WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy performance assessment

  1. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  2. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  3. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  4. Assessing the performance of Dutch local energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhuis, Erik; Advokaat, Bart; Schaefer, Wim

    2012-01-01

    According to binding European Union agreements, the Netherlands has to cover at least 14% of its total energy use with renewable energy sources by 2020. However, the share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is small and hardly increasing. In 2010, renewable energy in the Netherlands accounted for only 3.8% of the national energy use, and has decreased with 0.4% compared to 2009. A cause of the stagnating renewable energy generation in the Netherlands is the absence of a nation-wide, clear and consistent long-term policy on the introduction of renewable energy. In order to overcome the current standstill in renewable energy adoption, several Dutch municipalities take the initiative and establish Local Energy Companies (LECs). However, to date, it is unclear which LEC type performs best. This research aims to compare the performance of existing LECs on three aspects: technology, finance, and organization. Furthermore, the performance of existing LECs is compared with theoretical reference LECs, in order to estimate efficiencies and opportunities for improvements. Finally, the influence of the recent changes in the Dutch subsidy scheme on LEC performance is examined. In order to achieve these aims, the benchmark method Data Envelopment Analysis is employed. - Highlights: ► Dutch Local Energy Companies (LECs) producing heat perform best in cost efficiency. ► Technical efficiency is highest in Dutch Local Energy Companies employing wind energy. ► Theoretical assumptions concerning LEC performance are not yet achieved in practice. ► The self supply model adds to the profitability of LECs, independent from subsidies. ► Recent changes in Dutch subsidy schemes add little to LECs’ financial performance.

  5. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  6. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  7. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  8. Application of Partial Safety Factorsin Building Energy Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Hesselholt, A.

    2009-01-01

    is evaluated by sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to develop a significantly reduced set of stochastic input parameters. The safety factor approach provides a means of enforcing the maximum allowed energy consumption in the building code by multiplying the maximum limit by a partial safety factor to obtain......In practise many buildings show significant deviation between the predicted annual energy consumption and the actual energy consumption. One of the main reasons for the discrepancy is the difference between the assumptions made during the calculations and the actual conditions including occupants...

  9. Energy performance assessment of Looe junior and infant school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.K.; Vaughan, N.D.; Jenkins, H.G. (Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff (GB)); O' Sullivan, P.E. (University Coll., London (GB). Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning)

    1990-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary appraisal of a passive solar primary school in Cornwall is presented. The building was found to be energy efficient and well liked by the teaching staff. Whilst problems were noted in ventilation control and air-quality the building was considered to be a successful example of passive solar design. (author).

  10. Energy assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Energy industry initiatives during the 1970s and during the 1990s are compared. During the 1970s, the objective was to reduce energy consumption and to reduce dependency on foreign fuel. Today, the emphasis is on reducing energy costs and to improve net operating income. The challenges posed by the drive to reduce energy costs are discussed. As a tool in the drive to reduce energy cost, the energy assessment process was described. The process entails a detailed analysis of energy consumption, an investigation of energy rates and an assessment of site conditions and equipment, with a view towards an optimum combination that will lead to energy cost reductions

  11. Performance assessment of a novel hybrid district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid system for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is proposed. This hybrid system consists of biogas based electricity production and a water-to-water geothermal heat pump unit (GHPU), which uses the waste heat for both heating and domestic hot water purposes. Electricity generated by the biogas plant (BP) is utilized to drive the GDHS's pumps, BP systems and the heat pump units. Both the biogas reactor heating unit and the heat pump unit utilize the waste heat from the GDHS and use the system as a heat source. The feasibility of utilizing a hybrid system in order to increase the overall system (GDHS + BP + GHPU) efficiency is then investigated for possible efficiency improvements. The Edremit GDHS in Turkey, which is selected for investigation in this case study, reinjects 16.8 MW of thermal power into the river at a low temperature; namely at 40 °C. Such a temperature is ideal for mesophilic bacterial growth in the digestion process during biogas production. 1.45 MW of biogas based electricity production potential is obtainable from the waste heat output of the Edremit GDHS. The average overall system efficiencies through the utilization of this kind of hybridized system approach are increased by 7.5% energetically and 13% for exergetically. - Highlights: ► A new hybrid system is proposed for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs). ► The average overall system efficiencies are increased by 7.5% for energy and 13% for exergy, respectively. ► Various energetic and exergetic parameters are studied.

  12. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  13. Sensitivity analysis for the energy performance assessment of hybrid compressed air energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, Stefano; Di Marco, Paolo; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Riccardi, Juri

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A sensitivity analysis and DOE of the complete hybrid CAES are carried out. •The influence of the storage site volume on performance indicators is negligible. •The performances increase with the decrease of the compressor outlet pressure. •The performances are correlated for each temperature increase in combustion chamber. •Hybridization of Huntorf implies a significant increase of its first law efficiency. -- Abstract: A detailed mathematical model was developed for the complete Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage (H-CAES) configuration with underground storage site and liquid thermal energy storage, operating with a sequence of processes (charging, holding and discharging with respective duration) in arbitrary order. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to calculate several performance indicators of the complete H-CAES configuration, in relation to the simultaneous change of several process parameters. The methodology “Design of Experiments” was applied to the results of the sensitivity analysis in order to calculate the main effects of each process parameter on each performance indicator. The influence of the storage site volume on each performance indicator is negligible. The reduction of the compressor group outlet pressure and of the turbine group power allows a more effective thermodynamic utilization both of the energy stored by the compressors and of the overall energy supplied to the plant. Furthermore, the former utilization is more effective by an increase of the gas temperature in the combustion chambers, whereas the latter utilization is worsened. Moreover, as case study, the existing diabatic CAES plant of Huntorf was modified by introducing a diathermic oil thermal storage. This plant is suitable to operate according to a partial hybrid configuration by the deactivation of the heat exchanger located upstream of the low pressure turbine. The thermodynamic utilization of the overall energy supplied to the plant

  14. A “Grammar” for assessing the performance of power-supply systems: Comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Maurin, François; Giampietro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates an innovative approach for the characterization and comparison of the performance of power-supply systems. The concept of ‘grammar’ forces to declare the pre-analytical decisions about: (i) semantic and formal categories used for the accounting – primary energy sources (PES), energy carriers (EC), and production factors; (ii) the set of functional and structural elements of the power-supply system included in the analysis. After having tamed the systemic ambiguity associated with energy accounting, it becomes possible to generate a double assessment referring to: (i) external constraints – the consumption of PES and the generation of waste and pollution; and (ii) internal constraints – the requirements of production factors such as human labor, power capacity, internal consumption of EC for making EC. The case study provided compares the production of EC (electricity) with “nuclear energy” and “fossil energy”. When considering internal constraints, nuclear energy requires about twice as much power capacity (5.9–9.5 kW/GWh vs. 2.6–2.9 kW/GWh) and 5–8 times more labor (570–640 h/GWh vs. 80–115 h/GWh). Things do not improve for nuclear energy when looking at external constraints – e.g. the relative scarcity of PES. This may explain the difficulties faced by nuclear energy to gain interest from investors. -- Highlights: ► A new approach to assess the performance of power-supply systems is provided. ► A biophysical analysis of the production process is based on the concept of grammar. ► A grammar is capable of handling the inherent ambiguity associated with energy. ► The performance of nuclear energy and fossil energy is compared using this grammar. ► Nuclear energy demonstrates a lower performance than fossil energy in making electricity.

  15. Assessing measures of energy efficiency performance and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.

    2008-02-15

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (hereafter referred to as 'MEEP'): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages and their roles within policy frameworks. MEEP may be necessary at several stages during policy design: in a developing regulatory framework; during the actual application; and in evaluation after policy implementation. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP at each of these stages, based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The paper considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions. The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. Both a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks are important. Using the diffusion rates of specific energy-efficient processes is a technology-oriented approach which seeks to encourage the retrofitting or replacement of less efficient equipment. There are fewer boundary problems using diffusion rates than by calculating energy consumption. 42 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  16. Performance assessment of earth pipe cooling system for low energy buildings in a subtropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.; Khan, M.M.K.; Amanullah, M.T.O.; Rasul, M.G.; Hassan, N.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Earth pipe cooling performance was investigated in a subtropical climate in Australia. • A thermal model was developed using Fluent to assess the cooling performance. • A temperature reduction of around 2 °C was found for the earth pipe cooling system. • Annual energy savings of maximum 866.54 kW (8.82%) was achieved for a 27.23 m"3 room. - Abstract: Energy consumption in heating and cooling around the world has been a major contributor to global warming. Hence, many studies have been aimed at finding new techniques to save and control energy through energy efficient measures. Most of this energy is used in residential, agricultural and commercial buildings. It is therefore important to adopt energy efficiency measures in these buildings through new technologies and novel building designs. These new building designs can be developed by employing various passive cooling systems. Earth pipe cooling is one of these which can assist to save energy without using any customary mechanical units. This paper investigates the earth pipe cooling performance in a hot humid subtropical climate of Rockhampton, Australia. A thermal model is developed using ANSYS Fluent for measuring its performance. Impacts of air velocity, air temperature, relative humidity and soil temperature on room cooling performance are also assessed. A temperature reduction of around 2 °C was found for the system. This temperature reduction contributed to an energy saving of a maximum of 866.54 kW (8.82%) per year for a 27.23 m"3 room.

  17. Local Alternative for Energy Supply : Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due

  18. Performance assessment analyses unique to Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, H.H.; Duguid, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the iterative process of grouping and performance assessment that has led to the current grouping of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The unique sensitivity analyses that form the basis for incorporating DOE fuel into the total system performance assessment (TSPA) base case model are described. In addition, the chemistry that results from dissolution of DOE fuel and high level waste (HLW) glass in a failed co-disposal package, and the effects of disposal of selected DOE SNF in high integrity cans are presented

  19. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...... on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power...

  20. Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of performance assessment is to show that the repository is expected to serve its stated function - disposing of radioactive waste safely both during operation and for the postclosure period. Performance assessment is a straightforward concept, but its application may be very complicated. The concept of performance assessment has been clarified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in their Draft Generic Technical Position on Licensing Assessment Methodology for High-Level Waste Geologic Repositories (NRC, 1984). This document has gone a long way toward defining the criteria that the NRC will use to determine whether or not information from site characterization is adequate to meet the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A favorable determination is required for issuance of a construction authorization, which is the first major regulatory requirement for developing a working repository. It is, therefore, essential that a research program be developed that not only resolves the outstanding technical issues, but also does it in such a way that the results are clearly applicable to the formal performance assessment and licensing procedures. The definitions of performance assessment are reviewed and the current NRC thinking is summarized

  1. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, Christian J.L.; Melo, Cláudio; Knabben, Fernando T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  2. Assessment of energy and economic performance of office building models: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. Y.; Ye, C. T.; Li, H. S.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. B.

    2016-08-01

    Energy consumption of building accounts for more than 37.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of energy-saving buildings is just 5% in China. In this paper, in order to save potential energy, an office building in Southern China was selected as a test example for energy consumption characteristics. The base building model was developed by TRNSYS software and validated against the recorded data from the field work in six days out of August-September in 2013. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for energy performance of building envelope retrofitting; five envelope parameters were analyzed for assessing the thermal responses. Results indicated that the key sensitivity factors were obtained for the heat-transfer coefficient of exterior walls (U-wall), infiltration rate and shading coefficient (SC), of which the sum sensitivity factor was about 89.32%. In addition, the results were evaluated in terms of energy and economic analysis. The analysis of sensitivity validated against some important results of previous studies. On the other hand, the cost-effective method improved the efficiency of investment management in building energy.

  3. Assessment of Stability and Energy Dissipation Performances of an Antifer Layer Protected Caisson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sedat Kabdaşlı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to assess the stability and energy dissipation performances of a breakwater configuration (APC protected by an antifer layer. For comparison, an ordinary caisson (OC, which was 5% wider and 10% heavier, was also investigated. Physical models were implemented and tested under regular and irregular waves; and resulting linear and angular displacements were directly measured via a photogrammetric method. Additionally, wave forces and resulting horizontal displacements were estimated both from recorded pressure data and from individual incident waves by modified Goda method. To calculate the horizontal displacement, the estimated wave force time series were directly double-integrated, whilst the theoretical method proposed by Shimosako et al. (1994 were used on the individual force values. Although OC was tested under shorter durations and had a more favorable superstructure in terms of resisting forces, the results indicated that APC was significantly more stable. Energy dissipation performance of the tested configurations were quantified in terms of spectral averaged and phase resolved reflection coefficients, whereas antifer damage ratio was measured on a block-count basis. Results indicated that the APC configuration had an enhanced performance of dissipating the wave energy; moreover, the dissipated energy directly links to antifer damage ratio.

  4. Comparative energy and exergy performance assessments of a microcogenerator unit in different electricity mix scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Angrisani, Giovanni; Roselli, Carlo; Gaspar, Adélio R.; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and energy–exergy modelling of a 6 kW micro-combined heat and power unit. • Evaluation of energy and exergy efficiencies for performance assessment. • Use of exergy and energy indicators for comparison with a reference system. • Use of different renewables supply options into the electric and heat reference system. • The electric grid mix of Portugal and Italy is used and discussed. - Abstract: The Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration proposes a comparative indicator based on primary energy savings, neglecting some important thermodynamic aspects, such as exergy. This study aims to compare and discuss the usefulness of a set of complementary indicators for performance assessments of cogeneration systems, concerning thermodynamic principles based on first and second law (the exergy approach). As case study, a 6 kW electric output micro-combined heat and power unit was experimentally tested and a model of the unit was developed in TRNSYS. Considering as reference a set of different heat and electricity scenarios, including the actual electric mixes of Portugal and Italy, the indicators case incon (PES) and Primary and Total Irreversibilities Savings (PIS and TIS), as well as energy and exergy renewability ratios were assessed and discussed. The results show that the use of MCHP has higher advantages for the Italian electric grid, than an equivalent scenario considering the Portuguese electric network as reference. As result, for a particular scenario analysed, PES and PIS have 3% and 6% for Portugal, and 10% and 18% for Italy, respectively. Furthermore, for one particular scenario evaluated, the indicators energetic and exergetic renewability ratios have 23% and 14%, respectively for the Portuguese electric grid, and 19% and 10% for the Italian electric system

  5. Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex

  6. Application of optimization methods for nuclear energy system performance assessment by the MESSAGE software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Kuptsov, I.S.; Utyanskaya, T.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper defines the multi-objective optimization and uncertainty treatment modules for the IAEA energy planning software MESSAGE intended for multi-objective optimization and sustainability assessments of innovative nuclear energy systems with account of uncertainty [ru

  7. Energy Performance Certificate of building and confidence interval in assessment: An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronchin, Lamberto; Fabbri, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The Directive 2002/91/CE introduced the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC), an energy policy tool. The aim of the EPC is to inform building buyers about the energy performance and energy costs of buildings. The EPCs represent a specific energy policy tool to orient the building sector and real-estate markets toward higher energy efficiency buildings. The effectiveness of the EPC depends on two factors: •The accuracy of energy performance evaluation made by independent experts. •The capability of the energy classification and of the scale of energy performance to control the energy index fluctuations. In this paper, the results of a case study located in Italy are shown. In this example, 162 independent technicians on energy performance of building evaluation have studied the same building. The results reveal which part of confidence intervals is dependent on software misunderstanding and that the energy classification ranges are able to tolerate the fluctuation of energy indices. The example was chosen in accordance with the legislation of the Emilia-Romagna Region on Energy Efficiency of Buildings. Following these results, some thermo-economic evaluation related to building and energy labelling are illustrated, as the EPC, which is an energy policy tool for the real-estate market and building sector to find a way to build or retrofit an energy efficiency building. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of the accuracy of energy performance of buildings in relation with the knowledge of independent experts. ► Round robin test based on 162 case studies on the confidence intervals expressed by independent experts. ► Statistical considerations between the confidence intervals expressed by independent experts and energy simulation software. ► Relation between “proper class” in energy classification of buildings and confidence intervals of independent experts.

  8. Empirical Validation of Simple Calculation Method for Assessment of Energy Performance in Double-Skin Façade Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Thomas, Sara Jessica; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2009-01-01

    When designing new buildings a Double-Skin Facades (DSF) concept is recurrently discussed as an energy saving solution. There is a strong demand for a tool, which could estimate the energy performance of a DSF building in an early design stage, in order to assess whether it fulfills the Energy Pe...

  9. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  10. The United States Department of Energy process for performance assessment for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Owens, K.W.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages disposal of low-level radioactive waste through the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A on Radioactive Waste Management. The order specifies long-term performance objectives for permanent disposal, requires a performance assessment to determine compliance with those objectives, and establishes a Peer Review Panel to review those assessments for technical quality and completeness. A Performance Assessment Task Team has been established to provide guidance and recommend policy for implementation and interpretation of the requirements to those preparing the assessments. This paper describes the requirements, the Peer Review Panel, the Performance Assessment Task Team, and their activities to date

  11. Assessment of the thermal performance and energy conservation opportunities of a cement industry in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, M.G.; Widianto, W.; Mohanty, B.

    2005-01-01

    A simple model is presented to assess the thermal performance of a cement industry with an integrated view to improve the productivity of the plant. The model is developed on the basis of mass, energy and exergy balance and is applied to an existing Portland cement industry in Indonesia. The data obtained from industry show that the burning efficiency and the second law efficiency of the kiln system are 52.07% and 57.07% respectively. Cooler efficiency and heat recovery efficiency are 47.75% and 51.2% respectively. The unaccounted loss at kiln system was found to be 1.85% and that of cooler system was 19%. The high loss at cooler was mainly due to the convection and radiation losses from the uninsulated cooler. Irreversibility of the system was found to be about 20%, which is due to the conversion from chemical to thermal energy. The thermal energy conservation opportunities are identified. This study show that by replacing industrial diesel oil (IDO) with waste heat recovery from kiln and cooler exhaust for drying of raw meal and fuel, and preheating of combustion air, a cement industry in Indonesia can save about 1.264 x 10 5 US dollars per year

  12. Application of large underground seasonal thermal energy storage in district heating system : a model-based energy performance assessment of a pilot system in Chifeng, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology is a proven solution to resolve the seasonal discrepancy between heating energy generation from renewables and building heating demands. This research focuses on the performance assessment of district heating (DH) systems powered by low-grade energy

  13. Energy key performance indicators : a european benchmark and assessment of meaningful indicators for the use of energy in large corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrichs, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze energy key performance indicators among large European companies. Energy usage has become a very meaningful topic for both internal management as well as external stakeholders of a company. A review of current literature suggests that while environmental indicators in general have found broad attention and plenty of theories concerning good and meaningful indicators are published, no study investigating actually applied energy indicators ...

  14. An energy performance assessment for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance in air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an acceptable indoor environmental quality (IEQ) for air-conditioned office buildings consumes a considerable amount of thermal energy. This study correlates thermal energy consumption with the overall occupant acceptance of IEQ in some air-conditioned offices. An empirical expression of an IEQ index associated with thermal comfort, indoor air quality, aural and visual comfort is used to benchmark the offices. Employing input parameters obtained from the building stocks of Hong Kong, the office portfolios regarding the thermal energy consumption and the IEQ index are determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, an energy-to-acceptance ratio and an energy-to-IEQ improvement ratio are proposed to measure the performance of energy consumption for the IEQ in the air-conditioned offices. The ratios give the thermal energy consumption corresponding to a desirable percentage of IEQ acceptances and to an IEQ upgrade, respectively. The results showed a non-linear increasing trend of annual thermal energy consumption for IEQ improvement at the offices of higher IEQ benchmarks. The thermal energy consumption for visual comfort and indoor air quality would also be significant in these offices. This study provides useful information that incorporates the IEQ in air-conditioned offices into the development of performance evaluation measures for thermal energy consumption.

  15. Numerical and experimental assessment of thermal performance of vertical energy piles: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jun; Zhang Xu; Liu Jun; Li Kuishan; Yang Jie

    2008-01-01

    A district space heating and cooling system using geothermal energy from bearing piles was designed in Shanghai and will be installed in two years before 2010. This paper describes the pile-foundation heat exchangers applied in an energy pile system for an actual architectural complex in Shanghai, 30% of whose cooling/heating load was designed to be provided by a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system using the energy piles. In situ performance tests of heat transfer are carried out to figure out the most efficient type of energy pile and to specify the design of energy pile system. Numerical investigation is also performed to confirm the test results and to demonstrate the medium temperature variations along the pipes. The averaged heat resistance and heat injection rate of different types of energy piles are calculated from the test and numerical results. The effect of pile type, medium flow rate and inlet temperature on thermal performance is separately discussed. From the viewpoint of energy efficiency and adjustability, the W-shaped underground heat exchanger with moderate medium flow rate is finally adopted for the energy pile system

  16. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-31

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2,900,000 MWh of electricity, of which 2,200,000 MWh were sold to Electricité de France (EDF) and 9,100,000 MWh of heat, of which 7,200,000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance.

  17. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: Assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2 900 000 MWh of electricity, of which 2 200 000 MWh were sold to Electricite de France (EDF) and 9 100 000 MWh of heat, of which 7 200 000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance

  18. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  19. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  20. Thermodynamic performance assessment of a novel environmentally-benign solar energy based integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Yunus Emre; Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a novel solar energy based system for multigenaration applications. • Evaluation of the exergy efficiency and destruction rate in each system component. • Investigation of the varying operating conditions on the system performance. • Evaluation of complete parametric studies and performance analysis of the system. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel solar energy based multigeneration system for producing electricity, hydrogen, hot water, heating and cooling is presented and analyzed thermodynamically for potential applications. The energy and exergy analyses are conducted for entire system and its sub-systems, which are a parabolic trough collector system, a double-stage organic Rankine cycle, a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cycle and a quadruple effect absorption cooling system. The parametric studies are performed in order to indicate the impacts of some key indicators on the integrated system performance. These analyses are simulated by using the Engineering Equation Solver software. The results show that the increase in ambient temperature increases the exergetic coefficient performance of the Quadruple Effect Absorption Cooling System. In addition, the increase in solar intensity, temperature of absorber pipes inner surface and concentration of ammonia in working fluid mixture has the positive effect on produced electricity from the expanders and turbine, and hydrogen from the PEM electrolyzer. According to exergy analyses, the largest exergy destruction rates are obtained in the parabolic trough collector, PEM fuel cell and turbine. Therefore, any improvements in these components would lead to a better efficiency of the integrated system.

  1. Multidisciplinary Energy Assessment of Tertiary Buildings: Automated Geomatic Inspection, Building Information Modeling Reconstruction and Building Performance Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Patiño-Cambeiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for energy efficiency in buildings within the European framework, considering its environmental implications, and Europe’s energy dependence. Furthermore, the need for enhancing and increasing productivity in the building industry turns new technologies and building energy performance simulation environments into extremely interesting solutions towards rigorous analysis and decision making in renovation within acceptable risk levels. The present work describes a multidisciplinary approach for the estimation of the energy performance of an educational building. The research involved data acquisition with advanced geomatic tools, the development of an optimized building information model, and energy assessment in Building Performance Simulation (BPS software. Interoperability issues were observed in the different steps of the process. The inspection and diagnostic phases were conducted in a timely, accurate manner thanks to automated data acquisition and subsequent analysis using Building Information Modeling based tools (BIM-based tools. Energy simulation was performed using Design Builder, and the results obtained were compared with those yielded by the official software tool established by Spanish regulations for energy certification. The discrepancies between the results of both programs have proven that the official software program is conservative in this sense. This may cause the depreciation of the assessed buildings.

  2. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of

  3. State of the art on power performance assessments for wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    It is the intention of this meeting to clarify the status of power performance verification and assessment and identify the future needs in terms of applications, research fields and standardization actions, putting emphasis on the following items: Power performance verification for wind farms; Power performance verification for large wind turbines; Power performance verification for wind turbines operating in complex terrain; Assessment of the available international and national standards; Assessment of developed, applied and verified tools for WECS power performance. This Experts Meeting had gathered 14 participants from 6 different countries. 12 presentations were given and although countries with a sizeable wind program, ie. Italy, UK and Spain were not present, it is felt that the meeting gave a fair impression of the contemporary state of the art world wide. Specific problems concerning accurate definition and measurement of wind speed by cup-anemometers were dealt with. Different sources of errors were analysed and valuable new experimental results were presented. Other instruments for wind-speed measurements than cup-anemometers were discussed as well. (EG)

  4. A unified model for energy and environmental performance assessment of natural gas-fueled poly-generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    Poly-generation systems for combined production of manifold energy vectors such as electricity, heat at different enthalpy levels (for instance, in the form of hot water and steam), and cooling power from a unique source of primary energy (typically natural gas) are increasingly spreading, above all on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), owing to their enhanced energy, environmental and economic characteristics. Availability of suitable tools for assessing the performance of such systems is therefore fundamental. In this paper, a unified general model is proposed for assessing the energy and CO 2 emission performance of any type of poly-generation system with natural gas as the energy input. In particular, the classical energy saving model for cogeneration systems is extended to include in the analysis further energy vectors by defining the novel PPES (Poly-generation Primary Energy Saving) indicator. In addition, equivalent efficiencies for CO 2 emission assessment are defined and used in the formulation of the new PCO2ER (Poly-generation CO 2 Emission Reduction) indicator, specifically introduced for environmental analysis. The formal analogy between the PPES and the PCO2ER indicators is highlighted. Numerical applications are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed models and to quantify the typical benefits that poly-generation systems can bring. In particular, the new indicators are of relevant interest for both energy planners and policy makers, above all in the outlook of formulating financial incentive strategies, as it already occurs for cogeneration systems, or of participating to specific energy-related markets such as the ones for trading white certificates or emission allowances

  5. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  6. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...... parameters influence the performance of the WEC can also be investigated using this methodology.......This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests...... leads to testing campaigns that are not as extensive as desired. Therefore, the performance analysis should be robust enough to allow for not fully complete sea trials and sub optimal performance data. In other words, this methodology is focused at retrieving the maximum amount of useful information out...

