monthly frequency of energy feelings, regardless of adiposity status, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

  13. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  14. Air quality impacts of distributed energy resources implemented in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Dabdub, Donald; Brouwer, Jacob; Knipping, Eladio; Kumar, Naresh; Darrow, Ken; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    Emissions from the potential installation of distributed energy resources (DER) in the place of current utility-scale power generators have been introduced into an emissions inventory of the northeastern United States. A methodology for predicting future market penetration of DER that considers economics and emission factors was used to estimate the most likely implementation of DER. The methodology results in spatially and temporally resolved emission profiles of criteria pollutants that are subsequently introduced into a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model of the region. The DER technology determined by the methodology includes 62% reciprocating engines, 34% gas turbines, and 4% fuel cells and other emerging technologies. The introduction of DER leads to retirement of 2625 MW of existing power plants for which emissions are removed from the inventory. The air quality model predicts maximum differences in air pollutant concentrations that are located downwind from the central power plants that were removed from the domain. Maximum decreases in hourly peak ozone concentrations due to DER use are 10 ppb and are located over the state of New Jersey. Maximum decreases in 24-hr average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations reach 3 microg/m3 and are located off the coast of New Jersey and New York. The main contribution to decreased PM2.5 is the reduction of sulfate levels due to significant reductions in direct emissions of sulfur oxides (SO(x)) from the DER compared with the central power plants removed. The scenario presented here represents an accelerated DER penetration case with aggressive emission reductions due to removal of highly emitting power plants. Such scenario provides an upper bound for air quality benefits of DER implementation scenarios.

  15. Energies, understand for choose: environment, quality of life, sustainable development; Energies, comprendre pour choisir: environnement, qualite de vie, developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is devoted to the public information on the energies sources, use and consumption. It aims to give a knowledge in the domain, in order to help the people to control its energy consumption in the framework of the sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  16. Using research metrics to evaluate the International Atomic Energy Agency guidelines on quality assurance for R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Guidelines on Quality Assurance for R&D is to provide guidance for developing quality assurance (QA) programs for R&D work on items, services, and processes important to safety, and to support the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The standard approach to writing papers describing new quality guidelines documents is to present a descriptive overview of the contents of the document. I will depart from this approach. Instead, I will first discuss a conceptual framework of metrics for evaluating and improving basic and applied experimental science as well as the associated role that quality management should play in understanding and implementing these metrics. I will conclude by evaluating how well the IAEA document addresses the metrics from this conceptual framework and the broader principles of quality management.

  17. Energy drink consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality among college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Jahrami, Haitham; Al-Hilali, Marwa M; Chehyber, Noor J; Ali, Sara O; Shahda, Sara D; Obaid, Reyad S

    2017-07-01

    Intake of caffeinated energy drinks has significantly increased, specifically among young adults and adolescents. College students are prone to developing unhealthy eating habits and dependence on stimulants, which puts them at a greater risk of sleep problems. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of caffeinated energy drink consumption and its association with sleep quality in college students. A sample of 919 randomly selected adults (237 males and 682 females) from various colleges at the University of Sharjah/United Arab Emirates participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using an online validated questionnaire. The current study revealed that 376 students (41%) were consuming energy drinks on a regular basis. Approximately half of the students had normal sleep patterns; the other half had sleep problems (anxiety and intermittent sleep). Results of the present study revealed a significant (r = -0.10, P consumption of energy drinks and sleep quality and patterns. Moderate consumption of energy drinks was reported among college students. Consumption of energy drinks was significantly associated with changes in sleep quality and patterns of students. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  18. Quality Assessment of Roof Planes Extracted from Height Data for Solar Energy Systems by the EAGLE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schuffert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the upwards trend in energy costs over time, many countries—especially in Europe—have begun to modify their energy policies aiming to increase that percentage obtained from renewable energies. The EAGLE (FP7 program, European Commission has developed a web-based platform to promote renewable energy systems (RES in the public and private sectors, and to deliver a comprehensive information source for all interested users. In this paper, a comprehensive quality assessment of extracted roof planes suitable for solar energy installations (photovoltaic, solar thermal from height data derived automatically from both LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and aerial images will be presented. A shadow analysis is performed regarding the daily path of the sun including the shading effects of nearby objects (chimneys, dormers, vegetation, buildings, topography, etc.. A quality assessment was carried out for both LiDAR and aerial images of the same test sites in UK and Germany concerning building outline accuracy, extraction rate of roof planes and the accuracy of their geometric parameters (inclination and aspect angle, size. The benefit is an optimized system to extract roof planes for RES with a high level of detail, accuracy and flexibility (concerning different commonly available data sources including an estimation of quality of the results which is important for individual house owners as well as for regional applications by governments or solar energy companies to judge their usefulness.

  19. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  20. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. ► Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. ► Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. ► Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. ► Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a “very good quality” for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  1. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  2. A whole process quality control system for energy measuring instruments inspection based on IOT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiahan; Li, Xiran; Liu, Zhenbo; Li, Dewei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Lu; Wu, Jun; Xu, Tingting; Cui, He

    2017-10-01

    Electric energy measurement as a basic work, an accurate measurements play a vital role for the economic interests of both parties of power supply, the standardized management of the measurement laboratory at all levels is a direct factor that directly affects the fairness of measurement. Currently, the management of metering laboratories generally uses one-dimensional bar code as the recognition object, advances the testing process by manual management, most of the test data requires human input to generate reports. There are many problems and potential risks in this process: Data cannot be saved completely, cannot trace the status of inspection, the inspection process isn't completely controllable and so on. For the provincial metrology center's actual requirements of the whole process management for the performance test of the power measuring appliances, using of large-capacity RF tags as a process management information media, we developed a set of general measurement experiment management system, formulated a standardized full performance test process, improved the raw data recording mode of experimental process, developed a storehouse automatic inventory device, established a strict test sample transfer and storage system, ensured that all the raw data of the inspection can be traced back, achieved full life-cycle control of the sample, significantly improved the quality control level and the effectiveness of inspection work.

  3. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  6. Microwave wood strand drying: energy consumption, VOC emission and drying quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Du, G.; Zhang, Y. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop microwave drying technology for wood strand drying for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing. The advantages of microwave drying included a reduction in the drying time of wood strands and a reduction in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through a decrease in the thermal degradation of the wood material. Temperature and moisture content changes under different microwave drying conditions were investigated. The effects of microwave drying on VOC emissions were evaluated and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Microwave power input and the mass of drying materials in the microwave oven were found to have a dominant effect on drying quality. Results indicated that an increase in microwave power input and a decrease in sample weights resulted in high drying temperatures, short drying times and a high drying rate. The effect of microwave drying on the strand surfaces was also investigated. Different strand geometries and initial moisture content resulted in varying warm-up curves, but did not influence final moisture content. VOC emissions were quantified by comparing alpha-pinene concentrations. The microwave drying resulted in lower VOC emissions compared with conventional drying methods. It was concluded that the microwave drying technique provided faster strand drying and reduced energy consumption by up to 50 per cent. In addition, the surface wettability of wood strands dried with microwaves was better than with an industrial rotary drum drier. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  8. Between quality and energy efficiency. Water management in the field of tension; Zwischen Qualitaet und Energieeffizienz. Wasserwirtschaft im Spannungsfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlowski, Ludwig

    2009-07-01

    The political debate with respect to the climate change, high energy prices and good reimbursement for electric power from renewable energies causes a transfer of a part of the district water management options of action from the topic water to the topic energy. A development of quality with water is not possible without additional emissions of CO{sub 2}. New sanitary systems enable a feedback of valuable materials into the material cycle. On the level of nutrients, the emission of CO{sub 2} from the production of mineral fertilizer can be avoided, if the nutrients from the sewage management are used purposefully.

  9. Preliminary study on the potential of improving pulp quality and energy efficiency in a South African TMP mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this work was to evaluate an opportunity for product quality and refining energy efficiency improvement through assessing the current mill practices in South African TMP mills. The fractionation trials were conducted at a CSIR...

  10. An active defrost scheme with a balanced energy consumption and food quality loss in supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Bjarne Dindler

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces food quality as a new parameter, together with energy, to determine an optimal cooling time between defrost cycles. A new defrost-on-demand scheme is proposed. It uses a feedback loop consisting of on-line model updating and estimation as well as a model based optimization. ...

  11. Quality of energy consultancy services - Requirements, criteria for evaluation, and a case report; Energieberatungsqualitaet - Anforderungen, Messung und ein Fallbeispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausser, K.

    1999-07-01

    The article initially pictures an optimized model of energy consultancy and continues with explaining an instrument available for quality assessment of services in general, (SERVQUAL), presenting approaches for modifying this tool so as to make it applicable to evaluating the quality of energy consultancy activities. Finally, the capabilities of the modified tool are discussed referring to a case study in an electric utility, the Neckarwerke Stuttgart. (orig./CB) [German] Energieberatung durch Energieversorgungsunternehmen wird in Deutschland fast flaechendeckend angeboten. Im Beitrag wird zuerst aufgezeigt, welche Anforderungen eine optimale Energieberatung erfuellen muss. Danach wird ein Instrument vorgestellt, das die Qualitaet von Dienstleistungen im allgemeinen misst und im Rahmen der o.g. Arbeit so weiterentwickelt wurde, dass es von nun an auch als Instrument zur Messung der Qualitaet von Energieberatung im Besonderen dienen kann: SERVQUAL (von SERVice QUALity). Zuletzt werden die Ergebnisse praesentiert, die in der o.g. Untersuchung unter Anwendung von SERVQUAL bei den Neckarwerken Stuttgart erzielt wurden. (orig./RHM)

  12. The role of the U.S. Department of Energy in indoor air quality and building ventilation policy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Program; Talbott, J.M. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Building Technologies; Moses, D.O. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Analysis

    1993-12-31

    Building ventilation consumes about 5.8 exajoules of energy each year in the U.S. The annual cost of this-energy, used for commercial building fans (1.6 exajoules/yr) and the heating and cooling of outside air (4.2 exajoules/yr), is about $US 33 billion per year. Energy conservation measures that reduce heating and cooling season ventilation rates 15 to 35 % in commercial and residential buildings can result in a national savings of about 0.6 to 15 exajoules (doll US 3-8 billion) per year assuming no reduction of commercial building fan energy use. The most significant adverse environmental impact of reduced ventilation and infiltration is the potential degradation of the building`s indoor air quality. Potential benefits to the U.S from the implementation of sound indoor air quality and building ventilation reduction policies include reduced building-sector energy consumption; reduced indoor, outdoor, and global pollution; reduced product costs; reduced worker absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased worker well-being and absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased productivity; and increased product quality and competitiveness. (author)

  13. Air Quality Co-benefits of Energy Policy in China: Evidence from Iron & Steel and Cement Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M.; Weng, Y.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has calculated large air quality co-benefits from policies that reduce CO2 emissions and increase energy efficiency. These (often prospective) studies rely on assumptions about how air pollutant emissions respond to energy use changes. Using a unique firm-level data set from China, we examine how a real-world energy efficiency policy affected SO2 emissions, estimate its actual effects on atmospheric PM2.5, and compare to ex ante theoretical estimates. During the 11th Five-year plan (2006-2010), the Chinese government implemented policies directing large energy-consuming firms to reduce their energy consumption per unit of economic output. The Top 1000 Enterprises Program (T1000P) set binding energy intensity targets for China's 1000 highest energy-consuming firms. This program is widely considered a policy success, as 92% of firms met their energy intensity target. Focusing on the cement and iron and steel industry, we examine how T1000P (and related provincial policies) affected firms' SO2 emissions and coal consumption from 2005 to 2008. By comparing T1000P firms with similar firms not subject to the policy, we find that T1000P had a very limited incremental effect on energy use or on air quality co-benefits. Compared to firms not subject to the policy, T1000P firms had 14.7% (cement) and 24.0% (iron & steel) lower reductions in SO2 emission per unit energy use. We also observe large, heterogeneous changes in emission factors (defined as SO2 emissions per unit of coal consumption) among all firms during this period. In comparison to co-benefits estimates that assume constant emission factors, SO2 emissions from T1000P firms in the post-policy period are 23.2% (iron and steel) and 40.2% (cement) lower, but spatially heterogeneous, with some regions experiencing increases. Using the GEOS-Chem model, we estimate the air quality co-benefits of the T1000P policy with realized SO2 emissions changes and compare them with two theoretical estimations

  14. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy and environmental quality of buildings and open space. Public administration regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Residential sector is responsible of a third of total energy consumption in Italy and 30-40% of CO 2 emission. An energy efficient buildings reduce cost and save energy and emission. The energy recovery is possible also with bioclimatic architecture that represents a contribution at the economic and environmental balance [it

  16. Analysis of Norwegian bio energy statistics. Quality improvement proposals; Analyse av norsk bioenergistatistikk. Forslag til kvalitetsheving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the current model and presentation form of bio energy statistics. It appears proposed revision and enhancement of both collection and data representation. In the context of market development both in general for energy and particularly for bio energy and government targets, a good bio energy statistics form the basis to follow up the objectives and means.(eb)

  17. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy.

  18. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  19. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students' lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health.

  20. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan [Berkeley Lab MS 90R4000 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The first major paradigm shift in electricity generation, delivery, and control is emerging in the developed world, notably Europe, North America, and Japan. This shift will move electricity supply away from the highly centralised universal service quality model with which we are familiar today towards a more dispersed system with heterogeneous qualities of service. One element of dispersed control is the clustering of sources and sinks into semi-autonomous {mu}grids (microgrids). Research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) of {mu}grids are advancing rapidly on at least three continents, and significant demonstrations are currently in progress. This paradigm shift will result in more electricity generation close to end-uses, often involving combined heat and power application for building heating and cooling, increased local integration of renewables, and the possible provision of heterogeneous qualities of electrical service to match the requirements of various end-uses. In Europe, microgrid RD3 is entering its third major round under the 7th European Commission Framework Programme; in the U.S., one specific microgrid concept is undergoing rigorous laboratory testing, and in Japan, where the most activity exists, four major publicly sponsored and two privately sponsored demonstrations are in progress. This evolution poses new challenges to the way buildings are designed, built, and operated. Traditional building energy supply systems will become much more complex in at least three ways: 1. one cannot simply assume gas arrives at the gas meter, electricity at its meter, and the two systems are virtually independent of one another; rather, energy conversion, heat recovery and use, and renewable energy harvesting may all be taking place simultaneously within the building energy system; 2. the structure of energy flows in the building must accommodate multiple energy processes in a manner that permits high overall efficiency; and 3. multiple qualities

  1. Compromises Between Quality of Service Metrics and Energy Consumption of Hierarchical and Flat Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensors Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbari BEN YAGOUTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is wireless network composed of spatially distributed and tiny autonomous nodes, which cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Among the concerns of these networks is prolonging the lifetime by saving nodes energy. There are several protocols specially designed for WSNs based on energy conservation. However, many WSNs applications require QoS (Quality of Service criteria, such as latency, reliability and throughput. In this paper, we will compare three routing protocols for wireless sensors network LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, AODV (Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector and LABILE (Link Quality-Based Lexical Routing using Castalia simulator in terms of energy consumption, throughput, reliability and latency time of packets received by sink under different conditions to determinate the best configurations that offers the most suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics for each routing protocols. The results show that, the best configurations that offer the suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics is a large number of deployed nodes with low packet rate for LEACH (300 nodes and 1 packet/s, a medium number of deployed nodes with low packet rate For AODV (100 nodes and 1 packet/s and a very low nodes density with low packet rate for LABILE (50 nodes and 1 packet/s.

  2. A study of electrical power network of renewable energies and water desalination research center using power quality phenomena and indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segayer, Ali Mehemmed

    2008-08-01

    Renewable energies and water distillation research center (REWDRC) is a very strategic research facility and contains many important and critical industrial and electrical loads that must to be operated as a group to fulfill the requirements and the needs of the center in the operation of the main research facility of the center which a 10 MW reactor. Faults on the electrical or the industrial system can occur on many ways such as a malfunction in the questioned system, power quality related problem, or a failure of any of the loads (such as central ventilation or water circulation system or one of the substations) have a great diverse effect on the operation of the main research facility (reactor). In this research common problems due to power quality phenomena were studied, assessed through a assigning some power quality indices to the electrical network of the center so that the operational condition of the REWDRC electrical and industrial network could be evaluated. power quality indices (PQI) were assigned based on results of real time measurements at the points of common coupling of the network (PCC) and the initial power quality survey report. indices analysis was done using three methods which were the normalization method, method of comparing to the limit value and analysis of measurement data time function profile. As a result of this research a recommendation for safe operation against power quality disturbances was pointed out through a continuous monitoring of assigned power quality indices. (Author)

  3. An integrated bi-level optimization model for air quality management of Beijing's energy system under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S W; Li, Y P; Nie, S

    2018-05-15

    In this study, an interval chance-constrained bi-level programming (ICBP) method is developed for air quality management of municipal energy system under uncertainty. ICBP can deal with uncertainties presented as interval values and probability distributions as well as examine the risk of violating constraints. Besides, a leader-follower decision strategy is incorporated into the optimization process where two decision makers with different goals and preferences are involved. To solve the proposed model, a bi-level interactive algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making processes. Then, an ICBP based energy and environmental systems (ICBP-EES) model is formulated for Beijing, in which air quality index (AQI) is used for evaluating the integrated air quality of multiple pollutants. Result analysis can help different stakeholders adjust their tolerances to achieve the overall satisfaction of EES planning for the study city. Results reveal that natural gas is the main source for electricity-generation and heating that could lead to a potentially increment of imported energy for Beijing in future. Results also disclose that PM 10 is the major contributor to AQI. These findings can help decision makers to identify desired alternatives for EES planning and provide useful information for regional air quality management under uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence of causality between the quantity and quality of energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warr, B.S. [INSEAD Social Innovation Centre, INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, Fontainebleau 77305 (France); Ayres, R.U. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to re-examine the energy-GDP relationship for the US for the period 1946-2000 by redefining energy in terms of exergy (the amount of energy available for useful work) and the amount of useful work provided from energy inputs. This enables us to examine whether output growth depends on either the quantity of energy supplied and/or the efficiency of energy use. Two multivariate models were estimated involving GDP, capital, labour and the two measures of energy. We find that unidirectional causality runs from either energy measure to GDP. We attribute the causation to both short- and long-run effects in the case of exergy, but only long-run effects in the case of useful work. We find no evidence of causality running from GDP to either energy measure. We infer that output growth does not drive increased energy consumption, and to sustain long-term growth it is necessary to either increase energy supplies or increase the efficiency of energy usage. Faced with energy security concerns and the negative externalities of fossil fuel use the latter option is preferred. (author)

  5. Octennial History of the Development and Quality of High-Efficiency Filters for the US Atomic Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1968-12-15

    Two facilities are operated for the US atomic energy commission in its program to ensure the uniform quality of commercially manufactured high-efficiency particulate filters. the filter-testing program was started in january 1960 after it was realized that the commercial fire-resistant product incorporated deficiencies of manufacture. the record of testing for quality assurance by the two facilities and an analysis of factors governing the quality of filters are presented. the analysis is complemented with a description of efforts, made in the course of the filter testing, to improve the design of the filter for efficiency and reliability. the fire-resistant (hepa) filter of 1959 was inadequate. the inadequacy of the filter, now judged by reflection, was brought about by the intensive accelerated efforts to replace and preclude, wherever possible in the US atomic energy program, use of filters made of combustible materials. this desire for fire resistance of filters has proliferated widely among other members of the international atomic energy family. the intensive AEC effort caused US industry to produce filters of fire-resistant design but without the opportunity for development of manufacturing technology adequate for ensuring reliability of the filter. the state of the fire-resistant filter today is in sharp contrast to the 1959 filter. the testing program, coupled with a program for continuing improvement of the filter, has resulted in the effective removal of radioactive aerosols at atomic energy installations on a consistent and dependable basis. (author)

  6. The impact on air quality of energy saving measures in the major cities signatories of the Covenant of Mayors initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Kona, Albana; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Pernigotti, Denise; Pisoni, Enrico

