Ion cyclotron-resonance heating in a toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1975-01-01
rf power near the ion cyclotron-resonance frequency has been used to produce a hundredfold increase (from approximately-less-than1 to approx.100 eV) in the ion temperature in a toroidal octupole device. The heating produces no noticeable instabilities or other deleterious effects except for a high reflux of neutrals from the walls. The heating rate is consistent with theory and the limiting ion temperature is determined by charge-exchange losses
High-power ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortgang, C.M.
1983-05-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas
Observation of Octupole Driven Resonance Phenomena with Space Charge at the CERN Proton Synchrotron
Métral, E; Martini, M; Steerenberg, R; Franchetti, Giuliano; Hofmann, I
2006-01-01
Several benchmarking space charge experiments have been performed during the last few years in the CERN Proton Synchrotron. These controlled experiments are of paramount importance to validate the present very powerful simulation codes. The observations of the combined effect of space charge and nonlinear resonance on beam loss and emittance, using a single controllable octupole during ~ 1 s at 1.4 GeV kinetic energy, are discussed in some detail in the present paper. By lowering the working point towards the octupolar resonance, a gradual transition from a regime of loss-free core emittance blow-up to a regime of continuous loss was found.
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.
1983-06-01
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement
ICRH experiments in a toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1974-01-01
A 100 kW, 144 μsec pulse of 1.4 MHz rf is used to heat plasmas with densities less than or equal to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 at the ion cyclotron frequency in a toroidal octupole. The rf is coupled to the plasma by a single turn, electrostatically shielded hoop coaxial to the four main hoops and located near the wall. Absorbed power is inferred from plasma loading of the hoop and measured directly with an electrostatic ion energy analyzer and compared to single particle resonance heating theory
Octupole correlation effects in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1992-01-01
Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions
Energies and transition probabilities from the full solution of nuclear quadrupole-octupole model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strecker, M.; Lenske, H.; Minkov, N.
2013-01-01
A collective model of nuclear quadrupole-octupole vibrations and rotations, originally restricted to a coherent interplay between quadrupole and octupole modes, is now developed for application beyond this restriction. The eigenvalue problem is solved by diagonalizing the unrestricted Hamiltonian in the basis of the analytic solution obtained in the case of the coherent-mode assumption. Within this scheme the yrast alternating-parity band is constructed by the lowest eigenvalues having the appropriate parity at given angular momentum. Additionally we include the calculation of transition probabilities which are fitted with the energies simultaneously. As a result we obtain a unique set of parameters. The obtained model parameters unambiguously determine the shape of the quadrupole-octupole potential. From the resulting wave functions quadrupole deformation expectation values are calculated which are found to be in agreement with experimental values. (author)
About octupole states in the 158Dy and the 168Er nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvasil, Ya.; Chariev, M.M.; Choriev, B.
1984-01-01
The properties of negative parity low-lying states in 158 Dy and 168 Er in the random phase approximation based on the cranking model are investigated. Octupole-octupole forces have been used as a residual interaction. Calculated energy levels are compared with the experimental ones, and also with the energy values obtained with making allowance for dipole-dipole, octupole-octupole and dipole-octupole type forces. The resuits of calculation by the used model permit to understand the nature of negative parity low-lying states
Report from LHC MD 2171: Amplitude dependent closest tune approach from normal and skew octupoles
Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Carlier, Felix Simon; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2018-01-01
Simulation-based studies predict signiﬁcant amplitude-dependent closest tune approach can be generated by skew octupole sources in conjunction with their normal octupolar counterparts. This has the potential to signiﬁcantly inﬂuence Landau damping at small β∗, where skew octupole errors in the experimental IRs, together with b4 introduced by the Landau octupoles, is predicted to cause large distortion of the tune footprint. This MD aimed to perform a ﬁrst exploration of these predictions with beam, by enhancing skew octupole sources in the IRs at injection and measuring amplitude detuning with free kicks in the plane approaching the coupling resonance.
Ion heating at the cyclotron resonance in plasmas magnetically confined in a toroidal octupole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.