  7. Comparative economic assessment of the energy performance of air-conditioning within the Mexican residential sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Oropeza-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensitivity analysis of the economic impact of different energy performances of air-conditioning within the Mexican housing sector. For this purpose, a cooling-load calculator program in function of the indoor temperature is developed. The program also calculates the electricity consumption along with the expenditure with the different residential rates of the Mexican Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE, initials in Spanish set according to the season of the year and zone of the country. After the results onto the national-scale scenario are validated with the literature, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing three parameters that are considered as influential on the consumption and which can be considered as energy saving strategies. With these strategies, it is found that the indoor temperature decrease due to the use of a passive cooling system is the most important characteristic to take into account followed by the coefficient of performance (COP of the air-conditioning and the increase of the comfort temperature set-point, respectively. Thereby, an economic analysis is carried out, finding an annual saving up to 770 USD within a single air-conditioned dwelling having a payback period of 3 years for using a combination of passive cooling techniques and increasing the comfort temperature set-point; or a 2 years payback period if the air-conditioning is changed by a high-efficient equipment.

  8. Insulation performance data and assessment procedures for steam kiln energy conservation investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccor, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    For a demonstration project, the costs and benefits of insulating concrete block curing kilns to isolate the kiln thermal mass from the curing cycle are determined. Data were developed on service life of FOAMGLAS insulation, the effect of Johnson burners on the insulation and mounting, performance of an alternative insulation (a rapidly installed, spray-on polyurethane foam), and a simple incentive to promote implementation of industrial energy conservation concepts. Data are tabulated and compared for the FOAMGLAS and CPR 480 polyurethane insulations. Specific studies of insulation that was installed on inside surfaces of kilns to lock the kiln-mass out of the curing cycle are given for Blocklite plant in California, the Ameron pipe plant in California, and the Superlite plant in Phoenix, Arizona. (MCW)

  9. The assessment of global thermo-energy performances of existing district heating systems optimized by harnessing renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şoimoşan, Teodora M.; Danku, Gelu; Felseghi, Raluca A.

    2017-12-01

    Within the thermo-energy optimization process of an existing heating system, the increase of the system's energy efficiency and speeding-up the transition to green energy use are pursued. The concept of multi-energy district heating system, with high harnessing levels of the renewable energy sources (RES) in order to produce heat, is expected to be the key-element in the future urban energy infrastructure, due to the important role it can have in the strategies of optimizing and decarbonizing the existing district heating systems. The issues that arise are related to the efficient integration of different technologies of harnessing renewable energy sources in the energy mix and to the increase of the participation levels of RES, respectively. For the holistic modeling of the district heating system, the concept of the energy hub was used, where the synergy of different primary forms of entered energy provides the system a high degree energy security and flexibility in operation. The optimization of energy flows within the energy hub allows the optimization of the thermo-energy district system in order to approach the dual concept of smart city & smart energy.

  10. Energy consumption assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K S

    1975-01-01

    The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)

  11. Experimental validation of the buildings energy performance (PEC assessment methods with reference to occupied spaces heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the series of pre-standardization research aimed to analyze the existing methods of calculating the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC in view of their correction of completing. The entire research activity aims to experimentally validate the PEC Calculation Algorithm as well as the comparative application, on the support of several case studies focused on representative buildings of the stock of buildings in Romania, of the PEC calculation methodology for buildings equipped with occupied spaces heating systems. The targets of the report are the experimental testing of the calculation models so far known (NP 048-2000, Mc 001-2006, SR EN 13790:2009, on the support provided by the CE INCERC Bucharest experimental building, together with the complex calculation algorithms specific to the dynamic modeling, for the evaluation of the occupied spaces heat demand in the cold season, specific to the traditional buildings and to modern buildings equipped with solar radiation passive systems, of the ventilated solar space type. The schedule of the measurements performed in the 2008-2009 cold season is presented as well as the primary processing of the measured data and the experimental validation of the heat demand monthly calculation methods, on the support of CE INCERC Bucharest. The calculation error per heating season (153 days of measurements between the measured heat demand and the calculated one was of 0.61%, an exceptional value confirming the phenomenological nature of the INCERC method, NP 048-2006. The mathematical model specific to the hourly thermal balance is recurrent – decisional with alternating paces. The experimental validation of the theoretical model is based on the measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building, within a time lag of 57 days (06.01-04.03.2009. The measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building confirm the accuracy of the hourly calculation model by comparison to the values

  12. Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Pal

    2006-01-01

    Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20-40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40-80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution

  13. Assessing the stability of free-energy perturbation calculations by performing variations in the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Francesco; Ryde, Ulf

    2018-03-01

    We have calculated relative binding affinities for eight tetrafluorophenyl-triazole-thiogalactoside inhibitors of galectin-3 with the alchemical free-energy perturbation approach. We obtain a mean absolute deviation from experimental estimates of only 2-3 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient (R 2) of 0.5-0.8 for seven relative affinities spanning a range of up to 11 kJ/mol. We also studied the effect of using different methods to calculate the charges of the inhibitor and different sizes of the perturbed group (the atoms that are described by soft-core potentials and are allowed to have differing coordinates). However, the various approaches gave rather similar results and it is not possible to point out one approach as consistently and significantly better than the others. Instead, we suggest that such small and reasonable variations in the computational method can be used to check how stable the calculated results are and to obtain a more accurate estimate of the uncertainty than if performing only one calculation with a single computational setup.

  14. Performance assessment of a new solar energy-based multigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozlu, Sinan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a thermodynamic analysis is conducted on a multigeneration energy system based on renewable energy sources. The proposed system is developed for residential applications, including individual- and multi-building complexes, utilizing solar energy to produce useful outputs, namely electricity, heat, fresh water and hydrogen. Hydrogen is used for the purpose of storing energy to offset the mismatch between demand and supply when dealt with renewables, such as solar energy. The system is modeled thermodynamically to obtain the optimal energy and exergy efficiencies, heat and work outputs for the overall system. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions caused by conventional energy systems utilized for the same outputs are calculated and compared with the studied systems. A solar collector area of 24 m 2 is considered for the present system and its analysis. The maximum energy efficiency is 36% and the maximum exergy efficiency is 44%. The total work output for electricity is 116 kW, and hence the CO 2 reduction achieved by this system is 476 tons per year. It can produce 0.04 kg/s desalinated water. The optimum number of suites, as an application for a building complex, which can be sustained with the proposed system is determined as 106 suites. - Highlights: • A solar energy based multigeneration system is proposed. • Energy, exergy efficiencies, heat, work outputs of the system are determined. • Optimization is done on efficiencies and work output. • Domestic heating, desalination, hydrogen, electricity is obtained. • Overall system energy and exergy efficiency is found to be 36% and 44%.

  15. Assessment of the energy performance, economics and environmental footprint of silicon heterojunction photovoltaic technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To make the transition towards a more sustainable energy supply, it is necessary that we drastically increase the share of renewable electricity generation. Solar photovoltaic energy is regarded as one of the prime options to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of our electricity supply, and many

  16. Technical evidence for assessing the performance of markets affecting energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the empirical basis for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. It presents a framework for evaluating engineering economic evidence on the diffusion of energy-efficiency improvements, and then presents a series of examples within this framework that provide evidence for the existence of market imperfections related to energy efficiency. It concludes with a challenge to economists, policy analysts, and technologists to take this empirical evidence seriously and sponsor further collaborative research in this area. (author)

  17. Assessment of boiler’s operating performance in different energy sectors in the province of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Miroslav V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating database enables the wide range of possibilities for implementing energy management approach and for critical evaluation of accepted practices in the field of energy efficiency. This paper contains besides the existing database also measurements in the group of randomly selected boilers. The sample formed in such a way covers approximately 25% of all boilers in the Province of Vojvodina. This provides reliability and relevance of obtained results. With reference to users, it can be the indicator of a need to undertake concrete activities for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency of plants and improving observed situation. The last section concerns relevant authorities responsible for developing and amending the energy policy.

  18. Performance assessment calculational exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs

  19. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  20. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  1. Probabilistic performance assessment of complex energy process systems - The case of a self-sustained sanitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, Athanasios; Jiang, Ying; Somorin, Tosin; Sowale, Ayodeji; Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini; Anthony, Edward J; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Collins, Matt; Tyrrel, Sean

    2018-05-01

    A probabilistic modelling approach was developed and applied to investigate the energy and environmental performance of an innovative sanitation system, the "Nano-membrane Toilet" (NMT). The system treats human excreta via an advanced energy and water recovery island with the aim of addressing current and future sanitation demands. Due to the complex design and inherent characteristics of the system's input material, there are a number of stochastic variables which may significantly affect the system's performance. The non-intrusive probabilistic approach adopted in this study combines a finite number of deterministic thermodynamic process simulations with an artificial neural network (ANN) approximation model and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) to assess the effect of system uncertainties on the predicted performance of the NMT system. The joint probability distributions of the process performance indicators suggest a Stirling Engine (SE) power output in the range of 61.5-73 W with a high confidence interval (CI) of 95%. In addition, there is high probability (with 95% CI) that the NMT system can achieve positive net power output between 15.8 and 35 W. A sensitivity study reveals the system power performance is mostly affected by SE heater temperature. Investigation into the environmental performance of the NMT design, including water recovery and CO 2 /NO x emissions, suggests significant environmental benefits compared to conventional systems. Results of the probabilistic analysis can better inform future improvements on the system design and operational strategy and this probabilistic assessment framework can also be applied to similar complex engineering systems.

  2. Analysis and performance assessment of a fragment retransmission scheme for energy efficient IEEE 802.11 WLANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafole, Prosper; Aritsugi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Backoff-free fragment retransmission (BFFR) scheme enhances the performance of legacy MAC layer fragmentation by eliminating contention overhead. The eliminated overhead is the result of backoff executed before a retransmission attempt is made when fragment transmission failure occurs within a fragment burst. This paper provides a mathematical analysis of BFFR energy efficiency and further assesses, by means of simulations, the energy efficiency, throughput and delay obtained when BFFR is used. The validity of the new scheme is evaluated in different scenarios namely, constant bit rate traffic, realistic bursty internet traffic, node mobility, rigid and elastic flows and their combinations at different traffic loads. We also evaluate and discuss the impact of BFFR on MAC fairness when the number of nodes is varied from 4 to 10. It is shown that BFFR has advantages over legacy MAC fragmentation scheme in all the scenarios.

  3. Analysis and performance assessment of a multigenerational system powered by Organic Rankine Cycle for a net zero energy house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassoun, Anwar; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building and assesses such a system for an application to a net zero energy house in Lebanon. Solar energy is the prime source for the integrated system to achieve multigeneration to supply electricity, fresh and hot water, seasonal heating and cooling. The study starts by optimizing the power system with and without grid connection. Then, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy, and a parametric study to assess the sensitivity and improvements of the overall system are conducted. Furthermore, exergoeconomic analysis and a follow-up optimization study for optimizing the total system cost to the overall system efficiency using genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal design or a set of optimal designs (Pareto Front), are carried out. The present results show that the optimum solar energy system for a total connected load to the house of 90 kWh/day using a combination of ORC, batteries, convertor has a total net present cost of US $52,505.00 (based on the prices in 2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 1. Moreover, the optimization for the same connected load with ORC, batteries and converter configuration with grid connection results in a total net present cost of $50,868.00 (2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 0.992 with 169 kg/yr of CO 2 emissions. In addition, exergoeconomic analysis of the overall system yields a cost of $117,700.00 (2013), and the multi-objective optimization provides the overall exergetic efficiency by 14% at a total system cost increase of $10,500.00 (2013). - Highlights: • To develop a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building. • To perform a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy approaches. • To apply an exergoeconomic model for exergy-based cost accounting. • To undertake

  4. Energy performance assessment of virtualization technologies using small environmental monitoring sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Masfary, Osama; Antonopoulos, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trends of electrical consumption within data centres are a growing concern for business owners as they are quickly becoming a large fraction of the total cost of ownership. Ultra small sensors could be deployed within a data centre to monitor environmental factors to lower the electrical costs and improve the energy efficiency. Since servers and air conditioners represent the top users of electrical power in the data centre, this research sets out to explore methods from each subsystem of the data centre as part of an overall energy efficient solution. In this paper, we investigate the current trends of Green IT awareness and how the deployment of small environmental sensors and Site Infrastructure equipment optimization techniques which can offer a solution to a global issue by reducing carbon emissions.

  5. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  6. Ventricular kinetic energy may provide a novel noninvasive way to assess ventricular performance in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daniel; Anagnostopoulos, Petros V; Roldan-Alzate, Alejandro; Srinivasan, Shardha; Schiebler, Mark L; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    Ventricular kinetic energy measurements may provide a novel imaging biomarker of declining ventricular efficiency in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Our purpose was to assess differences in ventricular kinetic energy with 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging between patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and healthy volunteers. Cardiac magnetic resonance, including 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging, was performed at rest in 10 subjects with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and 9 healthy volunteers using clinical 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanners. Right and left ventricular kinetic energy (KERV and KELV), main pulmonary artery flow (QMPA), and aortic flow (QAO) were quantified using 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging data. Right and left ventricular size and function were measured using standard cardiac magnetic resonance techniques. Differences in peak systolic KERV and KELV in addition to the QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV ratios between groups were assessed. Kinetic energy indices were compared with conventional cardiac magnetic resonance parameters. Peak systolic KERV and KELV were higher in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (6.06 ± 2.27 mJ and 3.55 ± 2.12 mJ, respectively) than in healthy volunteers (5.47 ± 2.52 mJ and 2.48 ± 0.75 mJ, respectively), but were not statistically significant (P = .65 and P = .47, respectively). The QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV ratios were lower in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (7.53 ± 5.37 mL/[cycle mJ] and 9.65 ± 6.61 mL/[cycle mJ], respectively) than in healthy volunteers (19.33 ± 18.52 mL/[cycle mJ] and 35.98 ± 7.66 mL/[cycle mJ], respectively; P tetralogy of Fallot. Quantification of ventricular kinetic energy in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot is a new observation. Future studies are needed to determine whether changes in ventricular kinetic energy can provide earlier evidence of ventricular dysfunction and guide future medical and

  7. Overview Of The U.S. Department Of Energy And Nuclear Regulatory Commission Performance Assessment Approaches: Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered barriers including cementitious barriers are used at sites disposing or contaminated with low-level radioactive waste to enhance performance of the natural environment with respect to controlling the potential spread of contaminants. Drivers for using cementitious barriers include: high radionuclide inventory, radionuclide characteristics (e.g., long half-live, high mobility due to chemical form/speciation, waste matrix properties, shallow water table, and humid climate that provides water for leaching the waste). This document comprises the first in a series of reports being prepared for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The document is divided into two parts which provide a summary of: (1) existing experience in the assessment of performance of cementitious materials used for radioactive waste management and disposal and (2) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approaches that have been applied for assessments. Each chapter is organized into five parts: Introduction, Regulatory Considerations, Specific Examples, Summary of Modeling Approaches and Conclusions and Needs. The objective of the report is to provide perspective on the state of the practice for conducting assessments for facilities involving cementitious barriers and to identify opportunities for improvements to the existing approaches. Examples are provided in two contexts: (1) performance assessments conducted for waste disposal facilities and (2) performance assessment-like analyses (e.g., risk assessments) conducted under other regulatory regimes. The introductory sections of each section provide a perspective on the purpose of performance assessments and different roles of cementitious materials for radioactive waste management. Significant experience with assessments of cementitious materials associated with radioactive waste disposal concepts exists in the US Department of Energy Complex and the commercial nuclear sector. Recently, the desire to close legacy facilities has created

  8. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT APPROACHES: CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-05-29

    Engineered barriers including cementitious barriers are used at sites disposing or contaminated with low-level radioactive waste to enhance performance of the natural environment with respect to controlling the potential spread of contaminants. Drivers for using cementitious barriers include: high radionuclide inventory, radionuclide characteristics (e.g., long half-live, high mobility due to chemical form/speciation, waste matrix properties, shallow water table, and humid climate that provides water for leaching the waste). This document comprises the first in a series of reports being prepared for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The document is divided into two parts which provide a summary of: (1) existing experience in the assessment of performance of cementitious materials used for radioactive waste management and disposal and (2) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approaches that have been applied for assessments. Each chapter is organized into five parts: Introduction, Regulatory Considerations, Specific Examples, Summary of Modeling Approaches and Conclusions and Needs. The objective of the report is to provide perspective on the state of the practice for conducting assessments for facilities involving cementitious barriers and to identify opportunities for improvements to the existing approaches. Examples are provided in two contexts: (1) performance assessments conducted for waste disposal facilities and (2) performance assessment-like analyses (e.g., risk assessments) conducted under other regulatory regimes. The introductory sections of each section provide a perspective on the purpose of performance assessments and different roles of cementitious materials for radioactive waste management. Significant experience with assessments of cementitious materials associated with radioactive waste disposal concepts exists in the US Department of Energy Complex and the commercial nuclear sector. Recently, the desire to close legacy facilities has created

  9. Performance Assessment of Disposal of Selected U.S. Department of Energy Spent Fuel in High Integrity Cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier, JR

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the effects on long-term dose from disposing of selected U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) in high integrity cans (HICs). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating contractor (CRWMS M and O) prepared the calculation as part of Performance Assessment (PA) activities for the DOE Yucca Mountain Project. DSNF encompasses approximately 2,500 MTHM (metric tons heavy metal) consisting of over 200 fuel types that have been categorized into 11 groups, referred to as Groups 1 to 11, to facilitate their performance assessment (DOE 1999a, Sec. 5). DSNF and high level waste (HLW) have been allocated 7,000 MTHM or 10% of the 70,000 MTHM of nuclear waste scheduled for disposal at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1999a, Sec. 8.1). Of the 7,000 MTHM, 2,333 will be DSNF, or 93% of all 2,500 MTHM of DSNF, and 4,667 MTHM equivalent will be HLW (DOE 1999a, Sec. 8.1). The DOE spent fuels selected for HIC disposal are those that are poorly characterized, fragmented, or damaged, and the HIC concept is intended to provide additional protection by delaying the radionuclide release to ensure that environmental and/or regulatory standards are met

  10. Introduction to radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, G.

    1995-02-01

    A radiological performance assessment is conducted to provide reasonable assurance that performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal will be met. Beginning in the early stages of development, a radiological performance assessment continues through the operational phase, and is instrumental in the postclosure of the facility. Fundamental differences exist in the regulation of commercial and defense LLW, but the radiological performance assessment process is essentially the same for both. The purpose of this document is to describe that process in a concise and straightforward manner. This document focuses on radiological performance assessment as it pertains to commercial LLW disposal, but is applicable to US Department of Energy sites as well. Included are discussions on performance objectives, site characterization, and how a performance assessment is conducted. A case study is used to illustrate how the process works as a whole. A bibliography is provided to assist in locating additional information

  11. Energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in EU: proposals to assess the management performance under a circular economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the European Commission issued a package of documents on Circular Economy concerning an integrated revision of legislative proposals on waste management. The aim was to stimulate a European transition towards a circular economy concept, which is expected to foster competitiveness, sustainable economic growth and new jobs generation. Three indicators are proposed in this paper to contribute to the assessment of the energy recovery management performance from MSW in a scenario of circular economy: a referring to MSW directly used (RMSW or indirectly used (SRF as input of thermochemical plants, an indicator can be the percentage of waste having LHV > 13MJ/kg; b referring to the MSW directly or indirectly used as input of thermochemical plants, the percentage of waste having ash recovered; c referring to food waste, percentage of this stream sent to anaerobic digestion. The above indicators, proposed and discussed in this paper, have to be integrated with other ones in order to complete the quantification of the role of MSW management in term of energy recovery under a circular economy strategy. It is not the aim of the present paper to give a comprehensive solution to this complex issue.

  12. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  13. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC): gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  14. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  15. Developing an Energy Performance Modeling Startup Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the NAHB Research Center began assessing the needs and motivations of residential remodelers regarding energy performance remodeling. This report outlines: the current remodeling industry and the role of energy efficiency; gaps and barriers to adding energy efficiency into remodeling; and support needs of professional remodelers to increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency.

  16. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  17. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Yasser; Baniasadi, Ehsan; Ahmadikia, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground sour...

  18. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  19. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and evacuated collectors. Simulations were then performed to compare the energy, environmental and economic performance of the system with those of a desiccant-based unit where regeneration thermal energy is supplied by a natural gas boiler, and with those of a conventional air-handling unit. The only solution that allows achieving the economic feasibility of the solar desiccant cooling unit consists of 16 m2 of evacuated solar collectors. This is able to obtain, with respect to the reference system, a reduction of primary energy consumption and of the equivalent CO2 emissions of 50.2% and 49.8%, respectively, but with a payback time of 20 years.

  20. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption

  1. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  2. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  3. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys

  4. Assessment of the influence of energy density and feedstock transport distance on the environmental performance of methane from maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In Europe, thanks to public subsidy, the production of electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural feedstock has considerably grown and several AD plants were built. When AD plants are concentrated in specific areas (e.g., Northern Italy), increases of feedstock' prices and transport distances can be observed. In this context, as regards low-energy density feedstock, the present research was designed to estimate the influence of the related long-distance transport on the environmental performances of the biogas-to-electricity process. For this purpose the following transport systems were considered: farm trailers and trucks. For small distances (<5 km), the whole plant silage shows the lowest impact; however, when distances increase, silages with higher energy density (even though characterised by lower methane production per hectare) become more environmentally sustainable. The transport by trucks achieves better environmental performances especially for distances greater than 25 km. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance assessment: a peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale, membership, operation and major observations of the Performance Assessment National Review Group. The Group was assembled by Weston at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to review performance assessment work in the US basalt, salt and tuff repository projects. The purposes were to evaluate the adequacy of the current methods, identify deficiencies, and suggest potential improvement on repository performance assessment. To perform the review, Weston retained a group of distinguished consultants who have had extensive experience in disciplines pertinent to management of radioactive wastes including mathematical modeling of fluid transport. Topics reviewed included flow and transport, source term and uncertainty analysis. While the emphasis was on methodologies, the Projects were specifically requested to show currently available results so that the way they utilized familiar methodologies could be evaluated. This paper will highlight some of the technical observations of the Group as well as some managerial and institutional issues

  6. Influence of the Thermal Inertia in the European Simplified Procedures for the Assessment of Buildings’ Energy Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Evangelisti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of thermal inertia in buildings. Nowadays, it is possible to use energy analysis software to simulate the building energy performance. Considering Italian standards, these analyses are based on the UNI TS 11300 that defines the procedures for the national implementation of the UNI EN ISO 13790. These standards require an energy analysis under steady-state condition, underestimating the thermal inertia of the building. In order to understand the inertial behavior of walls, a cubic Test-Cell was modelled through the dynamic calculation code TRNSYS and three different wall types were tested. Different stratigraphies, characterized by the same thermal transmittance value, composed by massive elements and insulating layers in different order, were simulated. Through TRNSYS, it was possible to define maximum surface temperatures and to calculate thermal lag between maximum values, both external and internal. Moreover, the attenuation between external surface temperatures and internal ones during summer (July was calculated. Finally, the comparison between Test-Cell’s annual energy demands, performed by using a commercial code based on the Italian standard UNITS 11300 and the dynamic code, TRNSYS, was carried out.

  7. The energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramain, Patrice

    2015-10-01

    The energy assessment is obtained by determining the quantities of energy produced, transformed and consumed during a year for a country or a set of countries. The author presents this specific accounting and, while providing the associated tables, first indicates that, according to different international bodies (OECD and IAE, EUROSTAT, or UNO), different energetic products are taken into account to elaborate this assessment, as well for operations related to energy supply, energetic product transformation, and final consumption. He also evokes some key indicators which can be used to draw a more precise or specific energetic portray of a country. Then, he addresses the issue of a common measurement unit: a monetary unit is impossible to use due to price variations, physical units (tons of carbon equivalent, tons of oil equivalent, BtU) are not adequate when talking about hydraulic electricity or geothermal heat. Thus, the author evokes the possible use of exergy or of calorific power, this last one with different methods (energetic content, partial substitution)

  8. Power performance assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, S.

    1998-12-01

    In the increasingly commercialised wind power marketplace, the lack of precise assessment methods for the output of an investment is becoming a barrier for wider penetration of wind power. Thus, addressing this problem, the overall objectives of the project are to reduce the financial risk in investment in wind power projects by significantly improving the power performance assessment methods. Ultimately, if this objective is successfully met, the project may also result in improved tuning of the individual wind turbines and in optimisation methods for wind farm operation. The immediate, measurable objectives of the project are: To prepare a review of existing contractual aspects of power performance verification procedures of wind farms; to provide information on production sensitivity to specific terrain characteristics and wind turbine parameters by analyses of a larger number of wind farm power performance data available to the proposers; to improve the understanding of the physical parameters connected to power performance in complex environment by comparing real-life wind farm power performance data with 3D computational flow models and 3D-turbulence wind turbine models; to develop the statistical framework including uncertainty analysis for power performance assessment in complex environments; and to propose one or more procedures for power performance evaluation of wind power plants in complex environments to be applied in contractual agreements between purchasers and manufacturers on production warranties. Although the focus in this project is on power performance assessment the possible results will also be of benefit to energy yield forecasting, since the two tasks are strongly related. (au) JOULE III. 66 refs.; In Co-operation Renewable Energy System Ltd. (GB); Centre for Renewable Energy (GR); Aeronautic Research Centre (SE); National Engineering Lab. (GB); Public Power Cooperation (GR)

  9. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  10. Hydrogen energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

  11. Context for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In developing its recommendations on performance assessment for disposal of low-level radioactive waste, Scientific committee 87-3 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has considered a number of topics that provide a context for the development of suitable approaches to performance assessment. This paper summarizes the Committee' discussions on these topics, including (1) the definition of low-level waste and its sources and properties, as they affect the variety of wastes that must be considered, (2) fundamental objectives and principles of radioactive waste disposal and their application to low-level waste, (3) current performance objectives for low-level waste disposal in the US, with particular emphasis on such unresolved issues of importance to performance assessment as the time frame for compliance, requirements for protection of groundwater and surface water, inclusion of doses from radon, demonstrating compliance with fixed performance objectives using highly uncertain model projections, and application of the principle that releases to the environment should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (4) the role of active and passive institutional controls over disposal sites, (5) the role of the inadvertent human intruder in low-level waste disposal, (6) model validation and confidence in model outcomes, and (7) the concept of reasonable assurance of compliance

  12. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Hertel, N.E.; Pollard, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  13. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  14. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    "Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development and are c......"Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development...... and are central to improving social and economic well- being, and human welfare and raising living standards. Even if energy is essential for development, it is only a means to an end. The end is good health, high living standards, a sustainable economy and a clean environment. The European Climate change...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO...