    2018-06-08

    This study is a first attempt to evaluate how the major efforts made by several European cities in the frame of the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative can impact the air pollution levels in the participating cities. CoM is by no mean one of the major cities initiatives aimed at mitigating climate change, supporting local authorities in the implementation of their climate action plans. Energy savings measures reported in the CoM cities' action plans have been analysed from the air quality perspective in order to find quantitative relations in the way local authorities deal with mitigation and how these practices are expected to have consequences on the air quality at urban level and finally positively impacting the citizens' health. In the paper, the air quality 2713 energy saving measures proposed by 146 cities located in 23 countries in the frame of the CoM are selected and their co-benefits for air quality and public health estimated by means of SHERPA, a fast modelling tool that mimics the behaviour of a full physically-based Chemical Transport Model. Besides evaluating the overall benefits of this subset of mitigation measures for the air quality, the study also investigates the relevance of some factors such as the implementation sector, the city size and the pollution levels in achieving the highest possible co-benefits. The results presented refer to the special field covered by the study, i.e. energy saving measures and are not automatically referable to other types of measures. Nevertheless, they clearly show how climate mitigation and air quality policies are deeply interconnected at the urban level. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and implementation of strategies for the assurance of quality for sterility testing in the Quality Control Section of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olave Carreno, Evelyn Karina

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Production and Service of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), is an organization dedicated to the production and quality control of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. To be considered pharmaceutical specialties, the department has implemented a quality assurance system to guarantee compliance with the required standards during manufacturing processes, quality control and distribution. Such products are administered, mostly by via parental; that is why it is extremely important that as an injectable solution is sterile non-pyrogenic. Therefore, the Head of Quality Control Section emphasized the importance of validating sterility testing for these products. In the first instance we proceeded to update the related documentation, as this is one of the essential pillars of a good system of quality assurance, then continuing with the verification of compliance with the physical conditions of the place where the infertility tests are performed (classification of areas from a microbiological point of view). During this process, the proper training of personnel involved in performing environmental testing and sterility testing was performed. Finally, we proceeded to validate the sterility test by the method of direct inoculation three radiopharmaceuticals; also implemented sterility testing by membrane filtration method described in the USP. It was possible to validate the methods of direct inoculation and membrane filtration based on the validation protocol guidelines generated and previously approved by the Chief; demonstrating that in both cases the detection of reference strains of inocula is achieved under 100 cfu (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spizizenii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium sporogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasiliensis), without interference of two of the products tested and interference of a product by direct inoculation method which was resolved. Based on these results, the documented evidence that

  8. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  9. Quality of life assessment in patients treated with lower energy thermotherapy (Prostasoft 2.0): results of a randomized transurethral microwave thermotherapy versus sham study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francisca, E. A.; D'Ancona, F. C.; Hendriks, J. C.; Kiemeney, L. A.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of lower energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy on quality of life and quality of sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 50 patients with BPH were randomized to receive either lower energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  11. QA [Quality Assurance] role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1988-02-01

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab? Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program? Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin? The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs

  12. Development plan for renewable energies with a high environmental quality 2008-2012-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Starting with the objectives defined by the Grenelle de l'Environnement in terms of percentage of renewable energies in the final energy consumption (20 - 25 percent), the authors indicate the present situation and objectives to be met by 2020 for the different sources of production of heat, of electricity and of biofuels, while mentioning the main obstacles to be overcome. They also define intermediate objectives to be met in 2012, and then examine the implications and need in terms of institutional organization and of action of local communities. They also propose objectives for each sector concerned by the production and consumption of renewable heat (housing, office building, and industry), renewable electricity (wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydro-energy, use of biomass and wastes) and biofuels. They discuss the particular case of overseas territories, outline the industrial challenges for different energy production sectors (wind, solar, wood, biofuels), and give an insight on research and development perspectives for the different energy production technologies

  13. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants.

  14. Study of relationship between radioactivity distribution, contamination burden and quality standard, accommodate energy of code river Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani and Muzakky

    2009-01-01

    Study of relationship between distribution, contamination burden of gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water and sediment sample from 11 observation station Code river to quality standard and maximum capacity of Code river have been done. Natural radio nuclides identification and gross β radioactivity measurement of condensed water, dry and homogeneous sediment powder (past through 100 mesh sieve) samples have been done by using spectrometer and GM counter. Radioactivity data was analyzed descriptive with histogram to show the spreading pattern of data. Contamination burden data, quality standard and maximum capacity of river Code was to descriptive analyzed by line diagram to knowing relationship between contamination burden, quality standard, and maximum capacity of Code river. The observation of water and sediment at 11 observation station show that the emitter natural radionuclides: 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 226 Ra, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac and 40 K were detected. The analytical result conclusion was that the pattern spread of average activity gross β and were increase from upstream to downstream of the Code river samples. Contamination burden, quality standard and maximum capacity of radionuclide activity of 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 226 Ra and 228 Ac were more smaller than quality standard of river water according to regulation of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency 02/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 concerning quality standard of radioactivity. It’s mean that Code river still in good contamination burden for the four radionuclides. (author)

  15. Sensory quality and energy use for scrambled eggs and beef patties heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, M.L.

    1982-05-01

    Scrambled eggs (96 portions) and beef patties (96 portions) were heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens to determine energy use in heating and sensory quality of food. For both products, significantly (P < 0.01) more energy (BTU) was used for heating in the convection than in the microwave oven and respective amounts (BTU) were 28658.7 and 9385.7 for eggs; 31313.3 and 9365.0 for beef patties. All scores for sensory quality were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for eggs heated in the microwave than in the convection, but for beef patties, scores were higher for all characteristics and significantly (P < 0.01) higher for appearance, flavor, and general acceptability after heating in the convection rather than the microwave oven.

  16. Long-term evaluation of biomass production and quality of two cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) cultivars for energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agroecosistema, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi, 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Bonari, Enrico [Scuola Sant' Anna, Piazza Martiri della Liberta, 33, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is an herbaceous species indicated as one of the most suitable energy crop for southern European countries. The aim of this work was to outline the productivity of two cardoon cultivars, Bianco Avorio (BA) and Gigante di Romagna (GR), over 11 years of cultivation in rain fed field conditions in the temperate climate of Central Italy. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of its biomass (calorific value, ultimate and proximate analyses, ash composition) as well as its energy balance (energy efficiency, net energy yield) have been determined. Crop dry yield was not different between the two cultivars and it was rather stable with a mean value (averaged from year 3 to 11) of 14 and 13 t ha{sup -1} for GR and BA respectively. Furthermore the biomass dry matter content was higher in BA than GR (51% vs 42%). The chemical analysis of cardoon biomass showed a similar composition in both cultivars with good calorific value (15 MJ kg{sup -1}) but with an ash content (13.9% d.w.) higher than other herbaceous energy crops. The total energy input was higher in the establishing than in the following years, however from the planting year onward, both cardoon crops were characterised by a positive energy balance. Even if its mean net energy is lower than other perennial energy crops (182 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}), cardoon can be easily propagated by seed with important advantages for crop management and production costs. The results confirmed cardoon's good biomass yield and favourable energy balance even in cultivation systems characterised by limited water input. Moreover future works are necessary in order to improve cardoon biomass quality and to evaluate the possibility of using it in blends with other biomass sources. (author)

  17. Long-term evaluation of biomass production and quality of two cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) cultivars for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Bonari, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is an herbaceous species indicated as one of the most suitable energy crop for southern European countries. The aim of this work was to outline the productivity of two cardoon cultivars, Bianco Avorio (BA) and Gigante di Romagna (GR), over 11 years of cultivation in rain fed field conditions in the temperate climate of Central Italy. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of its biomass (calorific value, ultimate and proximate analyses, ash composition) as well as its energy balance (energy efficiency, net energy yield) have been determined. Crop dry yield was not different between the two cultivars and it was rather stable with a mean value (averaged from year 3 to 11) of 14 and 13 t ha -1 for GR and BA respectively. Furthermore the biomass dry matter content was higher in BA than GR (51% vs 42%). The chemical analysis of cardoon biomass showed a similar composition in both cultivars with good calorific value (15 MJ kg -1 ) but with an ash content (13.9% d.w.) higher than other herbaceous energy crops. The total energy input was higher in the establishing than in the following years, however from the planting year onward, both cardoon crops were characterised by a positive energy balance. Even if its mean net energy is lower than other perennial energy crops (182 GJ ha -1 year -1 ), cardoon can be easily propagated by seed with important advantages for crop management and production costs. The results confirmed cardoon's good biomass yield and favourable energy balance even in cultivation systems characterised by limited water input. Moreover future works are necessary in order to improve cardoon biomass quality and to evaluate the possibility of using it in blends with other biomass sources.

  18. Neural Network based Control of SG based Standalone Generating System with Energy Storage for Power Quality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Priya; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2017-08-01

    An artificial intelligence based control algorithm is used in solving power quality problems of a diesel engine driven synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator and governor based standalone system. A voltage source converter integrated with a battery energy storage system is employed to mitigate the power quality problems. An adaptive neural network based signed regressor control algorithm is used for the estimation of the fundamental component of load currents for control of a standalone system with load leveling as an integral feature. The developed model of the system performs accurately under varying load conditions and provides good dynamic response to the step changes in loads. The real time performance is achieved using MATLAB along with simulink/simpower system toolboxes and results adhere to an IEEE-519 standard for power quality enhancement.

  19. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Quality Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, C.G.; Klusek, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML's results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. A summary of the reported results is available to the participants 3 days after the reporting deadline via a modem-telephone connection to the EML computer. This report presents the results from the analysis of the 38th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP XXXVIII) that were received on or before June 2, 1993

  20. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Quality Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, C.G.; Scarpitta, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results from the analysis of the 36th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP 36) that were received on or before January 2, 1992. This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are complied with EML's results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. A summary of the reported results is available to the participants 3 days after the reporting deadline via a modem-telephone connection to the EML computer

  1. Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-07-01

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  2. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Split-bolus CT-urography using dual-energy CT: Feasibility, image quality and dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuru, E-mail: m2rbimn@gmail.com [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan); Kawai, Tatsuya; Ito, Masato; Ogawa, Masaki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuya [Nagoya City University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan); Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy (DE) split-bolus CT-urography (CTU) and the quality of virtual non-enhanced images (VNEI) and DE combined nephrographic-excretory phase images (CNEPI), and to estimate radiation dose reduction if true non-enhanced images (TNEI) could be omitted. Patients and methods: Between August and September 2011, 30 consecutive patients with confirmed or suspected urothelial cancer or with hematuria underwent DE CT. Single-energy TNEI and DE CNEPI were obtained. VNEI was reconstructed from CNEPI. Image quality of CNEPI and VNEI was evaluated using a 5-point scale. The attenuation of urine in the bladder on TNEI and VNEI was measured. The CT dose index volume (CTDI (vol)) of the two scans was recorded. Results: The mean image quality score of CNEPI and VNEI was 4.7 and 3.3, respectively. The mean differences in urine attenuation between VNEI and TNEI were 14 {+-} 15 [SD] and -16 {+-} 29 in the anterior and posterior parts of the bladder, respectively. The mean CTDI (vol) for TNEI and CNEPI was 11.8 and 10.9 mGy, respectively. Omission of TNEI could reduce the total radiation dose by 52%. Conclusion: DE split-bolus CTU is technically feasible and can reduce radiation exposure; however, an additional TNEI scan is necessary when the VNEI quality is poor or quantitative evaluation of urine attenuation is required.

  4. Energy-signal quality trade-offs in a WiMAX mobile station with a booster amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Mubarakah, N.; Wiranata, O.; Kasim, S. T.

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a broadband wireless access technology that is able to provide high bit rate mobile internet services. Battery endurance remains a problem in current mobile communication. On the other hand, signal quality determines the successful run of the mobile applications. Energy consumption optimization cannot sacrifice the signal level required by the application to run smoothly. On the contrary, the application should consider battery life time. This paper examines the tradeoffs between energy and signal quality in WiMAX subscriber station by adjusting signal level using a booster amplifier. Simulation evaluations show that an increment of 0.00000104% energy consumption on using amplifier adaptively produces 16.411% signal to noise ratio (SNR) increment and 10.7% bit error rate (BER) decrement. By keeping the amplifier turned on, energy consumption increases up to 0.00000136%, causing the SNR rises to 17.2638% and BER drops to 11.13%. The evaluated application is video streaming, other application may behave differently.

  5. Planning and implementation of reliability/quality programs to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenon, J.

    1986-01-01

    Quality Assurance principles have long been applied in part to many varied industrial enterprises. The advent of commercial nuclear power brought the evolution of a more comprehensive approach to the applications of quality assurance programs in this industry. However, the application philosophy was almost totally aimed at assuring the safety of the worker and the public. Recently, there has been a strong movement by industries and business in the U.S. and Europe to apply quality assurance in a more general way to assure overall reliability as well as safety. This paper describes an approach to enable management to not only make initial determinations of how to apply the elements of a reliability/quality assurance program, but how to continuously adjust the program to optimize the benefits that can be obtained

  6. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams: A multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Pasler, Marlies; Wegener, Sonja; Hoffman, David; Talamonti, Cinzia; Qian, Jianguo; Mendez, Ignasi; Brojan, Denis; Perrin, Bruce; Kusters, Martijn; Canters, Richard; Pallotta, Stefania; Peterlin, Primoz

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1×1cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 , the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD 20,10 values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4×4cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 . The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (pphoton energies except for 18MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20×20cm 2 field and 10MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6MV to 0.9578 for 18MV and 0.9440 for 6MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams. A multi-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casar, Bozidar [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen and Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wegener, Sonja [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD{sub 20,10} values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4 x 4 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}. The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10 cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (p < 0.01) for all photon energies except for 18 MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} field and 10 MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6 MV to 0.9578 for 18 MV and 0.9440 for 6 MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10 MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice.

  8. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  9. Tests of an electron monitor for routine quality control measurements of electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, E.B.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The depth dose for electrons is sensitive to energy and the AAPM Task Group 24 has recommended that tests be performed at monthly intervals to assure electron beam energy constancy by verifying the depth for the 80% dose to within ±3 mm. Typically, this is accomplished by using a two-depth dose ratio technique. Recently, a new device, the Geske monitor, has been introduced that is designed for verifying energy constancy in a single reading. The monitor consists of nine parallel plate detectors that alternate with 5-mm-thick absorbers made of an aluminum alloy. An evaluation of the clinical usefulness of this monitor for the electron beams available on a Varian Clinac 20 has been undertaken with respect to energy discrimination. Beam energy changes of 3 mm of the 80% dose give rise to measurable output changes ranging from 1.7% for 20-MeV electron beams to 15% for 6-MeV electron beams

  10. Quality assurance program for determining the radioactivity in environmental samples at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gone, J.K.; Wang, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in determining radioactivity in environmental samples has increased considerably in recent years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Environmental monitoring programs have been set up in different countries to measure the trace amount of radionuclides in the environment, and quality of the analytical results on these samples is important because the regulation and safety concerns. A good quality assurance program is essential to provide accurate information for the regulatory body and environmentalists to set proper reactions to protect the environment, and a good analytical result is also important for scientists to determine the transfer of radionuclides between environmental matrices. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (lNER) in Taiwan has been working on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples for years, and it's environmental media radioanalytical laboratory (EMRAL) has recently upgraded its quality assurance program for the international standard ISO/lEC guide 25 requirements. The general requirements of lSO/lEC guide 25 has been adapted by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) of Taiwan, and CNLA is also a member of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC). This paper summarizes the quality assurance program of lNER's EMRAL. It covers both management and technical sections. These sections have ensured the quality of INER's EMRAL, and they can be applied to different laboratories in the future. (author)

  11. Quality assurance program for determining the radioactivity in environmental samples at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gone, J.K. [TRR-II Project Team, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.W. [Division of Health Physics, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    Interest in determining radioactivity in environmental samples has increased considerably in recent years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Environmental monitoring programs have been set up in different countries to measure the trace amount of radionuclides in the environment, and quality of the analytical results on these samples is important because the regulation and safety concerns. A good quality assurance program is essential to provide accurate information for the regulatory body and environmentalists to set proper reactions to protect the environment, and a good analytical result is also important for scientists to determine the transfer of radionuclides between environmental matrices. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (lNER) in Taiwan has been working on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples for years, and it's environmental media radioanalytical laboratory (EMRAL) has recently upgraded its quality assurance program for the international standard ISO/lEC guide 25 requirements. The general requirements of lSO/lEC guide 25 has been adapted by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) of Taiwan, and CNLA is also a member of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC). This paper summarizes the quality assurance program of lNER's EMRAL. It covers both management and technical sections. These sections have ensured the quality of INER's EMRAL, and they can be applied to different laboratories in the future. (author)

  12. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  13. EERE Quality Control Workshop Final Report: Proceedings from the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative; Golden, Colorado, December 9-10, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) has recognized the cross-cutting, pre-competitive and enabling nature of quality control for a wide range of clean energy technologies. As such, the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Solar Energy Technologies Office, Vehicle Technologies Office, Building Technologies Office, and Advanced Manufacturing Office decided to explore needs and potential cross-office synergies in this area by holding the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative. This report summarizes the purpose and scope of the workshop; reviews the current status and state-of-the-art for in-line quality control; summarizes the results from three breakout sessions; and presents conclusions and recommendations.

  14. A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Hartman, Terryl; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H

    2006-10-01

    Based on current dietary intake recommendations and a recommendation to limit sedentary activity in preschoolers, an overall diet quality index for preschoolers (RC-DQI) incorporating a component for energy balance to measure adequacy of nutrition for growth, development, and disease prevention was developed. The newly developed index was used in nationally representative samples of 2- to 5-year-olds in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96 and 1998 (n=5,437). Index components included added sugar, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total and whole grains, fruits, vegetables, excess fruit juice, dairy, iron, and an interaction term of total daily energy intake and sedentary behavior (television time). Points were allocated to reflect deficient or excessive intakes. Means and standard errors were used to describe food intakes and RC-DQI scores. Ability to differentiate diets was ascertained using mean intakes of food groups/nutrients followed by a nonparametric test of trends across ordered groups. Correlation coefficients measured dependence among RC-DQI components, nutrients, and overall energy intakes. Component scores of the highest and lowest quartile of RC-DQI were compared. Mean RC-DQI score was 64 points (range=28 to 93). Increasing RC-DQI scores were associated with improved diet quality. Children in the lowest RC-DQI quartile scored lower in all components. The RC-DQI successfully differentiated diets by level of diet quality. Increasing scores were associated with decreasing consumption of added sugar and juices, and increasing intakes of fiber, essential fatty acids, fruits, and vegetables. The RC-DQI can be used to determine diet quality in groups of preschool-age children.

  15. Advanced Micro Grid Energy Management Coupled with Integrated Volt/VAR Control for Improved Energy Efficiency, Energy Security, and Power Quality at DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    Energy Consumption P ∝ V2 E ∝ V2 P ∝ V2 E ∝ usage Incandescent Water Heater Computer E ∝ usage P constant On/Off Usage Fixed time Temperature Gallons per...circuits. We observe that the 208V energy consumption is more affected from the human occupancy than the 480V. This is derived from the fact that the...days of the week or the month of the year shows a human pattern consumption other than weather conditions correlation. On the other hand, the 480 V

  16. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  17. Enhancement of energy quality in the distribution grid; Verbesserung der Energiequalitaet in Verteilungs- und Ortsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Robert; Schroedel, Oliver [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The energy supply is currently undergoing a fundamental change. The generation of energy is changing regarding to the energy sources, size of generation units and the place of generation. These changes have also impacts on the public transportation and distribution networks. The increasing requirement on observability as well as controllability of electrical distribution networks essentially results in the increase of decentralized generation of electrical energy, especially from fluctuating regenerative sources in existing distribution networks and the additional substitution of end application with fossil fuels through electrical applications (e.g. electrical mobility, cold, heat). This technical article shows results of a study which includes a qualitative and quantitative estimation of occurring effects in typical rural- and urban power grids with medium-voltage/- and low voltage level. Furthermore shows it challenges for grid operation, followed by a discussion of possible grid elements for solution. (orig.)

  18. Dependence of image quality on energy spread for a Bragg diffraction based radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, P.; Bacci, A.; Bottigli, U.; Ferrario, M.; Gambaccini, M.; Giulietti, D.; Golosio, B.; Maroli, C.; Oliva, P.; Petrillo, V.; Serafini, L.; Stumbo, S.; Taibi, A.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between contrast and energy resolution of a quasi-monochromatic X-ray system based on Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal. Three different energies have been considered: 18, 22 and 26 keV. A commercial phantom containing large and small area details and a digital detector have been used. Results show that for large area details and for a certain value of energy, the energy spread of the incident X-ray beams produces a small reduction of the contrast, while for small area details the high reduction of the contrast is principally due to the spatial resolution properties of the system

  19. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  20. Optimization of laser parameters to obtain high-energy, high-quality electron beams through laser-plasma acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Jha, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of an intense (a 0 =3), short-pulse (L∼λ p ) laser through a homogeneous plasma has been investigated. Using two-dimensional simulations for a 0 =3, the pulse-length and spot-size at three different plasma densities were optimized in order to get a better quality beam in laser wakefield accelerator. The study reveals that with increasing pulse-length the acceleration increases, but after a certain pulse-length (L>0.23λ p ) the emittance blows-up unacceptably. For spot-sizes less than that given by k p0 r s =2√(a 0 ), trapping is poor or nonexistent, and the optimal spot-size is larger. The deviation of the optimal spot-size from this formula increases as the density decreases. The efficacy of these two-dimensional simulations has been validated by running three-dimensional simulations at the highest density. It has been shown that good quality GeV-class beams can be obtained at plasma densities of ∼10 18 cm -3 . The quality of the beam can be substantially improved by selecting only the high-energy peak; in this fashion an energy-spread of better than 1% and a current in tens of kA can be achieved, which are important for applications such as free-electron lasers.

  1. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Samei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  2. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Hadi S; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-08-04

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  3. Improvement of energy efficiency and quality of street lighting in South Italy as an action of Sustainable Energy Action Plans. The case study of Comiso (RG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccali, Marco; Bonomolo, Marina; Ciulla, Giuseppina; Galatioto, Alessandra; Lo Brano, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Existing street lighting systems, in most of South Italy cities, are often inefficient due to the obsolescence of lamps and luminaires and of ineffective light control systems unable to implement efficient on-off and dimming strategies. Energy efficiency improvement, in street lighting systems, is often one of the key actions to be adopted by Public Administration in their Sustainable Energy Action Plan in the framework of the “Covenant of Majors” activities. As a task of FACTOR 20 project, a set of planning options has been analysed and proposed. Particularly, street lighting efficiency projects have been studied for representative case studies. A detailed survey of the public lighting systems, in Comiso, allowed represent current performance figures such us installed power, luminance and illuminance levels in roads categories, electricity consumption, switching and dimming schedules. A project of system upgrade has been elaborated. To do this, many lighting simulations, energy and economic assessments in three scenarios have been performed. The obtained results show that high improvements of the lighting quality are foreseeable together with large energy and economic saving. An economic sensitivity analysis, has shown how the performance can change. The proposed methodology can be applied in many similar South Italy cities. - Highlights: • Retrofit actions in urban lighting systems of typical South Italy cities are studied. • A methodology for the comparison of baseline and design scenarios is presented. • An analysis of energy and economic savings of different scenarios is performed. • A sensitivity analysis of payback times is presented for different costs of LED and kWhe.

  4. Quality assurance programs developed and implemented by the US Department of Energy`s Analytical Services Program for environmental restoration and waste management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillian, D.; Bottrell, D. [Dept. of Energy, Germntown, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has been tasked with addressing environmental contamination and waste problems facing the Department. A key element of any environmental restoration or waste management program is environmental data. An effective and efficient sampling and analysis program is required to generate credible environmental data. The bases for DOE`s EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) are contained in the charter and commitments in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-13-89, EM program policies and requirements, and commitments to Congress and the Office of Inspector General (IG). The Congressional commitment by DOE to develop and implement an ASP was in response to concerns raised by the Chairman of the Congressional Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee, and the Chairman of the Congressional Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, regarding the production of analytical data. The development and implementation of an ASP also satisfies the IG`s audit report recommendations on environmental analytical support, including development and implementation of a national strategy for acquisition of quality sampling and analytical services. These recommendations were endorsed in Departmental positions, which further emphasize the importance of the ASP to EM`s programs. In September 1990, EM formed the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) in the Office of Technology Development to provide the programmatic direction needed to establish and operate an EM-wide ASP program. In January 1992, LMD issued the {open_quotes}Analytical Services Program Five-Year Plan.{close_quotes} This document described LMD`s strategy to ensure the production of timely, cost-effective, and credible environmental data. This presentation describes the overall LMD Analytical Services Program and, specifically, the various QA programs.

  5. Comparison of true metabolisable energy and true amino acid availability between normal maize and quality protein maize (Shandan 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A precision-fed assay was conducted to determine true metabolisable energy and true amino acid digestibility in Chinese quality protein maize (QPM compared with normal maize (NM. Thirty adult roosters, kept in individual cages, were made to fast for 48h and then tub-fed 50g QPM or NM per bird and their excreta was colleted for the subsequent 48h. Additional fifteen roosters were made to fast in order to estimate endogenous losses of energy and amino acids (AA in excreta. Gross energy of the two types of maize were similar; the lysine content in NM and QPM were 0.27% and 0.41% (DM basis, respectively. True metabolisable energy (TME and true metabolisable energy nitrogen corrected (TMEn values of QPM and NM were not significantly different (P>0.05. Digestibility of some AA, including lysine and methionine, in QPM were higher than those in NM (P<0.05. The results of this study indicated that the nutritive value of QPM might be higher than that of NM.

  6. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (Psoup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  7. Impact of fuelwood quality and quantity on the energy use of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where there was an abundance of quality fuelwood, the community chose fuelwood intuitively in accordance with the optimum physical properties and in a sustainable way. A fuelwood shortage, however, was found to impact negatively on work and social practices and fuelwood was collected through destructive harvesting ...

  8. Shift workers have a similar diet quality but higher energy intake than day workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Boer, Jolanda Ma; van der Beek, Allard J; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Sluijs, Ivonne; Vermeulen, Roel; Proper, Karin I

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes, and an unhealthy diet may be a contributing factor. We compared diet quantity and quality between day and shift workers, and studied exposure-response relationships regarding frequency of night shifts and years of shift work. METHODS:

  9. Direct product quality control for energy efficient climate controlled transport of agro-material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijck, G.J.C.; Preisig, H.A.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    A (model-based) Product Quality Controller is presented for climate controlled operations involving agro-material, such as storage and transport. This controller belongs to the class of Model Predictive Controllers and fits in a previously developed hierarchical control structure. The new Product

  10. How Should Journal Quality be Ranked? An Application to Agricultural, Energy, Environment and Resource Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with the ranking of academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals. A comparison is made with publicly

  11. Determination of the effect of microwave energy on maize kernel quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fakude, PM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems that affect maize quality is insect infestation of stored products. Currently, this problem is controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. Methyl bromide, the pesticide with the widest application, is being phased out...

  12. Strategic planning of building stock. Adjusting quality of demand and supply focusing on energy saving measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This working book aims at supporting the strategic supply management and the associated daily practice of housing management, from vision to implementation. Strategic supply management is defined as offering living qualities that are in demand now and in the future. [mk] [nl

  13. Validation of Occupants’ Behaviour Models for Indoor Quality Parameter and Energy Consumption Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Sugliano, Martina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2015-01-01

    Occupants’ behaviour related to building control system plays a significant role to achieve thermal comfort and air quality in naturally-ventilated buildings. Generally, the published models of occupant's behavior are not validated, meaning that the predictive power has not yet been tested. For t...

  14. An overall index of environmental quality in coal mining areas and energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I; Kaliampakos, Demetrios C

    2006-12-01

    An approach to measuring environmental quality and trends in coal mining and industrial areas was attempted in this work. For this purpose, the establishment of a reference scale characterizing the status of environmental quality is proposed by developing an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The methodology involves three main components: social research, the opinion of environmental experts, and the combination of new or existing indices. A survey of public opinion was carried out to identify the main environmental problems in the region of interest. Environmental experts carried out a survey, and the weights of specific environmental problems were obtained through a fuzzy Delphi method and pairwise comparison. The weight attributed to each environmental problem was computed, using new or existing indices (subindices) in the relevant literature. The EQI comprises a combination of the subindices with their own weights. The methodology was applied to a heavily industrialized coal basin in northwestern Macedonia, Greece. The results show that the new index may be used as a reliable tool for evaluating environmental quality in different areas. In addition, the study of EQI trends on an interannual basis can provide useful information on the efficiency of environmental policies already implemented by the responsible authorities.

  15. Landscape management for sustainable supplies of bio energy feedstock and enhanced soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, K.; Muth, D.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. Our objective is to present a landscape management concept as an approach for integrating multiple bio energy feedstock sources into current crop production systems. This is done to show how multiple, increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. We discuss how collaborative research among Usda-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), several university extension and research partners, and industry representatives [known as the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (Reap) team] has led to the development of computer-based decision aids for guiding sustainable bio energy feedstock production. The decision aids, known initially as the Corn Stover Tool and more recently as the Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (Leaf) are tools designed to recognize the importance of nature s diversity and can therefore be used to guide sustainable feedstock production without having negative impacts on critical ecosystem services. Using a 57 ha farm site in central Iowa, USA, we show how producer decisions regarding corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest within the US Corn Belt can be made in a more sustainable manner. This example also supports Reap team conclusions that stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1 unless more balanced landscape management practices are implemented. The tools also illustrate the importance of sub-field management and site-specific stover harvest strategies

  16. Longer guts and higher food quality increase energy intake in migratory swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Beekman, Jan H; Coehoorn, Pieter; Corporaal, Els; Dekkers, Ten; Klaassen, Marcel; van Kraaij, Rik; de Leeuw, Rinze; de Vries, Peter P

    2008-11-01

    1. Within the broad field of optimal foraging, it is increasingly acknowledged that animals often face digestive constraints rather than constraints on rates of food collection. This therefore calls for a formalization of how animals could optimize food absorption rates. 2. Here we generate predictions from a simple graphical optimal digestion model for foragers that aim to maximize their (true) metabolizable food intake over total time (i.e. including nonforaging bouts) under a digestive constraint. 3. The model predicts that such foragers should maintain a constant food retention time, even if gut length or food quality changes. For phenotypically flexible foragers, which are able to change the size of their digestive machinery, this means that an increase in gut length should go hand in hand with an increase in gross intake rate. It also means that better quality food should be digested more efficiently. 4. These latter two predictions are tested in a large avian long-distance migrant, the Bewick's swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), feeding on grasslands in its Dutch wintering quarters. 5. Throughout winter, free-ranging Bewick's swans, growing a longer gut and experiencing improved food quality, increased their gross intake rate (i.e. bite rate) and showed a higher digestive efficiency. These responses were in accordance with the model and suggest maintenance of a constant food retention time. 6. These changes doubled the birds' absorption rate. Had only food quality changed (and not gut length), then absorption rate would have increased by only 67%; absorption rate would have increased by only 17% had only gut length changed (and not food quality). 7. The prediction that gross intake rate should go up with gut length parallels the mechanism included in some proximate models of foraging that feeding motivation scales inversely to gut fullness. We plea for a tighter integration between ultimate and proximate foraging models.

  17. Summary report of the Department of Energy, Division of Operational and Environmental Safety: Quality Assurance Programs 1 through 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welford, G.A.; Fisenne, I.M.; Sanderson, C.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical Laboratories which provide environmental monitoring data for assessment of radioactive contamination, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract, were requested to participate in a Quality Assurance Program. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) was asked to prepare intercomparison samples for radionuclide analysis of soil, water, air filters, tissue ash, and vegetation ash for distribution to the Analytical Laboratories. Samples were collected in the environment of DOE facilities, since only water and air samples could be conveniently spiked. A set of 6 to 8 samples is distributed quarterly to about 28 laboratories. EML performed multiple analyses on the samples, however, the results are considered intercomparisons not standards. This report summarizes the program and evaluates the data for Quality Assurance Programs (QAP) from 1 through 4

  18. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively.

  19. Department of Energy Operation Quality Assurance Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project (Carlsbad, New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA)reverse arrow Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Project Participants: the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory) and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the Pre-Operational and Operational phases of the WIPP Project not addressed under the construction phase. This plan also requires the QA Programs for DOE and Project Participants to be structured so as to comply with this plan and ANSI-ASME NQA-1. The prime responsibility for Operational Quality Assurance rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Scientific Advisor and the Management and Operating Contractor. Overviews of selected operational and testing activities will be are conducted in accordance with prescribed requirements and that adequate documentation of these activities is maintained. 4 figs

  20. Implementation of the quality management system in the regulatory body (Peruvian Institute for Nuclear Energy, Lima, Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    2013-01-01

    One of the functions of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), Lima, Peru is the control of sources of ionizing radiation. For this, they have the Oficina Tecnica de la Autoridad Nacional (OTAN) which has the necessary infrastructure to issue technical standards, conducting inspections, issuing authorizations and punish according to the existing legislation. OTAN has decided to address this issue and is taking into account the IAEA recommendations, especially the Safety Requirements GS-R-3: Management System facilities and activities and offering advice on the establishment and improvement of integrated management systems, including safety requirements that are not in the ISO 9001 standard and are also considered the requirements of technological safety, security, quality, economic, environmental and health. The working plan is detailed and the activities that are carried out after the scientific visit to a regulator organ, which has experience in the execution of a Quality Management System, consequence of a work initiated for more than four decades ago

  1. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    Air-conditioning is not only a matter of temperature control. Thermal comfort and good indoor air quality are mainly a matter of humidity. Human health and well being may suffer seriously from inadequate humidity and/or too low temperatures in a room. A case study involving supermarket air......%. For indoor air temperature and humidity control, the use of an ice slurry (´Binary Ice´)was compared to conventional chilled water. The use of Binary Ice instead of chilled water makes the air handling and air distribution installation much simpler, recirculation of air becomes obsolete, and a higher portion...... of ambient air can be supplied, thus improving the indoor air quality still further. Reheating of air is not necessary when using Binary Ice. The introduction of chilled air into a room requires a different type of air outlet, however. When using Binary Ice, energy savings are high for climates with low...

  2. Energy Saving Recommended: Delivering improved product standards, market presence and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Tom; Galvanoni, Frances [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the home equate to 27 % of UK total emissions. In order for consumers to use less energy, and reduce their environmental impact, the Energy Saving Recommended (ESR) voluntary product labelling scheme for domestic energy saving products was established to direct the consumer to choose better products and make smarter choices. With over 2000 certified products, ESR is present across 5 sectors and covers 24 product categories; 9 sets of standards were reviewed and revised in 2005/6 and a further 13 were delivered in 2006/7. ESR is now implementing existing and developing new standards in consumer electronics - from integrated digital televisions and recorders, to intelligent mains sockets and set-top-boxes, as well as assessing the feasibility of endorsing domestic ICT equipment. The Energy Saving Trust, through its marketing activities, acts as an enabler to make energy saving action simpler, easier and cheaper for the consumer to undertake. Using a variety of communication strategies the trade is engaged through the provision of value added member benefits; a holistic approach is taken with key partners to integrate energy efficiency throughout their businesses. Merchandising support helps product standards to be implemented in the market place; evaluation and research work demonstrates that markets can be changed and shows a 1 in 3 label recognition rate. The credibility and integrity of the label are reinforced through compliance testing, in-store and online label monitoring and legal enforcement, frequent data checks and the integration of ISO best practice standards through the certification system.

  3. The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Rocha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrical architectures adopted in wind turbines and its impact on the harmonic flux at the connected electric network. The integration of wind electric generators with the power grid needs energy processing by power electronics. It shows that different types of wind turbine generator systems use different types of electronic converters. This work provides a discussion on harmonic distortion taking place on the generator side, as well as in the power grid side. Keywords: grid connection, harmonic distortion, power electronics and converters, wind energy conversion systems, wind power, wind technology, wind turbines

  4. A proposal for the rationalisation of medium energy x-ray qualities available at ARPANSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: At present, using the Seifert X-ray generator, ARPANSA offers 25 therapy/diagnostic qualities in the half value layer (HVL) range 0.35 mm Al to 3.98 mm Cu. However, as these qualities are not identical to that used by clients, some form of interpolation will necessarily be performed. On the basis that interpolation is acceptable in specification of chamber calibration factors, a rationalisation of the beam qualities offered by ARPANSA is suggested. Our measurements indicate that for each of the ionisation chamber models NE2571, NE2561 and NE2611 an individual model-specific relationship between calibration factor and photon quality exists and can be expressed analytically. Thus it is possible to perform measurements on a limited set of X ray qualities and interpolate using an analytic function. For each radiation quality, X-ray calibrations are performed as a two step process using a monitor chamber. Firstly, measurements with the primary standard allow the ratio (R p ) of the exposure (air-kerma) rate to the monitor chamber current to be calculated. Secondly, the ratio (R ch ) of the current from the client's chamber to that of the monitor chamber is measured. For each of the chamber types mentioned above, the following expressions apply with separately empirically determined parameters a,b and c for R p and R ch . For each chamber type, the calibration factor N x (N k which is R p /R xh can be re-expressed as a common expression A*(l-B 1 *exp(-C 1 *H))/(l-B 2 *exp(-C2*H)) with separately determined constants for the Al and Cu HVL ranges. For the three most commonly used therapy level chambers, an identical analytic expression with empirically determined parameters can be used to specify a continuous relationship between correction factor and HVL in mm Al and/or mm Cu using five chamber measurements to cover each range. For the Al HVL range, the fitted results are generally within ± 1% of measurements whilst for the Cu HVL range the fit is within ± 0

  5. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  6. Link Quality-Based Transmission Power Adaptation for Reduction of Energy Consumption and Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2010-01-01

    Today, many wireless devices are mobile and battery powered. Based on the fact that battery capacity is still limited, energy saving is an important issue in wireless communication.Meanwhile, the number of wireless devices continues to increase and this creates interference problems between wireless

  7. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,

  8. Prêt-à-Loger : Zero-energy home with maximum living quality increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    At the Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 (SDE2014) competition (Versailles, France), the team from the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) took a stance by not constructing a new-built house but demonstrating the energy renovation of a typical Dutch terraced house. Around a quarter of Dutch housing

  9. The Quality of Community Governance and the Impact of Energy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, James H.

    Communities with a flexible, open leadership structure may weather energy booms better than communities with old-guard leadership cliques, according to a study of community governance in two small Texas towns. Although similar in location, ethnic composition, population, access to transportation, economic base, and importance in the county,…

  10. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  11. Simulation of building energy and indoor environmental quality - some weather data issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    After elaborating that a building is a rather complicated dynamic system where many of the governing energy and mass transfer relationships are highly non-linear, this paper focuses on weather data as needed for computer simulation of buildings. The paper does not aim for completeness but rather to

  12. The impact of turbulent renewable energy production on power grid stability and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmietendorf, Katrin; Peinke, Joachim; Kamps, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Feed-in fluctuations induced by renewables are one of the key challenges to the stability and quality of electrical power grids. In particular short-term fluctuations disturb the system on a time scale, on which load balancing does not operate yet and the system is intrinsically governed by self-organized synchronization. Wind and solar power are known to be strongly non-Gaussian with intermittent increment statistics in these time scales. We investigate the impact of short-term wind fluctuations on the basis of a Kuramoto-like power grid model considering stability in terms of desynchronization and frequency and voltage quality aspects. We present a procedure to generate realistic feed-in fluctuations with temporal correlations, Kolmogorov power spectrum and intermittent increments. By comparison to correlated Gaussian noise of the same spectrum and Gaussian white noise, we found out that while the correlations are essential to capture the likelihood of severe outages, the intermittent nature of wind power has significant consequences on power quality: intermittency is directly transferred into frequency and voltage fluctuations yielding a novel type of fluctuations, which is beyond engineering status of knowledge.

  13. Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David; Appaneal, Renee; Burke, Louise M; Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot; Toomey, Mary; Watts, David; Lovell, Gregory; Praet, Stephan; Halson, Shona L; Colbey, Candice; Manzanero, Silvia; Welvaert, Marijke; West, Nicholas P; Pyne, David B; Waddington, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games. Olympic athletes (n=317) from 11 sports were invited to complete questionnaires administered 3 months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These questionnaires included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Dispositional Resilience Scale, Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. Multiple illness (case) definitions were applied. ORs and attributable fractions in the population were used. Factor analyses were used to explore the relationships between variables. The response rate was of 42% (male, n=47, age 25.8±4.1 years; female, n=85, age 24.3±3.9 years). Low energy availability was associated with sustaining an illness in the previous month (upper respiratory, OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 12). The main factor relating to illness pertained to a combination of anxiety and stress-recovery states (as measured by the REST-Q-52 item). All participants reported at least one episode of illness in the last month (100% prevalence). All participants reported at least one illness symptom in the previous month. Low energy availability was a leading variable associated with illness in Olympic-class athletes. The estimates duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 7 days. Factor analyses show the interdependence of various health domains and support multidisciplinary care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Eco-design of low energy mechanical milling through implementation of quality function deployment and design for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Hanif Abd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Selamat, Siti Norhana; Hassan, Mohd Fahrul; Rahim, Abd Khalil Abd; Ahmad, Mohd Fauzi; Ismail, Al Emran; Omar, Badrul; Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2017-04-01

    Malaysia as a developing country favor energy demand by years which created mainly from fossil fuel. Unfortunately, the action leads to significant increment in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission that causing the global warming. The most promising mitigation strategy is by deploying Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology where mineral carbonation was identified as the safest method for permanent storage and does not require continuous monitoring. Accordingly, National Green Technology was launched in 2009 to support the growth of green technology development in Malaysia as a carbon mitigation strategy. Thus, this paper aims to propose the development of a conceptual eco-design for Low Energy Mechanical Milling (LEMM). The concept was proposed by using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tool with combination of sustainability determinants (DFS) namely economic, environmental and social which evaluated using Solidworks 2015 sustainability assessment. The results show the new product targets for LEMM in prior on energy consumption (MJ), selling price (MYR), material cost (MYR), carbon footprint (kg CO2) with weightage of 5.2, 4.2, 3.6 and 3.6 respectively. The implementation of DFS criteria into the QFD promote to reduce material used by 16%, 35% reduction of carbon footprint, 28% less energy consumption, 28% lower air acidification, 77% of water eutrophication declined and increased recyclability by 15%.