  15. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  16. Assessing the thermal performance of three cold energy storage materials with low eutectic temperature for food cold chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yu-Chu M.; Chen, Yen-Hong A.

    2016-01-01

    Development a novel inorganic salt eutectic solution for cold energy storage material (ESM) have succeeded conducted in this study. The eutectic solutions shows a low melting temperature and high latent heat of fusion value as effect of addition nano copper powder into the eutectic solution. We report a new simulation technique of thermal property as well as test results of three inorganic salts. The thermal property of three inorganic salts were simulated using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method with the help of three binary phase diagrams. The simulation shows the liquidus temperature of each binary phase diagram conforming nicely to the theoretical prediction of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. In order to predict cold storage keeping time, we derived a heat transfer model based on energy conservation law. Three ESMs were tested for their cold energy storage performance and thermal properties aging for durability. The empirical results indicate that, for food cold chain, the melting point rule is superior with less deviation. With this information, one can pre-estimate the basic design parameters with great accuracy; the cost of design and development for a new cold storage logistics system can be dramatically reduced. - Highlights: • For these three ESMs, their modified values of melting point and latent heat are presented in Table 2. • But, TC is usually not a constant like TE. • The freezing time underwent a drop ∼10% in the binary eutectic region.

  17. Outcome-based ventilation: A framework for assessing performance, health, and energy impacts to inform office building ventilation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackes, A; Ben-David, T; Waring, M S

    2018-04-23

    This article presents an outcome-based ventilation (OBV) framework, which combines competing ventilation impacts into a monetized loss function ($/occ/h) used to inform ventilation rate decisions. The OBV framework, developed for U.S. offices, considers six outcomes of increasing ventilation: profitable outcomes realized from improvements in occupant work performance and sick leave absenteeism; health outcomes from occupant exposure to outdoor fine particles and ozone; and energy outcomes from electricity and natural gas usage. We used the literature to set low, medium, and high reference values for OBV loss function parameters, and evaluated the framework and outcome-based ventilation rates using a simulated U.S. office stock dataset and a case study in New York City. With parameters for all outcomes set at medium values derived from literature-based central estimates, higher ventilation rates' profitable benefits dominated negative health and energy impacts, and the OBV framework suggested ventilation should be ≥45 L/s/occ, much higher than the baseline ~8.5 L/s/occ rate prescribed by ASHRAE 62.1. Only when combining very low parameter estimates for profitable impacts with very high ones for health and energy impacts were all outcomes on the same order. Even then, however, outcome-based ventilation rates were often twice the baseline rate or more. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of uncertainty in the US department of energy's yucca mountain repository total system performance assessment (TSPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.; Zwahlen, E.

    2004-01-01

    The regulatory requirements being addressed in the US geological repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste specify that performance assessment is to be used to address probabilistically defined mean-value dose constraints. Dose was chosen as the preferred performance measure because an acceptable dose limit could be selected through the regulation-setting process, based on a defined acceptable risk. By setting a dose limit, arguments about the conversion of a potential dose to a potential risk was taken off the table as a potential licensing issue. However, the probabilistic approach called for actually delivers a 'risk of a dose', a risk of a potential given dose value to a hypothetical person living at a set distance from the repository, with a set lifestyle, between the time of permanent closure and 10 000 years. Analyses must also be shown for the peak dose if it occurs after 10 000 years, essentially to a million years. For uncertain parameters that are important to system performance, the goal is to present an analysis that, in accord with applicable regulation, focuses on the mean value of the performance measure but also explores the 'full range of defensible and reasonable parameter distributions'.... System performance evaluations should not be unduly influenced by... 'extreme physical situations and parameter values'. These disclosure requirements are to be met by showing a range of potential outcomes and designating the mean value within that range. (author)

  20. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    According to the Danish energy protocol, Energy 21, one of the goals with highest priority is to reduce the CO2-emission. Energy consumption for domestic heating is a major contributor to the CO2-emission; hence one of the primary efforts to reach the goal is by saving energy in the households...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  1. The Department of Energy's Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Decision support tools for performing streamlined feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces the major task of cleaning up hundreds of waste sites across the nation, which will require completion of a large number of remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FSs). The intent of each RI/FS is to characterize the waste problems and environmental conditions at the operable unit level, segment the remediation problem into manageable medium-specific and contaminant-specific pieces, define corresponding remediation objectives, and identify remedial response actions to satisfy those objectives. The RI/FS team can then identify combinations of remediation technologies that will meet the remediation objectives. Finally, the team must evaluate these remedial alternatives in terms of effectiveness, implementability, cost, and acceptability. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support DOE in this effort

  2. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  3. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  5. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  6. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation: 1994 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The tiered approach to ecological risk assessment has been implemented, generic conceptual models have been developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints has been agreed upon. The document also includes changes in terminology to agree with the terminology in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) framework for ecological risk assessment. Although ecological risks are equal in regulatory importance to human health risks, formal procedures for ecological risk assessment are poorly developed. This report will provide specific guidance and promote the use of consistent approaches for ecological risk assessments at individual sites on the ORR. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance and with relevant EPA guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it should be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  7. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Loar, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It is the third such document prepared for this purpose. The first ecorisk strategy document described the ERA process and presented a tiered approach to ERAs appropriate to complex sites. The first revision was necessitated by the considerable progress that has been made by the parties to the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for the ORR in resolving specific issues relating to ERA as a result of a series of data quality objectives (DQOs) meetings. The tiered approach to ERAs as recommended in the first document was implemented, generic conceptual models were developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints was agreed upon. This revision is necessitated by comments from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Region IV and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) which clarified and modified the positions taken during the DQO process. In particular, support for the collection of data that would support ERAs for all OUs on the ORR have been withdrawn. Therefore, the work plan developed to fill the reservation-wide data needs identified in the DQO process has also been withdrawn, and portions that are still relevant have been incorporated into this document. The reader should be aware that this guidance is complex and lengthy because it attempts to cover all the reasonable contingencies that were considered to be potentially important to the FFA parties

  8. TURVA-2012: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellae, Pirjo; Snellman, Margit; Marcos, Nuria; Pastina, Barbara; Smith, Paul; Koskinen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. Posiva's safety concept is based on long-term isolation and containment, which is achieved through a robust engineered barrier system (EBS) design and favourable geological conditions at the repository site. The reference design considered in the TURVA-2012 safety case is the KBS-3V design, with the EBS consisting of a copper-iron canister, a buffer of swelling clay material, a backfill in the deposition tunnels of low-permeability material and closure of the central tunnels and other underground openings. The host rock acts as a natural barrier. Each barrier contributes to safety through one or more safety function. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the EBS and the target properties for the host rock. The performance assessment (Posiva, 2013), which is a key component of TURVA-2012, analyses the ability of the repository system to provide containment and isolation of the spent nuclear fuel during the long-term evolution of the system and the site. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the engineered barriers and target properties for the host rock, for example properties related to the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of the canister as well as groundwater flow and composition. The analyses take into account the uncertainties in the initial state, the subsequent thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical evolution of the repository system and uncertainties in the evolution. The conclusions of the performance assessment are based mostly on the output of key modelling activities. Whenever modelling is not possible the conclusions

  9. Development of an Information Delivery Manual for Early Stage BIM-based Energy Performance Assessment and Code Compliance as a Part of DGNB Pre-Certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Romanska, Iva; Stamenov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    for all parties involved. However, the persistent lack of early collaboration and process standardization prevent reaching the full potential of BIM-based performance evaluation. By following buildingSMART’s methodology for development of Information Delivery Manual/Model View Definition, this paper...... presents a framework for BIM-based energy performance assessment and code compliance, as required by the Danish Building Regulations and the DGNB rating system. Standardization of the information exchange would increase efficiency and reduce manual data input, duplication of work and errors due...

  10. Public policy performance for social development : solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Aquino, A.R.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Kleiche Dray, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, ne...

  11. Energy performance evaluation of AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Hulya

    The U.S. building industry constitutes the largest consumer of energy (i.e., electricity, natural gas, petroleum) in the world. The building sector uses almost 41 percent of the primary energy and approximately 72 percent of the available electricity in the United States. As global energy-generating resources are being depleted at exponential rates, the amount of energy consumed and wasted cannot be ignored. Professionals concerned about the environment have placed a high priority on finding solutions that reduce energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort. Sustainable design and the judicious combination of building materials comprise one solution to this problem. A future including sustainable energy may result from using energy simulation software to accurately estimate energy consumption and from applying building materials that achieve the potential results derived through simulation analysis. Energy-modeling tools assist professionals with making informed decisions about energy performance during the early planning phases of a design project, such as determining the most advantageous combination of building materials, choosing mechanical systems, and determining building orientation on the site. By implementing energy simulation software to estimate the effect of these factors on the energy consumption of a building, designers can make adjustments to their designs during the design phase when the effect on cost is minimal. The primary objective of this research consisted of identifying a method with which to properly select energy-efficient building materials and involved evaluating the potential of these materials to earn LEED credits when properly applied to a structure. In addition, this objective included establishing a framework that provides suggestions for improvements to currently available simulation software that enhance the viability of the estimates concerning energy efficiency and the achievements of LEED credits. The primary objective

  12. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  13. Testing of energy assessment of technical plants, in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, EPBD; Testing av Energivurdering av tekniske anlegg iht Bygningsenergidirektivet, EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkeland, Harald

    2008-06-15

    The consulting company Norwegian Energy has previously worked out proposals for inspection systems for technical plants, in accordance with the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, abbreviated EPBD. This project has consisted in practice testing of the proposed inspection systems. In this respect agreements have been made with a number of companies working with heating boiler inspections as well as ventilation and cooling. Testing experiences have been summed up in this report. The most important experiences from this project concern practical matters: The main challenge is to find data and documentation on the plant. Use of time and resources is part of this challenge. The forms must be simplified, with less information to fill in. Some adjustments have been proposed to the previously proposed procedure. The content of the inspection should be clearly defined, without any options for simplifications. Eligibility requirements: There is clearly a need for training and certification procedures for companies/persons which are permitted to carry out inspections according to the EPBD. A proposal for such procedures has been worked out. The inspection should contain both a declaration of impartiality and a guarantee from the inspector that all identified points of improvement have been described. (EW)

  14. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  15. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-11-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  16. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Loar, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It is the third such document prepared for this purpose. The first ecorisk strategy document described the ERA process and presented a tiered approach to ERAs appropriate to complex sites. The first revision was necessitated by the considerable progress that has been made by the parties to the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for the ORR in resolving specific issues relating to ERA as a result of a series of data quality objectives (DQOs) meetings. The tiered approach to ERAs as recommended in the first document was implemented, generic conceptual models were developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints was agreed upon. This revision is necessitated by comments from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Region IV and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) which clarified and modified the positions taken during the DQO process. In particular, support for the collection of data that would support ERAs for all OUs on the ORR have been withdrawn. Therefore, the work plan developed to fill the reservation-wide data needs identified in the DQO process has also been withdrawn, and portions that are still relevant have been incorporated into this document. The reader should be aware that this guidance is complex and lengthy because it attempts to cover all the reasonable contingencies that were considered to be potentially important to the FFA parties.

  17. Performance Assessment Institute-NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.

  18. Model-based energy performance assessment of the world largest underground seasonal thermal energy storage in a pilot district heating system in Chifeng City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems play an important role in supporting energy transition by using and storing energy delivered by renewable and other low-grade energy sources such as industrial waste heat. However, this low-grade heat is not always able to satisfy the heating demand, including space heating

  19. Energetic and Economic Assessment of Pipe Network Effects on Unused Energy Source System Performance in Large-Scale Horticulture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Ho Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, the introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. This study investigated the effects of the distance between the greenhouse and the actual heat source by taking into account the heat transfer taking place inside the pipe network. This study considered CO2 emissions and economic aspects to determine the optimal heat source. Payback period analysis against initial investment cost shows that a heat pump based on a power plant’s waste heat has the shortest payback period of 7.69 years at a distance of 0 km. On the other hand, the payback period of a heat pump based on geothermal heat showed the shortest payback period of 10.17 year at the distance of 5 km, indicating that heat pumps utilizing geothermal heat were the most effective model if the heat transfer inside the pipe network between the greenhouse and the actual heat source is taken into account.

  20. OLEM Performance Assessment Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a variety of data sets that measure the performance of Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) programs in support of the Office of the...

  1. Assessment of the energy performance of the solar space system attached to the CE – INCERC Bucharest experimental house – experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The INCERC Bucharest experimental house is equipped on the Southern façade with a ventilated solar space. The solar space ensures the ventilation of the entire building at a constant rate of 0.60 exchanges / h during the cold season, by inletting the pre-heated space in the greenhouse space. In the hot season the system ensures the building reversible ventilation by providing the fresh air rate by air suction in the building Northern zone, a consequence of the natural draught effect ensured by the solar space. This report presents the experiments performed in the season 2008-2009 and the experimental validation of the mathematical model used in assessing the solar space energy performance in the heating season.

  2. Simply Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.; McLaughlin, Felecia C.; Pringle, Rose M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of Miss Felecia McLaughlin, a fourth-grade teacher from the island of Jamaica who used the model proposed by Bass et al. (2009) to assess conceptual understanding of four of the six types of simple machines while encouraging collaboration through the creation of learning teams. Students had an opportunity to…

  3. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  4. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  5. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  6. The process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    An introductory review of the subject of ''Performance Assessment'' will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which will be discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment will be addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the ''system/site/technology'' issues as the focal point of this symposium will be reviewed

  7. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  8. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  9. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  10. France's energy assessment for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussud, Xavier; Guggemos, Fabien; Riedinger, Nicolas; Cavaud, Denis; Delamare, Karine; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Lauverjat, Jean; Misak, Evelyne; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Mombel, David; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This accounting document has been elaborated in compliance with standards defined by the European Union, the International Agency of Energy, and the United Nations. It gives a global overview of the supply and usage chain for each energy source (coal, oil, gas, electricity, thermal renewable energies and wastes). It also gives data related to energy efficiency, supply dependence on other countries, and carbon dioxide emissions. A first part presents the economic and climatic context for 2015: slow world economic growth and an oil market always in surplus, GDP growth at a higher rate, the third hottest year since 1900 with rainfall deficit and sunshine higher than normal. The second part analyses the weight of energy in the French economy: evolutions of energy and oil markets, decrease of energy bill, stronger decrease of oil product prices, higher energy expenses and lower fuel expenses for households. The third part analyses France's energy supply: slight increase of primary production, further decrease of coal imports, recovery of crude oil imports but decrease of refined product trade deficit, moderate increase of natural gas imports, moderate increase of some renewable productions (biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal, heat pumps), slight increase of electricity production with increased use of natural gas. The fourth part analyses quantities and forms of consumed energy: globally, for coal, oil, gas, biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal and heat pumps, and electricity. The fifth part analyses usages and sectors of energy consumption: global final energy, and case of housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery. The sixth part proposes an assessment for overseas territories, globally and for the different energy sources. The seventh part discusses other energy-related issues: evolution of energy intensity, of CO_2 emissions due to energy combustion, co-generated heat and heat networks. Numerous data and methodological

  11. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Energy Council has designed 2 tools named Jazz and Symphonie that allow the assessment of the potential impacts of energy choices on the future in terms of climate warming, investments, energy mix,... The Jazz roadmap aims at energy equity which means individual access to energy at a reasonable cost while the Symphonie roadmap focuses on environmental issues through appropriate practice and coordinated international policies. Both tools are integrated it means that they describe a whole world by most of its aspects: population, GDP per capita, number of cars by inhabitant, economic growth... A basic application of both tools shows that in 2050 the nuclear power will have increased (compared to today's level) but the share of nuclear power in the energy mix will have decreased for Jazz and increased for Symphonie. (A.C.)

  13. Developing an Energy Performance Modeling Startup Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the NAHB Research Center began the first part of the multi-year effort by assessing the needs and motivations of residential remodelers regarding energy performance remodeling. The scope is multifaceted - all perspectives will be sought related to remodeling firms ranging in size from small-scale, sole proprietor to national. This will allow the Research Center to gain a deeper understanding of the remodeling and energy retrofit business and the needs of contractors when offering energy upgrade services. To determine the gaps and the motivation for energy performance remodeling, the NAHB Research Center conducted (1) an initial series of focus groups with remodelers at the 2011 International Builders' Show, (2) a second series of focus groups with remodelers at the NAHB Research Center in conjunction with the NAHB Spring Board meeting in DC, and (3) quantitative market research with remodelers based on the findings from the focus groups. The goal was threefold, to: Understand the current remodeling industry and the role of energy efficiency; Identify the gaps and barriers to adding energy efficiency into remodeling; and Quantify and prioritize the support needs of professional remodelers to increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency. This report outlines all three of these tasks with remodelers.

  14. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  15. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  16. Performance Assessment National Review Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.; Davis, S.N.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Performance assessment involves predicting the potential radiological impact of a nuclear waste disposal system, taking into account all of the natural and engineered components of the system. It includes the analysis and evaluation of predicted system and component performance to determine compliance with regulatory performance criteria. In the context of the nuclear waste management program, performance assessment has five major purposes: to assist in the evaluation and selection of repository sites; to guide the research, development, and testing programs; to assist in the evaluation of repository designs; to assist in the evaluation of the design and performance of engineered barriers; and to show regulatory compliance and support repository licensing. Current performance assessment methodologies are still in the developmental stage. Only the simplest of bounding calculations have produced quantitative predictions of radionuclide releases. The methodologies require considerable extension and validation before they can provide answers suitable for project decisions and licensing. 135 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Assessment of triton potential energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Payne, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically. (author)

  18. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  19. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  20. Regional energy assessment - Technical Guidebook nr. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This publication indicates and describes how a regional energy assessment is to be performed. Some general aspects and features are first addressed: conversion coefficients, climate correction. Then, its describes how final consumptions of the different consuming sectors are to be addressed: industry with its nomenclature of activities, transport, housing, office building, agriculture. Final consumptions of the different energy products are then addressed: solid mineral fuels (in industry and other sectors), oil products (different types of fuels), natural gas, heat, electricity. Regional statistical sources are indicated for electric power, natural gas, oil, renewable energies, industry, and sectors as a whole

  1. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Mark [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  2. An aggregated energy security performance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martchamadol, Jutamanee; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► AESPI shows a country’s (or province’s) energy security status. ► AESPI considers social, economic and environmental aspects using 25 indicators. ► AESPI shows the impact of the trend of energy policies/measures. ► AESPI could be a tool for monitoring and evaluating the impact of energy policies. -- Abstract: An “Aggregated Energy Security Performance Indicator (AESPI)” has been developed by considering 25 individual indicators representing social, economy and environmental dimensions. The principle used, data required and the methodology for the development of AESPI have been detailed. AESPI requires time series data for its development and its value ranges from 0 to 10. The characteristics of AESPI have been compared with the existing indicators in terms of methodology, data requirements, analysis possible and the applications. The advantages of AESPI is that it not only assists in knowing the past energy security status of a country, but also helps in assessing the future status considering the energy policies and plans of the country, thus enabling the monitoring of the impacts of the policies.

  3. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  4. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... be expressed as a function of two parameters representing the energy performance and two parameters representing the geometry of the window. The two energy performance parameters are the net energy gain per area of the glazing unit and the sum of the heat losses through the frame and the assembly per length...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters...

  5. The energy performance contract - key towards energy efficiency in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa Corina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Energy Performance Contract (EPC as a business model for energy efficiency. More precisely, it examines, using two case studies, enablers and disablers – from an economic, legal and institutional/managerial perspective – for advancing this arrangement across the EU. The EU has set a 20% energy savings target by 2020 (roughly equivalent to turning off 400 power stations, with an even more ambitious target of 27% by 2030. To reach these ambitious targets, the investments needed are approximately EUR 100 bn/year across the EU (according to the European Commission. Energy efficiency is not, as fervent proponents often claim, the low hanging fruit in terms of investment efforts. Like any other sub-sector, such as transmission and distribution, it demands innovative financing instruments to ensure adequate scale-up. In the paper, I use two comparative case studies to identify and classify the disablers and enablers of Energy Performance Contracting/Energy Services Companies (ESCOs development: the European frontrunner, namely Germany, and a laggard, namely Romania. As research methodology, I use literature review, comparisons between similar government policy planning and evaluation documents, and stakeholder interviews. While academic literature on the topic (Seefeldt, 2003; Wilhelm, 2015 is developed for Germany, for Romania a critical reflection on EPC promotion policy is to be found only in industry documents (e.g.: ARPEE, 2013; Tractebel, 2015. The German success demonstrates that, contrary to the belief of Romanian stakeholders, it is not the lack of a standardized contract model that prevents EPC development, but lack of genuine commitment, drive and leadership of public officials in promoting this financing instrument. A solid communication between public authorities and private beneficiaries, and public administration capacity for impact assessment and evidence-based policy planning are two other significant

  6. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  7. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  8. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  9. Energy and environment: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1993-01-01

    Two problems connected to the concept of 'risk' were analyzed: nuclear power production and global climate changes. In fact, nuclear power, despite of the risk management of the plants, does not produce gaseous emissions and can be used to reduce environmental risks. Even if a cost benefit analysis of nuclear power is very difficult, to perform it is author's opinion that, very probably, industrial countries will continue to use this form of energy

  10. How to estimate realistic energy savings in Energy Performance Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Altmann, Nagmeh; Berecová, Monika

    Given the fact that most MS use fixed or other kinds of default values as boundary condition input for energy performance calculations, it is not surprising that the calculated energy performance differs from the measured energy consumption. As a consequence, the calculated energy savings due...... stationary calculation tools using monthly average values. The optimum solution for energy performance certificates and calculating realistic energy savings is to have two calculations. One calculation, using default values to calculate the label itself, and one with actual input parameters for calculating...... energy performance before and after implementing energy saving measures. Actual values though, may be difficult to identify, so there is a need to make adaptations to reality easy. Even if actual values are available, there are still issues that cause calculated energy savings to differ from the obtained...

  11. Energy and Process Assessment Protocol for Industrial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    condenser surfaces of fouling 6.31 Raise evaporator or lower condenser water temperature 6.2 Optimize chiller sequencing 6.33 Use two-speed or...F increase in CHW supply setpoint the chiller compression motor load will DECREASE 1.5 percent. This is a zero cost ECO. 3.5 Decrease Conden. CTW...energy assessments, universities conducting energy assessment, and Energy Service Performance Contractors) perform Industrial and Energy Optimization

  12. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final

  13. Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreement Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    FEMP developed the Energy Savings Performance Contracting Energy Sales Agreement (ESPC ESA) Toolkit to provide federal agency contracting officers and other acquisition team members with information that will facilitate the timely execution of ESPC ESA projects.

  14. Performance assessment of gamma cameras. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.T.; Short, M.D.; Potter, D.C.; Barnes, K.J.

    1980-11-01

    The Dept. of Health and Social Security and the Scottish Home and Health Dept. has sponsored a programme of measurements of the important performance characteristics of 15 leading types of gamma cameras providing a routine radionuclide imaging service in hospitals throughout the UK. Measurements have been made of intrinsic resolution, system resolution, non-uniformity, spatial distortion, count rate performance, sensitivity, energy resolution and shield leakage. The main aim of this performance assessment was to provide sound information to the NHS to ease the task of those responsible for the purchase of gamma cameras. (U.K.)

  15. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility

  16. Methodology for NDA performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, M.; Franklin, M.; Guardini, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the RandD programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, a considerable effort is being dedicated to performance assessment of NDA techniques taking account of field conditions. By taking account of field conditions is meant measurement samples of the size encountered in practice and training which allows inspectors to design cost efficient verification plans for the real situations encountered in the field. Special laboratory facilities referred to as PERLA are being constructed for this purpose. These facilities will be used for measurement experiments and for training. In this paper, performance assessment is discussed under the headings of measurement capability and in-field effectiveness. Considerable emphasis is given to the role of method specific measurement error models. The authors outline the advantages of giving statistical error models a sounder basis in the physical phenomenology of the measurement method

  17. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  19. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  20. Performance assessment of a microsprinkler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface hydrological processes are essential to the understanding and prediction of soil erosion. Several equipments are used to measure infiltration rate, runoff and soil loss. However, researchers build their own equipment due to the specific sites where the measurements are performed. This study evaluated the performance of a microsprinkler developed to measure the hydrological processes on unpaved rural roads. The microsprinkler is portable, lightweight, easy to operate, and also low cost. The measured parameters refer to different physical aspects of the rainfall produced as: intensity, drop size, kinetic energy and the simulation area. The microsprinkler was tested at different heights and pressures. The main results obtained: the intensity of simulated rainfall was 71.4 - 148.3 mmh-1, the drop size ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mm (mean 0.7 mm, the kinetic energy of rainfall varied between 51 and 77% compared with a natural rainfall of similar intensity, and the simulation area had 0.28 - 0.56 m2 (mean 0.40 m2. The parameters obtained in this study are within the limit of others simulators reported in the literature.

  1. France energy assessment for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and data tables, this report first describes the economic and energy context (world recession, French macro-economic context, climate data, energy costs), analyses the present evolution of the primary energy total demand (it decreased by 5 per cent). It analyses the energy supply for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, renewable energies and wastes. It discusses the issue of energy transformation and transportation. It analyses the decrease of energy consumption for all non renewable energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity) and the significant increase of renewable energy consumption. It comments the decrease of final energy consumption in all economic sectors (industry, housing and office building, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines that advances in final energy economy have been hampered by the economic crisis. It comments the rather decrease of CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption. Within this context, the energy bill presented a 33 per cent decrease, but remains quite heavy for the French economy

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  3. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  4. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  5. Use of building typologies for energy performance assessment of national building stocks. Existent experiences in European Countries and common approach. First TABULA synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Diefenbach, Nikolaus (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    The present study examines the experiences with building typologies in the European countries. The objective is to learn how to structure the variety of energy-related features of existing build-ings. As a result of the enquiry it can be stated that there are a lot of different activities which are based on typological criteria. Some of them are concentrating on providing information material and conducting energy advice. On the other hand, building types are used for a better understand-ing of the energy performance of building portfolios on different levels: from the strategic planning of housing companies up to the evaluation of national policies and measures in the building sector. On the basis of these experiences a common approach for building typologies has been devel-oped. The core elements of this harmonised approach are a classification systematic, a structure for building and supply system data and a coherent energy balance method. Furthermore a uni-form classification of statistical data enables a concerted approach for designing national building stock models. Finally, a concise itinerary is described which allows experts to develop step by step a national or regional building typology which are compatible with the common TABULA approach. (orig.)