  15. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions

  16. Air quality impacts of increased use of ethanol under the United States’ Energy Independence and Security Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rich; Phillips, Sharon; Houyoux, Marc; Dolwick, Pat; Mason, Rich; Yanca, Catherine; Zawacki, Margaret; Davidson, Ken; Michaels, Harvey; Harvey, Craig; Somers, Joseph; Luecken, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, "criteria" pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of increased ethanol use on ozone and air toxics under a potential implementation scenario resulting from mandates in the U. S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The assessment of impacts was done for calendar year 2022, when 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be used. Impacts were assessed relative to a baseline which assumed ethanol volumes mandated by the first renewable fuels standard promulgated by U. S. EPA in early 2007. This assessment addresses both impacts of increased ethanol use on vehicle and other engine emissions, referred to as "downstream" emissions, and "upstream" impacts, i.e., those connected with fuel production and distribution. Air quality modeling was performed for the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), version 4.7. Pollutants included in the assessment were ozone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Results suggest that increased ethanol use due to EISA in 2022 will adversely increase ozone concentrations over much of the U.S., by as much as 1 ppb. However, EISA is projected to improve ozone air quality in a few highly-populated areas that currently have poor air quality. Most of the ozone improvements are due to our assumption of increases in nitrogen oxides (NO x) in volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited areas. While there are some localized impacts, the EISA renewable fuel standards have relatively little impact on national average ambient concentrations of most air toxics, although ethanol concentrations increase substantially. Significant uncertainties are associated with all results, due to limitations in available data. These uncertainties are

  17. Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of 218 Po and 214 Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny

  18. Solar radiation modeling and measurements for renewable energy applications: data and model quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Daryl R.

    2005-01-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data

  19. Solar radiation modeling and measurements for renewable energy applications: data and model quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data. (author)

  20. Energy supply and conversion to hydrogen: how to improve the air quality in Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Nestor R.; Bergallo, Juan E.; Corso, Hugo L.; Bolcich, Juan C.

    1998-01-01

    The regional power distribution and the market free regulation, take the companies of this sector to an increasing competition by the supply. This situation induces conceptual and technical changes, that seem oriented to a greater complementation of power menu, with consequent structuring of power chains of better economic management. In the case of electrical park, they exist power stations nonsintonizables with the fluctuations of demand, those that noticeably alter the prices to which energy can be sold. In these cases, the strategy is oriented to accumulation, to supply energy deferred in time, or in the form and place that greater rent offers. Multinational programs that illustrate these situations, with long trajectory and important resources exist, like the EUROQUEBEC, that contemplates the hydroelectricity surplus export from Canada to Europe in hydrogen form. (author)

  1. The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality

    OpenAIRE

    J.E. Rocha; W.D.C Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the electrical architectures adopted in wind turbines and its impact on the harmonic flux at the connected electric network. The integration of wind electric generators with the power grid needs energy processing by power electronics. It shows that different types of wind turbine generator systems use different types of electronic converters. This work provides a discussion on harmonic distortion taking place on the generator side, as well as in the power grid side. Key...

  2. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  3. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  4. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  5. The FRISBEE tool, a software for optimising the trade-off between food quality, energy use, and global warming impact of cold chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Leducq, D.; Brown, T.; Verlinden, B.E.; Bekele, E.; Aregawi, W. Evans, J.; Foster, A.; Duret, S.; Hoang, H.M.; Sluis, S. van der; Wissink, E.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Le Page, J.F.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; Nicolai, B.M.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Food quality (including safety) along the cold chain, energy use and global warming impact of refrigeration systems are three key aspects in assessing cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present the framework of a dedicated software, the FRISBEE tool, for optimising quality of refrigerated

  6. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ELECTRIC ENERGY QUALITY ON HEATING OF THE AUXILIARY MA-CHINES OF AC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. YU. Baliichuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to study the problem of increase the reliability of auxiliary machines for AC electric trains during operation in real conditions. Methodology. The peculiarity of system construction of auxiliary machines for AC electric rolling stock is the use of asynchronous motors for general industrial purpose. An engineering method of influence determination on the feeding voltage asymmetry and its deviation from the nominal value on heating of auxiliary machines insulation was proposed. Findings. It is found out that in case when the auxiliary machines of AC electric trains work under asymmetry factor of the voltage 10% or more and feeding voltage deviation from the nominal order 0.6 relative unit then it is possible the overheat of their isolation, even if it has class H. Originality. For the first time the issue of the total insulation heating under such boundary parameters combinations of energy quality, when each of them contributes to the heating insulation increase as compared to the nominal regime of the "rotating phase splitter−auxiliary machinery" system was illuminated. Practical value. Conducted research allow us to establish the boundary parameter values of feeding energy quality (asymmetry factor, feeding voltage deviations from the nominal value, at which additional isolation overheating of this class under the effect of specified factors will not exceed the agreed value.

  8. Model test on the relationship feed energy and protein ratio to the production and quality of milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, R.; Jantra, M. A. C.; Santosa, S. A. B.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find an appropriate relationship model between the feed energy and protein ratio with the amount of production and quality of milk proteins. This research was conducted at Getasan Sub-district, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia using 40 samples (Holstein Friesian cattle, lactation period II-III and lactation month 3-4). Data were analyzed using linear and quadratic regressions, to predict the production and quality of milk protein from feed energy and protein ratio that describe the diet. The significance of model was tested using analysis of variance. Coefficient of determination (R2), residual variance (RV) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were reported for the developed equations as an indicator of the goodness of model fit. The results showed no relationship in milk protein (kg), milk casein (%), milk casein (kg) and milk urea N (mg/dl) as function of CP/TDN. The significant relationship was observed in milk production (L or kg) and milk protein (%) as function of CP/TDN, both in linear and quadratic models. In addition, a quadratic change in milk production (L) (P = 0.003), milk production (kg) (P = 0.003) and milk protein concentration (%) (P = 0.026) were observed with increase of CP/TDN. It can be concluded that quadratic equation was the good fitting model for this research, because quadratic equation has larger R2, smaller RV and smaller RMSPE than those of linear equation.

  9. The energy between development opportunities and risks of the deteriorating quality of the environment: the case of Sfax (Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamida, Rania

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has a dual purpose; it focused on the one hand on the role of energy in the industrial and economic development of the country and on the other hand on the impact of its use on the environment and health status of individuals. We developed and operated a database on the Sfax region, which has been used for empirical analysis suited to each area of research. The path followed to argue this thesis has led us to establish three chapters. At the first chapter, we particularly appreciated the role of energy in economic development of nations. Following our empirical analysis, two main results are announced, first, the presence of a long-term effect between energy consumption and economic development in the region of Sfax implying its economic dependence on energy. Then the existence of unidirectional causal relationship starting from energy consumption to economic growth. In the second chapter, we are interested in studying the impact of energy consumption on the deterioration of the environment quality. Two points are emphasized, first, a correlation is found between energy consumption and the following pollutants: PM10, SO_2 and NO_2. Secondly, the presence of tropospheric ozone (O_3) in the air is not conditional on the energy consumption but rather to photochemical reactions involving NO_2 and oxygen under the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation. Finally, weather factors, especially temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) affect the dispersion of pollutants and their accumulation around their emission sources. The last chapter is focused on the analysis of the health impact of air pollution. Adapted to the region of Sfax, three main findings are detected. First, cardiovascular diseases are affected by SO_2 emissions and while respiratory diseases are influenced by emissions of SO_2 and O_3. Then, a correlation is justified between O_3 NO_2, confirming the chemical reaction of ozone scavenging already indicated. Finally, we concluded that the wind

  10. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environment, Quality Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, C.G.; Scarpitta, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results from the analysis of the 34th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP 34) that were received on or before June 10, 1991. This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML's results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. A summary of the reported results is available to the participants 3 days after the reporting deadline via a modem-telephone connection to the EML computer. The ''EML value'' listed in the tables to which the contractors' results are compared is the mean of replicate determination for each nuclide. The EML uncertainty is the standard error of the mean. All other uncertainties are as reported by the participants

  11. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation

  12. Dosimetry quality assurance in Martin Marietta Energy Systems' centralized external dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleyrette, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    External dosimetry needs at the four Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities are served by Energy Systems Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a four plant program with four dosimeter distribution centers and two dosimeter processing centers. Each plant has its own distribution center, while processing centers are located at ORNL and the Y-12 Plant. The program has been granted accreditation by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). The CEDS is a TLD based system which is responsible for whole-body beta-gamma, neutron, and extremity monitoring. Beta-gamma monitoring is performed using the Harshaw/Solon Technologies model 8805 dosimeter. Effective October 1, 1992 the standard silver mylar has been replaced with an Avery mylar foil blackened on the underside with ink. This was done in an effort to reduce the number of light induced suspect readings. At this time we have little operational experience with the new blackened mylars-The CEDS neutron dosimeter is the Harshaw model 8806B. This card/holder configuration contains two TLD-600/TLD-700 chip pairs; one pair is located beneath a cadmium filter and one pair is located beneath a plastic filter. In routine personnel monitoring the CEDS neutron dosimeter is always paired with a CEDS beta-gamma dosimeter.The CEDS extremity dosimeter is composed of a Harshaw thin TLD-700 dosiclip placed inside a Teledyne RB-4 finger sachet. The finger sachet provides approximately 7 mg/cm 2 filtration over the chip. A teflon ring surrounds the dosiclip to help prevent tearing of the vinyl sachet

  13. Energy reallocation during and after periods of nutritional stress in Steller sea lions: low-quality diet reduces capacity for physiological adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniard du Dot, Tiphaine; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    Two groups of female Steller sea lions (groups H and P) were subjected to periods of energy restriction and subsequent refeeding during winter and summer to determine changes in energy partitioning among principal physiological functions and the potential consequences to their fitness. Both sea lion groups consumed high-quality fish (herring) before and after the energy restrictions. During restrictions, group H was fed a lower quantity of herring and group P a caloric equivalent of low-quality fish (pollock). Quantitative estimates of maintenance and production energies and qualitative estimates of thermoregulation, activity, and basal metabolic rate were measured. During summer, all animals compensated for the imposed energy deficit by releasing stored energy (production energy). Group H also optimized the energy allocation to seasonal conditions by increasing activity during summer, when fish are naturally abundant (foraging effort), and by decreasing thermoregulation capacity when waters are warmer. During winter, both groups decreased the energy allocated to overall maintenance functions (basal metabolic rate, thermoregulation, and activity together) in addition to releasing stored energy, but they preserved thermoregulatory capacity. Group H also decreased activity levels in winter, when foraging in the wild is less efficient, unlike group P. Overall, sea lions fed pollock did not change energy allocation to suit environmental conditions as readily as those fed herring. This implies that a low energy-density diet may further reduce fitness of animals in the wild during periods of nutritional stress.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office quality assurance program document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of TRU waste, and establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. To help in fulfilling this mission and to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are identified and minimized, and that safety, reliability, and performance are optimized, CAO`s policy is to establish and maintain an effective quality assurance (QA) program that supports compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOE orders and requirements. This document establishes QA program requirements for all programs, projects, and activities sponsored by CAO.

  15. Fast segmentation of industrial quality pavement images using Laws texture energy measures and k -means clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathavan, Senthan; Kumar, Akash; Kamal, Khurram; Nieminen, Michael; Shah, Hitesh; Rahman, Mujib

    2016-09-01

    Thousands of pavement images are collected by road authorities daily for condition monitoring surveys. These images typically have intensity variations and texture nonuniformities that make their segmentation challenging. The automated segmentation of such pavement images is crucial for accurate, thorough, and expedited health monitoring of roads. In the pavement monitoring area, well-known texture descriptors, such as gray-level co-occurrence matrices and local binary patterns, are often used for surface segmentation and identification. These, despite being the established methods for texture discrimination, are inherently slow. This work evaluates Laws texture energy measures as a viable alternative for pavement images for the first time. k-means clustering is used to partition the feature space, limiting the human subjectivity in the process. Data classification, hence image segmentation, is performed by the k-nearest neighbor method. Laws texture energy masks are shown to perform well with resulting accuracy and precision values of more than 80%. The implementations of the algorithm, in both MATLAB® and OpenCV/C++, are extensively compared against the state of the art for execution speed, clearly showing the advantages of the proposed method. Furthermore, the OpenCV-based segmentation shows a 100% increase in processing speed when compared to the fastest algorithm available in literature.

  16. Cyber-physical system for a water reclamation plant: Balancing aeration, energy, and water quality to maintain process resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjie

    Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40

  17. The diet quality index evaluates the adequacy of energy provided by dietary macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline MENDES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between macronutrient intake adequacy and the national diet quality index score. Methods The study analyzed a representative sample of 1,662 individuals from the municipality of São Paulo who participated in a cross-sectional study called Health Survey-Capital (2008/2009. Two 24-hour recalls were collected. Habitual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. The Brazilian index was calculated as suggested, and macronutrient adequacy was given by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. A generalized linear model verified the relationship between the Brazilian index and macronutrient adequacy. All analyses with a descriptive level below 0.05 were considered significant. The analyses were performed by the software Stata 12.0, survey mode. Results The vast majority (91% of the population had inappropriate macronutrient intakes, and the total median Brazilian index score was 61.3 points (interquartile range=10.1. The total Brazilian index score of individuals with high lipid intake was worse than that of individuals with proper lipid intake (β=0,96; p=0,004, while those with high protein intake had a better score (β=1,10; p=0,003 than those with proper protein intake. Conclusion The revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index assesses diet quality properly regarding high lipid intake, but it has some limitations regarding high protein intake according to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. New studies should investigate the possibility of adapting this index to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations.

  18. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (pshift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, pshift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (pshift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (pshift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health-associated conditions. PMID:28081231

  19. Tin-filter enhanced dual-energy-CT: image quality and accuracy of CT numbers in virtual noncontrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Sascha; Sauter, Alexander; Spira, Daniel; Gatidis, Sergios; Ketelsen, Dominik; Heuschmid, Martin; Claussen, Claus D; Thomas, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    To measure and compare the objective image quality of true noncontrast (TNC) images with virtual noncontrast (VNC) images acquired by tin-filter-enhanced, dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of upper abdomen. Sixty-three patients received unenhanced abdominal CT and enhanced abdominal DECT (100/140 kV with tin filter) in portal-venous phase. VNC images were calculated from the DECT datasets using commercially available software. The mean attenuation of relevant tissues and image quality were compared between the TNC and VNC images. Image quality was rated objectively by measuring image noise and the sharpness of object edges using custom-designed software. Measurements were compared using Student two-tailed t-test. Correlation coefficients for tissue attenuation measurements between TNC and VNC were calculated and the relative deviations were illustrated using Bland-Altman plots. Mean attenuation differences between TNC and VNC (HUTNC - HUVNC) image sets were as follows: right liver lobe -4.94 Hounsfield units (HU), left liver lobe -3.29 HU, vena cava -2.19 HU, spleen -7.46 HU, pancreas 1.29 HU, fat -11.14 HU, aorta 1.29 HU, bone marrow 36.83 HU (all P VNC and TNC series were observed for liver, vena portae, kidneys, pancreas, muscle and bone marrow (Pearson's correlation coefficient ≥0.75). Mean image noise was significantly higher in TNC images (P VNC and TNC images (P = .19). The Hounsfield units in VNC images closely resemble TNC images in the majority of the organs of the upper abdomen (kidneys, liver, pancreas). In spleen and fat, Hounsfield numbers in VNC images are tend to be higher than in TNC images. VNC images show a low image noise and satisfactory edge sharpness. Other criteria of image quality and the depiction of certain lesions need to be evaluated additionally. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoden, Frederick Charles; Krüger, Janine; Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M; Aghdassi, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (pworking nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, pworking nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (pworking nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (pworking had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health-associated conditions.

  1. [The energy density and the nutritional quality of diet depending on their sugar content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Álvarez, Jesús Román

    2013-07-01

    Sugar content in foods cannot be distinguished from added sugar, although it is true that this added sugar brings mainly energy and no other essential nutrients. On the other hand, in the context of diet, sugar helps make it more varied and palatable allowing including foods that may otherwise not be would consume, thus indirectly contributing to the intake of other nutrients. Having interest in knowing the possible relationship between a high intake of sugars and the decrease in micronutrients intake, we noted that the nutrient density of the diet might be influenced by factors such as the high presence of sugar added to food. It seems that this nutritional dilution produced by adding sugar to food is, in general, not very significant and, often, offset by the fortification in micronutrients that we usually can find in many sugary products. After a detailed analysis of the published studies on the subject, it has been found that there is no a clear evidence of the hypothetical micronutrient dilution that would occur by adding sugar to the diet. On the other hand, given that the addition of sugar to the diet doesn't seem to report any remarkable advantages from the point of view of the intake of micronutrients; It seems reasonable to promote a moderate consumption of foods and sugary drinks, so in that way, they become an important extra energy source. It should also be borne in mind that the addition of sugar to the diet does not seem remarkable report any advantage in terms of intake of micronutrients. For this reason, it seems logical that the consumption of sugary food and sweet drinks will be moderate given the ease of consumption and the likelihood of their becoming a major source of energy. Finally, it is concluded on the need for further research on the mechanisms underlying that, up to now showed no, possible displacement of micro-nutrients and other food components of the diet that could occur in cases of consumption of foods with a high sugar content, as

  2. Evaluating energy efficient strategies and product quality for distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in dry-grind ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian

    The drying of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of dry-grind corn processing to ethanol utilizes about 30% of the total energy required for the production of a liter of fuel ethanol. Therefore, improving DDGS drying energy efficiency could have significant impact on the economics of the dry-grind corn-to-ethanol process. Drying process improvements must take account into the effects of various drying strategies on the final quality of DDGS which is primarily utilized as a feed ingredient. Previous studies in the literature have shown that physical and chemical properties of DDGS vary according to the ratio of the two primarily feed streams, wet distillers grains (WDG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) which make up DDGS. Extensive research using plant-scale and bench-scale experiments have been conducted on the effect of process variables (ratios of WDG, CDS and DDGS add-back) during drying on the physical and chemical properties of DDGS. However, these investigations did not correlate the product characteristics data to drying efficiency. Additionally, it cannot be clearly determined from the literature on DDGS drying that processes used in the industry are optimized for both product quality and energy efficiency. A bench-scale rotary drum dryer heated by an electrically powered heat gun was used to investigate the effects of WDG, CDS and add-back ratios on both energy efficiency, drying performance and DDGS physical and chemical properties. A two stage drying process with the bench-scale rotary dryer was used to simulate the drying of DDGS using ICM (ICM, Inc., Colwich, KS) dry-grind process technology for DDGS drying which uses two rotary drum dryers in series. Effects of drying process variables, CDS content (0, 10, 20 and 40% by mass) and percent DDGS add-back (0, 20, 40 and 60% by mass) on energy performance and product quality were determined. Sixteen different drying strategies based on drying process variable ratios were

  3. High-quality LaVO3 films as solar energy conversion material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Brahlek, Matthew; Ji, Xiaoyu; Lei, Shiming; Lapano, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mott insulating oxides and their heterostructures have recently been identified as potential photovoltaic materials with favorable absorption properties and an intrinsic built-in electric field that can efficiently separate excited electron hole pairs. At the same time, they are predicted to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit due to strong electron electron interaction present. Despite these premises a high concentration of defects commonly observed in Mott insulating films acting as recombination centers can derogate the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. With use of the self-regulated growth kinetics in hybrid molecular beam epitaxy, this obstacle can be overcome. High-quality, stoichiometric LaVO 3 films were grown with defect densities of in-gap states up to 2 orders of magnitude lower compared to the films in the literature, and a factor of 3 lower than LaVO 3 bulk single crystals. Photoconductivity measurements revealed a significant photoresponsivity increase as high as tenfold of stoichiometric LaVO 3 films compared to their nonstoichiometric counterparts. Furthermore, this work marks a critical step toward the realization of high-performance Mott insulator solar cells beyond conventional semiconductors.