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  8. The DECADE performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Thompson, J.; Rowley, J.E.; Filios, P.; Babineau, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs

  9. The DECADE performance assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, B V; Ottinger, P F; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; Goyer, J R; Kortbawi, D [Physics International Co., Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, J [Maxwell Labs., San Diego, CA (United States); Rowley, J E; Filios, P [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Babineau, M A [Sverdlup Technology, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs.

  10. Performance assessment of coupled processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author considers all processes to be coupled. For example, a waste package heats the surrounding rock and its pore water, creating gradients in density and pressure that result in increased water flow. That process can be described as coupled, in that the flow is a consequence of heating. In a narrower sense, one speaks also of the more weakly coupled transport processes, expressed by the Onsager reciprocal relations, that state that a transport current, i.e., flux, of heat is accompanied by a small transport current of material, as evidenced in isotope separation by thermal diffusion, the Thompson effect in thermoelectricity, etc. This paper presents a performance assessment of coupled processes

  11. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1994 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The tiered approach to ecological risk assessment has been implemented, generic conceptual models have been developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints has been agreed upon. The document also includes changes in terminology to agree with the terminology in the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) framework for ecological risk assessment. Although ecological risks are equal in regulatory importance to human health risks, formal procedures for ecological risk assessment are poorly developed. This report will provide specific guidance and promote the use of consistent approaches for ecological risk assessments at individual sites on the ORR. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance and with relevant EPA guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it should be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources

  12. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  13. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  14. Optimal energy management of urban rail systems: Key performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overall picture of urban rail energy use is provided. • Performance indicators are developed for urban rail system energy optimisation. • A multi-level methodology for assessing energy efficiency measures is presented. - Abstract: Urban rail systems are facing increasing pressure to minimise their energy consumption and thusly reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. However, given the complexity of such systems, this can only be effectively achieved through a holistic approach which considers the numerous interdependences between subsystems (i.e. vehicles, operations and infrastructure). Such an approach requires a comprehensive set of energy consumption-related Key Performance Indicators (KEPIs) that enable: a multilevel analysis of the actual energy performance of the system; an assessment of potential energy saving strategies; and the monitoring of the results of implemented measures. This paper proposes an original, complete list of KEPIs developed through a scientific approach validated by different stakeholders. It consists of a hierarchical list of 22 indicators divided into two levels: 10 key performance indicators, to ascertain the performance of the whole system and complete subsystems; and 12 performance indicators, to evaluate the performance of single units within subsystems, for example, a single rail vehicle or station. Additionally, the paper gives a brief insight into urban rail energy usage by providing an adequate context in which to understand the proposed KEPIs, together with a methodology describing their application when optimising the energy consumption of urban rail systems

  15. Use of LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to Assess the Energy Absorption Performance of a Shell-Based Kevlar(TradeMark)/Epoxy Composite Honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The forward and vertical impact stability of a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) was evaluated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley?s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The lower skin of the helicopter was retrofitted with DEA components to protect the airframe subfloor upon impact and to mitigate loads transmitted to Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) occupants. To facilitate the design of the DEA for this test, an analytical study was conducted using LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to evaluate the performance of a shell-based DEA incorporating different angular cell orientations as well as simultaneous vertical and forward impact conditions. By conducting this study, guidance was provided in obtaining an optimum design for the DEA that would dissipate the kinetic energy of the airframe while maintaining forward and vertical impact stability.

  16. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Nelson, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Smith, I. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  17. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  18. Designing Second Language Performance Assessments. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom; Yoshioka, Jim

    This technical report focuses on the decision-making potential provided by second language performance assessments. First, performance assessment is situated within the broader discussion of alternatives in language assessment and in educational assessment in general. Next, issues in performance assessment design, implementation, reliability, and…

  19. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    . To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related...

  20. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  1. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  2. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  4. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  5. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S; Antoniou, I; Dahlberg, J A [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  6. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  7. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  9. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  10. France's energy assessment for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report first gives a description of the world economic context in 2007 (GDP evolutions of several countries), and of the French macro-economic context in 2007 (GDP, goods production, demographic, household consumption, and trade evolutions). It comments the evolution of international oil product prices and of other energy prices (gas, coal) during the same year, and since 1980, and evokes other factors influencing the French energy bill (money market, climate). It briefly comments the evolution of the total primary energy consumption from 1973 to 2007. It describes the evolution of the national energy production, globally and for each energy source (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, renewable energies and wastes), indicating the energy independence rate for each of them, as well as the import origins. Energy consumption is then analysed in the same way, i.e., globally and for each energy source, and also by economic sectors (non-energetic uses, industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, electricity production). Some comments are made on the opening of the electricity market in France. The evolutions of the energy intensity and of carbon emissions related to energy consumption are finally discussed

  11. France energy assessment for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the economic and energetic context for 2010: revival of activity and trade at the world level but moderate in the euro zone and in France, an exceptionally cold year, a new increase of energy prices. It briefly comments the moderate demand resumption. It comments the evolutions of productions, trade and consumptions of different energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and renewable energies). It comments the resumption of energy final consumption in the main sectors (industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines a slight improvement of energy efficiency, the slight decrease of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy consumption, and a 20% increase of the French energy bill

  12. Energy Performance Certification of Faculty Buildings in Spain: The gap between estimated and real energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Cambra, David; Navarro, Marcos; Cruz, Lucio de la; Millán, Gema; Zabalza, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of the Faculty Buildings studied are within the average of CO_2 emissions. • Academic and Research buildings have a similar simulated energy consumption. • Several restrictions found in the official Energy Performance Certification tool. • Average deviation of 30% between estimated and real energy consumption. • Electrical equipment and user behaviour notably increase the energy performance gap. - Abstract: A systematic method has been established to perform and analyse in detail the Energy Performance Certification of 21 Faculty Buildings located at the University of Zaragoza (Spain), according to the transposition of Directive 2010/31/EU. First of all, the problem background and a review of the state-of-the-art of the energy certification in buildings is outlined, regarding both the actual state of the Government regulations and the studies undertaken in several countries to assess the energy performance of different types of buildings, residential and non-residential. A summary of the causes found in other studies for the discrepancies between the estimated (by simulation) and actual energy consumption is shown which is afterwards tested and compared with the results found in the present study. Thereafter, the method followed to undertake the buildings’ Energy Performance Certification is explained, and the main results found together with the discussion are detailed, comparing actual vs. estimated energy consumption in the different case studies and proposing reasons for these deviations. The energy consumption breakdown by uses for several buildings is also analysed, and potential improvements for the simulation software are assessed.

  13. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  14. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  15. Architectural design and energy performance; Conception architecturale et performance energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 06 - Valbonne (France); Pouget, A. [Bureau Etude Thermique, 75 - Paris (France); Sesolis, B. [TRIBU, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    This day was organized around the energy performance of the architecture in three parts. A first time dealt with the design of new buildings and private houses. Simulation tools for the energy optimization and practice of design are discussed. The second part was devoted to the new 2000 regulation with an open discussion on the regulatory costs. The last part forecasted the evolution until 2015 taking into account the french program of fight against the greenhouse effect, the limitation of the air conditioning consumption and the definition of a quality label concerning the energy performances. (A.L.B.)

  16. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  17. Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emissions in a diesel engine generator fueled with water-containing ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blend of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liu, Yi-Cheng; Mwangi, Francis Kimani; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Liao, Chao-Ning; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65-90%) diesel using (5-30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5-30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable blends after 30 days standing. BD1041 blend of fuel, which composed of 10 v% biodiesel, 4 v% of water-containing ethanol and 1 v% butanol demonstrated -0.45 to 1.6% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC, mL kW -1 h -1 ) as compared to conventional diesel. The better engine performance of BD1041 was as a result of complete combustion, and lower reaction temperature based on the water cooling effect, which reduced emissions to 2.8-6.0% for NO x , 12.6-23.7% particulate matter (PM), 20.4-23.8% total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 30.8-42.9% total BaPeq between idle mode and 3.2 kW power output of the diesel engine generator. The study indicated that blending diesel with water-containing ethanol could achieve the goal of more green sustainability. -- Highlights: → Water-containing ethanol was mixed with diesel using biodiesel and butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent, respectively. → Fuel blends with 4 v% water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol, 5-30 v% biodiesel and conventional diesel yielded a stable blended fuel after more than 30 days. → Due to more complete combustion and water quench effect, target fuel BD1041 was gave good energy performance and significant reduction of PM, NO x , total PAH and total BaPeq emissions.

  18. Competitive assessment of the US: Renewable energy equipment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report is a competitive assessment of the U.S. renewable energy equipment industry. The contents include: Definition of technologies; Industry characteristics; Historical perspectives; Industry performance; Trends and projections; The world marketplace; and Issues and options.

  19. On enhancing energy harvesting performance of the photovoltaic modules using an automatic cooling system and assessing its economic benefits of mitigating greenhouse effects on the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liao, Min-Sheng; Lee, Yeun-Chung; Liu, Cheng-Yue; Kuo, Kun-Chang; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Huang, Chen-Kang; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2018-02-01

    The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules under outdoor operation is greatly affected by their location and environmental conditions. The temperature of a PV module gradually increases as it is exposed to solar irradiation, resulting in degradation of its electrical characteristics and power generation efficiency. This study adopts wireless sensor network (WSN) technology to develop an automatic water-cooling system for PV modules in order to improve their PV power generation efficiency. A temperature estimation method is developed to quickly and accurately estimate the PV module temperatures based on weather data provided from the WSN monitoring system. Further, an estimation method is also proposed for evaluation of the electrical characteristics and output power of the PV modules, which is performed remotely via a control platform. The automatic WSN-based water-cooling mechanism is designed to avoid the PV module temperature from reaching saturation. Equipping each PV module with the WSN-based cooling system, the ambient conditions are monitored automatically so that the temperature of the PV module is controlled by sprinkling water on the panel surface. The field-test experiment results show an increase in the energy harvested by the PV modules of approximately 17.75% when using the proposed WSN-based cooling system.

  20. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  1. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  2. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  3. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments; Performance...

  4. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments.

  5. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments. (U.K.)

  6. BUILDING DESIGN INFLUENCE ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Ligia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient design is a high priority in the national energy strategy of European countries considering the latest requirements of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. The residential sector is responsible for a significant quantity of energy consumptions from the total amount of consumptions on a worldwide level. In residential building most of the energy consumptions are given mainly by heating, domestic hot water and lighting. Retrofitting the existing building stock offers great opportunities for reducing global energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. The first part of the paper will address the need of thermal and energy retrofit of existing buildings. The second part will provide an overview on how various variables can influence the energy performance of a building that is placed in all four climatic zones from Romania. The paper is useful for specialist and designers from the construction field in understanding that buildings behave differently from the energy point of view in different climatic regions, even if the building characteristic remain the same.

  7. Performance Assessment Strategy Plan for the Geologic Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations to assess compliance with the performance requirements in the regulations for a geologic repository and to support the development of the repository. The strategy for these evaluations has been documented in the Performance Assessment Strategy Plan (DOE, 1989). The implementation of the performance assessment strategy is defined in this document. This paper discusses the scope and objectives of the implementation plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans, summarizes the performance assessment areas and the integrated strategy of the performance assessment program. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  9. Global Energy Assessment. Toward a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, T B; Nakicenovic, N; Patwardhan, A; Gomez-Echeverri, L [eds.

    2012-11-01

    The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) brings together over 300 international researchers to provide an independent, scientifically based, integrated and policy-relevant analysis of current and emerging energy issues and options. It has been peer-reviewed anonymously by an additional 200 international experts. The GEA assesses the major global challenges for sustainable development and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing energy services; future energy systems that address the major challenges; and the policies and other measures that are needed to realize transformational change toward sustainable energy futures. The GEA goes beyond existing studies on energy issues by presenting a comprehensive and integrated analysis of energy challenges, opportunities and strategies, for developing, industrialized and emerging economies. This volume is an invaluable resource for energy specialists and technologists in all sectors (academia, industry and government) as well as policymakers, development economists and practitioners in international organizations and national governments.

  10. Energy performance of buildings—EPBD in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalaki, E.G.; Balaras, C.A.; Gaglia, A.G.; Droutsa, K.G.; Kontoyiannidis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Transposition of the European Directive on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD) in Greece was enacted in 2008 by a national law. A follow-up regulation on the energy performance in the building sector—KENAK released in 2010, outlines the overall approach in accordance to European standards and EPBD mandates. All necessary technical specifications and detailed information for the implementation of KENAK are included in four new technical guidelines prepared in 2010, which are supported by an official national software. Issues related to the energy experts are handled by presidential decrees published in 2010; over 5400 temporary energy inspectors are already in place, while permanent accreditation is in progress. Energy performance design study of new buildings for obtaining a building permit is in place since October 2010 and issuing energy performance certificates as of January 2011. This paper presents an overview of the development and current EPBD stage of implementation in Greece, along with a first assessment of the lessons learned and experiences gained. - Highlights: ► EPBD transposition in Greece is a reality. ► KENAK is the main legislative instrument for improving building energy efficiency in Greece. ► Four new technical guidelines have been published to support KENAK. ► A national software was also prepared to support implementation of KENAK. ► Temporary accreditation of 5300 energy inspectors. ► Over 20,000 energy performance certificates issued in the first five months of implementation.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  12. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  13. Making Performance Assessments a Part of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Billy

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to describe recent efforts in Virginia to develop and use performance assessments, including the challenges that emerged during this process and key considerations for states that integrate performance assessment into their systems. Performance assessments can play an important role in preparing students for…

  14. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    Ocean waves provide a sustainable, power-dense, predictable and widely available source of energy that could provide about 10 % of worlds energy needs. While research into waveenergy has been undertaken for decades, a significant increase in related activities has been seen in the recent years......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes....... Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. Thisimplicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...

  17. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes...

  19. Performance Analysis: Control of Hazardous Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, Connie E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kerr, Christine E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-06

    LLNL experienced 26 occurrences related to the control of hazardous energy from January 1, 2008 through August 2010. These occurrences were 17% of the total number of reported occurrences during this 32-month period. The Performance Analysis and Reporting Section of the Contractor Assurance Office (CAO) routinely analyzes reported occurrences and issues looking for patterns that may indicate changes in LLNL’s performance and early indications of performance trends. It became apparent through these analyses that LLNL might have experienced a change in the control of hazardous energy and that these occurrences should be analyzed in more detail to determine if the perceived change in performance was real, whether that change is significant and if the causes of the occurrences are similar. This report documents the results of this more detailed analysis.

  20. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  1. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  2. Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CPARS is a web-based system used to input data on contractor performance. Reports from the system are used as an aid in awarding contracts to contractors that...

  3. Energy sustainability performance of the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Danilov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the dynamics of energy intensity of gross regional product of the Sverdlovsk region for the period 1996 - 2003 years. and projections for the period up to 2015. The principal possibility of growth performance of the regional economy, without a significant increase in the consumption of primary fuel.

  4. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  5. Raising the energy performance of historical dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krugten, L.T.F.; Hermans, L.M.C.; Havinga, L.C.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Schellen, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier studies assume that historical dwellings and post-war dwellings in particular, are less sustainable than modern dwellings, justifying its demolition. Over time, historical buildings have been transformed and their energy performance improved. However, there is little known on the

  6. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun

    2009-01-01

    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  7. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  8. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  9. Assessment of building facade performance in terms of daylighting and the associated energy consumption in architectural spaces: Vertical and horizontal shading devices for southern exposure facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, Hussain H.; Al-Zoubi, Amneh H. [Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain. (author)

  10. Performance Assessment in Courts - The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Performance assessments have become commonplace in management, even in the public sector. With the increasing pressure on courts to perform while making efficient use of resources, performance assessments in the justice system are also gaining in importance. However, the need for judicial independence poses special challenges for performance assessments in courts. Against this background, this article conducts a constitutional appraisal, and contrasts the need for judicial independence with the principles governing effectiveness and efficiency, self-government and supervision, and appointment and re-appointment. A duty to guarantee justice can be derived from this that does not in principle exclude the performance assessment of judges, but even renders it essential, subject to compliance with certain requirements. In these circumstances, it seems hardly surprising that numerous countries conduct performance assessments of judges and also that various international institutions have developed principles for this purpose, a summary of which is presented – in Switzerland’s case based on a recently conducted survey. In the field of conflict between the guaranteeing justice and protecting the judiciary, the following key questions arise in particular: What is the purpose of performance assessments and what are the consequences?What is subjected to a performance assessment and what are the assessment criteria?How is performance recorded as the basis for the performance assessment?Who is subjected to a performance assessment, and must a distinction be made between judges in higher and lower courts?Who carries out the performance assessment and what methods of protecting one’s rights are available?Who should receive the results of the performance assessment?The contribution sketches out possible answers to these key questions and aims to encourage academics and practitioners to give further consideration to this subject.

  11. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  12. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  13. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    qualitative research design; an aspect of descriptive survey research aiming at ... the competence and use of assessment strategies is determined by the type of ... Visual Art Teachers and Performance Assessment Methods in Nigerian Senior ...

  14. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  15. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  16. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  17. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  18. Assessing school performance and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelková, Isabella; Kubíková, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We verify the theoretical hypothesis that individual reference norm helps the development of positive achievement motivation and lowers the performance fear of pupils. The research was carried out with pupils aged 9 to 12 years. The article presents the results of the research in using reference norms with 61 teachers in connection with achievement motivation of their 1144 pupils. The research also mapped the real school situations for the teachers involved, based partly on observation during...

  19. Energy management in production: A novel method to develop key performance indicators for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Gökan; Barletta, Ilaria; Stahl, Bojan; Taisch, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a 7-step methodology to develop firm-tailored energy-related KPIs (e-KPIs). • We provide a practical guide for companies to identify their most important e-KPIs. • e-KPIs support identification of energy efficiency improvement areas in production. • The method employs an action plan for achieving energy saving targets. • The paper strengthens theoretical base for energy-based decision making in manufacturing. - Abstract: Measuring energy efficiency performance of equipments, processes and factories is the first step to effective energy management in production. Thus, enabled energy-related information allows the assessment of the progress of manufacturing companies toward their energy efficiency goals. In that respect, the study addresses this challenge where current industrial approaches lack the means and appropriate performance indicators to compare energy-use profiles of machines and processes, and for the comparison of their energy efficiency performance to that of competitors’. Focusing on this challenge, the main objective of the paper is to present a method which supports manufacturing companies in the development of energy-based performance indicators. For this purpose, we provide a 7-step method to develop production-tailored and energy-related key performance indicators (e-KPIs). These indicators allow the interpretation of cause-effect relationships and therefore support companies in their operative decision-making process. Consequently, the proposed method supports the identification of weaknesses and areas for energy efficiency improvements related to the management of production and operations. The study therefore aims to strengthen the theoretical base necessary to support energy-based decision making in manufacturing industries

  20. Performance assessment in algebra learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariani, Ida; Sujadi, Imam; Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of research to describe the implementation of performance assessment on algebra learning process. The subject in this research is math educator of SMAN 1 Ngawi class X. This research includes descriptive qualitative research type. Techniques of data collecting are done by observation method, interview, and documentation. Data analysis technique is done by data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results showed any indication that the steps taken by the educator in applying the performance assessment are 1) preparing individual worksheets and group worksheets, 2) preparing rubric assessments for independent worksheets and groups and 3) making performance assessments rubric to learners’ performance results with individual or groups task.

  1. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen energy pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissani, Lynda; Bourgois, Jacques; Rousseaux, Patrick; Jabouille, Florent; Loget, Sebastien; Perier Camby, Laurent; Sessiecq, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades transportation sector is a priority for environmental research. Indeed, it is the most impacting sector because it involves greenhouse emissions and fossil resources exhaustion. The Group of 'Ecole des Mines' (GEM), in France, carries out studies concerning clean and renewable energies for this sector with the 'H2-PAC' project. The GEM with four teams performs studies concerning energy systems for transportation sector and more particularly the hydrogen system. The four teams of the GEM work each one on a process of this system. More precisely, the team of Albi studies biomass gasification in order to produce synthesis gas. The team of Nantes studies purification of this gas to obtain pure hydrogen and hydrogen storage on activated carbon. The team of Paris studies fuel cell use and especially Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Finally, the team of St Etienne evaluates this system along its life cycle from an environmental point of view. This paper presents this environmental evaluation witch is realized according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. (authors)

  2. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  3. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  4. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  5. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  6. Probabilistic assessments of fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelppe, S.; Ranta-Puska, K.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic Monte Carlo Method, coupled with quasi-random sampling, is applied for the fuel performance analyses. By using known distributions of fabrication parameters and real power histories with their randomly selected combinations, and by making a large number of ENIGMA code calculations, one expects to find out the state of the whole reactor fuel. Good statistics requires thousands of runs. A sample case representing VVER-440 reactor fuel indicates relatively low fuel temperatures and mainly athermal fission gas release if any. The rod internal pressure remains typically below 2.5 MPa, which leaves a large margin to the system pressure of 12 MPa Gap conductance, an essential parameter in the accident evaluations, shows no decrease from its start-of-life value. (orig.)

  7. An experimental investigation to assess the potential of using MgSO4 impregnation and Mg2+ ion exchange to enhance the performance of 13X molecular sieves for interseasonal domestic thermochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, Daniel; Claudio, Gianfranco; Eames, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg 2+ ion exchange used to enhance the energy storage potential of 13× pellets. • 13× molecular sieves do not allow the hydration of impregnated MgSO 4 . • Zeolite-Y allows for the hydration of impregnated MgSO 4 . • Ion exchange time period impacts the percentage of ion exchange completion. - Abstract: The need to develop renewable heat sources for domestic space heating is a well known problem, for solar thermal systems mismatch between generation and load is a major issue, and thermochemical interseasonal heat storage offers a solution to this problem. Recent research has shown that using an absorbent material as a host for salt hydrates can be advantageous in achieving a high energy density material while alleviating the problematic practical characteristics, such as agglomeration, which salt hydrates typically possess. In this paper results are presented for a 13X molecular sieve which was tested to determine its potential for interseasonal domestic thermochemical energy storage alone and as a host material for Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO 4 ). Two different impregnation preparation methods have been utilised in our experiments, (i) a wetness impregnation method and (ii) a new method in which 13X molecular sieve powders and MgSO 4 are formed into pellets with use of a binder. The materials produced by each method were tested against each other and compared to a zeolite-Y material to assess which is the best candidate material for thermal energy storage. The impact of ion exchange on the energy storage potential of the 13X materials was also investigated. Analysis of the materials characteristics and thermal performance was conducted using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) coupled with a Residual Gas Analyser (RGA), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and a custom built fixed bed 200 g in-situ hydration and dehydration chamber to assess the materials

  8. Environmental assessment in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. In this report, the scope, objectives, and approach of this EA are presented.

  9. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  10. Empirical Study on Annual Energy-Saving Performance of Energy Performance Contracting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Ruan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of trust in Energy Service Company (ESCo is the most critical factor affecting the development of Energy Performance Contracting (EPC in China, compared with other constraints. One cannot easily estimate the energy-saving performance of an EPC project. Under that condition, lack of trust may cause the Energy-Consuming Unit (ECU to suspect the energy-saving performance promised by the ESCo, thus leaving potentially profitable projects without necessary funding. Currently, specific studies taking an across-projects viewpoint on annual energy-saving performance of EPC projects in multiple subsectors, objectively and quantitatively, are lacking. This paper studies the regression relationships of annual energy-saving quantity in terms of revamping cost and the regression relationships of annual cost saving in terms of revamping cost. The regression results show that there are statistically significant correlations in the above relationships in the nine subsectors investigated. This is significant for ESCos and ECUs, because knowledge on energy-saving performance could contribute to EPC investment decisions and trust relationships between ESCos and ECUs. Then, a multiple linear regression model of revamping cost is set up to analyze its influencing factors. The model indicates that the subsector the sample belongs to, financing, registered capital of the ESCo, and contract period have significant effects on revamping cost. Thus, policy implications regarding innovation of EE promotion technology, clarifying ESCos’ exit mechanism, innovation of financing mechanism, and improving the market credit environment for promoting investment in EPC projects, are provided.

  11. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-04-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. During this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the energy harvesting constraints. Assuming a perfect knowledge of the CSI at the receiver, we determine the optimal power policy for different models of the energy arrival process (offline and online model). Indeed, we obtain the power allocation scheme when the transmitter has either perfect CSI or no CSI. We also investigate of utmost interest the case of fading channels with imperfect CSI. Moreover, a study of the asymptotic behavior of the communication system is proposed. Specifically, we analyze of the average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero and when it is very high.

  12. Performance Assessment of Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    on the performance measures and benchmarks adopted in M&A research field and the relevant empirical results. We find that the definitions of performance varied in terms of accounting, financial, operational and perceptual metrics. And performance assessment is sensitive to the definition of performance, methodology......Corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have been increasing popular during these decades. However, a majority of research show failure rate (40% - 80%) has not significantly changed. This “success paradox” triggers us to reflect on performance assessment of M&As: how the performance of M...

  13. Energy and exergy assessments for an enhanced use of energy in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Pedro Manuel Ferreira

    Exergy analysis has been found to be a useful method for improving the conversion efficiency of energy resources, since it helps to identify locations, types and true magnitudes of wastes and losses. It has also been applied for other purposes, such as distinguishing high- from low-quality energy sources or defining the engineering technological limits in designing more energy-efficient systems. In this doctoral thesis, the exergy analysis is widely applied in order to highlight and demonstrate it as a significant method of performing energy assessments of buildings and related energy supply systems. It aims to make the concept more familiar and accessible for building professionals and to encourage its wider use in engineering practice. Case study I aims to show the importance of exergy analysis in the energy performance assessment of eight space heating building options evaluated under different outdoor environmental conditions. This study is concerned with the so-called "reference state", which in this study is calculated using the average outdoor temperature for a given period of analysis. Primary energy and related exergy ratios are assessed and compared. Higher primary exergy ratios are obtained for low outdoor temperatures, while the primary energy ratios are assumed as constant for the same scenarios. The outcomes of this study demonstrate the significance of exergy analysis in comparison with energy analysis when different reference states are compared. Case study II and Case study III present two energy and exergy assessment studies applied to a hotel and a student accommodation building, respectively. Case study II compares the energy and exergy performance of the main end uses of a hotel building located in Coimbra in central Portugal, using data derived from an energy audit. Case study III uses data collected from energy utilities bills to estimate the energy and exergy performance associated to each building end use. Additionally, a set of energy

  14. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  15. Dynamic performance analysis of two regional Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong S.; Vilim, Richard B.; Binder, William R.; Bragg Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.; McKellar, Michael G.; Paredis, Christiaan J.J.