  4. The dosimetric effects of photon energy on the quality of prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D; Tai, Cyril; Lee, Alvin; Ashamalla, Hani; Ikoro, N C

    2014-01-01

    Studies comparing the dosimetric effects of high- and low-energy photons to treat prostate cancer using 3-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy have yielded mixed results. With the advent of newer radiation delivery systems like volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), the impact of changing photon energy is readdressed. Sixty-five patients treated for prostate cancer at our institution from 2011 to 2012 underwent CT simulation. A target volume encompassing the prostate and entire seminal vesicles was treated to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to a total dose of 81 Gy. The VMAT plans were generated for 6-MV and 10-MV photons under identical optimization conditions using the Eclipse system version 8.6 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The analytical anisotropic algorithm was used for all dose calculations. Plans were normalized such that 98% of the planning target volume (PTV) received 100% of the prescribed dose. Dose-volumetric data from the treatment planning system was recorded for both 6-MV and 10-MV plans, which were compared for both the entire cohort and subsets of patients stratified according to the anterior-posterior separation. Plans using 10-MV photons had statistically significantly lower relative integral dose (4.1%), gradient measure (4.1%), skin Dmax (16.9%), monitor units (13.0%), and bladder V(30) (3.1%) than plans using 6-MV photons (P photons was more pronounced for thicker patients (anterior-posterior separation >21 cm) for most parameters, with statistically significant differences in bladder V(30), bladder V(65), integral dose, conformity index, and monitor units. The main dosimetric benefits of 10-MV as compared with 6-MV photons are seen in thicker patients, though for the entire cohort 10-MV plans resulted in a lower integral dose, gradient measure, skin Dmax, monitor units, and bladder V(30), possibly at the expense of higher rectum V(81). Copyright © 2014

  5. The Ontario Energy Board`s draft standard supply service code: effects on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S. [Ontario Clean Air Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-06-29

    The Ontario Clean Air Alliance (OCAA), a coalition of 67 organizations, takes issue with the Ontario Energy Board`s draft document `Standard Supply Service Code`, particularly sections 2.2.2. and 2.5.2 which they claim are not in the public interest unless the Ontario government implements the OCAA`s recommended emission caps. The alliance is of the view that without strict new environmental regulations the proposed Code would encourage the use of coal for electricity generation. Public health, the environment, consumer interests, job creation and promotion of a competitive electricity market would all be jeopardized by this development, the alliance states. The argument is supported by extensive reference to the Final Report of the Ontario Market Design Committee (MDC) which also emphasized the importance of combining the introduction of competition with appropriate environmental regulations, singling out the emission cap and trade program, and recommending that it be launched concurrently with the electricity market opening for competition. The view of the MDC was that public support for restructuring would not be forthcoming in the absence of regulatory measures to control power plant emissions. 25 refs.

  6. Nuclear applications non-energies in Mexico: interdependence between the technological development and the life quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L. C.

    2009-10-01

    The nuclear techniques have offered important benefits to the health care, the life quality of the people and the environment, as well as to the development of science and technology. Particularly the nuclear techniques through the investigation, have helped to obtain excellent technological advances in medicine, through specialized studies of diagnosis and treatment of diseases in humans and animals, the materials sterilization of medical use, the foods production and in the improvement of physical properties of polymers, the industrial processes control, the chemistry analysis of samples in precise, superficial or volumetric form, the identification and characterization of materials, as well as the understanding of the relation man-cosmos. These techniques have a high potential of application in medicine, nutrition, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, environmental chemistry, agriculture, livestock, hydrology, geology and industrial manufacture. This work includes the main applications and their ample potential of use in Mexico where the radioisotopes demand as open sources is of 89% for the health sector, 9% for industry and 2% for research. The annual national demand of distributed radioisotopes to public and private hospitals for the period 2000-2008 shows a constant growth and on the last three years it is approximated to 3.3% annual. As a result of the nuclear techniques application in the health sector at national level on the last 110 years, have been increased the correct diagnosis of diseases, the success in surgeries and the diseases treatment, it is has diminished the period of hospital stays and the medicine dose, thus like the generation of new knowledge of metabolic processes derived from the use of drugs for some diseases. For Mexico, the health sector reports the major important benefits, being expected to short and medium term an increase in the demand of these methodologies in other sectors. (Author)

  7. Specifications of the Field Quality at Injection Energy of the New Magnets for the HL-LHC Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The HL-LHC project relies on new magnet designs and technologies to achieve very small beta* values. In particular, Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets show large allowed multipole imperfections at low current. These field imperfections may have a non-negligible impact on the dynamic aperture and beam life time in the HL-LHC, also because of the smaller-than- nominal beta* values foreseen IR1 and IR5 at injection energy, which aims at decreasing the dynamic range of the squeeze and therefore contributing to optimize the turn around time. The paper describes an analysis of the machine performance based on analytical estimates and tracking simulations with the goal of providing field quality specifications for the new magnets.

  8. Energy demand and life quality in America; Demanda de energia y calidad de vida en las Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitalnik, J. [ELETRONUCLEAR, 65, Rua da Candelaria- 10 andar, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: jspitalnik@alternex.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  9. Energy Efficient Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor and Recuperator for Air Quality Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI’s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Previous efforts focused on integrating PCI’s HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight. Significant improvement was demonstrated over traditional approaches of integrating the HTCO with an external recuperative heat exchanger. While the critical target performance metrics were achieved, the thermal effectiveness of PCI’s recuperator remained a potential area of improvement to further reduce the energy requirements of the integrated system. Using the same material combinations and an improved recuperator design, the redesigned prototype has experimentally demonstrated 20 – 30% reduction (flow dependent) in steady state power consumption compared to the earlier prototype without compromising the destruction efficiency of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, design modifications and improvements allow our redesigned prototype to be more easily manufactured compared to traditional brazed plate-fin recuperator designs. The redesigned prototype was delivered to MSFC for validation testing. Here, we report and discuss the performance of the improved prototype HTCO unit with a high efficiency recuperative heat exchanger based on testing at PCI and MSFC. The device is expected to provide a reliable and robust means of disposing of trace levels of methane and VOCs by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water in order to maintain clean air in enclosed spaces, such as crewed spacecraft cabins.

  10. Improving measurement quality assurance for photon irradiations at Department of Energy facilities. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    For radiation-instrument calibration to be generally acceptable throughout the US, direct or indirect traceability to a primary standard is required. In most instances, one of the primary standards established at NIST is employed for this purpose. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is an example of a program employing dosimetry based on the NIST primary photon-, beta particle- and neutron-dosimetry standards. The NIST primary dosimetry standards for bremsstrahlung were first established in the 1950s. They have been updated since then on several occasions. In the 1970s, Technical Committee 85 of the International Standards Organization (ISO) started its work on establishing sets of internationally acceptable, well-characterized photon beams for the calibration of radiation-protection instruments. It is the intent of this paper to make a detailed comparison between the current NIST and the most up-to-date ISO techniques. At present, 41 bremsstrahlung techniques are specified in ISO 4037 while NIST supports a total of 32 techniques. Given the existing equivalences, it makes sense to try to extend the NIST techniques to cover more of the ISO Narrow Spectrum and High Air-Kerma Rate Series. These extensions will also allow the possibility for use of ISO beam techniques in future revisions of the DOELAP standard, which has been suggested by DOE. To this end, NIST was funded by DOE to procure material and make adaptations to the existing NIST x-ray calibration ranges to allow NIST to have the capability of producing all the ISO bremsstrahlung techniques. The following sections describe the steps that were taken to achieve this

  11. A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorizas, Paraskevi Vivian; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2015-05-01

    The perception of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) through questionnaires in conjunction with in-field measurements related to the indoor air quality (IAQ), the thermal comfort and the lighting environment were studied in nine naturally ventilated schools of Athens, Greece. Cluster analysis was carried out in order to determine the ranges of indoor air pollutants, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and ventilation rates at which the students were satisfied with the indoor environment. It was found that increased levels of particulate matter did not have a negative effect on students' perception while students seemed to link the degradation of IAQ with temperature variations. Statistically significant correlations were further found between measurement results and students' perception of the IEQ. Students' sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of schoolwork were also investigated as a function of the levels of indoor air pollutants and ventilation, and there were found significant positive correlations between particulate matter (PM) and certain health symptoms. Students' learning performance seemed to be affected by the ventilation rates and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentrations while certain health effects positively correlated to the levels of PM and CO₂. The energy consumption of schools was rather low compared to other national findings, and both the electricity and oil consumption for heating positively correlated to the levels of indoor air pollutants.

  12. Management of the use of bioenergy as an electric energy cogeneration to improve air quality in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso Jiménez, Ricardo; Cuesta Santos, Osvaldo; Carrillo Vitale, Ernesto R.; Sosa Pérez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuel by use electricity generation and other industries are a source of gases and particles that affect air quality. The scientific result of the Institute of Meteorology C haracterization of the dispersion of concentrations of air pollutants emitted by the main fixed sources and their potential impact in Havana” demonstrated that large quantities are emitted of SO 2 , NO 2 , CO and MP. Also pointed out which are the most polluting industries of the capital. Biomass is a renewable energy source. Biomass can either be used directly, or indirectly. Advances in recent years have shown that there are more efficient and cleaner ways to use biomass. The purpose of this work is to evaluate difference among the impact in the air quality and Climate by use of biomass burning in substitution of fossil fuel combustion in chose electric power using bioenergy. In the literature various methods are reported to determine the amount of biomass burned emissions. These methods depend on the type of biomass burned considered. The calculation methodology described in those studies is based from the one developed by various authors. The air pollutants considered are: Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Methane (CH 4 ), Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) and Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O). The activity data used are those available in the country and were obtained from some Cuban projects and articles. The amount of gases that are released into the atmosphere due to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion is calculated and compare for some cases. (author)

  13. Independent oversight review of the Department of Energy Quality Assurance Program for suspect/counterfeit parts. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    To address the potential threat that suspect/counterfeit parts could pose to DOE workers and the public, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oversight initiated a number of activities beginning in mid-1995. Oversight placed increased emphasis on the field's quality assurance-suspect/counterfeit parts programs during safety management evaluations, in keeping with the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) oversight responsibilities, which include oversight of the Department's quality assurance (QA) programs. In addition, Oversight reviewed relevant policy documents and occurrence reports to determine the nature and magnitude of the problem within the Department. The results of that review, contained in an Office of Oversight report, Independent Oversight Analysis of Suspect/Counterfeit Parts Within the Department of Energy (November 1995), indicate a lack of consistency and comprehensiveness in the Department's QA-suspect/counterfeit parts program. A detailed analysis of the causes and impacts of the problem was recommended. In response, this review was initiated to determine the effectiveness of the Department's QA program for suspect/counterfeit parts. This study goes beyond merely assessing and reporting the status of the program, however. It is the authors intention to highlight the complex issues associated with suspect/counterfeit parts in the Department today and to present approaches that DOE managers might consider to address these issues

  14. Independent oversight review of the Department of Energy Quality Assurance Program for suspect/counterfeit parts. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    To address the potential threat that suspect/counterfeit parts could pose to DOE workers and the public, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oversight initiated a number of activities beginning in mid-1995. Oversight placed increased emphasis on the field`s quality assurance-suspect/counterfeit parts programs during safety management evaluations, in keeping with the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) oversight responsibilities, which include oversight of the Department`s quality assurance (QA) programs. In addition, Oversight reviewed relevant policy documents and occurrence reports to determine the nature and magnitude of the problem within the Department. The results of that review, contained in an Office of Oversight report, Independent Oversight Analysis of Suspect/Counterfeit Parts Within the Department of Energy (November 1995), indicate a lack of consistency and comprehensiveness in the Department`s QA-suspect/counterfeit parts program. A detailed analysis of the causes and impacts of the problem was recommended. In response, this review was initiated to determine the effectiveness of the Department`s QA program for suspect/counterfeit parts. This study goes beyond merely assessing and reporting the status of the program, however. It is the authors intention to highlight the complex issues associated with suspect/counterfeit parts in the Department today and to present approaches that DOE managers might consider to address these issues.

  15. An effective and optimal quality control approach for green energy manufacturing using design of experiments framework and evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Juan Alejandro

    Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA) strategies vary significantly across industries in the manufacturing sector depending on the product being built. Such strategies range from simple statistical analysis and process controls, decision-making process of reworking, repairing, or scraping defective product. This study proposes an optimal QC methodology in order to include rework stations during the manufacturing process by identifying the amount and location of these workstations. The factors that are considered to optimize these stations are cost, cycle time, reworkability and rework benefit. The goal is to minimize the cost and cycle time of the process, but increase the reworkability and rework benefit. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to propose a cost estimation model that includes energy consumption, and (2) to propose an optimal QC methodology to identify quantity and location of rework workstations. The cost estimation model includes energy consumption as part of the product direct cost. The cost estimation model developed allows the user to calculate product direct cost as the quality sigma level of the process changes. This provides a benefit because a complete cost estimation calculation does not need to be performed every time the processes yield changes. This cost estimation model is then used for the QC strategy optimization process. In order to propose a methodology that provides an optimal QC strategy, the possible factors that affect QC were evaluated. A screening Design of Experiments (DOE) was performed on seven initial factors and identified 3 significant factors. It reflected that one response variable was not required for the optimization process. A full factorial DOE was estimated in order to verify the significant factors obtained previously. The QC strategy optimization is performed through a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which allows the evaluation of several solutions in order to obtain feasible optimal solutions. The GA

  16. Effect of photon-beam energy on VMAT and IMRT treatment plan quality and dosimetric accuracy for advanced prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, Marlies; Wirtz, Holger; Lutterbach, Johannes [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen-Friedrichshafen, Singen (Germany); Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2011-12-15

    The goal of the research was to evaluate treatment plan quality and dosimetric accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans using 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams for prostate cancer including lymph nodes. In this retrospective study, VMAT and IMRT plans were generated with the Pinnacle {sup copyright} treatment planning system (TPS) (V9.0) for 10 prostate cancer cases. Each plan consisted of two target volumes: PTV{sub B} included the prostate bed, PTV{sub PC+LN} contained PTV{sub B} and lymph nodes. For plan evaluation statistics, the homogeneity index, conformity index, mean doses, and near-max doses to organs at risk (OAR) were analyzed. Treatment time and number of monitor units were assessed to compare delivery efficiency. Dosimetric plan verification was performed with a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. Results: No differences were found for target and OAR parameters in low and high energy photon beam plans for both VMAT and IMRT. A slightly higher low dose volume was detected for 6 MV VMAT plans (normal tissue: D{sub mean} = 16.47 Gy) compared to 10 and 15 MV VMAT plans (D{sub mean} = 15.90 Gy and 15.74 Gy, respectively), similar to the findings in IMRT. In VMAT, > 96% of detector points passed the 3%/ 3 mm {gamma} criterion; marginally better accuracy was found in IMRT (> 97%). Conclusion: For static and rotational IMRT, 15 MV photons did not show advantages over 6 and 10 MV high energy photon beams in large volume pelvic plans. For the investigated TPS and linac combination, 10 MV photon beams can be used as the general purpose energy for intensity modulation.

  17. Effect of energy and protein levels on health, growth, puberty and semen quality of Holstein bull-calves undergoing progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J L; Zaldivar, V; Tamayo-Aviles, A; Faure, R [Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Reproduccion; Boado, A; Lannes, M [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Habana, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Nutricion Animal

    1996-05-01

    Three energy and protein levels in the ration fed potential artificial insemination sires during the first year of age were evaluated with respect to health, body and testicular growth rate, puberty and sperm quality of the animals. Treatment were, Group I, NRC requirements for energy and protein for growing dairy bulls with daily weight gains from 0.4 to 0.9 kg/day; and Groups II and III which were fed 15 and 30% over the recommended energy and protein requirements, respectively. Blood metabolites were found within the reference range. Plasma Cu and Zn were lower in Groups I and III as compared to Group II. Histological studies and gross weights of the thyroid glands were compatible with hypofunction of the glands in animals from Groups I and III. In Group III, 60% of animals showed abundant fat deposition in testicles. Normal fibroelastic consistency of testicles was found in 30, 80, and 20% of animals in Groups I, II, and III, respectively, at 365 days of age. The area under the curve was 641.5, 982.9 and 462.2 for Groups I, II and III, respectively. Volume, motility and percentage of living spermatozoa increased with age (P<0.05) while total morphological alterations decreased significantly. Animals in Group II had the best sperm production. Histological evaluation revealed 80 and 100% of testicular degeneration in animals from Groups I and III, respectively. The application of diet in Group II is recommended to be used in specialized AI bull rearing units in Cuba according to the quantities and characteristics evaluated in this design. 61 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  18. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies; Grenelle Environnement: 50 mesures pour un developpement des energies renouvelables a haute qualite environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Evaluation of low-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography images by comparing them to full-field digital mammography using EUREF image quality criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lalji, U. C.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Houben, I.; Nelemans, P. J.; van Engen, R. E.; van Wylick, E.; Beets-Tan, R. G. H.; Wildberger, J. E.; Paulis, L. E.; Lobbes, M. B. I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examination results in a low-energy (LE) and contrast-enhanced image. The LE appears similar to a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Our aim was to evaluate LE CESM image quality by comparing it to FFDM using criteria defined by the European Reference Organization for Quality Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services (EUREF). Methods A total of 147 cases with both FFDM and LE images were independently scored by two experienced r...

  20. Quality audits of radiotherapy centres in Latin America: a pilot experience of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Izewska, Joanna; Binia, Sergio; Garcia-Yip, Fernando; Jimenez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In Latin America radiotherapy quality varies significantly among hospitals, where highly equipped academic centers coexist with others not meeting minimal requirements. In 2007, the International Atomic Energy Agency published guidelines for auditing radiotherapy centers, known as the “Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology” (QUATRO) audits. The present report summarizes a pilot experience with QUATRO audits to 12 radiotherapy centres. The findings from QUATRO audits conducted in 12 radiotherapy centres in Latin America between 2008 and 2013 were analysed. Events representing weaknesses or gaps in the process of radiotherapy were recorded. Relevant data for estimating human and technological needs of visited centres were processed. The main difficulties and strengths faced by institutions were also documented. All 12 radiotherapy centres were successfully audited following the QUATRO method. IAEA provided a dosimetry kit for quality control. Forty percent of audited institutions were immersed in a health system that did not recognize cancer as a public health priority problem. With few exceptions, local training programs for physicists and technologists were scarce and research was not an activity of interest among physicians. Centres were provided with sufficient staff to meet the local demand, both in the case of radiation oncologists, physicists and radiation therapists. Three centres lacking the minimum infrastructure were identified. Three institutions did not perform gynaecological brachytherapy, and one installation delivered around 900 teletherapy treatments annually without simulation, planning or dosimetry equipment for that purpose. Recommendations to centres were classified as related to personnel, infrastructure, processes and institutional organizational aspects. Many recommendations warned governments about the evident need for allocating more budgetary resources to radiotherapy. Most recommendations pointed out different aspects related

  1. Passive house progress report: Energy and indoor air quality. Measuring methods and verification of energy saving potentials and indoor air quality in passive houses at Nuremberg; Passivhaus-Projektbericht: Energie und Raumluftqualitaet. Messetchnische Evaluierung und Verifizierung der energetischen Einsparpotentiale und Raumluftqualitaet an Passivhaeusern in Nuernberg. Projekt: Passiv-Haus-Doppelhaeuser, Wachtelstrasse 12/Praelat-Nicol-Strasse 3-7, Nuernberg-Wetzendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze Darup, B [ed.

    2002-07-01

    A model passive building was constructed at Nuremberg. Buildings of this type have an annual heat consumption of less than 15 kWh/m{sup 2}, so that quality assurance is of utmost importance with regard to energy consumption, primary energy balance, environmental impact and especially room air quality. The findings of the project will be published. [German] Im Rahmen der Lokalen Agenda 21 wurde in Nuernberg ein Passivhaus-Modellprojekt erstellt. Da energiesparende Wohngebaeude mit einem jaehrlichen Heizwaermebedarf unter 15 kWh/m{sup 2} zunehmend zum Stand der Technik werden, ist eine grundlegende Qualitaetssicherung hinsichtlich Energieverbrauch, Primaerenergiebilanz, Umweltvertraeglichkeit und insbesondere Raumluftqualitaet sowie die Veroeffentlichung der Erfahrungen von grosser Bedeutung. (orig.)

  2. Energy and air quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available and biomass burning has been directly linked to adverse human health effects including lower respiratory infections; cancers of the bronchus, trachea and lungs; and ischaemic heart disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Lim et al... free of pollutants, poor communities are exposed to numerous health-damaging pollutants and therefore suffer from a variety of health diseases, primarily affecting women and children. The number of deaths linked to respiratory infections...