    2016-01-01

    In support of more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, HES (hybrid energy systems) can be designed and operated as FER (flexible energy resources) to meet both electrical and thermal energy needs in the electric grid and industrial sectors. These conceptual systems could effectively and economically be utilized, for example, to manage the increasing levels of dynamic variability and uncertainty introduced by VER (variable energy resources) such as renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar), distributed energy resources, demand response schemes, and modern energy demands (e.g., electric vehicles) with their ever changing usage patterns. HES typically integrate multiple energy inputs (e.g., nuclear and renewable generation) and multiple energy outputs (e.g., electricity, gasoline, fresh water) using complementary energy conversion processes. This paper reports a dynamic analysis of two realistic HES including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by their application in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high renewable penetration. It is performed for regional cases – not generic examples – based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses. - Highlights: • Hybrids including renewables can operate as dispatchable flexible energy resources. • Nuclear energy can address high variability and uncertainty in energy systems. • Nuclear hybrids can reliably provide grid services over various time horizons. • Nuclear energy can provide operating reserves and grid inertia under high renewables. • Nuclear hybrids can greatly reduce GHG emissions and support grid and industry needs.

  16. Energy efficiency and proliferation assessment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The objective of INFCE is to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycles from the point of view of their ability to satisfy the worldwide nuclear energy needs, while minimizing the proliferation risks. Accordingly, the different working groups have to take into consideration as well the energy-efficiency and the proliferation-resistance of these nuclear fuel cycles. The present working paper is aimed at suggesting the main assessment factors which should be taken into consideration

  17. Social assessment of energy projects. How?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Larsen, A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of the project: Social assessment of Energy Projects. The aim of the project is to improve the basis of working out social assessments of energy projects in practice. The report raises the question: How should social assessments of energy projects be made? A social assessment is using a national perspective, i.e. it accounts the effects of the project for individuals and institutions in Denmark. The assessment is based on economics which means that effects generated by the project are valuated in DKK - as far as possible. The aim of the social assessment is to support a more effective use of the resources in Denmark. A social assessment should include an analysis of the distributional effects. The analysis can be made as an account including a social cash flow analysis. The distribution analysis will illustrate the gains and losses for the different groups of individuals affected carrying out the project. In that way the analysis will show who potentially will support the project and who will be against the project. (EG) EFP-92. 37 refs

  18. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Review of SR 97 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This review has identified many technical problems in the SR 97 performance assessment. The general impression of this reviewer is that SKB has been disingenuous in its performance assessment effort. It has not cited important differences of opinion with its own views. Furthermore, there are many inconsistencies in the SR 97 report that all together leave the impression that there are many more uncertainties in the SR 97 performance assessment than SKB would perhaps care to admit. Additionally, despite SKB's statements to the contrary, many of the analyses conducted for the SR 97 performance assessment can be clearly shown not to have been based on 'conservative' assumptions. Finally, SKB has made little effort to consider possible coupling effects between their different scenarios in SR 97. This is a serious flaw in the SR 97 performance assessment. The comments in this review should not be taken to imply that the KBS-3 nuclear waste disposal method will not be able to meet the safety and radiation protection requirements which SKI and SSI have specified in recent years. Instead, my conclusion is simply that the SR 97 performance assessment of the KBS-3 method would have been more believable had it been based on a forthright and comprehensive discussion of facts, uncertainties and opinions, and on a more conservative choice of assumptions. As it stands, the SR 97 performance assessment is not very credible

  20. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  1. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  2. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  3. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  4. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle cost-effective...

  5. Performance evaluation of various cryogenic energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Rodrigo F.; Pedro, Hugo T.C.; Koury, Ricardo N.N.; Machado, Luiz; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.; Porto, Matheus P.

    2015-01-01

    This work compares various CES (cryogenic energy storage) systems as possible candidates to store energy from renewable sources. Mitigating solar and wind power variability and its direct effect on local grid stability are already a substantial technological bottleneck for increasing market penetration of these technologies. In this context, CES systems represent low-cost solutions for variability that can be used to set critical power ramp rates. We investigate the different thermodynamic and engineering constraints that affect the design of CES systems, presenting theoretical simulations, indicating that optimization is also needed to improve the cryogenic plant performance. - Highlights: • We assessed the performance of cryogenic energy storage systems. • We re-evaluated the Linde–Hampson cycle proposed by Chen. • We proposed the Claude and Collins cycles as alternatives for the Linde–Hampson cycle. • We concluded that Claude cycle is the best alternative for the simulated conditions.

  6. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  7. Probabilistic Radiological Performance Assessment Modeling and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.

    2004-12-01

    A generic probabilistic radiological Performance Assessment (PA) model is presented. The model, built using the GoldSim systems simulation software platform, concerns contaminant transport and dose estimation in support of decision making with uncertainty. Both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require assessments of potential future risk to human receptors of disposal of LLW. Commercially operated LLW disposal facilities are licensed by the NRC (or agreement states), and the DOE operates such facilities for disposal of DOE-generated LLW. The type of PA model presented is probabilistic in nature, and hence reflects the current state of knowledge about the site by using probability distributions to capture what is expected (central tendency or average) and the uncertainty (e.g., standard deviation) associated with input parameters, and propagating through the model to arrive at output distributions that reflect expected performance and the overall uncertainty in the system. Estimates of contaminant release rates, concentrations in environmental media, and resulting doses to human receptors well into the future are made by running the model in Monte Carlo fashion, with each realization representing a possible combination of input parameter values. Statistical summaries of the results can be compared to regulatory performance objectives, and decision makers are better informed of the inherently uncertain aspects of the model which supports their decision-making. While this information may make some regulators uncomfortable, they must realize that uncertainties which were hidden in a deterministic analysis are revealed in a probabilistic analysis, and the chance of making a correct decision is now known rather than hoped for. The model includes many typical features and processes that would be part of a PA, but is entirely fictitious. This does not represent any particular site and is meant to be a generic example. A

  8. Comparative Assessment of Energy Supply Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Vladu, I. F.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity facing today's energy planners and decision-makers, particularly in electricity sector, has increased. They must take into account many elements in selecting technologies and strategies that will impact near term energy development and applications in their countries. While costs remain a key factor, tradeoffs between the demands of environmental protection and economic development will have to be made. This fact, together with the needs of many countries to define their energy and electricity programmes in a sustainable manner, has resulted in a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity generation options, particularly from an environmental and human health viewpoint. Although global emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, e.g. SO 2 , NO x and particulate, must be reduced, the reality today is that these emissions are increasing and are expected to continue increasing. In examining the air pollutants, as well as water effluents and solid waste generated by electricity production, it is necessary to assess the full energy chain from fuel extraction to waste disposal, including the production of construction and auxiliary materials. The paper describes this concept and illustrates its implementation for assessing and comparing electricity generation costs, emissions, wastes and other environmental burdens from different energy sources. (author)

  9. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    Senior Secondary school visual art teachers constituted the sample of this ... and Performance Assessment Methods in Nigerian Senior Secondary Schools – Bello .... definition includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, metacognition and strategic ...

  10. Guidance on the Technology Performance Level (TPL) Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Malins, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dykes, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document presents the revised Technology Performance Level (TPL) assessment methodology. There are three parts to this revised methodology 1) the Stakeholder Needs and Assessment Guidance (this document), 2) the Technical Submission form, 3) the TPL scoring spreadsheet. The TPL assessment is designed to give a technology neutral or agnostic assessment of any wave energy converter technology. The focus of the TPL is on the performance of the technology in meeting the customer’s needs. The original TPL is described in [1, 2] and those references also detail the critical differences in the nature of the TPL when compared to the more widely used technology readiness level (TRL). (Wave energy TRL is described in [3]). The revised TPL is particularly intended to be useful to investors and also to assist technology developers to conduct comprehensive assessments in a way that is meaningful and attractive to investors. The revised TPL assessment methodology has been derived through a structured Systems Engineering approach. This was a formal process which involved analyzing customer and stakeholder needs through the discipline of Systems Engineering. The results of the process confirmed the high level of completeness of the original methodology presented in [1] (as used in the Wave Energy Prize judging) and now add a significantly increased level of detail in the assessment and an improved more investment focused structure. The revised TPL also incorporates the feedback of the Wave Energy Prize judges.

  11. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  12. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

  13. Evaluating the Performance of DFT Functionals in Assessing the Interaction Energy and Ground-State Charge Transfer of Donor/Acceptor Complexes: Tetrathiafulvalene−Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF−TCNQ) as a Model Case

    KAUST Repository

    Sini, Gjergji; Sears, John S.; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of several density functional theory (DFT) functionals for the description of the ground-state electronic structure and charge transfer in donor/acceptor complexes. The tetrathiafulvalene- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) complex has been considered as a model test case. Hybrid functionals have been chosen together with recently proposed long-range corrected functionals (ωB97X, ωB97X-D, LRC-ωPBEh, and LC-ωPBE) in order to assess the sensitivity of the results to the treatment and magnitude of exact exchange. The results show an approximately linear dependence of the ground-state charge transfer with the HOMO TTF-LUMOTCNQ energy gap, which in turn depends linearly on the percentage of exact exchange in the functional. The reliability of ground-state charge transfer values calculated in the framework of a monodeterminantal DFT approach was also examined. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Evaluating the Performance of DFT Functionals in Assessing the Interaction Energy and Ground-State Charge Transfer of Donor/Acceptor Complexes: Tetrathiafulvalene−Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF−TCNQ) as a Model Case

    KAUST Repository

    Sini, Gjergji

    2011-03-08

    We have evaluated the performance of several density functional theory (DFT) functionals for the description of the ground-state electronic structure and charge transfer in donor/acceptor complexes. The tetrathiafulvalene- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) complex has been considered as a model test case. Hybrid functionals have been chosen together with recently proposed long-range corrected functionals (ωB97X, ωB97X-D, LRC-ωPBEh, and LC-ωPBE) in order to assess the sensitivity of the results to the treatment and magnitude of exact exchange. The results show an approximately linear dependence of the ground-state charge transfer with the HOMO TTF-LUMOTCNQ energy gap, which in turn depends linearly on the percentage of exact exchange in the functional. The reliability of ground-state charge transfer values calculated in the framework of a monodeterminantal DFT approach was also examined. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  16. Energy and architecture: improvement of energy performance in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Matthias; Wycmans, Annemie; Solbraa, Anne; Grytli, Eir

    2011-07-01

    This book aims to give an overview of different aspects of retrofitting existing buildings. The target group is students of architecture and building engineering as well as building professionals. Eight out of ten buildings which we will inhabit in 2050 already exist. This means that a great potential for reducing our carbon footprint lies in the existing building stock. Students from NTNU have used the renovation of a 1950s school building at Linesoeya in Soer-Trondelag as a case to increase their awareness and knowledge about the challenges building professionals need to overcome to unite technical details and high user quality into good environmental performance. The students were invited by the building owners and initiators of LIPA Eco Project to contribute to its development: By retrofitting an existing building to passive house standards and combining this with energy generated on site, LIPA Eco Project aims to provide a hands-on example with regard to energy efficiency, architectural design and craftsmanship for a low carbon society. The overall goal for this project is to raise awareness regarding resource efficiency measures in architecture and particularly in existing building mass.(au)

  17. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  18. Physician Performance Assessment: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S.; Weng, Weifeng; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Hess, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the rising burden of healthcare costs, both patients and healthcare purchasers are interested in discerning which physicians deliver quality care. We proposed a methodology to assess physician clinical performance in preventive cardiology care, and determined a benchmark for minimally acceptable performance. We used data on eight…

  19. Assessing irrigation performance by using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandara, K.M.P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Performance indicators, performance assessment, diagnostic approach, SEBAL, target level, grain yield, water productivity, error estimation, spatio-temporal resolution.

    In

  20. Performing the lockout/tagout risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Jon

    2007-03-01

    Lockout/tagout provides the greatest level routine, repetitive, and integral to the production process, a risk assessment should be performed. If the task performed poses an unacceptable risk, acceptable risk reduction methods should be implemented to reduce the risk to acceptable levels.

  1. Long-term energy planning with uncertain environmental performance metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Simon C.; Djilali, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental performance uncertainty considered in a long-term energy planning model. • Application to electricity generation planning in British Columbia. • Interactions with climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy are assessed. • Performance risk-hedging impacts the technology investment strategy. • Sensitivity of results to model formulation is discussed. - Abstract: Environmental performance (EP) uncertainties span a number of energy technology options, and pose planning risk when the energy system is subject to environmental constraints. This paper presents two approaches to integrating EP uncertainty into the long-term energy planning framework. The methodologies consider stochastic EP metrics across multiple energy technology options, and produce a development strategy that hedges against the risk of exceeding environmental targets. Both methods are compared within a case study of emission-constrained electricity generation planning in British Columbia, Canada. The analysis provides important insight into model formulation and the interactions with concurrent environmental policy uncertainties. EP risk is found to be particularly important in situations where environmental constraints become increasingly stringent. Model results indicate allocation of a modest risk premium in these situations can provide valuable hedging against EP risk

  2. Expanding the power base. Building capacities for comparative energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Bui, D.T.; Conzelmann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of national energy systems is reaching unprecedented degrees of complexity. In addition to uncertainty of future energy demand, technology performance and costs, planners and decision makers are confronted with issues such as environment protection, sustainable development, deregulation and market liberalization. At the same time, public sector funds for energy investment projects are being progressively reduced. The IAEA offers its Member States a comprehensive programme of technical assistance and cooperation which covers many diverse areas related to peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In the area of comparative energy assessment, the objective of assistance is to strengthen national capabilities for elaborating sustainable patterns of energy supply and use. Assistance is provided in three ways, namely by: distributing state-of-the-art methodologies and decision-making tools tailored to the special needs of developing countries; providing training in model application, interpretation of results and translation into decision or policy making; and carrying out national studies in co-operation with requesting Member States

  3. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  4. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  5. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  6. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  7. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  8. Performance Analysis of the Capability Assessment Tool for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Crossin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the performance of a novel capability assessment tool, developed to identify capability gaps and associated training and development requirements across the supply chain for environmentally-sustainable manufacturing. The tool was developed to assess 170 capabilities that have been clustered with respect to key areas of concern such as managing energy, water, material resources, carbon emissions and waste as well as environmental management practices for sustainability. Two independent expert teams used the tool to assess a sample group of five first and second tier sports apparel and footwear suppliers within the supply chain of a global sporting goods manufacturer in Asia. The paper addresses the reliability and robustness of the developed assessment method by formulating the expected links between the assessment results. The management practices of the participating suppliers were shown to be closely connected to their performance in managing their resources and emissions. The companies’ initiatives in implementing energy efficiency measures were found to be generally related to their performance in carbon emissions management. The suppliers were also asked to undertake a self-assessment by using a short questionnaire. The large gap between the comprehensive assessment and these in-house self-assessments revealed the suppliers’ misconceptions about their capabilities.

  9. Bike Desks in the Classroom: Energy Expenditure, Physical Health, Cognitive Performance, Brain Functioning, and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents' energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention. Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed. As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents' academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents' physical health.

  10. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  11. 5th Total System Performance Assessment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-07-01

    Research items on safety assessment of high-level waste repository have been proposed by external invited experts outside KAERI and discussed extensively during the annual 5th performance assessment workshop prepared by safety assessment group in KAERI. This could be useful to set up R and D plans necessary for the next phase of mid- and long-term reaserch area regarding the safety assessment of high-level waste repository. Through the research and the presentation, HLW-related research and development area including such specific research items as current status of HLW safety assessment research, current requirement for the licensing of the repository system, priority on research area, data base building for the safety assessment, source-term modeling as well as safety case, among many others, have been discussed and summarized

  12. Trigenerative micro compressed air energy storage: Concept and thermodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea L.; Sánchez, David; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The trigenerative-CAES concept is introduced. • The thermodynamic feasibility of the trigenerative-CAES is assessed. • The effects of the relevant parameter on the system performances are dissected. • Technological issues on the trigenerative-CAES are highlighted. - Abstract: Energy storage is a cutting edge front for renewable and sustainable energy research. In fact, a massive exploitation of intermittent renewable sources, such as wind and sun, requires the introduction of effective mechanical energy storage systems. In this paper we introduce the concept of a trigenerative energy storage based on a compressed air system. The plant in study is a simplified design of the adiabatic compressed air energy storage and accumulates mechanical and thermal (both hot and cold) energy at the same time. We envisage the possibility to realize a relatively small size trigenerative compressed air energy storage to be placed close to the energy demand, according to the distributed generation paradigm. Here, we describe the plant concept and we identify all the relevant parameters influencing its thermodynamic behavior. Their effects are dissected through an accurate thermodynamic model. The most relevant technological issues, such as the guidelines for a proper choice of the compressor, expander and heat exchangers are also addressed. Our results show that T-CAES may have an interesting potential as a distributed system that combines electricity storage with heat and cooling energy production. We also show that the performances are significantly influenced by some operating and design parameters, whose feasibility in real applications must be considered.

  13. Assessing the risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Somers, E.; Waight, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The current concern with diminishing supplies of non-renewable energy has brought into clearer focus the debate on the future of nuclear energy. Application of the risk assessment process to the biological effects of radiation is considered worthwhile so that the nature and order of the hazards entailed can be appreciated in the total context of the problem. The derivation of regulations and the process of cost-risk-benefit analysis are also discussed. In view of the widespread public concern and, on occasion, apprehension about the development of nuclear energy it has been thought useful to tabulate the elements of this concern so as to gain a fuller understanding of the manner in which the public perceives and weighs risks. (author)

  14. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  15. On risk assessment of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  16. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  17. Energy performance of three Airtight Drywall Approach houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Mayhew, W.J.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess a new constructon technique, the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA), as it was implemented in three test houses, and to compare the performance of these houses against three control houses typical of residential construction techniques in Alberta. The study focussed on four aspects of house performance integrity of the air barrier system, energy conservation. ventilation, and indoor air quality, and the development and demonstration of computer-based field monitoring techniques. Data were gathered through continuous computer-based measurements, regular site visits, manual measurements, homeowner interviews, and special site tests. The results of the air-leakage tests indicated that ADA is an effective method of reducing air infiltration in homes. The floor joist sealing technique used in the ADA houses was observed to deteriorate within a year of construction. It is no longer recommended. The monitoring results showed a significant reduction in energy consumption in the homes with energy conservation features. Measurements of air-borne contaminants indicated that the ADA test homes performed similar to other energy-efficient homes monitored across Canada and that pollutant levels were within accepted guidelines. 6 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  19. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivujaervi, S.; Kantola, I.; Maekinen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  20. Performance success from self-assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on and successes of self-assessments completed at the Callaway plant. It stresses the vital needs and substantial benefits from these continual self-improvement efforts. The Callaway plant staff use a variety of methods and techniques to do self-assessments with the focus on performance outcomes. Self-assessments help Callaway focus on the priority issues and direct resources properly. Callaway's success has been due to this learning culture. The Callaway plant is a Westinghouse four-loop plant in the state of Missouri and has been operational since 1984

  1. Assessment of CO2 free energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.; Raseta, D.; Matutinovic, I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the European Union climate and energy targets is to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions, at least 20% by 2020, compared to 1990. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. This article compared predicted cost of energy production for newly built nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarios. Power plants were compared based on their economic lifetime. (authors)

  2. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... procedures, scope definition, Measurement and Verification (M&V), financing procurement, and definition of... government. More than $2.71 billion has been invested in Federal energy efficiency and renewable energy... more than $7.18 billion of cumulative energy cost savings for the Federal Government. While FEMP has...

  3. Environmental performance assessment of a company of aluminum surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Catieri Ramalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental performance of a medium-sized company that provides services for surface treatment of aluminum. The treatment is known as anodizing. The research method was qualitative numerical modeling. The environmental performance of the company was organized into five constructs: atmosphere, wastewater, energy and natural resources, solid waste, and legislation and management. Nineteen indicators were chosen to explain the five constructs. Ten employees of the company prioritized the constructs and evaluated the situation of the indicators by means of a scale of assessment. By means of a mathematical model, the general performance of the environmental operation was calculated at 74.5% of the maximum possible. The indicators that most contributed to the performance not to reach 100% were consumption of electricity and water consumption. The construct of worse performance was natural and energy resources. These are the priorities for future environmental improvement actions that the company may promote.

  4. Energy performance of the low-energy house in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    by ventilation heat recovery (90% efficiency) specially designed for arctic conditions, by using thicker insulation in walls (300 mm) and roof/floor (350 mm), and by using solar hot water heating (3250 kWh/year). The building is intended to enhance sustainability in the building sector in Greenland....... energy gain, efficient ventilation system with heat recovery and solar heating. In this paper the results of a calculation of the energy consumption of low-energy house is presented. The calculation was done using the program BSim2002 [1] and a new weather test reference year based on climatic data......The object of the low-energy house in Sisimiut in Greenland was to build a house with an energy consumption less than 80 kWh/m² corresponding to half the energy frame of the coming building code. Therefore the focus in this project has been on large insulation thicknesses, windows with high net...

  5. Establishing strategic energy assessment indicators for Zimbabwe: A key to improving electrical energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Felix

    In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of energy assessments into Zimbabwean industry. This quantitative and qualitative study used a theoretic approach to develop indicators that identified industrial subsectors that should be targeted for DSM interventions. This may bring about reduction in energy demand in high power consuming Zimbabwean industrial companies, which were compared with energy utility performances of similar industrial companies in countries located in other parts of the world. This research used pattern-matching, categorical aggregation, and stochastic frontier regression analysis for data analysis. In maximizing electrical efficiency, the implications of this study may be used by individual companies in Zimbabwe to perform energy efficiency self-diagnoses, operational efficiency evaluations, and capital resource justifications. From a societal perspective, this study may benefit Zimbabwe because it provides opportunities for the alleviation of both shortages in power supply and the capital constraints of building new generating capacity. This study will also benefit ordinary Zimbabweans by lowering energy costs and providing reliable power. This promotes sustainable economic growth and lowers the need for foreign currency to import power.

  6. User's guide for remote access of the Performance Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.R.; Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-03-01

    The Performance Assessment Center (PAC) was established by the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide technical assistance to support the development of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This user's manual provides guidance to remote users of the PAC. Information is presented on how remote users may most effectively access and use the systems available at the Performance Assessment Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Access requirements and operating procedures are presented to assist the first-time PAC user. This manual also provides brief descriptions of each code available on the system

  7. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  8. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving "what would have happened anyway" scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  9. Measuring energy security performance within China: Toward an inter-provincial prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Yu, Jing; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China has been the world's largest energy consumer and producer for many years, yet while myriad studies have investigated Chinese performance on energy metrics compared to other countries, few to none have looked internally at Chinese provinces. This paper firstly develops a five-dimensional evaluation system centered on the energy security dimensions of availability and diversity, affordability and equality, technology and efficiency, environmental sustainability, and governance and innovation. It then correlates these dimensions to 20 distinct energy security metrics that are used to assess the energy security performance of 30 Chinese provinces, divided into eight regions. Our results reveal both trends in energy policy and practice as well as provincial status of comparative energy security for the year 2013. We find, for instance, that there is no province which performs well in all five of the energy security dimensions, and that all provinces confronted threats related to energy availability and diversity. We also demonstrate that in comparative terms, the Middle Reaches of Yellow River and the Northwest were the most energy-secure, while the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and the Northeast were least energy-secure. - Highlights: • We assessed energy security for 30 Chinese provinces across five dimensions. • Fuzzy AHP, PROMETHEE and Sensitivity Analysis are used to investigate. • Western provinces perform better performance than eastern provinces in 2013. • Energy availability and diversity is the most severe threat facing China's energy security. • Developing renewable energy will help improve China's Provincial energy security significantly.

  10. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  11. Performance Assessment Position Paper: Time for Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    This study lays out the historical development of the time frame for a low-level waste disposal facility to demonstrate compliance with the DOE performance objectives and requirements. The study recommends that 1,000 years should be used as the time for compliance for all of the performance objectives and requirements (i.e., for the all-pathways, air pathway, radon emanation, water resource protection and inadvertent intruder analyses) for all low-level waste disposal facility performance assessments at the Savannah River Site

  12. Assessing the Performance of Business Unit Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 140 managers, we investigate the use of various performance metrics in determining the periodic assessment, bonus decisions, and career paths of business unit managers.We show that the weight on accounting return measures is associated with the authority of these managers, and we

  13. The Visible Hand of Research Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Far from allowing a governance of universities by the invisible hand of market forces, research performance assessments do not just measure differences in research quality, but yield themselves visible symptoms in terms of a stratification and standardization of disciplines. The article illustrates this with a case study of UK history departments…

  14. Performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG strain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...

  15. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  16. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  17. Performance assessment review for DOE LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, Elmer L.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 500 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel of experts is used in two ways to assure the technical quality of performance assessment. A preliminary (generally 2 day) review by the panel is employed in the late stages of development to provide guidance on finalizing the performance assessment. The comments from this review are communicated to the personnel responsible for the performance assessment for consideration and incorporation. After finalizing the performance assessment, it is submitted for a formal review. The formal review is accomplished by a much more thorough analysis of the performance assessment over a multi-week time period. The panel then formally reports their recommendations to the US DOE waste management senior staff who make the final determination on acceptability of the performance assessment. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance

  18. An overview of performance assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongnian Jow

    2010-01-01

    The definition of performance assessment (PA) within the context of a geologic repository program is a post-closure safety assessment; a system analysis of hazards associated with the facility and the ability of the site and the design of the facility to provide for the safety functions. For the last few decades, PA methodology bas been developed and applied to different waste disposal programs around the world. PA has been used in the safety analyses for waste disposal repositories for low-level waste, intermediate level waste, and high-level waste including spent nuclear fuels. This paper provides an overview of the performance assessment methodology and gives examples of its applications for the Yucca Mountain Project. (authors)

  19. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program at Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training

  20. Complex assessment of urban housing energy sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Julia; Karakozova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a complex experimental-analytical research of residential development energy parameters - survey of construction sites and determination of calculated energy parameters (resistance to heat transfer) considering their technical condition. The authors suggest a methodology for assessing residential development energy parameters on the basis of construction project's structural analysis with the use of advanced intelligent collection systems, processing (self-organizing maps - SOM) and data visualization (geo-informational systems - GIS). SOM clustering permitted to divide the housing stock (on the example of Arkhangelsk city) into groups with similar technical-operational and energy parameters. It is also possible to measure energy parameters of construction project of each cluster by comparing them with reference (normative) measures and also with each other. The authors propose mechanisms for increasing the area's energy stability level by implementing a set of reproduction activities for residential development of various groups. The analysis showed that modern multilevel and high-rise construction buildings have the least heat losses. At present, however, ow-rise wood buildings is the dominant styles of buildings of Arkhangelsk city. Data visualisation on the created heat map showed that such housing stock covers the largest urban area. The development strategies for depressed areas is in a high-rise building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city. An urban regeneration programme for severely rundown urban housing estates is in a high-rise construction building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city.