  3. Dual energy CT of peripheral arteries: Effect of automatic bone and plaque removal on image quality and grading of stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.C.; Werncke, T.; Hopfenmueller, W.; Raatschen, H.J.; Wolf, K.-J.; Albrecht, T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of automatic bone and plaque removal on image quality and grading of steno-occlusive lesions in patients undergoing dual energy CT angiography (CTA) of lower extremity. Materials and methods: Dual energy (DE) runoff CTA was performed in 50 patients using the following parameters: collimation 2 x 32 x 0.6; tube potentials, 80 kV and 140 kV; reconstructed slice thickness 1 mm. 100 mL iomeprol 400 and 50 mL saline were injected at 4 mL/s. Separate datasets were calculated for each of the two tubes and used to generate automatically bone-subtracted images (ABS) as well as bone and plaque subtracted images (ABPS). Residual bone in the ABS dataset was removed manually (=ABS-B dataset). In addition, a weighted average dataset from both dual energy acquisitions resembling a routine 120 kV CT acquisition was used for standard manual bone subtraction (MBS). Operator time for bone removal was measured. Effectiveness of bone subtraction and presence of vessel erosions was assessed by two readers in consensus. Stenosis grading in plaque subtracted and unsubtracted images was assessed and correlated. Results: Residual bone fragments (ribs: 46%, patella: 25%, spine: 4%, pelvis: 2%, tibia 2% of patients) were only observed with ABS. The time needed to manually remove these residual bones was 2.1 ± 1.1 min and was significantly lower than the duration of manual bone removal (6.8 ± 2.0 min, p < 0.0001, paired t-test). A total of 1159 arteries were analyzed. Compromising vessel erosions were observed less frequently in the ABS-B dataset (10.6%) than in the MBS dataset (15.2%, p < 0.001, wilcoxon's signed rank test). A total of 817 steno-occlusive lesions were assessed. While the agreement of grading of steno-occlusive lesions was good at the levels of the aorta and the pelvic arteries (κ = 0.70 in both, Cohen's kappa statistics), it was moderate at the level of the thigh arteries (κ = 0.57) and poor at the level of the calf (κ = 0.16). Conclusion

  4. The effect of a home delivery meal service of energy- and protein-rich meals on quality of life in malnourished outpatients suffering from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Gade, Josephine; Granov, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and associated with increased incidence of complications and mortality. We investigated the effects of a home delivery meal service, providing a selection of energy-dense, protein-rich meals, on quality of life (QoL) in malnourished lung cancer....... Intervention exerted a significant positive effect on performance score after 12 wk (P = 0.047). Increased energy and protein intakes were strongly associated with improved QoL, functional score, hand grip strength, symptom and performance scores. Food delivery service with energy- and protein-rich main meals...

  5. Electrical Energy Quality Studies in 3 kV DC Electric Traction Systems for Different Schemes of Connection Traction Substation to Power Utility System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Mierzejewski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper present aspects of DC electric traction system influence on electric energetic system. Study is based on modeling and simulation of electrified railway line. After simulation, there was performed analysis of energy quality, whitch using results of simulation and supply systems parameters.

  6. Energy Cost and Gait Efficiency of Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Subject with Similar Physical Parameters & Quality of Life: A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a below knee (BK amputee and a reference subject (without amputation. It also attempted to indicate the specific feature responsible for a controlled gait with optimum energy cost for BK amputees. Selection criteria of the subjects were similar physical parameters and quality of life studied with WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. A Cosmed® k4 b2 Respiratory Analyzer system was used for the measurement of Oxygen Uptake (VO2, Energy Expenditure per minute (EE and Heart Rate (HR. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0002 was found higher for BK amputee than normal subject. The therapeutic activities and mainly walking rhythm contributed to improve the mobility & balance. This ensures the optimum time & co-ordination of movements and hence improves the gait efficiency for the BK amputee. Comparison with control group was performed to validate the data.

  7. Key figures for joint assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and energy consumption in modern buildings – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tisov, Ana; Siroky, Jan; Kolarik, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    ’s energy management and operational diagnostics focus mostly on energy consumption. Consequently also present key figures comprise performance indicators related to energy use. The fact that modern buildings are not spared from IEQ related problems indicates that there is a need for joint assessment...... and test key figures that would directly combine performance indicators related to both energy use and IEQ....... of energy and IEQ performance. The aim of this paper was to review relevant literature to form a scientific background for development of key figures enabling the joint assessment of energy and IEQ. The review resulted in forty cited publications. Majority of them focused explicitly on energy performance...

  8. Effects of two protein sources and energy level of diet on the performance of young Marchigiana bulls. 2. Meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to study the influence of two protein sources (faba bean-FB vs soybean meal s.e.-SBM and two energy levels of diets given to young Marchigiana bulls on meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC, chemical composition, hydroxyproline and cholesterol contents, fatty acids profile of intramuscular, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues. While chemical composition and WHC was determined only on muscle Longissimus thoracis (LT, hydroxyproline and cholesterol contents were evaluated also on muscles Semitendinosus (ST and Ileopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP. Eighteen young bulls were divided into three groups. Until the slaughter weight (620 kg was achieved, two groups, FB and SBM, were fed diets with similar protein and energy contents but differing in protein sources, and the third group was fed high energy (HE diets. Protein sources did not affect meat nutritional characteristics; but meat of group SBM had high hydroxyproline content: 62.6 vs 60.0 mg 100g-1, respectively, for SBM and FB groups (P<0.05, while compression losses were higher for FB group (7.6 vs 5.7%, respectively, for FB and SBM groups; P<0.01. As respects the comparison among content of hydroxyproline in the different muscles: IP, corresponding to the tenderloin, showed significantly lower concentrations than the other muscles (55.2 vs 60.7 and 63.5 mg 100g-1 for IP, LT and ST, respectively; P<0.01. Feeding regimes did not affect muscular cholesterol content (average values of 53.6, 55.5 and 52.1 mg 100g-1 of fresh muscle for FB, SBM and HE, respectively which was similar to the levels found in meat from specialised Italian beef breeds and lower than those from other breeds. As respects the differences in cholesterol contents among the muscles, IP showed lower contents than other muscles (50.9 vs 54.1, 56.0 mg 100g-1, respectively for IP, ST, LT; P<0.05. The higher energy diets induced higher concentration of saturated fatty acids, in particular of palmitic

  9. Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, A.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from. 252 Cf and. 244 Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. (authors)

  10. Quality assurance in the measurement of internal radioactive contamination and dose assessment and the United States Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The Quality Assurance for analytical measurement of internal radioactive contamination and dose assessment in the United States (US) is achieved through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for both Dosimetry and Radio bioassay laboratories for approximately 150,000 radiation workers. This presentation will explain the link between Quality Assurance and the DOELAP Accreditation process. DOELAP is a DOE complex-wide safety program that ensures the quality of worker radiation protection programs. DOELAP tests the ability of laboratories to accurately measure and quantify radiation dose to workers and assures the laboratories quality systems are capable of defending and sustaining their measurement results. The United States Law in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations 835 requires that personnel Dosimetry and Radio bioassay programs be tested and accredited

  11. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses material reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Maximilian F; Töpker, Michael; Lazar, Mathias; Weber, Michael; Kasparek, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul; Kubista, Bernd; Windhager, Reinhard; Ringl, Helmut

    2018-06-07

    To evaluate the influence of different scan parameters for single-energy CT and dual-energy CT, as well as the impact of different material used in a TKA prosthesis on image quality and the extent of metal artifacts. Eight pairs of TKA prostheses from different vendors were examined in a phantom set-up. Each pair consisted of a conventional CoCr prosthesis and the corresponding anti-allergic prosthesis (full titanium, ceramic, or ceramic-coated) from the same vendor. Nine different (seven dual-energy CT and two single-energy CT) scan protocols with different characteristics were used to determine the most suitable CT protocol for TKA imaging. Quantitative image analysis included assessment of blooming artifacts (metal implants appear thicker on CT than they are, given as virtual growth in mm in this paper) and streak artifacts (thick dark lines around metal). Qualitative image analysis was used to investigate the bone-prosthesis interface. The full titanium prosthesis and full ceramic knee showed significantly fewer blooming artifacts compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (mean virtual growth 0.6-2.2 mm compared to 2.9-4.6 mm, p energy CT protocols showed less blooming (range 3.3-3.8 mm) compared to single-energy protocols (4.6-5.5 mm). The full titanium and full ceramic prostheses showed significantly fewer streak artifacts (mean standard deviation 77-86 Hounsfield unit (HU)) compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (277-334 HU, p energy CT protocols had fewer metal streak artifacts (215-296 HU compared to single-energy CT protocols (392-497 HU)). Full titanium and ceramic prostheses were ranked superior with regard to the image quality at the bone/prosthesis interface compared to a standard CoCr prosthesis, and all dual-energy CT protocols were ranked better than single-energy protocols. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty at the bone/prosthesis interface

  12. An interval-possibilistic basic-flexible programming method for air quality management of municipal energy system through introducing electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Shan, B G

    2017-09-01

    Contradictions of sustainable transportation development and environmental issues have been aggravated significantly and been one of the major concerns for energy systems planning and management. A heavy emphasis is placed on stimulation of electric vehicles (EVs) to handle these problems associated with various complexities and uncertainties in municipal energy system (MES). In this study, an interval-possibilistic basic-flexible programming (IPBFP) method is proposed for planning MES of Qingdao, where uncertainties expressed as interval-flexible variables and interval-possibilistic parameters can be effectively reflected. Support vector regression (SVR) is used for predicting electricity demand of the city under various scenarios. Solutions of EVs stimulation levels and satisfaction levels in association with flexible constraints and predetermined necessity degrees are analyzed, which can help identify the optimized energy-supply patterns that could plunk for improvement of air quality and hedge against violation of soft constraints. Results disclose that largely developing EVs can help facilitate the city's energy system with an environment-effective way. However, compared to the rapid growth of transportation, the EVs' contribution of improving the city's air quality is limited. It is desired that, to achieve an environmentally sustainable MES, more concerns should be focused on the integration of increasing renewable energy resources, stimulating EVs as well as improving energy transmission, transport and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Capacity of biochar application to maintain energy crop productivity: soil chemistry, sorghum growth, and runoff water quality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Provin, Tony L; Munster, Clyde L; Capareda, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis of crop biomass generates a by-product, biochar, which can be recycled to sustain nutrient and organic C concentrations in biomass production fields. We evaluated effects of biochar rate and application method on soil properties, nutrient balance, biomass production, and water quality. Three replications of eight sorghum [ (L.) Moench] treatments were installed in box lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised increasing rates (0, 1.5, and 3.0 Mg ha) of topdressed or incorporated biochar supplemented with N fertilizer or N, P, and K fertilizer. Simulated rain was applied at 21 and 34 d after planting, and mass runoff loss of N, P, and K was measured. A mass balance of total N, P, and K was performed after 45 d. Returning 3.0 Mg ha of biochar did not affect sorghum biomass, soil total, or Mehlich-3-extractable nutrients compared to control soil. Yet, biochar contributed to increased concentration of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and mass loss of total phosphorus (TP) in simulated runoff, especially if topdressed. It was estimated that up to 20% of TP in topdressed biochar was lost in surface runoff after two rain events. Poor recovery of nutrients during pyrolysis and excessive runoff loss of nutrients for topdressed biochar, especially K, resulted in negative nutrient balances. Efforts to conserve nutrients during pyrolysis and incorporation of biochar at rates derived from annual biomass yields will be necessary for biochar use in sustainable energy crop production. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Metal artifact reduction software used with abdominopelvic dual-energy CT of patients with metal hip prostheses: assessment of image quality and clinical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Chol; Chung, Yong Eun; Lee, Young Han; Park, Kwan Kyu; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2014-10-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the feasibility of using Metal Artifact Reduction (MAR) software for abdominopelvic dual-energy CT in patients with metal hip prostheses. This retrospective study included 33 patients (male-female ratio, 19:14; mean age, 63.7 years) who received total hip replacements and 20 patients who did not have metal prostheses as the control group. All of the patients underwent dual-energy CT. The quality of the images reconstructed using the MAR algorithm and of those reconstructed using the standard reconstruction was evaluated in terms of the visibility of the bladder wall, pelvic sidewall, rectal shelf, and bone-prosthesis interface and the overall diagnostic image quality with a 4-point scale. The mean and SD attenuation values in Hounsfield units were measured in the bladder, pelvic sidewall, and rectal shelf. For validation of the MAR interpolation algorithm, pelvis phantoms with small bladder "lesions" and metal hip prostheses were made, and images of the phantoms both with and without MAR reconstruction were evaluated. Image quality was significantly better with MAR reconstruction than without at all sites except the rectal shelf, where the image quality either had not changed or had worsened after MAR reconstruction. The mean attenuation value was changed after MAR reconstruction to its original expected value at the pelvic sidewall (p software with dual-energy CT decreases metal artifacts and increases diagnostic confidence in the assessment of the pelvic cavity but also introduces new artifacts that can obscure pelvic structures.

  15. The effect of Moidal non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT on CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Yang Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between linear blending and non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT, and to evaluate the effect on CT image quality. Methods: The model was made of a piece of fresh pork liver inserted with 5 syringes containing various concentrations of iodine solutions (16.3, 26.4, 48.7, 74.6 and 112.3 HU). Linear blending images were automatically reformatted after the model was scanned in the dual-energy mode. Non-linear blending images were reformatted using the software of optimal contrast in Syngo workstation. Images were divided into 3 groups, including linear blending group, non-linear blending group and 120 kV group. Contrast noise ratio (CNR) were measured and calculated respectively in the 3 groups and the different figure of merit (FOM) values between the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Twenty patients scanned in the dual-energy mode were randomly selected and the SNR of their liver, renal cortex, spleen, pancreas and abdominal aorta were measured. The independent sample t test was used to compare the difference of signal to noise ratio (SNR) between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Two readers' agreement score and single-blind method were used to investigate the conspicuity difference between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Results: With models of different CT values, the FOM values in non-linear blending group were 20.65± 8.18, 11.40±4.25, 1.60±0.82, 2.40±1.13, 45.49±17.86. In 74.6 HU and 112.3 HU models, the differences of the FOM values observed among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), which were 0.30±0.06 and 14.43±4.59 for linear blending group, and 0.22±0.05 and 15.31±5.16 for 120 kV group. And non-linear blending group had a better FOM value. The SNR of renal cortex and abdominal aorta were 19.2±5.1 and 36.5±13.9 for non-linear blending group, while they were 12.4±3.8 and 22.6±7.0 for linear blending group. There were statistically

  16. The role of eating frequency on total energy intake and diet quality in a low-income, racially diverse sample of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E Whitney; Jacques, Paul F; Dallal, Gerard E; Sacheck, Jennifer; Must, Aviva

    2015-02-01

    The relationship of meal and snacking patterns with overall dietary intake and relative weight in children is unclear. The current study was done to examine how eating, snack and meal frequencies relate to total energy intake and diet quality. The cross-sectional associations of eating, meal and snack frequencies with total energy intake and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), were examined in separate multivariable mixed models. Differences were examined between elementary school-age participants (9-11 years) and adolescents (12-15 years). Two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls were collected from children attending four schools in the greater Boston area, MA, USA. One hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren, aged 9-15 years. Overall, 82% of participants consumed three daily meals. Eating, meal and snack frequencies were statistically significantly and positively associated with total energy intake. Each additional reported meal and snack was associated with an 18·5% and a 9·4% increase in total energy intake, respectively (Pquality differed by age category. In elementary school-age participants, total eating occasions and snacks increased HEI-2005 score. In adolescents, each additional meal increased HEI-2005 score by 5·40 points (P=0·01), whereas each additional snack decreased HEI-2005 score by 2·73 points (P=0·006). Findings suggest that snacking increases energy intake in schoolchildren. Snacking is associated with better diet quality in elementary school-age children and lower diet quality in adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of snacking in excess weight gain in children and adolescents.

  17. The impact of hybrid energy storage on power quality, when high power pulsed DC loads are operated on a microgrid testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay Paul

    . This enables the generator to maintain its operation at levels of high efficiency thereby increasing the power quality of the AC bus. The work discussed here is aimed at evaluating how the use of energy storage impacts the power quality on MicroGrid's AC bus when high rate DC and AC loads are sourced simultaneously. Also HESM has been developed and evaluated as a mean to optimizing both the power and energy density of the energy storage installed.

  18. Assessment of environmental co-benefits of energy system decarbonisation - the case of UK air quality using Remote Sensing and Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Z.; Konadu, D. D.; Damoah, R.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a binding obligation to reduce GHG emission by 80% (based on 1990 levels) by 2050. Meeting this target requires extensive decarbonisation of the UK energy system. Different pathways that achieve this target at the lowest system costs are being explored at different levels of policy and decisions on future energy infrastructure. Whilst benefits of decarbonisation are mainly focused on the impacts on climate change, there are other potential environmental and health impacts such as air-quality. In particular, a decrease in fossil fuel use by directly substituting current systems with low-carbon technologies could lead to significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2, NOX, CO and other atmospheric pollutants. So far, the proposed decarbonisation pathways tend to target the electricity sector first, followed by a transition in transport and heating technologies and use. However, the spatial dimension of where short term changes in the energy sector occur in relation to high density population areas is not taken into account when defining the energy transition strategies. This may lead to limited short-term improvements in air quality within urban areas, where use of fossil fuels for heating and transport is the main contribution to overall atmospheric pollutant levels. It is therefore imperative to explore decarbonisation strategies that prioritise transition in sectors of the energy system that produce immediate improvements in air quality in key regions of the UK. This study aims to use a combination of Remote Sensing observations and atmospheric chemistry/transport modelling approaches to estimate and map the atmospheric pollutants impact of the traditional approach of decarbonising electricity first compared to a slower transition in the electricity sector, but faster change in end use sectors (heating and transport). This would provide an additional standard to compare future energy system pathways beyond the traditional metrics of cost and GHG

  19. Sleep quality and sleep patterns in relation to consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among Thai college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-09-01

    Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on the sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1 %. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0 %). Stimulant use (odds ratios (OR) 1.50; 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.02-1.98) also had a statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health.

  20. Development of sensor-less control strategies for grid connected PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system with improved power quality features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Interest in renewable energy sources has grown in recent years in response to concerns of increasing pollution levels and depleting fossil fuels. Among renewable energy sources, wind energy generation is the fastest growing technology and one of the most cost-effective and environmental friendly means to generate electricity from renewable sources. Modern wind turbines are ready to be deployed in large scale as a result of recent developments in wind power technology. Variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are becoming more popular. The use of a permanent magnet reduces size, cost and weight of overall WECS. In addition, the absence of field winding and its excitation system avoids heat dissipation in the rotor winding, thereby improving overall efficiency of the WECS. This type of configuration is more appropriate for remote locations, particularly for off-shore wind application, where the geared doubly fed induction generator usually requires regular maintenance due to tearing-wearing in brushes, windings and gear box. This presentation discussed the development of sensor-less control strategies for grid connected PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system with improved power quality features. A novel adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system was used to estimate the speed and position of variable speed PMSG under fluctuating wind conditions. A novel control strategy was developed for the grid interfacing inverter incorporating power quality improvement features at point of common coupling.

  1. Improvement in beam quality of the JAEA AVF cyclotron for focusing heavy-ion beams with energies of hundreds of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Okumura, Susumu; Oikawa, Masakazu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Nara, Takayuki; Agematsu, Takashi; Ishibori, Ikuo; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve a heavy-ion microbeam with an energy of hundreds of MeV applied to the research fields of biotechnology and materials science, the JAEA AVF cyclotron (K = 110) has been upgraded to provide a high quality beam with a smaller energy spread and a higher current stability. A flat-top (FT) acceleration system of the cyclotron, designed to produce ion beams with an energy spread of ΔE/E ≤ 0.02%, has been developed to reduce chromatic aberrations in the lenses of the focusing microbeam system. The FT acceleration system provides uniform energy gain of the beam by superimposing a fifth-harmonic voltage on the fundamental one. In addition, stabilization of the acceleration rf voltage and the phase were achieved to accelerate the high quality beam and to provide it stably to the microbeam system connected to a cyclotron beam line. In the latest experiment, we have succeeded to accelerate 260 MeV 20 Ne 7+ with an energy spread of 0.05% in FWHM using the FT acceleration system

  2. Diffusive transport and reaction in clay rocks: A storage (nuclear waste, CO2, H2), energy (shale gas) and water quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurent; Alt-Epping, Peter; Wersin, Paul; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Clay rocks are low permeability sedimentary formations that provide records of Earth history, influence the quality of water resources, and that are increasingly used for the extraction or storage of energy resources and the sequestration of waste materials. Informed use of clay rock formations to achieve low-carbon or carbon-free energy goals requires the ability to predict the rates of diffusive transport processes for chemically diverse dissolved and gaseous species over periods up to thousands of years. We survey the composition, properties and uses of clay rock and summarize fundamental science challenges in developing confident conceptual and quantitative gas and solute transport models.