  1. Comparative risk assessment in the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers four approaches to risk assessment in the energy industry. The first is a comparison of the primary fuel cycles - coal and nuclear - standardized to 1 GW(e) power-plant year; this gives the societal risk of the production of a standardized amount of electricity. An example from underground coal mining is given to show how these estimates for the fuel cycles were made. The second approach is a comparison of the societal and individual occupational risks for different energy cycles per GWy(e). The third approach is a comparison of the societal and individual occupational risks of four different types of photovoltaic cell manufacture; this is an example of an intratechnology comparison. The fourth approach is a risk accounting method of analysis which estimates occupational health impacts for fabrication, construction, operation, and maintenance of energy technologies, and which, through an input-output model of the national economy, includes system-wide impacts as well as direct impacts of building and operating energy facilities

  2. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Chen, Yi-Leng

    2011-01-01

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  5. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  6. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  7. Performance of renewable energy technologies in the energy-environmental-economic continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.; Birkenheier, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Projected cost-performance data are used to calculate the Canadian commercial potential of selected renewable energy technologies to the year 2010. Based on projected market penetration, the extent to which renewable energy can contribute to environmental initiatives is also examined. The potential for renewable energy to contribute to the Canadian electricity supply is limited neither by the state of the technology nor the extent of the resource available. Barriers to acceptance of renewables include high initial capital costs, intermittent nature of much of the energy supply, land requirements, onerous requirements for environmental assessments and licensing, and lack of government policies which consider the externalities involved in new energy supply. Environmental benefits which will drive the adoption of renewables in Canada include the sustainable nature of renewable resources, low environmental impacts, and suitability for integrated resource planning. In addition, the cost performance of renewable technologies is improving rapidly. Under base-case scenarios, at current buyback rates, only small hydro and biomass of the five renewable technologies examined has significant commercial potential in Canada. At buyback rates that reflect currently projected avoided costs plus an additional 2 cents per kWh as an environmental premium, all five renewable technologies except for photovoltaics have appreciable commercial potential achievable by 2010. The quantity of electrical energy displaced under this latter scenario is estimated at 49 TWh/y, or 7% of the projected total generation in Canada. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste

  9. Current perspectives on performance assessment at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Federline, M.V.; Randall, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is engaging in a number of activities involving performance assessment in order to support NRC's program in high-level waste management. Broad areas of activity include: (1) reactive work responding to products and activities of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) proactive work, including development of an independent performance assessment capability, development of guidance for DOE, support for technical and programmatic integration, (3) a program of regulatory research, and (4) participation in a number of international activities. As the U.S. high-level waste program continues to mature, performance assessment is seen as playing a more prominent role in evaluating safety and focussing technical activities

  10. Tiger Team Assessment of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, [August 19--September 13, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tiger Team Assessment conducted at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between August 19 and September 13, 1991. A team comprised of professionals from the Department, its contractors, and consultants conducted the assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy the status of environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs at PETC. A management assessment was performed

  11. U.S. Department of Energy FY 1994 and 1995 annual performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This is the Department of Energy`s first Annual Performance Report. The topics of the report include a new era for the US DOE, sustainable energy, science and technology, national security--reducing the global nuclear danger, environmental quality, economic productivity through a competitive economy and the critical success factors--assessing the way the US DOE does business.

  12. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    assembly of electronic-communication components, different welding processes are performed at TYAD. It uses shielded arc, metal inert gas (MIG...tungsten inert gas ( TIG ), and silver braz- ing oxygen/acetylene cutting plasma arc methods to complete mission re- quirements. Major welding jobs are...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -1 1 Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA Mike C.J. Lin, Alexander M. Zhivov

  13. Onsite assessments for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, compliance with DOE Order 5480.11 became a requirement in January 1989. One of the requirements of this Order is that personal external dosimetry programs be accredited under the Department of Energy's Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) in Personnel Dosimetry. The accreditation process, from the facility's perspective, is two-fold: dosimeters must meet performance criteria in radiation categories appropriate for each facility, and personnel administering and carrying out the program must demonstrate good operating practices. The DOELAP onsite assessment is designed to provide an independent evaluation of the latter

  14. Towards measurement and verification of energy performance under the framework of the European directive for energy performance of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Esfand; Mumovic, Dejan; Kimpian, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council on the Energy Performance of Buildings has led to major developments in energy policies followed by the EU Member States. The national energy performance targets for the built environment are mostly rooted in the Building Regulations that are shaped by this Directive. Article 3 of this Directive requires a methodology to calculate energy performance of buildings under standardised operating conditions. Overwhelming evidence suggests that actual energy performance is often significantly higher than this standardised and theoretical performance. The risk is national energy saving targets may not be achieved in practice. The UK evidence for the education and office sectors is presented in this paper. A measurement and verification plan is proposed to compare actual energy performance of a building with its theoretical performance using calibrated thermal modelling. Consequently, the intended vs. actual energy performance can be established under identical operating conditions. This can help identify the shortcomings of construction process and building procurement. Once energy performance gap is determined with reasonable accuracy and root causes identified, effective measures could be adopted to remedy or offset this gap. - Highlights: • Building energy performance gap is a negative externality that must be addressed. • A method is proposed to link actual performance to building compliance calculation. • Energy performance gap is divided into procurement and operational gaps. • This framework enables policy makers to measure and address procurement gap. • Building fine-tuning by construction teams could also narrow operational gap

  15. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  16. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  17. Putting HLW performance assessment results in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neall, F.; Smith, P.; Sumerling, T.; Umeki, H.

    1995-01-01

    According to performance assessment results for the different disposal concepts investigated, the maximum radiation doses to the population lie well below the limit set in the official Swiss Protection Objective and below the level of present-day natural background radiation. A comparison of different performance assessments has shown that the following key factors determine radionuclide release from a repository: radionuclide inventory, canister material and failure mode, nuclide solubility limits, the permeability of the buffer material, retardation during transport through the near-field, the presence of an excavation disturbed zone in the rock, the distance to the nearest major water-bearing fracture zone, the conceptual model for transport in fractured rock and near-surface dilution and dose factors. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Assessing the performance of dynamical trajectory estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Estimating trajectories and parameters of dynamical systems from observations is a problem frequently encountered in various branches of science; geophysicists for example refer to this problem as data assimilation. Unlike as in estimation problems with exchangeable observations, in data assimilation the observations cannot easily be divided into separate sets for estimation and validation; this creates serious problems, since simply using the same observations for estimation and validation might result in overly optimistic performance assessments. To circumvent this problem, a result is presented which allows us to estimate this optimism, thus allowing for a more realistic performance assessment in data assimilation. The presented approach becomes particularly simple for data assimilation methods employing a linear error feedback (such as synchronization schemes, nudging, incremental 3DVAR and 4DVar, and various Kalman filter approaches). Numerical examples considering a high gain observer confirm the theory.

  19. Models for the energy performance of low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    of buildings, the first topic analyzed is the variation of presence of occupants. As buildings get more energy-effcient, internal loads and user-behavior increasingly influence the energy consumption. Most simulation tools use deterministic occupancy profiles to simulate internal loads. However, such occupancy......The aim of this thesis is data-driven modeling of heat dynamics of buildings. Traditionally, thermal modeling of buildings is done using simulation tools which take information about the construction, weather data, occupancy etc. as inputs and generate deterministic energy profiles of the buildings....... The approach to modeling occupants’ presence provides a flexible method where no assumptions in the application. The rest of the thesis deals with statistical modeling of heat dynamics of buildings. First, discrete-time models are applied. Discrete-time models are computationally relatively simple and provide...

  20. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...

  2. ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON INTERPRETING THROUGH PEER-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismailia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of translation interpreting is translating spoken discourse orally. It needs some requirements like ability to speak clearly, clarity, fluency, eye contact, and self-confidence. It also needs linguistic proficiency, analytical skill, listening and recall, interpersonal skills, ethical behaviour, speaking skills, cultural knowledge, and subject knowledge. Evaluating students performance on interpreting can be done through peer assessment. Peer- assessment is one of alternative assessment to grade the peers in group or individuals by commenting on and judging other students work. To do this process there is a join work between listening and speaking, and two students. The first student as a speaker and the second student as an interpreter. Both of them should do the same quality on speak clearly as a speaker and as an interpreter should able to listen and translating the spoken discourse orally. Evaluation can use analytical grade that allows teacher to set clear criteria for correction like fluency, grammar, terminology, general content, and mechanics. Students and teacher can give comment on every criteria based on their own competency. During the process on making criteria, students and teacher can discuss and give reasonable suggestion to make the assessment suitable to the students competency. At the end, a rubric of assessment with the score from 0 to 100 and criteria and also the comment included in the paper of assessment.

  3. Impacts of FDI Renewable Energy Technology Spillover on China’s Energy Industry Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental friendly renewable energy plays an indispensable role in energy industry development. Foreign direct investment (FDI in advanced renewable energy technology spillover is promising to improve technological capability and promote China’s energy industry performance growth. In this paper, the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance are analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, three hypotheses are proposed to illustrate the relationships between FDI renewable energy technology spillover and three energy industry performances including economic, environmental, and innovative performances. To verify the hypotheses, techniques including factor analysis and data envelopment analysis (DEA are employed to quantify the FDI renewable energy technology spillover and the energy industry performance of China, respectively. Furthermore, a panel data regression model is proposed to measure the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance. Finally, energy industries of 30 different provinces in China based on the yearbook data from 2005 to 2011 are comparatively analyzed for evaluating the impacts through the empirical research. The results demonstrate that FDI renewable energy technology spillover has positive impacts on China’s energy industry performance. It can also be found that the technology spillover effects are more obvious in economic and technological developed regions. Finally, four suggestions are provided to enhance energy industry performance and promote renewable energy technology spillover in China.

  4. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  5. Methods of Comprehensive Assessment for China’s Energy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijin; Song, Yankui

    2018-02-01

    In order to assess the sustainable development of China’s energy objectively and accurately, we need to establish a reasonable indicator system for energy sustainability and make a targeted comprehensive assessment with the scientific methods. This paper constructs a comprehensive indicator system for energy sustainability from five aspects of economy, society, environment, energy resources and energy technology based on the theory of sustainable development and the theory of symbiosis. On this basis, it establishes and discusses the assessment models and the general assessment methods for energy sustainability with the help of fuzzy mathematics. It is of some reference for promoting the sustainable development of China’s energy, economy and society.

  6. The influence of the Energy Performance Certificate: The Dutch case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    All European Union Member States require an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when buildings are constructed, sold and rented. At its introduction the EPC was considered a pioneering instrument, one that would help overcome an information deficit hindering consumer interest in energy efficient dwellings. Now that the EPC has been implemented for several years it is possible to examine its impact. This research draws on data from ex-ante and ex-post assessments of the EPC in a number of countries and presents the results of a survey of Dutch private dwelling purchasers. This survey was based on two sample populations, one received an EPC during property transaction and another did not. Differences were sought between the two samples in a number of areas relating to the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Results show that many projections about the impact of the EPC have fallen short. The EPC was found to have a weak influence, especially pre-purchase. The potential of the EPC in driving energy efficiency improvement in the existing stock is doubted especially if it continues to act independent from a mix of instruments designed to tackle multiple barriers. It is argued that the energy saving potential of existing dwellings, applauded in climate change policy, will remain unexploited if it continues to be assessed subjectively by householders. - Highlights: • Results of a survey of EPC recipients and non-recipients are presented. • The influence of the EPC is analysed descriptively and statistically. • EPC is found to have a weak influence pre and post-purchase. • More sophisticated mechanisms are needed to enhance the EPC

  7. Comparative risk assessment of severe accidents in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, Peter; Hirschberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Comparative assessment of accident risks in the energy sector is a key aspect in a comprehensive evaluation of sustainability and energy security concerns. Safety performance of energy systems can have important implications on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainability as well as availability, acceptability and accessibility aspects of energy security. Therefore, this study provides a broad comparison of energy technologies based on the objective expression of accident risks for complete energy chains. For fossil chains and hydropower the extensive historical experience available in PSI's Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD) is used, whereas for nuclear a simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is applied, and evaluations of new renewables are based on a combination of available data, modeling, and expert judgment. Generally, OECD and EU 27 countries perform better than non-OECD. Fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear as well as for new renewables. In contrast, maximum consequences can be by far highest for nuclear and hydro, intermediate for fossil, and very small for new renewables, which are less prone to severe accidents. Centralized, low-carbon technology options could generally contribute to achieve large reductions in CO 2 -emissions; however, the principal challenge for both fossil with Carbon Capture and Storage and nuclear is public acceptance. Although, external costs of severe accidents are significantly smaller than those caused by air pollution, accidents can have disastrous and long-term impacts. Overall, no technology performs best or worst in all respects, thus tradeoffs and priorities are needed to balance the conflicting objectives such as energy security, sustainability and risk aversion to support rationale decision making. - Highlights: • Accident risks are compared across a broad range of energy technologies. • Analysis of historical experience was based on the

  8. Tailored model abstraction in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs) are likely to be one of the most significant parts of making safety cases for the continued development and licensing of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Thus, it is critical that the TSPA model capture the 'essence' of the physical processes relevant to demonstrating the appropriate regulation is met. But how much detail about the physical processes must be modeled and understood before there is enough confidence that the appropriate essence has been captured? In this summary the level of model abstraction that is required is discussed. Approaches for subsystem and total system performance analyses are outlined, and the role of best estimate models is examined. It is concluded that a conservative approach for repository performance, based on limited amount of field and laboratory data, can provide sufficient confidence for a regulatory decision

  9. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. Thermal performance and heat transport in aquifer thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, W. T.; Doornenbal, P. J.; Drijver, B. C.; van Gaans, P. F. M.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J. T. C.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is used for seasonal storage of large quantities of thermal energy. Due to the increasing demand for sustainable energy, the number of ATES systems has increased rapidly, which has raised questions on the effect of ATES systems on their surroundings as well as their thermal performance. Furthermore, the increasing density of systems generates concern regarding thermal interference between the wells of one system and between neighboring systems. An assessment is made of (1) the thermal storage performance, and (2) the heat transport around the wells of an existing ATES system in the Netherlands. Reconstruction of flow rates and injection and extraction temperatures from hourly logs of operational data from 2005 to 2012 show that the average thermal recovery is 82 % for cold storage and 68 % for heat storage. Subsurface heat transport is monitored using distributed temperature sensing. Although the measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity, sufficient well spacing has avoided thermal interference. However, oversizing of well spacing may limit the number of systems that can be realized in an area and lower the potential of ATES.

  11. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  12. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  14. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study

  15. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  16. Performance Objective for Tank Farm Closure Risk Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.; KNEPP, A.J.; BADDEN, J.

    2003-01-01

    To be meaningful, results from a numeric risk assessment of the consequences of an action must be compared against the standards for such an action. That is, before one disposes of waste or closes a facility with waste, one must show that the disposal or closure action protects the public health and safety and the environment. These standards are called performance objectives. Regulations requiring performing performance assessments, (whether federal ones like the Department of Energy [DOE] Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management and its implementing guides or Washington State ones like the regulations implementing the Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340 ''Model Toxics Control Act - Cleanup''), usually require that the determination of performance objectives be one of the first steps performed. These performance objectives not only set comparison level for the numeric results, but also define the media, pathways, exposure scenarios (receptors), spatial locations, and times that the performance assessment must consider. Thus, a performance objective consists of a compliance level, place(s) of compliance, and time(s) of compliance. Performance objectives are not the levels that a regulatory agency will enforce in a permit or authorization. Those levels, often called enforcement levels, will be set in the permit or authorization. Rather, performance objectives are those levels against which the results of the numeric simulation will be compared to judge the success of the proposed cleanup or disposal actions. Additional comparison levels may be requested for information purposes, but are not officially part of the decision on the adequacy of the proposed action. To emphasize that the performance objectives discussed in this document are not regulatory performance objectives, the three components of the performance objective will be renamed in this document as assessment standard, point(s) of assessment, and time(s) of assessment. However, whenever

  17. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  18. Statistical analysis in MSW collection performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Afonso; Avelino, Catarina; Ferreira, Fátima; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The increase of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated over the last years forces waste managers pursuing more effective collection schemes, technically viable, environmentally effective and economically sustainable. The assessment of MSW services using performance indicators plays a crucial role for improving service quality. In this work, we focus on the relevance of regular system monitoring as a service assessment tool. In particular, we select and test a core-set of MSW collection performance indicators (effective collection distance, effective collection time and effective fuel consumption) that highlights collection system strengths and weaknesses and supports pro-active management decision-making and strategic planning. A statistical analysis was conducted with data collected in mixed collection system of Oporto Municipality, Portugal, during one year, a week per month. This analysis provides collection circuits' operational assessment and supports effective short-term municipality collection strategies at the level of, e.g., collection frequency and timetables, and type of containers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Georges, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out......-in tariff and a 5 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out...... by varying the building envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lightning and appliances profiles, the roof tilt, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption rate, shifted energy...

  20. Energy-Based Metrics for Arthroscopic Skills Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursartip, Behnaz; LeBel, Marie-Eve; McCracken, Laura C; Escoto, Abelardo; Patel, Rajni V; Naish, Michael D; Trejos, Ana Luisa

    2017-08-05

    Minimally invasive skills assessment methods are essential in developing efficient surgical simulators and implementing consistent skills evaluation. Although numerous methods have been investigated in the literature, there is still a need to further improve the accuracy of surgical skills assessment. Energy expenditure can be an indication of motor skills proficiency. The goals of this study are to develop objective metrics based on energy expenditure, normalize these metrics, and investigate classifying trainees using these metrics. To this end, different forms of energy consisting of mechanical energy and work were considered and their values were divided by the related value of an ideal performance to develop normalized metrics. These metrics were used as inputs for various machine learning algorithms including support vector machines (SVM) and neural networks (NNs) for classification. The accuracy of the combination of the normalized energy-based metrics with these classifiers was evaluated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The proposed method was validated using 26 subjects at two experience levels (novices and experts) in three arthroscopic tasks. The results showed that there are statistically significant differences between novices and experts for almost all of the normalized energy-based metrics. The accuracy of classification using SVM and NN methods was between 70% and 95% for the various tasks. The results show that the normalized energy-based metrics and their combination with SVM and NN classifiers are capable of providing accurate classification of trainees. The assessment method proposed in this study can enhance surgical training by providing appropriate feedback to trainees about their level of expertise and can be used in the evaluation of proficiency.

  1. Tax Performance Assessment in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunescu Liliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal policy performance level in Nordic countries of Europe by quantifying the gap between their performance and an optimum benchmark value. In this study it was selected Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. These countries occupy the first places in the ranking of countries with the highest rate of tax burden in Europe. The first part of paper contains general aspects of fiscal performance in international research and an overview of the Nordic tax systems model. The second part of paper focuses on evaluation of tax policy performance in these countries by using OptimTax scoring analysis. The research is based on a multivariate analysis instrument that uses quantitative data on various aspects of tax policy. OptimTax achieves a score for assessing the degree of optimization of fiscal policy. The results reveal high levels of tax performance in Scandinavian countries and a trend that seems to be more constant than ascending, except Norway.

  2. DOE [Department of Energy]-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

  3. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by U.S. Department of Energy. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). WIPP Performance Assessment Dept.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservation. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2,100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9,200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM. A source term model was developed to study the wide variety of waste forms, which included radionuclides residing in 10 different matrices and up to 8 nested layers of material that might react with water. The possibility and consequences of critical conditions occurring in or near containers of highly enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel were also studied.

  4. Performance assessment modeling of pyrometallurgical process wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.; Hill, R.N.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment analyses have been completed to estimate the behavior of high-level nuclear wasteforms generated from the pyrometallurgical processing of liquid metal reactor (LMR) and light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. Waste emplaced in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is investigated as the basis for the study. The resulting cumulative actinide and fission product releases to the accessible environment within a 100,000 year period from the various pyrometallurgical process wasteforms are compared to those of directly disposed LWR spent fuel using the same total repository system model. The impact of differing radionuclide transport models on the overall release characteristics is investigated

  5. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  6. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustick, Joseph H.; Kosson, David S.; Krahn, Steven L.; Clarke, James H. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Nashville, Tennessee, 37235 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  7. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustick, Joseph H.; Kosson, David S.; Krahn, Steven L.; Clarke, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  8. An urban energy performance evaluation system and its computer implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-15

    To improve the urban environment and effectively reflect and promote urban energy performance, an urban energy performance evaluation system was constructed, thereby strengthening urban environmental management capabilities. From the perspectives of internalization and externalization, a framework of evaluation indicators and key factors that determine urban energy performance and explore the reasons for differences in performance was proposed according to established theory and previous studies. Using the improved stochastic frontier analysis method, an urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model was built that brings performance evaluation and factor analysis into the same stage for study. According to data obtained for the Chinese provincial capitals from 2004 to 2013, the coefficients of the evaluation indicators and key factors were calculated by the urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model. These coefficients were then used to compile the program file. The urban energy performance evaluation system developed in this study was designed in three parts: a database, a distributed component server, and a human-machine interface. Its functions were designed as login, addition, edit, input, calculation, analysis, comparison, inquiry, and export. On the basis of these contents, an urban energy performance evaluation system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2015. The system can effectively reflect the status of and any changes in urban energy performance. Beijing was considered as an example to conduct an empirical study, which further verified the applicability and convenience of this evaluation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience (SuPER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagode, Heike [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bosilca, George [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Danalis, Anthony [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Moore, Shirley [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-30

    directly, or via third-party performance tools. Capabilities added to PAPI through this grant include support for new architectures such as the lastest GPU and Xeon Phi accelerators, and advanced power measurement and management features. Another important topic for the UTK team was providing support for a rich ecosystem of different fault management strategies in the context of parallel computing. Our long term efforts have been oriented toward proposing flexible strategies and providing building boxes that application developers can use to build the most efficient fault management technique for their application. These efforts span across the entire software spectrum, from theoretical models of existing strategies to easily assess their performance, to algorithmic modifications to take advantage of specific mathematical properties for data redundancy and to extensions to widely used programming paradigms to empower the application developers to deal with all types of faults. We have also continued our tight collaborations with users to help them adopt these technologies to ensure their application always deliver meaningful scientific data. Large supercomputer systems are becoming more and more power and energy constrained, and future systems and applications running on them will need to be optimized to run under power caps and/or minimize energy consumption. The UTEP team contributed to the SUPER energy thrust by developing power modeling methodologies and investigating power management strategies. Scalability modeling results showed that some applications can scale better with respect to an increasing power budget than with respect to only the number of processors. Power management, in particular shifting power to processors on the critical path of an application execution, can reduce perturbation due to system noise and other sources of runtime variability, which are growing problems on large-scale power-constrained computer systems.

  10. World energy assessment. Energy and the challenge of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J. (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    The report, prepared by a team with Professor Goldemberg as chair, is a comprehensive volume on energy policy. It begins with a concise overview which has also been published as a 40-page pamphlet. Part I, energy and major global issues, places energy in the context of poverty, population, gender, urbanization, environment, health and security. Part II considers world energy resources and technology options, including renewable energy technologies and end-use efficiency. Part III asks 'Are sustainable futures possible?' and examines six scenarios of energy systems developed by IIASA and the World Energy Council, Part IV asks 'Where do we go from here' and Part V contains further information and reference material.

  11. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  12. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, A.J.; Shapiro, N.L.

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to be a reactor which utilizes plutonium as the sole fissile addition to the natural or depleted uranium which comprises the greater part of the fuel mass. The results of the study and the design analyses performed during the development of C-E's System 80 plant indicate that the use of suitably designed plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers is technically feasible

  13. Measuring energy performance with sectoral heterogeneity: A non-parametric frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Ang, B.W.; Wang, Q.W.; Zhou, P.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating economy-wide energy performance is an integral part of assessing the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency policy. Non-parametric frontier approach has been widely used by researchers for such a purpose. This paper proposes an extended non-parametric frontier approach to studying economy-wide energy efficiency and productivity performances by accounting for sectoral heterogeneity. Relevant techniques in index number theory are incorporated to quantify the driving forces behind changes in the economy-wide energy productivity index. The proposed approach facilitates flexible modelling of different sectors' production processes, and helps to examine sectors' impact on the aggregate energy performance. A case study of China's economy-wide energy efficiency and productivity performances in its 11th five-year plan period (2006–2010) is presented. It is found that sectoral heterogeneities in terms of energy performance are significant in China. Meanwhile, China's economy-wide energy productivity increased slightly during the study period, mainly driven by the technical efficiency improvement. A number of other findings have also been reported. - Highlights: • We model economy-wide energy performance by considering sectoral heterogeneity. • The proposed approach can identify sectors' impact on the aggregate energy performance. • Obvious sectoral heterogeneities are identified in evaluating China's energy performance.

  14. Performance assessment of nuclear waste isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A number of concepts have been proposed for the isolation of highly radioactive wastes, and it will be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such systems. In many countries including the U.S., the waste isolation system of choice is deep mined geologic repositories. Because of the complex nature of the multiple isolation barriers afforded by mined geologic disposal systems, and the long isolation periods involved, this demonstration can only be indirect. In recent years this indirect demonstration, mostly through mathematical modeling, is called performance assessment. Performance Assessment can be defined to mean the development, testing, and application of a series of mathematical models and computer codes which traces the movement of radionuclides from a waste isolation system to the biosphere and any resultant dose to man. In modeling such a repository system, it is often convenient to divide it into a number of subsystems, there may be several different processes that need to be modeled, individually and interactively. For instance, this waste package will probably consist of a waste form such as borosilicate glass containing the radioisotopes, a canister, an overpack material such as steel or copper, and a buffer material such as bentonite. The processes to be modeled at the waste package scale include radioisotope inventory and decay, thermal radiation, radiolysis effects, corrosion, leading and fluid flow. In tracing radionuclide transport through rock, the processes of importance are probably groundwater flow, and sorption and retardation of radionuclide movement

  15. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  16. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Thorne, M.; Egan, M.; Calvez, M.; Kautsky, U.