  3. A High-Energy Good-Beam-Quality Krypton-Lamp-Pumped Nd:YAG Solid-State Laser with One Pump Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-Sheng; WANG Zhi-Yong; YAN Xin; CAO Ying-Hua

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a high-energy good-beam-quality krypton-lamp-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG solid-state laser with one pump cavity.The symmetrical resonator laser is developed and is rated at 80 J with beam parameter product 12mm mrad.The total system electro-optics efficiency of the lamp-pumped YAG laser is as high as 3.3% and the stability of output energy is ±2% with pulse width tunable between 0.1 ms and 10ms.The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and simulation.

  4. Indoor air quality vs. energy use in a beer brewery : assessment of ventilation methods and systems using CFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The production in industrial buildings can have a large impact on the indoor air quality. For example, in beer breweries several processes influence the indoor air quality to a large extent, such as the fermentation process, which is accompanied by a strong emission of CO2 gas. Employees working

  5. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  6. Energy cogeneration contributions in the wood quality as civil construction material; Contribuicoes da cogeracao de energia na qualidade da madeira como material de construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto de

    1993-07-01

    This work presents the practicable technical alternative for the improvement of solid wood quality used in the building construction. Through the reality of the solid wood Amazon Region's production and actual generation conception; cogeneration, economy and efficiency on the energy application; the alternative displayed proposes the modification on the lay-out production and production process seeking the best quality obtention of the solid wood; the replace of the petroleum derived energetics by biomass (residues) and the introduction on the production site, the solid wood drying process. The production alternatives proposed can contribute for the solid wood production cost reduction, through the fuel economy, the imperfect number piece reduction and transportation cost production reduction. Contributing significantly for the cost/benefit/quality wood relations, enabling its placement of the consuming market on the Northeast, Southeast, South and Middle west Regions and so on the international market with competitive costs. (author)

  7. Energy cogeneration contributions in the wood quality as civil construction material; Contribuicoes da cogeracao de energia na qualidade da madeira como material de construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto de

    1993-07-01

    This work presents the practicable technical alternative for the improvement of solid wood quality used in the building construction. Through the reality of the solid wood Amazon Region's production and actual generation conception; cogeneration, economy and efficiency on the energy application; the alternative displayed proposes the modification on the lay-out production and production process seeking the best quality obtention of the solid wood; the replace of the petroleum derived energetics by biomass (residues) and the introduction on the production site, the solid wood drying process. The production alternatives proposed can contribute for the solid wood production cost reduction, through the fuel economy, the imperfect number piece reduction and transportation cost production reduction. Contributing significantly for the cost/benefit/quality wood relations, enabling its placement of the consuming market on the Northeast, Southeast, South and Middle west Regions and so on the international market with competitive costs. (author)

  8. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  9. Strategic stock management task for building corporations. Energy as part of the house quality; Strategisch voorraadbeheer taak woningcorporaties. Energie als onderdeel van de woonkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, E. [DWA installatie en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    From a strategic stock management perspective building corporations should have a vision on what is important for future target groups: young or old, families or singles, income, etc. Those aspects have a great impact on the level of facilities and provisions in houses and the possibility to adjust houses by applying domotics, comfort cooling, care facilities, the use of renewable energy systems. [Dutch] Vanuit het strategisch voorraadbeheer van woningcorporaties is een visie op de toekomstige doelgroepen van belang. Vindt er een verschuiving plaats van jong naar oud? Gezinnen of juist alleenstaanden? Welke inkomensgroepen worden bediend? Dergelijke vragen hebben grote invloed op het voorzieningenniveau in de woningen. Flexibiliteit inbouwen door woningen gemakkelijk aanpasbaar te maken voor domotica, comfortkoeling, zorgfuncties, en met oog voor de opties voor duurzame energie. Want met de huidige stijgende energieprijzen kunnen de energielasten stijgen tot 40 procent van de woonkosten. Dat vraagt aandacht voor de post energie.

  10. Assessment of color quality and energy effciency : new insights for modern lighting. Part I : color quality in general lighting applications. Part II : mesopic photometry and street lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Jesús M.

    2015-01-01

    Cotutela Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya i Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya. La consulta íntegra de la tesi, inclosos els articles no comunicats públicament per drets d'autor, es pot realitzar, prèvia petició, a l'Arxiu de la UPC This dissertation is divided in two parts: The first one deal with two main characteristics of the light sources for general lighting: Color quality and luminous efficacy. The second one deals with technical aspects of the mesopic photometry appli...

  11. Bottom-up resource limitation: the ecosystem energy balance predicts the quality of nutrition in a herbivore prey population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Garcia, Monica; Gil, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    by measuring the dynamics in diet quality for the European rabbit, a key prey in Mediterranean communities. Rabbit nutrition was measured in six habitats throughout a year using faecal nitrogen (FN) content, an indicator of the levels of ingested protein. Then we tested the accuracy for predicting diet quality...... of the herbivore diet has been insufficiently tested. We hypothesized that in drylands, where water availability is a prime control of ecosystem functioning, remote sensing indicators of vegetation drought stress are critical to predict the nutritional quality of herbivore habitats. This hypothesis was analyzed...... contributed to explain the dynamics of diet quality: models including either TVDI or Hr shower a better fit than those exclusively based in EVI (R2 = 0.43—0.60). Whereas FN showed a positive relationship with EVI, the effect of TVDI and Hr was negative. Extracting the temporal component further allowed us...

  12. System management model based on the design SWOT-matrix and quality management system for energy complex enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Novikov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with categorical apparatus of information management systems to build a model pairing SWOT-matrix and the quality management system, which is especially important for the energytion industry.

  13. Energy Efficiency for Clean Air : Capturing the multiple benefits for climate, air quality, and public health in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    As global energy consumption increased to 389 EJ by 2013, while the global energy-related CO2 emissions increased by over 50%, to 32.2 Gt in 2014. This growth is driven mostly by increased industrial production in developing countries. By now already two thirds of CO2 emissions budget for limiting

  14. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  15. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  16. Medium-Term Stability of the Photon Beam Energy of An Elekta CompactTM Linear Accelerator Based on Daily Measurements of Beam Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the medium-term energy stability of a 6MV Elekta CompactTM linear accelerator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published article to evaluate this linear accelerator in terms of energy stability. As well as investigating the stability of the linear accelerator energy over a period of several weeks, the results will be useful for estimation of the required tolerance values for the beam quality factor (BQF of the PTW QUICKCHECK weblineTM (QCW daily checking device. Materials and Methods Over a 13 week period of routine clinical service, 52 daily readings of BQF were taken and then analyzed for a 10×10 cm2 field. Results No decreasing or increasing trend in BQF was observed over the study period. The mean BQF value was estimated at 5.4483 with a standard deviation (SD of 0.0459 (0.8%. The mean value was only 0.1% different from the baseline value. Conclusion The results of this medium-term stability study of the Elekta Compact linear accelerator energy showed that 96.2% of the observed BQF values were within ±1.3% of the baseline value. This can be considered to be within the recommended tolerance for linear accelerator photon beam energy. If an approach of applying ±3 SD is taken, the tolerance level for BQF may be suggested to be set at ±2.5%. However, further research is required to establish a relationship between BQF value and the actual changes in beam energy and penetrative quality.

  17. Lessons learned from a rigorous peer-review process for building the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness (CLEAN) collection of high-quality digital teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Niepold, F.; Fox, S.; Howell, C. D.; Lynds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The topic of climate change permeates all aspects of our society: the news, household debates, scientific conferences, etc. To provide students with accurate information about climate science and energy awareness, educators require scientifically and pedagogically robust teaching materials. To address this need, the NSF-funded Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway has assembled a new peer-reviewed digital collection as part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) featuring teaching materials centered on climate and energy science for grades 6 through 16. The scope and framework of the collection is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP 2009) and a set of energy awareness principles developed in the project. The collection provides trustworthy teaching materials on these socially relevant topics and prepares students to become responsible decision-makers. While a peer-review process is desirable for curriculum developer as well as collection builder to ensure quality, its implementation is non-trivial. We have designed a rigorous and transparent peer-review process for the CLEAN collection, and our experiences provide general guidelines that can be used to judge the quality of digital teaching materials across disciplines. Our multi-stage review process ensures that only resources with teaching goals relevant to developing climate literacy and energy awareness are considered. Each relevant resource is reviewed by two individuals to assess the i) scientific accuracy, ii) pedagogic effectiveness, and iii) usability/technical quality. A science review by an expert ensures the scientific quality and accuracy. Resources that pass all review steps are forwarded to a review panel of educators and scientists who make a final decision regarding inclusion of the materials in the CLEAN collection. Results from the first panel review show that about 20% (~100) of the resources that were initially considered for inclusion

  18. Evaluation of low-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography images by comparing them to full-field digital mammography using EUREF image quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalji, U C; Jeukens, C R L P N; Houben, I; Nelemans, P J; van Engen, R E; van Wylick, E; Beets-Tan, R G H; Wildberger, J E; Paulis, L E; Lobbes, M B I

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examination results in a low-energy (LE) and contrast-enhanced image. The LE appears similar to a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Our aim was to evaluate LE CESM image quality by comparing it to FFDM using criteria defined by the European Reference Organization for Quality Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services (EUREF). A total of 147 cases with both FFDM and LE images were independently scored by two experienced radiologists using these (20) EUREF criteria. Contrast detail measurements were performed using a dedicated phantom. Differences in image quality scores, average glandular dose, and contrast detail measurements between LE and FFDM were tested for statistical significance. No significant differences in image quality scores were observed between LE and FFDM images for 17 out of 20 criteria. LE scored significantly lower on one criterion regarding the sharpness of the pectoral muscle (p < 0.001), and significantly better on two criteria on the visualization of micro-calcifications (p = 0.02 and p = 0.034). Dose and contrast detail measurements did not reveal any physical explanation for these observed differences. Low-energy CESM images are non-inferior to FFDM images. From this perspective FFDM can be omitted in patients with an indication for CESM. • Low-energy CESM images are non-inferior to FFDM images. • Micro-calcifications are significantly more visible on LE CESM than on FFDM. • There is no physical explanation for this improved visibility of micro-calcifications. • There is no need for an extra FFDM when CESM is indicated.

  19. SPECIFIC ALLOCATION FUND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO INCREASE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDONESIA (Mekanisme Dana Alokasi Khusus Efisiensi Energi dalam Mendukung Perbaikan Lingkungan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Related to the climate change and economic development of environmentally friendly (green economy issues, the President has committed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG by 26% on their own sources (BAU, and up to 41% with international support in 2020 through Presidential Decree No. 61 in 2011 about the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK. In addition to regulating the sectors that are considered to be the largest contributor to GHG emissions, the regulation also establishes funding sources RAN-GRK either through the APBN, APBD, as well as a variety of other sources constituted under the legislation. The main research question are; Is specific allocation fund (DAK can be used to fund energy efficiency?; if so, what procedure should be done? and how monitoring and evaluating of the energy efficiency of the use of DAK ? To answer those questions, researcher using qualitative library research, cross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, interviews to some leading experts in the field and a number of Focused Group Discussions were also conducted to construct the policy analysis. Based on the analysis of the mechanism of transfer to the regions in Indonesia, it is possible to enlarge of DAK field for energy efficiency by asking Line Minister to proposed mechanism and send to the Ministry of Finance. This can be addressed to support the achievement of environmental friendly activities and reduce the burden of state budget subsidies. Some of things that must be done is to propose the allocation of DAK EE into government programs and to develop a variety of specificized and technical indicators related. ABSTRAK Terkait dengan komitmen dalam mengatasi dampak perubahan iklim serta isu pengembangan ekonomi rendah karbon, Pemerintah telah mengesahkan Peraturan Presiden (Perpres Nomor 61 Tahun 2011 tentang rencana Aksi Nasional Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca Nasional (RAN-GRK tahun 2020

  20. Energy balance of the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico, methodology and the entailment energy-air quality; Balance de energia de la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico metodologia y la vinculacion energia - calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present document raises a methodology for the elaboration of the Energy Balance of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM), in order to unify criteria and to facilitate the work of entities and investigators, mainly of those that require the entailment of energy and environment. The applied methodology, the consolidated format and the caloric unity facilitates the insertion of the Energy Balance of the ZMVM within the National Balance of Energy. The regional balances of energy have the intention of knowing the energy consumption patterns in the ZMVM and the indexes of energy intensity by sector. They establish the relationship of the indexes of energy intensity with the local and global air quality of the region, performing studies of incidence with the main polluting agents and with the greenhouse effect gases. [Spanish] El presente documento plantea una metodologia para la elaboracion del Balance de Energia de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico (ZMVM), con el proposito de unificar criterios y facilitar el trabajo de organismos e investigadores, sobre todo de aquellos que requieren vincular energia y medio ambiente. La metodologia aplicad, el formato consolidado y la unidad calorica facilitan la insercion del Balance de Energia de la ZMVM dentro del Balance Nacional de Energia. Los balances regionales de energia tienen el proposito de conocer los patrones de consumo de energia en la ZMVM y los indices de intensidad energetica por sector. Establecen la relacion de los indices de intensidad energetica con la calidad del aire local y global de la region, realizando estudios de incidencia con los principales contaminantes y con los gases de efecto invernadero.

  1. WTE (Waste-to-Energy) air quality and ash regulation: What's ahead in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.

    1989-02-01

    New regulations affecting waste-to-energy plants are in the works. Actions by Congress, the EPA, and possibly the courts will introduce changes with industry-wide consequences. Planners of waste-to-energy plants need to pay special attention to the potential ramifications. The paper reviews potential changes in pollution regulations. It is recommended that anyone involved in the planning or operation of a resource recovery facility needs to keep informed.

  2. Influence of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage on groundwater quality: A review illustrated by seven case studies from Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Possemiers

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results of the analysis of the hydrochemical data confirm that the small temperature differences (ΔT ≤ 10 at which the ATES systems are operating do not influence the concentrations of the main chemical constituents. Mixing of shallow with deeper groundwater during ATES operation, on the other hand, can alter groundwater quality. The results of this study, however, suggest that the groundwater quality changes are rather small, so that there is no immediate risk for the drinking water supply. However, the installation of ATES systems in the vicinity of public drinking water supply well fields should be handled with care, especially in phreatic aquifers.

  3. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency's Advisory Group meeting on ''Quality control of cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera-Ruiz, H.; Marcus, C.S.; Pike, V.W.

    1990-01-01

    The special requirements for the preparation and quality control of cyclotron-produced tracers have been described with particular reference to the production of short-lived positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The regulatory philosophy and training aspects of implementation are considered followed by various aspects of quality of control including good production practice, chemical purity, radionuclide purity, radiochemical purity, specific activity, shelf-life and sterility and apyrogenicity. Finally some organizational aspects such as legal and regulatory aspects, supply of radiopharmaceuticals and professional liability are considered. (UK)

  4. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  5. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  6. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley, Pam M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  7. Implementation of the quality management system in the regulatory body (Peruvian Institute for Nuclear Energy, Lima, Peru); Implementacion del sistema de gestion de calidad en el organo regulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Gironzini, E., E-mail: medina@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Lima (Peru)

    2013-07-01

    One of the functions of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), Lima, Peru is the control of sources of ionizing radiation. For this, they have the Oficina Tecnica de la Autoridad Nacional (OTAN) which has the necessary infrastructure to issue technical standards, conducting inspections, issuing authorizations and punish according to the existing legislation. OTAN has decided to address this issue and is taking into account the IAEA recommendations, especially the Safety Requirements GS-R-3: Management System facilities and activities and offering advice on the establishment and improvement of integrated management systems, including safety requirements that are not in the ISO 9001 standard and are also considered the requirements of technological safety, security, quality, economic, environmental and health. The working plan is detailed and the activities that are carried out after the scientific visit to a regulator organ, which has experience in the execution of a Quality Management System, consequence of a work initiated for more than four decades ago.

  8. A Brief Analysis of New Energy and Power Quality%新能源发电与电能质量问题浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 李果; 杨胜辉; 苏楚研

    2012-01-01

    The development of new energy power generation is introduced in the paper. Based on the fcatures of large-scale grid-connected wind power farms and solar photovoltaic power farms, the paper explores impacts of wind power and solar photovoltaic power generation impacting on power quality. Furthermore, the harm caused by worsening of different power quality indicators is discussed.%介绍了新能源发电的发展情况,结合大型并网风力发电场和太阳能光伏发电场的特点,分析了风力发电和太阳能光伏发电对电能质量的影响.同时探讨了不同的电能质量指标恶化所造成的危害情况.

  9. DFI oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines; DFI-Oxyfuel-Verfahren zur Energieeinsparung, Leistungs- und Qualitaetssteigerung von Banddurchlaufanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichelkraut, H. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany). Standort Bruckhausen; Heiler, H.J. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Finnentrop (Germany); Domels, H.P.; Hoegner, W. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany). Energie/Anlagenwirtschaft

    2007-07-01

    The development of the 'Direct Flame Impingement (DFI)-Oxyfuel' process - in which an oxyfuel (oxygen-fuel) flame impinges directly on the material to be heated - represents a further development of furnace technology for continuous strip lines. With assistance from the cooperation partner Linde, the process was used on a hot-dip galvanizing line for the first time at ThyssenKrupp Steel's Finnentrop plant. Right from the start it produced outstanding results in terms of increased throughput, product quality, plant quality and energy efficiency and thus also a reduction in direct CO{sub 2} emissions. In the meantime, this technology also is being used at an additional strip galvanizing and aluminizing facility in the Duisburg-Bruckhausen plant. (orig.)

  10. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Seasonal nutrient dynamics and biomass quality of giant reed (Arundo donax L. and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter as energy crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Nassi o Di Nasso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of energy crops in displacing fossil fuels within the energy sector in Europe is growing. Among energy crops, the use of perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRGs seems promising owing to their high productivity and their nutrient recycling that occurs during senescence. In particular, nutrient requirements and biomass quality have a fundamental relevance to biomass systems efficiency. The objective of our study was to compare giant reed (Arundo donax L. and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter in terms of nutrient requirements and cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content. This aim was to identify, in the Mediterranean environment, the optimal harvest time that may combine, beside a high biomass yield, high nutrient use efficiency and a good biomass quality for second generation biofuel production. The research was carried out in 2009, in San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Central Italy; latitude 43°41’ N, longitude 10°21’ E, on seven-year-old crops in a loam soil characterised by good water availability. Maximum above-ground nutrient contents were generally found in summer. Subsequently, a decrease was recorded; this suggested a nutrient remobilisation from above-ground biomass to rhizomes. In addition, miscanthus showed the highest N, P, and K use efficiency, probably related to its higher yield and its C4 pathway. Regarding biomass quality, stable values of cellulose (38%, hemicelluloses (25% and lignin (8% were reported from July onwards in both crops. Hence, these components appear not to be discriminative parameters in the choice of the harvest time in the Mediterranean environment. In conclusion, our results highlighted that, in our environment, a broad harvest period (from late autumn to winter seems suitable for these PRGs. However, further research is required to evaluate the role of rhizomes in nutrient storage and supply during the growing season, as well as ecological and productive performances in marginal

  12. Nonlinear image blending for dual-energy MDCT of the abdomen: can image quality be preserved if the contrast medium dose is reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of a dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique at reduced load of contrast medium with a simulated 120-kVp linear blending technique at a full dose during portal venous phase MDCT of the abdomen. Forty-five patients (25 men, 20 women; mean age, 65.6 ± 9.7 [SD] years; mean body weight, 74.9 ± 12.4 kg) underwent contrast-enhanced single-phase dual-energy CT of the abdomen by a random assignment to one of three different contrast medium (iomeprol 400) dose injection protocols: 1.3, 1.0, or 0.65 mL/kg of body weight. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise at the portal vein, liver, aorta, and kidney were compared among the different datasets using the ANOVA. Three readers qualitatively assessed all datasets in a blinded and independent fashion. Nonlinear blended images at a 25% reduced dose allowed a significant improvement in CNR (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), compared with simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. No statistically significant difference existed in CNR and noise between the nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose and the simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. Nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose were considered in all cases to have acceptable image quality. The dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique allows reducing the dose of contrast medium up to 50% during portal venous phase imaging of the abdomen while preserving image quality.