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example

  17. Practical performances of MPC for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Tetu, Amelie; Hals, J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximising the efficiency of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is one of the important tasks toward the exploitation of the wave energy resource. Along with a proper design of the device, an important way to achieve better energy performances is to improve the wave-body interaction by applying an appro...

  18. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    The newly revised draft DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, requires that DOE low-level waste shall be managed on a systematic basis using the most appropriate combination of waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal practices so that the radioactive components are contained and the overall cost effectiveness is minimized. This order expects each site to prepare and maintain an overall waste management systems performance assessment supporting the combination of waste management practices used in generation reduction segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. A document prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Department of Energy called Guidance for Conduct of Waste Management Systems Performance Assessment is specifically intended to provide the approach necessary to meet the systems performance assessment requirement of DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and other applicable state regulations dealing with LLW (low-level radioactive wastes). Methods and procedures are needed for assessing the performance of a waste management system. This report addresses this need. The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner, and thereby assist the DOE LLW mangers in complying with the DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and the associated guidance document

  19. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 2 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energ

  20. A methodology for energy performance classification of residential building stock of Hamirpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, there are various codes, standards, guidelines and rating systems launched to make energy intensive and large sized buildings energy efficient whereas independent residential buildings are not covered even though they exist most in numbers of total housing stock. This paper presents a case study methodology for energy performance assessment of existing residential stock of Hamirpur that can be used to develop suitable energy efficiency regulations. The paper discusses the trend of residential development in Hamirpur followed by classification based on usage, condition, predominant material use, ownership size and number of rooms, source of lighting, assets available, number of storey and plot sizes using primary and secondary data. It results in identification of predominant materials used and other characteristics in each of urban and rural area. Further cradle to site embodied energy index of various dominant building materials and their market available alternative materials is calculated from secondary literature and by calculating transportation energy. One representative existing building is selected in each of urban and rural area and their energy performance is evaluated for material embodied energy and operational energy using simulation. Further alternatives are developed based on other dominant materials in each area and evaluated for change in embodied and operational energy. This paper identifies the energy performance of representative houses for both areas and in no way advocates the preference of one type over another. The paper demonstrates a methodology by which energy performance assessment of houses shall be done and also highlights further research.

  1. Perspectives of energy efficient technologies penetration in the Greek domestic sector, through the analysis of Energy Performance Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelegenis, J.; Diakoulaki, D.; Lampropoulou, H.; Giannakidis, G.; Samarakou, M.; Plytas, N.

    2014-01-01

    The building sector in Greece presents a huge energy saving potential, the largest part of which is remaining unexploited. The recently enacted legislation for the energy performance of buildings, in combination with the financial support provided by funding programmes to low income families is expected to significantly boost the deployment of energy efficient technologies in the Greek domestic sector. The exploitation of these legal and financial instruments follows a formalised process of energy audits, resulting in buildings classification and in the submission of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) including suggestions to improve the dwellings' energy performance. The paper aims at an ex-ante evaluation of the market trends revealed by EPCs in Greece, in order to identify the perspectives of individual technologies and to assess the degree to which the certification procedure helps in improving the energy performance of buildings. The results indicate a strong trend towards less cost-effective technologies, revealing a sub-optimal allocation of financial resources and putting into risk the path towards the achievement of EU targets for 2020. - Highlights: • Energy Performance Certificates reveal market trends of energy efficient technologies. • SWH, replacement of windows and walls/roof insulation are most often recommended. • Other measures are controls, switch to NG; low cost measures are rarely recommended. • Cost-effectiveness is not the main factor explaining technology recommendations. • Amendment of EPC document and inspection process may enhance its effectiveness

  2. Dataset on the energy performance of atrium type hotel buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujosevic, Milica; Krstic-Furundzic, Aleksandra

    2018-04-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The Influence of Atrium on Energy Performance of Hotel Building" (Vujosevic and Krstic-Furundzic, 2017) [1], which describes the annual energy performance of atrium type hotel building in Belgrade climate conditions, with the objective to present the impact of the atrium on the hotel building's energy demands for space heating and cooling. This dataset is made publicly available to show energy performance of selected hotel design alternatives, in order to enable extended analyzes of these data for other researchers.

  3. Yukon energy sector assessment 2003 : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishchuk, P.

    2003-10-01

    A study was conducted to better understand energy issues in the Yukon. The study was based on the Yukon Energy Matrix which looks at the Yukon energy sector from the perspective of the capacity to supply various forms of energy, the markets for energy in the Yukon, and energy users. The sources of non-renewable energy in the Yukon range from natural gas, coal and oil. Renewable energy sources are also diverse and include water, biomass, wind, solar and geothermal. The main sources of electricity production in the Yukon are oil, water and wind. The link between energy and climate change has gained much attention in recent years, resulting in effective measures to conserve energy and increase energy efficiency. Coal, gas and oil are imported into the Yukon from markets in southern Alaska despite the fact that Yukon has its own vast quantities of these fossil-based forms of energy. As a result, the price of fossil-fuels consumed in the Yukon is determined in national and international markets. The absence of non-renewable energy production in the Yukon is also reflected in the lack of pipeline and rail infrastructure in the territory. The Yukon's electricity transmission grid is also very fragmented. For the purpose of this paper, energy use was categorized into the residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Sustainable Performance in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In this practical demo we illustrate the concept of "sustainable performance" in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). In particular, for different classes of applications and under several energy harvesting scenarios, we show how it is possible to have sustainable performance when...

  5. Using intelligent clustering techniques to classify the energy performance of school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamouris, M.; Sfakianaki, K.; Papaglastra, M.; Pavlou, C.; Doukas, P.; Geros, V.; Assimakopoulos, M.N.; Zerefos, S. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Division of Applied Physics, Laboratory of Meteorology, Athens (Greece); Mihalakakou, G.; Gaitani, N. [University of Ioannina, Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, Agrinio (Greece); Patargias, P. [University of Peloponnesus, Faculty of Human Sciences and Cultural Studies, Department of History, Kalamata (Greece); Primikiri, E. [University of Patras, Department of Architecture, Patras (Greece); Mitoula, R. [Charokopion University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-07-01

    The present paper deals with the energy performance, energy classification and rating and the global environmental quality of school buildings. A new energy classification technique based on intelligent clustering methodologies is proposed. Energy rating of school buildings provides specific information on their energy consumption and efficiency relative to the other buildings of similar nature and permits a better planning of interventions to improve its energy performance. The overall work reported in the present paper, is carried out in three phases. During the first phase energy consumption data have been collected through energy surveys performed in 320 schools in Greece. In the second phase an innovative energy rating scheme based on fuzzy clustering techniques has been developed, while in the third phase, 10 schools have been selected and detailed measurements of their energy efficiency and performance as well as of the global environmental quality have been performed using a specific experimental protocol. The proposed energy rating method has been applied while the main environmental and energy problems have been identified. The potential for energy and environmental improvements has been assessed. (author)

  6. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  7. Energy efficiency indicators for assessing construction systems storing renewable energy: Application to phase change material-bearing Façades

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio Ríos, José Antonio; Sánchez-Ramos, José; Ruiz-Pardo, Álvaro; Álvarez, Servando; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the performance or energy efficiency of a single construction element by itself is often a futile exercise. That is not the case, however, when an element is designed, among others, to improve building energy performance by harnessing renewable energy in a process that requires a source of external energy. Harnessing renewable energy is acquiring growing interest in Mediterranean climates as a strategy for reducing the energy consumed by buildings. When such reduction is oriented to...

  8. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  9. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  10. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  11. Scientific performance assessments through a gender lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2018-01-01

    The focus on excellence and quality assurance in the academy has spawned a signifi cant increase in the use of bibliometric measures in performance assessments of individual researchers. This article investigates the organizational consequences of this development through a gender lens. Based...... scholars, evaluators using bibliometrics risk disadvantaging candidates diverging from the norm with implications for gender stratifi cation. Despite these potential biases, bibliometric measures come to function as technologies supporting a managerial narrative of the gender-blind organization....... They adhere to the prevailing ethos of the academic meritocracy by standardizing the criteria for organizational advancement and ensuring transparency and accountability in the selection process. While bibliometric tools in this sense may lead to the recruitment of scientists with a strong CV and track record...

  12. Performing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. Kinoshita

    2013-06-01

    The Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment (RAVEN) code is a software tool that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing engine for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. RAVEN is now a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities: Derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures), allowing on-line monitoring/controlling in the Phase Space Perform both Monte-Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Dynamic Event Tree based analysis Facilitate the input/output handling through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data mining module

  13. An approach for holistic energy retrofitting based on assessment of economic viability and durability of energy saving measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    saving measures and forget to consider, whether it is more prudent to demolished the building and erect a new building. An evaluation approach is presented to assess whether to retrofit an existing building or to demolish and replace it. The primary concept of the method is to develop a retrofitting...... as constraint to determine the amount of building retrofitting for implementation. The approach includes also durability assessments of the energy saving measures. An example is carried out to illustrate the application of the approach. The example highlights the importance of including risk assessment...... and durability evaluation of the energy saving measures when performing holistic energy retrofitting of buildings....

  14. Key figures for joint assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and energy consumption in modern buildings – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tisov, Ana; Siroky, Jan; Kolarik, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    ’s energy management and operational diagnostics focus mostly on energy consumption. Consequently also present key figures comprise performance indicators related to energy use. The fact that modern buildings are not spared from IEQ related problems indicates that there is a need for joint assessment...... and test key figures that would directly combine performance indicators related to both energy use and IEQ....... of energy and IEQ performance. The aim of this paper was to review relevant literature to form a scientific background for development of key figures enabling the joint assessment of energy and IEQ. The review resulted in forty cited publications. Majority of them focused explicitly on energy performance...

  15. Environmental performance evaluation of Beijing's energy use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xu Linyu; Song Huimin

    2011-01-01

    In line with rapid economic development, urban energy consumption is increasing rapidly, resulting in environmental problems. After considering several methods to evaluate the environmental performance of energy use, including: energy ecological footprint, input-output analysis, emergy-exergy analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making, an environmental performance evaluation model is proposed, which combines the analytical hierarchy process, fuzzy extent analysis, and membership degree analysis. In the model, 18 sub-indicators of environmental performance from energy use planning are classified into four categories: structure of energy use and industry, technology and efficiency of energy use, environmental impacts caused by energy use, and the socio-economic benefits of energy use. Membership degree analysis is applied to each indicator. Three energy use scenarios which are, respectively, environment-friendly, technology-led, and economic policy-led are evaluated. The results show that the technology-led energy use planning is best. The sustainable energy use policies are proposed from three aspects, including optimizing the energy use and industrial structure, encouraging development of energy-saving and air pollution control technologies, and enhancing legislation on energy use management. The policies are helpful to optimize the trade-offs between economic growth and environmental protection in Beijing. - Highlights: → Our paper establishes a system of indicators according to the structure of urban energy use planning. → We have created a comprehensive environmental performance evaluation model in the research. → The model and results can serve as an important basis for decision-making to guide local government.

  16. Prospects for sustainable energy: a critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassedy, E.S. Jr

    2000-04-01

    This book explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. The book is therefore written so as to be accessible to an audience from a broad range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be a valuable supplementary text for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering

  17. Performance assessment of nanoscale Schottky MOSFET as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The uncoupled mode-space approach treats electrons in each mode separately ... The energy of the vertical mode is considered as the potential energy along .... the channel potential towards each other and form a parabolic potential profile ...

  18. Assessing the Army Power and Energy Efforts for the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    term. Details are in Appendix B. The report places energy challenges in three categories: greatest use, greatest difficulty, and greatest impact ...Power and energy testing Silicon carbide Two new energy facilities New types of solar photovoltaic systems Smaller, lighter cogeneration and...Assessing the Army Power and Energy Efforts for the Warfighter John W. Lyons, Richard Chait, and James J. Valdes

  19. Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.

  20. 2010 energy benchmarking report performance of the Canadian office sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    In 2009, REALpac set a target of reducing energy consumption in office buildings to 20 equivalent kilowatt-hours per square foot by 2015. Following this, REALpac launched a national energy benchmarking survey to create a baseline for building energy performance across Canada; this paper provides the results of that survey. The survey was carried out using a tool which can measure energy use in a meaningful way using building characteristics data and energy use data from utility bills. The survey was conducted on 2009 data, 261 office buildings submitted their data which were then analyzed to provide trends and a baseline. Results showed a variety and diversity of performances and a 28.7 ekWh/ft2 annual mean building energy use intensity was found. This survey demonstrated that several office building owners and managers are taking steps to monitor and minimize energy use in their buildings.

  1. Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performance of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.

  2. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation. Bolling Air Force Base. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy-efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide.

  3. Effective energy planning for improving the enterprise’s energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global pressing need to protect the environment, save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide has prompted the enterprises to implementing both individual energy saving measures and a more systematic approach to improve the overall enterprise’s energy performance. Energy management is becoming a priority as enterprises strive to reduce energy costs, conform to regulatory requirements, and improve their corporate image. As such, enterprises are encouraged to manage their energy related matters in a systematic manner and a more harmonized way, to ensure continual improvement on their energy efficiency. Despite the increasing interest in energy management standards, a gap persists between energy management literature and current implementation practices. The release of the ISO 50001 international standard was meant to help the organizations develop sound energy management systems and effective process-based energy management structures that could be recognized through third-party certification. Building on the energy management literature and energy management standards, the current paper presents the essential steps the enterprises should take to practically design a sustainable energy management system. Also, by using multiple case studies of enterprises that have implemented an ISO 50001 energy management system, it introduces a structured approach that companies can use to effectively develop their energy planning and improve energy performance. The key components of the enterprise’s energy planning are discussed, as well as practical examples of energy objectives and performance indicators from various industries are offered. The paper shows that by establishing an effective energy planning system, this will efficiently meet demands for achieving energy performance indicators and international certification.

  4. E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, M

    2006-01-31

    After major changes to the limits for various disposal units of the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) last year, no major changes have been made during FY2005. A Special Analysis was completed which removes the air pathway {sup 14}C limit from the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). This analysis will allow the disposal of reactor moderator deionizers which previously had no pathway to disposal. Several studies have also been completed providing groundwater transport input for future special analyses. During the past year, since Slit Trenches No.1 and No.2 were nearing volumetric capacity, they were operationally closed under a preliminary closure analysis. This analysis was performed using as-disposed conditions and data and showed that concrete rubble from the demolition of 232-F was acceptable for disposal in the STs even though the latest special analysis for the STs had reduced the tritium limits so that the inventory in the rubble exceeded limits. A number of special studies are planned during the next years; perhaps the largest of these will be revision of the Performance Assessment (PA) for the ELLWF. The revision will be accomplished by incorporating special analyses performed since the last PA revision as well as revising analyses to include new data. Projected impacts on disposal limits of more recent studies have been estimated. No interim measures will be applied during this year. However, it is being recommended that tritium disposals to the Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches be suspended until a limited Special Analysis (SA) currently in progress is completed. This SA will give recommendations for optimum placement of tritiated D-Area tower waste. Further recommendations for tritiated waste placement in the CIG Trenches will be given in the upcoming PA revision.

  5. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao

    2017-01-01

    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  6. Social assessment on fusion energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kazuyasu

    1981-01-01

    In regard to the research and development for fusion energy technologies which are still in the stage of demonstrating scientific availability, it is necessary to accumulate the demonstrations of economic and environmental availability through the demonstration of technological availability. The purpose of this report is to examine how the society can utilize the new fusion energy technology. The technical characteristics of fusion energy system were analyzed in two aspects, namely the production techniques of thermal energy and electric energy. Also on the social characteristics in the fuel cycle stage of fusion reactors, the comparative analysis with existing fission reactors was carried out. Then, prediction and evaluation were made what change of social cycle fusion power generation causes on the social system formalized as a socio-ecological model. Moreover, the restricting factors to be the institutional obstacles to the application of fusion energy system to the society were analyzed from three levels of the decision making on energy policy. Since the convertor of fusion energy system is steam power generation system similar to existing system, the contents and properties of the social cycle change in the American society to which such new energy technology is applied are not much different even if the conversion will be made in future. (Kako, I.)

  7. Performance maps for the control of thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finck, Christian; Li, Rongling; Zeiler, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Predictive control in building energy systems requires the integration of the building, building system, and component dynamics. The prediction accuracy of these dynamics is crucial for practical applications. This paper introduces performance maps for the control of water tanks, phase change mat...... material tanks, and thermochemical material tanks. The results show that these performance maps can fully account for the dynamics of thermal energy storage tanks.......Predictive control in building energy systems requires the integration of the building, building system, and component dynamics. The prediction accuracy of these dynamics is crucial for practical applications. This paper introduces performance maps for the control of water tanks, phase change...

  8. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF A WIND TURBINE INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR ENHANCED ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the enhanced energy production which is possible when variable-speed wind turbines are electronically controlled by an intelligent controller for efficiency optimization and performance improvement. The control system consists of three fuzzy- logic controllers...

  10. Assessing the Cost of Energy Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, Jannik; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    Battery management strategies that reserve a certain capacity for power outages are able to increase the energy independence of a smart home. However, such strategies come at a certain cost, since these storage strategies are less flexible and energy from the grid may have to be bought at a high

  11. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  12. Sorption data base for performance assessment of radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Jung, J.; Lee, J.K.; Hahn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption data base (SDB) provides readily available data for the performance assessment of radwaste repository when site-specific data are not available and/or more reference data are needed. The software developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), SDB-21C, is a graphic user interface (GUI) program that provides efficient and user friendly tools for evaluating the large amount of sorption data. The data base of distribution coefficients compiled in the program contains about 11,000 Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) data and 2,000 KAERI data up to now while the addition of new data is under progress. Furthermore, the parametric model and its compiled data sets are also included in SDB-21C. (author)

  13. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  14. Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The Performance ... had very high significant effect on performance of health workers which was independent of ... Keywords: Health Worker Performance Factors Hospitals Nigeria ...

  15. Assessing Ecosystem Model Performance in Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Dietze, M.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In ecosystem process modelling, comparing outputs to benchmark datasets observed in the field is an important way to validate models, allowing the modelling community to track model performance over time and compare models at specific sites. Multi-model comparison projects as well as models themselves have largely been focused on temperate forests and similar biomes. Semiarid regions, on the other hand, are underrepresented in land surface and ecosystem modelling efforts, and yet will be disproportionately impacted by disturbances such as climate change due to their sensitivity to changes in the water balance. Benchmarking models at semiarid sites is an important step in assessing and improving models' suitability for predicting the impact of disturbance on semiarid ecosystems. In this study, several ecosystem models were compared at a semiarid grassland in southwestern Arizona using PEcAn, or the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer, an open-source eco-informatics toolbox ideal for creating the repeatable model workflows necessary for benchmarking. Models included SIPNET, DALEC, JULES, ED2, GDAY, LPJ-GUESS, MAESPA, CLM, CABLE, and FATES. Comparison between model output and benchmarks such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) tended to produce high root mean square error and low correlation coefficients, reflecting poor simulation of seasonality and the tendency for models to create much higher carbon sources than observed. These results indicate that ecosystem models do not currently adequately represent semiarid ecosystem processes.

  16. Thermodynamics, data estimation and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.

    2002-01-01

    Performance assessment provides a narrative of a system and its development. One may use a literary metaphor; the procedure is like writing a novel where the 'chapters' are the various sub-systems and where both the 'plot' and the 'grammar' are based on scientific and other information, some hard facts and other more or less reliable guesses. I will begin with some general remarks on models, which may provide a useful starting point for what follows. - Models never provide complete descriptions of real systems; they are used to highlight certain aspects of them and to answer 'what-if' questions; - Modelling is an iterative process that provides guidance as to what are important phenomena and what is less relevant for the description of the system and its function; - It is necessary to distinguish between model uncertainties and parameter uncertainties; - It is often better to estimate a quantity for which no data are available than to exclude the particular process where it is needed. Thermodynamics provide not only numerical values for different chemical processes, but more important a theory framework that can be used for the estimation of data. I will not discuss activity coefficient corrections of thermodynamic data, an important area that has already been addressed by Professor Fanghaenel. In the following overview I will be using examples of estimations of different kinds to illustrate what can be accomplished using thermodynamics in combination with chemical theories. (author)

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.

    1998-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...... simulation program requires a detailed description of the energy flow in the air movement which can be obtained by a CFD program. The paper describes an energy consumption calculation in a large building, where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three...... zones connected by open areas with pressure and buoyancy driven air flow. The two programs are interconnected in an iterative procedure. The paper shows also an evaluation of the air quality in the main area of the buildings based on CFD predictions. It is shown that an interconnection between a CFD...

  18. Multi-criteria decision making under uncertainty in building performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopfe, C.J.; Augenbroe, G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Building performance assessment is complex, as it has to respond to multiple criteria. Objectives originating from the demands that are put on energy consumption, acoustical performance, thermal occupant comfort, indoor air quality and many other issues must all be reconciled. An assessment requires

  19. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong...... leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, that will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe....

  1. Performance of the electron energy-loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Huebner, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the electron energy-loss spectrometer incorporating a new high-resolution hemispherical monochromator are reported. The apparatus achieved an energy-resolution of 25 meV in the elastic scattering mode, and angular distributions of elastically scattered electrons were in excellent agreement with previous workers. Preliminary energy-loss spectra for several atmospheric gases demonstrate the excellent versatility and stable operation of the improved system. 12 references

  2. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  3. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  4. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  5. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops......, there are many different types of crops significantly varies in terms of energy potential yields, production and provision methods, etc. To this end, a thoroughly assessment of the energy inputs and outputs of each potential energy crop is necessary. In this paper, the Giant Reed is evaluated energetically...... as a potential energy crop. The assessment regards a 10 year period. The considered energy elements include direct inputs (e.g. fuel consumption) as well as indirect inputs (e.g. embodied energy of materials and machinery). According to the results, the balance between the estimated total energy input...

  6. Evaluating energy performance in non-domestic buildings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgstein, E.H.; Lamberts, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation methods can be used to determine what constitutes good energy performance in a building. With an increasing focus on energy use of buildings worldwide, this evaluation assumes a fundamental importance. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the available methods for analysing,

  7. On the safety performance of the advanced nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shounan

    1999-01-01

    Some features on the safety performances of the Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems are discussed. The advantages and some peculiar problems on the safety of Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems with subcritical nuclear reactor driven by external neutron sources are also pointed out in comparison with conventional nuclear reactors

  8. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Hu Peng; Chen Zeshao; Jia Lei

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated

  9. Performance gaps in energy consumption : household groups and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brom, P.I.; Meijer, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The difference between actual and calculated energy is called the ‘energy-performance gap’. Possible explanations for this gap are construction mistakes, improper adjusting of equipment, excessive simplification in simulation models and occupant behaviour. Many researchers and governmental

  10. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  11. Performance and Energy Metabolism by Broiler Chickens Fed Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...

  12. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  13. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR: Utility Bill Analysis on Homes Participating in Austin Energy's Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.; Mosey, G.; Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.

    2007-07-01

    Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a jointly managed program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This program focuses on improving energy efficiency in existing homes via a whole-house approach to assessing and improving a home's energy performance, and helping to protect the environment. As one of HPwES's local sponsors, Austin Energy's HPwES program offers a complete home energy analysis and a list of recommendations for efficiency improvements, along with cost estimates. To determine the benefits of this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a statistical analysis using energy consumption data of HPwES homes provided by Austin Energy. This report provides preliminary estimates of average savings per home from the HPwES Loan Program for the period 1998 through 2006. The results from this preliminary analysis suggest that the HPwES program sponsored by Austin Energy had a very significant impact on reducing average cooling electricity for participating households. Overall, average savings were in the range of 25%-35%, and appear to be robust under various criteria for the number of households included in the analysis.

  14. Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Melisande F.M.; Pistorius, Till

    2012-01-01

    The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ► We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ► We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ► Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ► Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ► Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

  15. Enabling Detailed Energy Analyses via the Technology Performance Exchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Fleming, K.; Lee, E.; Livingood, W.

    2014-08-01

    One of the key tenets to increasing adoption of energy efficiency solutions in the built environment is improving confidence in energy performance. Current industry practices make extensive use of predictive modeling, often via the use of sophisticated hourly or sub-hourly energy simulation programs, to account for site-specific parameters (e.g., climate zone, hours of operation, and space type) and arrive at a performance estimate. While such methods are highly precise, they invariably provide less than ideal accuracy due to a lack of high-quality, foundational energy performance input data. The Technology Performance Exchange was constructed to allow the transparent sharing of foundational, product-specific energy performance data, and leverages significant, external engineering efforts and a modular architecture to efficiently identify and codify the minimum information necessary to accurately predict product energy performance. This strongly-typed database resource represents a novel solution to a difficult and established problem. One of the most exciting benefits is the way in which the Technology Performance Exchange's application programming interface has been leveraged to integrate contributed foundational data into the Building Component Library. Via a series of scripts, data is automatically translated and parsed into the Building Component Library in a format that is immediately usable to the energy modeling community. This paper (1) presents a high-level overview of the project drivers and the structure of the Technology Performance Exchange; (2) offers a detailed examination of how technologies are incorporated and translated into powerful energy modeling code snippets; and (3) examines several benefits of this robust workflow.

  16. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  17. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  18. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  19. Assessment Report on the national research strategy for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report was issued in 2009 by the French Parliament commission in charge of evaluating the scientific and technological choices of France's research in the field of energy. With environmental, economical and national independence concerns in view, the objective of the report is to assess the national research strategy for energy and to propose some directions for its future development. The scientific priority given in France to nuclear energy, petroleum, photovoltaic energy, second generation bio fuels and energy storage should be maintained. Mass energy storage should be considered as an essential condition for the development of renewable energies, such as offshore wind farms and storage systems

  20. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  1. Response to 'Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment' by Yuri Dublyansky (Risk Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 1455-1468, December 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  2. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  3. Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation's radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated

  4. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  5. A New Model to Simulate Energy Performance of VRF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Pang, Xiufeng; Schetrit, Oren; Wang, Liping; Kasahara, Shinichi; Yura, Yoshinori; Hinokuma, Ryohei

    2014-03-30

    This paper presents a new model to simulate energy performance of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in heat pump operation mode (either cooling or heating is provided but not simultaneously). The main improvement of the new model is the introduction of the evaporating and condensing temperature in the indoor and outdoor unit capacity modifier functions. The independent variables in the capacity modifier functions of the existing VRF model in EnergyPlus are mainly room wet-bulb temperature and outdoor dry-bulb temperature in cooling mode and room dry-bulb temperature and outdoor wet-bulb temperature in heating mode. The new approach allows compliance with different specifications of each indoor unit so that the modeling accuracy is improved. The new VRF model was implemented in a custom version of EnergyPlus 7.2. This paper first describes the algorithm for the new VRF model, which is then used to simulate the energy performance of a VRF system in a Prototype House in California that complies with the requirements of Title 24 ? the California Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The VRF system performance is then compared with three other types of HVAC systems: the Title 24-2005 Baseline system, the traditional High Efficiency system, and the EnergyStar Heat Pump system in three typical California climates: Sunnyvale, Pasadena and Fresno. Calculated energy savings from the VRF systems are significant. The HVAC site energy savings range from 51 to 85percent, while the TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) energy savings range from 31 to 66percent compared to the Title 24 Baseline Systems across the three climates. The largest energy savings are in Fresno climate followed by Sunnyvale and Pasadena. The paper discusses various characteristics of the VRF systems contributing to the energy savings. It should be noted that these savings are calculated using the Title 24 prototype House D under standard operating conditions. Actual performance of the VRF systems for real

  6. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  7. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, James; Senger, R.; Leem, J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) is categorized into eleven different spent fuel groups. Group 7, is predominantly uranium metal spent fuel from N Reactor that could oxidize rapidly in the presence of air when a waste package is breached. Such rapid oxidation constitutes a pyrophoric event. The consequences of a post closure pyrophoric event were evaluated in terms of its potential to damage adjacent waste packages and consequences of it in terms of long-term dose to humans. This work was conducted as part of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) of DOE spent fuel for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. These analyses were performed in support of the site recommendation for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  8. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] test phase plan: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing the disposition of transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from nuclear weapons production activities of the United States. These wastes are currently stored nationwide at several of the DOE's waste generating/storage sites. The goal is to eliminate interim waste storage and achieve environmentally and institutionally acceptable permanent disposal of these TRU wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being considered as a disposal facility for these TRU wastes. This document describes the first of the following two major programs planned for the Test Phase of WIPP: Performance Assessment -- determination of the long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system in accordance with the requirements of the EPA Standard; and Operations Demonstration -- evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the DOE TRU waste management system's ability to emplace design throughput quantities of TRU waste in the WIPP underground facility. 120 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview (revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page publication describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) streamlined energy savings performance contracting, or ''Super ESPC,'' process, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Under a Super ESPC, a qualifying energy service company (ESCO) from the private sector pays for energy efficiency improvements or advanced renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, or geothermal heat pumps, among others) for a facility of a government agency. The ESCO is then repaid over time from the agency's resulting energy cost savings. Delivery orders under these contracts specify the level of performance (energy savings) and the repayment schedule; the contract term can be up to 25 years, although many Super ESPCs are for about 10 years or less

  10. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  11. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  12. Energy Performance Indicators in the Swedish Building Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2. Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy; and (ii to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  13. Assessing risk from low energy radionuclide aerosol dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward; Perera, Sharman; Erhardt, Lorne; Cousins, Tom; Desrosiers, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Full text: When considering the potential dispersal of radionuclides into the environment, there are two broad classifications: explosive and non-explosive dispersal. An explosive dispersal relies on a violent and sudden release of energy, which may disrupt or vapourised any source containment. As such, the explosion provides the energy to both convert the source into a dispersable physical form and provides initial kinetic energy to transport the source away from the initiation point. This would be the case for sources of radiation in proximity to a steam or chemical explosion of high energy density. A low energy dispersal, on the other hand, may involve a lower energy initiator event (such as a fire or water spray) that transports particles into the near release zone, to be spread via wind or mechanical fields. For this type of dispersion to take place, the source must be in physical form ready for dispersal. In broad terms, this suggests either an ab initio powder form, or soluble/insoluble particulate form in a liquid matrix. This may be the case for radioactive material released from pressurized piping systems, material released through ventilation systems, or deliberate dispersals. To study aerosol dispersion of radionuclides and risk from low energy density initiators, there are a number of important parameters to consider. For example, particle size distribution, physicochemical form, atmospheric effects, charge effects, coagulation and agglomeration. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) a unique small scale aerosol test chamber has been developed to study the low energy dispersal properties of a number of radioactive source simulant. Principle emphasis has been given to salts (CsCl and CoCl 2 ) and oxides (SrTiO 3 , CeO 2 and EuO 2 ). A planetary ball mill has been utilized to reduce particle size distributions when required. Particle sizing has been performed using Malvern Spraytec spray particle analyzers, cascade impactors, and

  14. Mental energy: Assessing the motivation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E

    2006-07-01

    Content-based theories of motivation may best uti lize the meta-theory of work motivation. Process-based theories may benefit most from adopting Locke and Latham's goal-setting approaches and measures. Decision-making theories should utilize the measurement approach operationalized by Ilgen et al. Sustained effort theories should utilize similar approaches to those used in numerous studies of intrinsic motivation, but the measurement of which is typically observational or attitudinal. This paper explored the implications of the four approaches to studying motivation on the newly estab ished model of mental energy. The approach taken for examining motivation informs the measurement of mental energy. Specific recommendations for each approach were developed and provided. As a result of these efforts, it will now be possible to diagnose, measure, and experimentally test for changes in human motivation, which is one of the three major components of mental energy.

  15. Quantifying uncertainties in wind energy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlakas, Platon; Galanis, George; Kallos, George

    2015-04-01

    The constant rise of wind energy production and the subsequent penetration in global energy markets during the last decades resulted in new sites selection with various types of problems. Such problems arise due to the variability and the uncertainty of wind speed. The study of the wind speed distribution lower and upper tail may support the quantification of these uncertainties. Such approaches focused on extreme wind conditions or periods below the energy production threshold are necessary for a better management of operations. Towards this direction, different methodologies are presented for the credible evaluation of potential non-frequent/extreme values for these environmental conditions. The approaches used, take into consideration the structural design of the wind turbines according to their lifespan, the turbine failures, the time needed for repairing as well as the energy production distribution. In this work, a multi-parametric approach for studying extreme wind speed values will be discussed based on tools of Extreme Value Theory. In particular, the study is focused on extreme wind speed return periods and the persistence of no energy production based on a weather modeling system/hind cast/10-year dataset. More specifically, two methods (Annual Maxima and Peaks Over Threshold) were used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds and their recurrence intervals. Additionally, two different methodologies (intensity given duration and duration given intensity, both based on Annual Maxima method) were implied to calculate the extreme events duration, combined with their intensity as well as the event frequency. The obtained results prove that the proposed approaches converge, at least on the main findings, for each case. It is also remarkable that, despite the moderate wind speed climate of the area, several consequent days of no energy production are observed.

  16. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Handout for the Energy and Environmental Building Association's Building Solutions 2003 Conference and Expo: Chicago, Illinois, October 2003 The following summaries, provided by implementers of ''Home Performance with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign}'' around the country, are for use in the October 15 discussion during the Energy & Environmental Building Association (EEBA) Building Solutions, 2003 Conference in Chicago. The summaries and session discussions provide an overview of ''Home Performance with ENERGY STAR'', along with results and lessons learned from existing ''Home Performance'' implementers in New York, Wisconsin, Massachusetts, California, and Kansas City. Five future pilot projects set to begin in Georgia/Alabama, Idaho, Missouri, New Jersey and Texas will also be presented and discussed. Session topics will include the use of different training approaches, methods of quality assurance, and the role contractor certification plays in several of the programs. The session will conclude with a roundtable discussion of Home Performance issues by current and emerging implementers, with time for participant questions. ''Home Performance with ENERGY STAR'' uses the growing awareness and credibility of the ENERGY STAR brand to encourage and facilitate whole-house energy improvements in existing homes through self-sustaining energy efficiency programs. Whether you're a state energy official, utility program manager, contractor training professional or efficiency program implementer, you're sure to benefit from the unique presentations and networking opportunities that this session will offer.

  17. Final environmental assessment: Sacramento Energy Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Sacramento Area Office (SAO) of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to increase the security of operations, to eliminate overcrowding at the current leased location of the existing facilities, to provide for future growth, to improve efficiency, and to reduce operating costs. The proposed action is to construct an approximate 40,000-square foot building and adjacent parking lot with a Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station installed to promote use of energy efficient transportation. As funding becomes available and technology develops, additional innovative energy-efficient measures will be incorporated into the building. For example the proposed construction of the Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Charging.

  18. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases.

  19. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  20. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Frank A. [Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases. (author)

  1. How much information disclosure of building energy performance is necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, David

    2014-01-01

    Many different governments have begun to require disclosure of building energy performance, in order to allow owners and prospective buyers to incorporate this information into their investment decisions. These policies, known as disclosure or information policies, require owners to benchmark their buildings and sometimes conduct engineering audits. However, given substantial variation in the cost to disclose different types of information, it is natural to ask: how much and what kind of information about building energy performance should be disclosed, and for what purposes? To answer this question, this paper assembles and cleans a comprehensive panel dataset of New York City multifamily buildings, and analyzes its predictive power using a Bayesian multilevel regression model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals that building-level variation is the most important factor in explaining building energy use, and that there are few, if any, relationships of building systems to observed energy use. This indicates that disclosure laws requiring benchmarking data may be relatively more useful than engineering audits in explaining the observed energy performance of existing buildings. These results should inform the further development of information disclosure laws. - Highlights: • A comprehensive panel dataset of energy performance and building characteristics was assembled and cleaned. • The effectiveness of the disclosed information to predict building energy performance was tested using a regression model. • Building-level variation has a greater effect than any building characteristic or systems. • Benchmarking data alone predicts energy performance equally as well as both benchmarking and engineering audit data together, and better than audit data alone

  2. Teachers' Views on Performance-Based Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Provides personal perspectives from teachers about the prospects and problems illuminated by Stanford University's Teacher Assessment Project. Teacher remarks address the portfolio development process, assessment centers, implications for national board certification for teachers, personal thoughts and perspectives on teaching, and the future of…

  3. Long term energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at providing an energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power plant. The plant operates on Regenerative Rankine cycle with steam as its working fluid .The model equations were formulated based on some performance parameters used in power plant analysis. The considered criteria were plant ...

  4. Risk assessment in the field of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.; Erdmann, G.; Leist, A.; Renn, O.; Schaber, P.; Scheringer, M.; Seiler, H.; Wiedenmann, R.

    1995-01-01

    The following subjects are dealt with in this book: - ethical thoughts on damage, risks and uncertainty, - risk evaluation from the point of view of sociology, - risk evaluation in the economy, - risk evaluation in law, - environmental damage due to the operation of energy generating systems. figs., tabs., refs

  5. Performance Assessment of the Pico OWC Power Plant Following the Equimar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Crom, I. Le; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the power performance of the Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converter installed on the Island of Pico. The performance assessment of the device is based on real performance data gathered over the last years during normal operation. In addition to the estimation...

  6. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  7. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process are researched in view of specificity of the sector.

  9. Integrated energy system for a high performance building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaczko, Kristen

    Integrated energy systems have the potential to reduce of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Canada. These systems incorporate components to meet the building heating, cooling and domestic hot water load into a single system in order to reduce energy losses. An integrated energy system, consisting of a variable speed heat pump, cold and hot thermal storage tanks, a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector array and a battery bank, was designed for the Queen's Solar Design Team's (QSDT) test house. The system uses a radiant floor to provide space- heating and sensible cooling and a dedicated outdoor air system provides ventilation and dehumidifies the incoming fresh air. The test house, the Queen's Solar Education Centre (QSEC), and the integrated energy system were both modelled in TRNSYS. Additionally, a new TRNSYS Type was developed to model the PV/T collectors, enabling the modeling of the collection of energy from the ambient air. A parametric study was carried out in TRNSYS to investigate the effect of various parameters on the overall energy performance of the system. These parameters included the PV/T array size and the slope of the collectors, the heat pump source and load-side inlet temperature setpoints, the compressor speed control and the size of the thermal storage tanks and the battery bank. The controls of the heat pump were found to have a large impact on the performance of the integrated energy system. For example, a low evaporator setpoint improved the overall free energy ratio (FER) of the system but the heat pump performance was lowered. Reducing the heat loss of the PV/T panels was not found to have a large effect on the system performance however, as the heat pump is able to lower the inlet collector fluid temperature, thus reducing thermal losses. From the results of the sensitivity study, a recommended system model was created and this system had a predicted FER of 77.9% in Kingston, Ontario, neglecting the energy consumption of

  10. Performance assessment of the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Winter, C.

    1986-02-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) has completed a performance evaluation of the proposed monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study was undertaken as part of the Department of Energy MRS Program at PNL. The objective of the performance evaluation was to determine whether the conceptual MRS facility would be able to process spent fuel at the specified design rate of 3600 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per year. The performance of the proposed facility was assessed using the computer model COMPACT (Computer Optimization of Processing and Cask Transport) to simulate facility operations. The COMPACT model consisted of three application models each of which addressed a different aspect of the facility's operation: MRS/waste transportation interface; cask handling capability; and disassembly/consolidation (hot cell) operations. Our conclusions, based on the assessment of design criteria for the proposed facility, are as follows: Facilities and equipment throughout the facility have capability beyond the 3600 MTU/y design requirement. This added capability provides a reserve to compensate for unexpected perturbations in shipping or handling of the spent fuel. Calculations indicate that the facility's maximum maintainable processing capability is approximately 4800 MTU/y

  11. Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Amanda; Powers, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns surrounding the continued, un-checked use of petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector, the search for more sustainable, renewable alternatives, and the constraints of the existing supply infrastructure in the United States have placed a spotlight on biomass-derived fuels. The central question of the ethanol debate has changed from 'Should we make ethanol?' to 'From what should we make ethanol?' emphasizing the importance of understanding the differences between specific biomass supply systems for fuel ethanol. When presented with numerous options, the priorities of an individual decision maker will define which feedstock alternative is the most appropriate choice for development from their perspective. This paper demonstrates how energy data can be successfully used to quantify assessment metrics beyond a standard net energy value calculation, thus quantifying the relative 'value' of ethanol supply systems. This value is defined based on decision-maker priorities that were adopted from national energy policy priorities: increased national energy security and increased conservation of energy resources. Nine energy assessment metrics that quantify detailed system energy data are calculated and a straightforward comparative assessment is performed between corn and corn stover feedstocks produced under the same farm scenario. Corn stover is shown to be more compatible with the national energy policy priorities and it is recommended that additional research be performed on utilizing this feedstock from the corn farm

  12. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  13. Impact of window selection on the energy performance of residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihm, Pyeongchan; Park, Lyool; Krarti, Moncef; Seo, Donghyun

    2012-01-01

    With rapidly increasing energy consumption attributed to residential buildings in South Korea, there is a need to update requirements of the building energy code in order to improve the energy performance of buildings. This paper provides some guidelines to improve the building energy code to better select glazing types that minimize total energy use of residential buildings in Korea. In particular, detailed energy simulation analyses coupled with economical and environmental assessments are carried out to assess the thermal, economical, and environmental impacts of glazing thermal characteristics as well as window sizes associated with housing units in various representative climates within South Korea. The results of the analyses have clearly indicated that selecting glazing with low solar heat gain coefficient is highly beneficial especially for large windows and for mild climates. In particular, it is found that using any double-pane low-e glazing would provide better performance for windows in residential buildings than the clear double-pane glazing, currently required by the Korean building energy code. - Highlights: ► Results show that windows can be energy neutral for residential buildings. ► In Korea, double-pane low-e glazing would provide better energy performance. ► Double low-e clear filled with argon gas glazing is the most cost-effective.

  14. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A., E-mail: Raluca.FELSEGHI@insta.utcluj.ro; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Bd. December 21, no. 128-130, 400600, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Răboacă, S. M. [National R& D Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, str. Uzinei, no. 4, Rm. Vălcea, 240050 (Romania); Aşchilean, I. [SC ACI Cluj SA, Avenue Dorobanţilor, no. 70, 400609, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  15. Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade mechanisms to enhance the energy security for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Agarwala, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade mechanisms in India are designed to target energy generation and saving, respectively, in line with Clean Development Mechanism implemented by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Renewable Energy Certificate System is a voluntary regulation in India for renewable energy generators and is designed for effective implementation of inter-state transactions by introducing the Renewable Purchase Obligation regulation for consumers and a flexible trading platform for transactions across the country. Another initiative, the Perform Achieve Trade scheme, is an enhanced energy efficiency trading mechanism based on consumption targets that require large energy user sectors to improve efficiency by 1–2% per year. The Perform Achieve Trade programme has introduced mechanisms for the identification of industry sector, designated customer, specific energy consumption and target setting. The Perform Achieve Trade design issues are in test phase in the first cycle of the scheme which will run from 2012 to 2015. This paper discusses key design issues about boundary and target setting for Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade energy saving certificate (ESCert) A data sharing and trading mechanism for Perform Achieve Trade is also proposed for review and coordination among regulator, designated consumers and traders in the market. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy Certificate’ and ‘Perform Achieve Trade’ are energy certification programmes. ► REC and PAT programme implementation and the institutional network work are presented. ► The trading and communication network propose for possible linkage between REC, PAT and CDM. ► Independent associations in parallel with CERC and BEE are redefined for two tier review of scheme

  16. Strategic Environmental Assessment & The Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    in its infancy in the Danish energy sector, but SEA is achieving increased attention in the sector. - The change agent research approach used in the project is relevant medium for a critical interdependence between theory and practice that at the same time promotes more sustainable decision-making...... on these cases is crucial for reducing the risk of unintended environmental impacts and for enhancing attention to relevant alternatives prior to decision-making....... strategic decisions are made is a prerequisite for achieving this target, and the thesis therefore explores the strategic decision-making processes of contemporary energy infrastructure developments. The highlights of this thesis are: - A combination of disciplines in a continuum of perspectives...

  17. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...... to correspond reasonably well; however, it is also found that significant differences may occur between calculated and measured energy consumption due to the spread and due to the fact that the result can only be determined with a certain probability. It is found that occupants' behaviour is the major...

  18. Predicting energy performance of a net-zero energy building: A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A regression model is applied to actual energy data from a net-zero energy building. • The model is validated through a rigorous statistical analysis. • Comparisons are made between model predictions and those of a physics-based model. • The model is a viable baseline for evaluating future models from the energy data. - Abstract: Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid Climate Zone, and compares these

  19. Benchmarking the energy performance of office buildings: A data envelopment analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of energy efficiency in buildings is an important challenge facing both developed and developing countries. Very few papers have assessed the energy efficiency of office buildings using real data. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an energy efficiency index for buildings having a large window-to-wall ratio, and uses this index to identify the main architectural factors affecting energy performance. This paper assesses, for the first time, the energy performances of 34 office buildings in Santiago, Chile, by using data envelopment analysis. Overall energy efficiency is decomposed into two indices: the architectural energy efficiency index, and the management energy efficiency index. This decomposition is an essential step in identifying the main drivers of energy inefficiency and designing measures for improvement. Office buildings examined here have significant room for improving their energy efficiencies, saving operational costs and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methodology and results of this study will be of great interest to building managers and policymakers seeking to increase the sustainability of cities.

  20. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  1. Accelerating the energy retrofit of commercial buildings using a database of energy efficiency performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Sawaya, Geof; Chen, Yixing; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium-sized commercial buildings can be retrofitted to significantly reduce their energy use, however it is a huge challenge as owners usually lack of the expertise and resources to conduct detailed on-site energy audit to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy technologies. This study presents a DEEP (database of energy efficiency performance) that provides a direct resource for quick retrofit analysis of commercial buildings. DEEP, compiled from the results of about ten million EnergyPlus simulations, enables an easy screening of ECMs (energy conservation measures) and retrofit analysis. The simulations utilize prototype models representative of small and mid-size offices and retails in California climates. In the formulation of DEEP, large scale EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on high performance computing clusters to evaluate hundreds of individual and packaged ECMs covering envelope, lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, plug-loads, and service hot water. The architecture and simulation environment to create DEEP is flexible and can expand to cover additional building types, additional climates, and new ECMs. In this study DEEP is integrated into a web-based retrofit toolkit, the Commercial Building Energy Saver, which provides a platform for energy retrofit decision making by querying DEEP and unearthing recommended ECMs, their estimated energy savings and financial payback. - Highlights: • A DEEP (database of energy efficiency performance) supports building retrofit. • DEEP is an SQL database with pre-simulated results from 10 million EnergyPlus runs. • DEEP covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • DEEP accelerates retrofit of small commercial buildings to save energy use and cost. • DEEP can be expanded and integrated with third-party energy software tools.

  2. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  3. Energy challenges for the century according to the World Energy Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.; Laponche, B.

    2000-01-01

    A study was published by the World Energy Assessment (WEA) to serve as a basis for international discussion and intergovernmental negotiations on Agenda 21 and sustainable development. It was part of the preparation process for CDD9, the ninth session of the United Nations Commission on sustainable development, to be held in 2001. The objective of the study was the evaluation of the social, economic, environmental and security aspects concerning energy supplies. The study also examined the compatibility between the different energy options available for the twenty-first century and the different objectives of these options to enable decision makers the possibility to elaborate better energy policies. The WEA chose a methodology which associates the United Nations with the World Energy Council, where energy producers around the world communicate with national committees from 98 countries. It was partly financed by the United Nations Foundation, Norway, Austria, and Sweden. The process moved from an examination of the interactions between the different energy supply systems and the issues related to sustainable development, to an examination of the alternatives available concerning the evolution of sustainable development based on the long term, followed by an in-depth evaluation of the energy resources, needs, and technological advancements in the field. Lastly, a series of scenarios was developed and a few were selected to produce an analysis of economic and energy policies based on the course of action corresponding to the scenarios. The authors then provided an overview of the different chapters that constitute the study. Criteria were developed to assist in the characterization of the situation in a specific country concerning sustainable development perspectives. One of the criteria is the elimination of poverty through better access to energy. Environmental factors were considered, such as the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment, the forestry sector

  4. Sensitivity analysis of energy demands on performance of CCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Z.; Shi, Y.M.; Huang, X.H.

    2008-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis of energy demands is carried out in this paper to study their influence on performance of CCHP system. Energy demand is a very important and complex factor in the optimization model of CCHP system. Average, uncertainty and historical peaks are adopted to describe energy demands. The mix-integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP) which can reflect the three aspects of energy demands is established. Numerical studies are carried out based on energy demands of a hotel and a hospital. The influence of average, uncertainty and peaks of energy demands on optimal facility scheme and economic advantages of CCHP system are investigated. The optimization results show that the optimal GT's capacity and economy of CCHP system mainly lie on the average energy demands. Sum of capacities of GB and HE is equal to historical heating demand peaks, and sum of capacities of AR and ER are equal to historical cooling demand peaks. Maximum of PG is sensitive with historical peaks of energy demands and not influenced by uncertainty of energy demands, while the corresponding influence on DH is adverse

  5. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  6. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  7. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  8. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  9. Structure, conduct and performance paradigm in assessing travel agency performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănciulescu Gabriela Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present and exemplify traditional and neoclassical approaches to market structure and tourism firm performance analysis. The paper tackles some of the industrial economic thinking trends which were meant to fill the gaps left by the traditional approaches. Two approaches stand out from among the industrial economic trends: SCP paradigm and game theory. The results show that the strategy tourism operators prefer is to practise high prices; however there is no certainty that the competitors would adhere to such an idea at the beginning or during the season.

  10. Hybrid Building Performance Simulation Models for Industrial Energy Efficiency Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Smolek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of achieving environmental sustainability, industrial production plants, as large contributors to the overall energy demand of a country, are prime candidates for applying energy efficiency measures. A modelling approach using cubes is used to decompose a production facility into manageable modules. All aspects of the facility are considered, classified into the building, energy system, production and logistics. This approach leads to specific challenges for building performance simulations since all parts of the facility are highly interconnected. To meet this challenge, models for the building, thermal zones, energy converters and energy grids are presented and the interfaces to the production and logistics equipment are illustrated. The advantages and limitations of the chosen approach are discussed. In an example implementation, the feasibility of the approach and models is shown. Different scenarios are simulated to highlight the models and the results are compared.

  11. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  12. Assessing the risks of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nigel

    1986-01-01

    The question how safe is safe is discussed. The way in which nuclear energy is presented in the context of the risks inherent in daily life is considered. Calculations based on actual reactor accidents (not Chernobyl) are then extrapolated for the proposed Sizewell-B reactor. Comparison is made between the risks of the nuclear industry and coal mining. Risk perception is considered and a risk index is constructed that allows for the fact that nuclear power continues to arouse public fear in spite of a good safety record. (UK)

  13. Study on the energy performance of glazing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia MOGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A proper thermal design of the building envelope represents an important factor for the energy economics. Glazing surfaces represent one of the important elements in the hygrothermal design activity of a building envelope. The window’s thermal performance has also a strong influence on the thermal performance of the opaque area of the wall. This fact imposed the research of the real interaction, of cooperation and of mutual influences of the characteristics between the two components of the wall of the building envelope, respectively the opaque and the glazing area. Optimal constructive details for the opaque and glazing area of the wall need to be properly designed in order to achieve the required thermal and energy performances imposed for new types of buildings, e.g. passive houses, zero energy buildings.

  14. [Effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Hu, X; Gao, S; Bai, D

    1999-09-30

    In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance, 151 grade three school children from four classes of two schools were sampled for this study. Children were randomly assigned to breakfast A or B on any given day. They were provided with breakfast with either high or low energy content at school over a period of 5 successive days. The remained foods were collected and weighed. Performance tests including addition, multiplication, number checking, logic, creativity, physical endurance, visual-analogue scales were applied at the third or fourth period of courses in the morning on Tuesday through Friday during the experimental week. The teachers involved in the study were blind to the kind of treatment. No significant effect of energy intake at breakfast on these performance indicators was found in this study.

  15. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. A. H. M.; Adnan, F.; Ismail, A. R.; Kardigama, K.; Salaam, H. A.; Ahmad, Z.; Johari, N. H.; Anuar, Z.; Azmi, N. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline beh