  13. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg -1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg -1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Single-energy pediatric chest computed tomography with spectral filtration at 100 kVp: effects on radiation parameters and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodelle, Boris; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Kaup, Moritz; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Most of the applied radiation dose at CT is in the lower photon energy range, which is of limited diagnostic importance. To investigate image quality and effects on radiation parameters of 100-kVp spectral filtration single-energy chest CT using a tin-filter at third-generation dual-source CT in comparison to standard 100-kVp chest CT. Thirty-three children referred for a non-contrast chest CT performed on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner were examined at 100 kVp with a dedicated tin filter with a tube current-time product resulting in standard protocol dose. We compared resulting images with images from children examined using standard single-source chest CT at 100 kVp. We assessed objective and subjective image quality and compared radiation dose parameters. Radiation dose was comparable for children 5 years old and younger, and it was moderately decreased for older children when using spectral filtration (P=0.006). Effective tube current increased significantly (P=0.0001) with spectral filtration, up to a factor of 10. Signal-to-noise ratio and image noise were similar for both examination techniques (P≥0.06). Subjective image quality showed no significant differences (P≥0.2). Using 100-kVp spectral filtration chest CT in children by means of a tube-based tin-filter on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner increases effective tube current up to a factor of 10 to provide similar image quality at equivalent dose compared to standard single-source CT without spectral filtration. (orig.)

  15. Single-energy pediatric chest computed tomography with spectral filtration at 100 kVp: effects on radiation parameters and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodelle, Boris; Fischbach, Constanze; Booz, Christian; Yel, Ibrahim; Frellesen, Claudia; Kaup, Moritz; Beeres, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik [Goethe University of Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Most of the applied radiation dose at CT is in the lower photon energy range, which is of limited diagnostic importance. To investigate image quality and effects on radiation parameters of 100-kVp spectral filtration single-energy chest CT using a tin-filter at third-generation dual-source CT in comparison to standard 100-kVp chest CT. Thirty-three children referred for a non-contrast chest CT performed on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner were examined at 100 kVp with a dedicated tin filter with a tube current-time product resulting in standard protocol dose. We compared resulting images with images from children examined using standard single-source chest CT at 100 kVp. We assessed objective and subjective image quality and compared radiation dose parameters. Radiation dose was comparable for children 5 years old and younger, and it was moderately decreased for older children when using spectral filtration (P=0.006). Effective tube current increased significantly (P=0.0001) with spectral filtration, up to a factor of 10. Signal-to-noise ratio and image noise were similar for both examination techniques (P≥0.06). Subjective image quality showed no significant differences (P≥0.2). Using 100-kVp spectral filtration chest CT in children by means of a tube-based tin-filter on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner increases effective tube current up to a factor of 10 to provide similar image quality at equivalent dose compared to standard single-source CT without spectral filtration. (orig.)

  16. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reflections of ANEEL criteria for quality in the supply of electrical energy; Reflexoes sobre criterios da Aneel para a qualidade no fornecimento da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: molivia@unifacs.br; Mello, Sergio Souto Maia Malbouisson de [Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA), BA (Brazil)], email: smello@coelba.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the changes implemented by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica) to monitor and control the indices related to the continuity of electric power supply. It also presents the evolution of the amount of fines, in case of failure of attending the quality indicators, both the collective and the individual ones. Finally, it presents some issues which need further analysis regarding to the limits of time established to the restoration of the energy supply after a power failure. (author)

  18. New process modeling[sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice

  19. The Great Scottish Housing Disaster: The Impacts of Feudalism, Modernism, Energy Efficiency and Vapour Barriers on Indoor Air Quality, Asthma and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Howieson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents 30 years of research into the arena of housing and health. It brings together the conclusions of three books and the findings of multiple research papers undertaken by the author and published by medical, engineering and social policy journals. This work aims to highlight the links and connections between the diverse arenas of urban form, building design, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, respiratory medicine and immunology, all within the socio-economic framework of a small damp country on the fringe of northern Europe.

  20. Energy savings by implementation of light quality LED lighting. Final report; Implementering af energibesparelser ved benyttelse af hoejkvalitets LED belysning. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Thorseth, A.; Poulsen, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The project developed two new LED light sources and systems, emphasising the potential of LED technology for energy savings and lighting quality. A LED light source for display case lighting, replacing incandescent lamps, was successfully installed in the Treasury at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, Denmark, and it was decided to extend the solution in 2010. Electricity savings of 74% were achieved. LED light sources replacing halogen bulbs in cooker hoods reduce electricity consumption by 69% and ensure even lighting of the entire working surface with about 500 lux at all cooking areas. Furthermore, a new LED optics system was patented. (ln)

  1. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  2. Determination of Energy of a Clinical Electron Beam as Part of a Routine Quality Assurance and Audit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Jimmy; D'Souza, Derek; Rossenberg, Ivan

    2002-08-01

    A method to determine the electron beam energy and an electron audit based on the current IPEM electron Code of Practice has been devised. During the commissioning on the new Varian 2100CD linear accelerator in The Middlesex Hospital, two methods were devised for the determination of electron energy. The first method involves the use of a two-depth method, whereby the ratio of ionisation (presented as a percentage) measured by an ion chamber at two depths in solid water is used to compare against the baseline ionisation depth value for that energy. The second method involves the irradiation of an X-ray film in solid water to obtain a depth dose curve and, hence determine the half value depth and practical range of the electrons. The results showed that the two-depth method has a better accuracy, repeatability, reliability and consistency than the X-ray method. The results for the electron audit showed that electron absolute outputs are obtained from ionisation measurements in solid water, where the energy-range parameters such as practical range and the depth at which ionisation is 50% of that at the maximum for the depth-ionisation curve are determined.

  3. Communication: A benchmark-quality, full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for Ar-HOCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M.; Houston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    A full-dimensional, global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the Ar-HOCO system is presented. The PES consists of a previous intramolecular ab initio PES for HOCO [J. Li, C. Xie, J. Ma, Y. Wang, R. Dawes, D. Xie, J. M. Bowman, and H. Guo, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5057 (2012)], plus a new permutationally invariant interaction potential based on fitting 12 432 UCCSD(T)-F12a/aVDZ counterpoise-corrected energies. The latter has a total rms fitting error of about 25 cm −1 for fitted interaction energies up to roughly 12 000 cm −1 . Two additional fits are presented. One is a novel very compact permutational invariant representation, which contains terms only involving the Ar-atom distances. The rms fitting error for this fit is 193 cm −1 . The other fit is the widely used pairwise one. The pairwise fit to the entire data set has an rms fitting error of 427 cm −1 . All of these potentials are used in preliminary classical trajectory calculations of energy transfer with a focus on comparisons with the results using the benchmark potential

  4. Communication: A benchmark-quality, full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for Ar-HOCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.conte@emory.edu, E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu; Bowman, Joel M., E-mail: riccardo.conte@emory.edu, E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Calculation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Houston, Paul L., E-mail: paul.houston@cos.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    A full-dimensional, global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the Ar-HOCO system is presented. The PES consists of a previous intramolecular ab initio PES for HOCO [J. Li, C. Xie, J. Ma, Y. Wang, R. Dawes, D. Xie, J. M. Bowman, and H. Guo, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5057 (2012)], plus a new permutationally invariant interaction potential based on fitting 12 432 UCCSD(T)-F12a/aVDZ counterpoise-corrected energies. The latter has a total rms fitting error of about 25 cm{sup −1} for fitted interaction energies up to roughly 12 000 cm{sup −1}. Two additional fits are presented. One is a novel very compact permutational invariant representation, which contains terms only involving the Ar-atom distances. The rms fitting error for this fit is 193 cm{sup −1}. The other fit is the widely used pairwise one. The pairwise fit to the entire data set has an rms fitting error of 427 cm{sup −1}. All of these potentials are used in preliminary classical trajectory calculations of energy transfer with a focus on comparisons with the results using the benchmark potential.

  5. Power Quality Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Ismael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hur, Jerry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thao, Syhoune [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  6. Changes in Energy Intake and Diet Quality during an 18-Month Weight-Management Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Goetz, Jeannine R; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Gibson, Cheryl A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2018-06-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at risk for poor diet quality. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether two different weight-loss diets affect energy intake, macronutrient intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) during a 6-month weight-loss period and 12-month weight-management period, and to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 between groups. Overweight/obese adults with IDDs took part in an 18-month randomized controlled trial and were assigned to either an enhanced Stop Light Diet utilizing portion-controlled meals or a conventional diet consisting of reducing energy intake and following the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Proxy-assisted 3-day food records were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months, and were analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software. HEI-2010 was calculated using the data from Nutrition Data System for Research. The study took place from June 2011 through May 2014 in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. This was a secondary analysis of a weight-management intervention for adults with IDDs randomized to an enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet, to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 across time and between groups. Independent- and paired-samples t tests and general mixed modeling for repeated measures were performed to examine group differences and changes at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months between the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups. One hundred and forty six participants (57% female, mean±standard deviation age=36.2±12.0 years) were randomized to either the enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet group (77 enhanced Stop Light Diet, 69 conventional diet) and provided data for analysis at baseline, 124 completed the 6-month weight-loss period, and 101 completed

  7. Protein quality and the protein to carbohydrate ratio within a high fat diet influences energy balance and the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, Liam; Skuse, Peter; Cotter, Paul D; O'Connor, Paula; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald; Roche, Helen M; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2014-01-01

    Macronutrient quality and composition are important determinants of energy balance and the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated how changes to protein quality (casein versus whey protein isolate; WPI) and the protein to carbohydrate (P/C) ratio within a high fat diet (HFD) impacts on these parameters. Mice were fed a low fat diet (10% kJ) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kJ) for 21 weeks with either casein (20% kJ, HFD) or WPI at 20%, 30% or 40% kJ. In comparison to casein, WPI at a similar energy content normalised energy intake, increased lean mass and caused a trend towards a reduction in fat mass (P = 0.08), but the protein challenge did not alter oxygen consumption or locomotor activity. WPI reduced HFD-induced plasma leptin and liver triacylglycerol, and partially attenuated the reduction in adipose FASN mRNA in HFD-fed mice. High throughput sequence-based analysis of faecal microbial populations revealed microbiota in the HFD-20% WPI group clustering closely with HFD controls, although WPI specifically increased Lactobacillaceae/Lactobacillus and decreased Clostridiaceae/Clostridium in HFD-fed mice. There was no effect of increasing the P/C ratio on energy intake, but the highest ratio reduced HFD-induced weight gain, fat mass and plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and leptin levels, while it increased lean mass and oxygen consumption. Similar effects were observed on adipose mRNA expression, where the highest ratio reduced HFD-associated expression of UCP-2, TNFα and CD68 and increased the diet-associated expression of β3-AR, LPL, IR, IRS-1 and GLUT4. The P/C ratio also impacted on gut microbiota, with populations in the 30/40% WPI groups clustering together and away from the 20% WPI group. Taken together, our data show that increasing the P/C ratio has a dramatic effect on energy balance and the composition of gut microbiota, which is distinct from that caused by changes to protein quality.

  8. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.

  9. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  10. Low temperature hot air drying of potato cubes subjected to osmotic dehydration and intermittent microwave: drying kinetics, energy consumption and product quality indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Bozorghi, Somayyeh; Heshmati, Maryam Khakbaz

    2018-04-01

    Hot-air drying is a slow energy-extensive process. Use of intermittent microwave (IM) in hot-air (HA) drying of food products is characterized with advantages including reduced process time, energy saving, and improved final quality. In this study, the effect of IM-HA drying following an osmotic dehydration (OD) pretreatment was analyzed on qualitative and quantitative properties of the output (i.e. effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff), shrinkage, bulk density, rehydration and energy consumption). Temperature and airflow velocity were fixed at 40°C and 1 m/s, respectively. The process variables included sucrose solution concentration at five levels (0 or control, 10, 30, 50 and 70 w/w%), microwave output power at four levels (0 or control, 360, 600 and 900 W), and pulse ratio at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4). Use of osmotic dehydration in combination with IM-HA drying reduced the drying time by up to about 54%. Increasing the osmotic solution concentration to 30% and using higher pulse ratios increased the Deff. The lowest shrinkage and bulk density as well as the highest rehydration belonged to the 900 W microwave power and pulse ratio of 4. The lowest energy consumption was observed when using the 900 W power level, showing 63.27% less consumption than the HA drying method.

  11. Accounting for Human Health and Ecosystems Quality in Developing Sustainable Energy Products: The Implications of Wood Biomass-based Electricity Strategies to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldu, Yemane W.

    The prospect for transitions and transformations in the energy sector to mitigate climate change raises concerns that actions should not shift the impacts from one impact category to another, or from one sustainability domain to another. Although the development of renewables mostly results in low environmental impacts, energy strategies are complex and may result in the shifting of impacts. Strategies to climate change mitigation could have potentially large effects on human health and ecosystems. Exposure to air pollution claimed the lives of about seven million people worldwide in 2010, largely from the combustion of solid fuels. The degradation of ecosystem services is a significant barrier to achieving millennium development goals. This thesis quantifies the biomass resources potential for Alberta; presents a user-friendly and sector-specific framework for sustainability assessment; unlocks the information and policy barriers to biomass integration in energy strategy; introduces new perspectives to improve understanding of the life cycle human health and ecotoxicological effects of energy strategies; provides insight regarding the guiding measures that are required to ensure sustainable bioenergy production; validates the utility of the Environmental Life Cycle Cost framework for economic sustainability assessment; and provides policy-relevant societal cost estimates to demonstrate the importance of accounting for human health and ecosystem externalities in energy planning. Alberta is endowed with a wealth of forest and agricultural biomass resources, estimated at 458 PJ of energy. Biomass has the potential to avoid 11-15% of GHG emissions and substitute 14-17% of final energy demand by 2030. The drivers for integrating bioenergy sources into Alberta's energy strategy are economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation policy objectives. Bioenergy pathways significantly improved both human health and ecosystem quality from coal

  12. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Jansson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed...... characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements......, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections...

  13. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  14. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, E.; Boldrin, A.; Jansson, S.; Lundtorp, K.; Fruergaard Astrup, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits

  15. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Boldrin, A. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Jansson, S. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå SE-901 87 (Sweden); Lundtorp, K. [Babcock and Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg (Sweden); Fruergaard Astrup, T. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits.

  16. Dual-energy CT in patients with abdominal malignant lymphoma: impact of noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging on objective and subjective image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenga, L; Czwikla, R; Wichmann, J L; Leithner, D; Albrecht, M H; D'Angelo, T; Arendt, C T; Booz, C; Hammerstingl, R; Vogl, T J; Martin, S S

    2018-06-05

    To investigate the impact of noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstructions on quantitative and qualitative image parameters in patients with malignant lymphoma at dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) examinations of the abdomen. Thirty-five consecutive patients (mean age, 53.8±18.6 years; range, 21-82 years) with histologically proven malignant lymphoma of the abdomen were included retrospectively. Images were post-processed with standard linear blending (M_0.6), traditional VMI, and VMI+ technique at energy levels ranging from 40 to 100 keV in 10 keV increments. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were objectively measured in lymphoma lesions. Image quality, lesion delineation, and image noise were rated subjectively by three blinded observers using five-point Likert scales. Quantitative image quality parameters peaked at 40-keV VMI+ (SNR, 15.77±7.74; CNR, 18.27±8.04) with significant differences compared to standard linearly blended M_0.6 (SNR, 7.96±3.26; CNR, 13.55±3.47) and all traditional VMI series (ptraditional VMI at abdominal DECT examinations. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  18. Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Miguel; Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Clift, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of different land-use systems for energy, up to the farm or forest 'gate', has been quantified with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Four representative crops are considered: OilSeed Rape (OSR), Miscanthus, Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and forest residues. The focus of the LCA is on changes in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) but energy use, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs), acidification and eutrophication are also considered. In addition to providing an indicator of soil quality, changes in SOC are shown to have a dominant effect on total GHG emissions. Miscanthus is the best land-use option for GHG emissions and soil quality as it sequesters C at a higher rate than the other crops, but this has to be weighed against other environmental impacts where Miscanthus performs worse, such as acidification and eutrophication. OSR shows the worst performance across all categories. Because forest residues are treated as a by-product, their environmental impacts are small in all categories. The analysis highlights the need for detailed site-specific modelling of SOC changes, and for consequential LCAs of the whole fuel cycle including transport and use.

  19. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  20. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  1. Single- and dual-energy CT of the abdomen: comparison of radiation dose and image quality of 2nd and 3rd generation dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Hardie, Andrew D.; Felmly, Lloyd M.; Perry, Jonathan D.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Latina (Italy); Canstein, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA (United States); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To compare single-energy (SECT) and dual-energy (DECT) abdominal CT examinations in matched patient cohorts regarding differences in radiation dose and image quality performed with second- and third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT). We retrospectively analysed 200 patients (100 male, 100 female; mean age 61.2 ± 13.5 years, mean body mass index 27.5 ± 3.8 kg/m{sup 2}) equally divided into four groups matched by gender and body mass index, who had undergone portal venous phase abdominal CT with second-generation (group A, 120-kV-SECT; group B, 80/140-kV-DECT) and third-generation DSCT (group C, 100-kV-SECT; group D, 90/150-kV-DECT). The radiation dose was normalised for 40-cm scan length. Dose-independent figure-of-merit (FOM) contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated for various organs and vessels. Subjective overall image quality and reader confidence were assessed. The effective normalised radiation dose was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in groups C (6.2 ± 2.0 mSv) and D (5.3 ± 1.9 mSv, P = 0.103) compared to groups A (8.8 ± 2.3 mSv) and B (9.7 ± 2.4 mSv, P = 0.102). Dose-independent FOM-CNR peaked for liver, kidney, and portal vein measurements (all P ≤ 0.0285) in group D. Subjective image quality and reader confidence were consistently rated as excellent in all groups (all ≥1.53 out of 5). With both DSCT generations, abdominal DECT can be routinely performed without radiation dose penalty compared to SECT, while third-generation DSCT shows improved dose efficiency. (orig.)

  2. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremity Runoff: Impact of Noise-Optimized Virtual Monochromatic Imaging on Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Julian L; Gillott, Matthew R; De Cecco, Carlo N; Mangold, Stefanie; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Yamada, Ricardo; Otani, Katharina; Canstein, Christian; Fuller, Stephen R; Vogl, Thomas J; Todoran, Thomas M; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging algorithm (VMI+) on image quality and diagnostic accuracy at dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the lower extremity runoff. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was approved by the local institutional review board. We evaluated dual-energy CTA studies of the lower extremity runoff in 48 patients (16 women; mean age, 63.3 ± 13.8 years) performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system. Images were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monochromatic (VMI) algorithms at 40 to 120 keV in 10-keV intervals. Vascular attenuation and image noise in 18 artery segments were measured; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used to subjectively evaluate vascular attenuation and image noise. In a subgroup of 21 patients who underwent additional invasive catheter angiography, diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50% lumen restriction) of F_0.5, 50-keV VMI+, and 60-keV VMI data sets were assessed. Objective image quality metrics were highest in the 40- and 50-keV VMI+ series (SNR: 20.2 ± 10.7 and 19.0 ± 9.5, respectively; CNR: 18.5 ± 10.3 and 16.8 ± 9.1, respectively) and were significantly (all P traditional VMI technique and standard linear blending for evaluation of the lower extremity runoff using dual-energy CTA.

  3. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Boldrin, A; Jansson, S; Lundtorp, K; Fruergaard Astrup, T

    2014-04-15

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Scalar energy fluctuations in Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent flames: Statistical budgets and mesh quality criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale; Lodato, Guido [CORIA - CNRS and INSA de Rouen, Technopole du Madrillet, BP 8, 76801 Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Veynante, Denis [EM2C - CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-04-15

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) provides space-filtered quantities to compare with measurements, which usually have been obtained using a different filtering operation; hence, numerical and experimental results can be examined side-by-side in a statistical sense only. Instantaneous, space-filtered and statistically time-averaged signals feature different characteristic length-scales, which can be combined in dimensionless ratios. From two canonical manufactured turbulent solutions, a turbulent flame and a passive scalar turbulent mixing layer, the critical values of these ratios under which measured and computed variances (resolved plus sub-grid scale) can be compared without resorting to additional residual terms are first determined. It is shown that actual Direct Numerical Simulation can hardly accommodate a sufficiently large range of length-scales to perform statistical studies of LES filtered reactive scalar-fields energy budget based on sub-grid scale variances; an estimation of the minimum Reynolds number allowing for such DNS studies is given. From these developments, a reliability mesh criterion emerges for scalar LES and scaling for scalar sub-grid scale energy is discussed. (author)

  5. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Scholz, Yvonne; Schaap, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances.

  6. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...... harmonic is found to be unaffected by stepless power supply tracking due the high supply rejection ratio of the used amplifiers under te