1976-01-01
Ion temperatures as high as 600 eV have been produced using rf wave heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency in a toroidal octupole magnetic field. Rf is coupled to the plasma with an externally driven ''fifth'' hoop which forms the inductive leg of an oscillator tank circuit. Power levels up to 1 MW at 1 to 3 MHz have been applied for periods up to 2 msec. Plasmas produced either by ECRH or by gun injection are simulated with a computer program in which known particle and energy production and loss mechanisms are used to predict the spatially averaged time behaviour of the plasma in the presence of the applied ion heating. The program can be used to calculate the consequences of the heating model in the presence of many cooling mechanisms which may each have a separate dependence on instantaneous plasma parameters. Experimental quantities compared to computer predictions include density, ion temperature, and loading of the hoop by the plasma, both resistive and reactive, and neutral reflux from the wall by electron and ion impact. Wave penetration to the resonance zone is good up to the highest densities available (6 x 10 12 cm -3 by gun injection) in good agreement with theory. Neutral reflux from the walls and the large charge exchange cooling which results is the dominant loss mechanism at the higher hoop voltages
Landau damping dynamic aperture and octupole in LHC
Gareyte, Jacques; Ruggiero, F
1997-01-01
Maximization of the dynamic aperture and Landau damping of the collective instabilities are partly conflicting requirements. On the one hand, the non-linearities of the lattice must be minimized at large oscillation amplitude to guarantee the stability of the single particle motion. On the other hand, a spread of the betatron frequencies is necessary to guarantee the stability of the collective motion of bunches of particles; this requires the introduction of non-linearities effective at small amplitudes. We show in this note that the `natural' spread of betatron tunes due to the field imperfections is inadequate or Landau damping. An octupole scheme is required to provide collective stability at high energy. At low energy it may be used to find the optimum between the correction of the octupolar field imperfections and Landau damping. The solution of the stability problem taking into account the two degrees of freedom of the transverse motion allows a significant saving in octupole strength: 144 octupoles wi...
On the octupole deformation in Ra-Th region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozmej, P.; Boening, K.; Sobiczewski, A.
1986-03-01
The problem of the existence of a stable octupole deformation in Ra-Th region has been reinvestigated using a Nilsson single-particle potential with a newly fitted set of parameters, which reproduce the spins of the ground states of odd-A nuclei. In the energy surfaces, calculated for 222 Ra and 222 Th, the octupole deformed minima, separated by the barriers of 150 KeV and 210 keV, respectively, have been obtained. (orig.)
Octupole shapes in heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.
1994-01-01
Theoretical calculations and measurements show the presence of strong octupole correlations in thecyround states and low-lying states of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei in the RaPa region. Evidence for octupole correlations is provided by the observation of parity doublets and reductions in M1 matrix elements, decoupling parameters, and Coriolis matrix elements Involving high-j states. Enhancement of E1 transition rates has also been observed for some of the octupole deformed nuclei. The most convincing argument for octupole deformation is provided by the similarities of the reduced alpha decay rates to the two members of parity doublets
Axial to transverse energy mixing dynamics in octupole-based magnetostatic antihydrogen traps
Zhong, M.; Fajans, J.; Zukor, A. F.
2018-05-01
The nature of the trajectories of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole minimum-B trap is of great importance for upcoming spectroscopy, cooling, and gravity experiments. Of particular interest is the mixing time between the axial and transverse energies for the antiatoms. Here, using computer simulations, we establish that almost all trajectories are chaotic, and then quantify the characteristic mixing time between the axial and transverse energies. We find that there are two classes of trajectories: for trajectories whose axial energy is higher than about 20% of the total energy, the axial energy substantially mixes within about 10 s, whereas for trajectories whose axial energy is lower than about 10% of the total energy, the axial energy remains nearly constant for 1000 s or longer.
Compensating amplitude-dependent tune-shift without driving fourth-order resonances
Ögren, J.; Ziemann, V.
2017-10-01
If octupoles are used in a ring to correct the amplitude-dependent tune-shift one normally tries to avoid that the octupoles drive additional resonances. Here we consider the optimum placement of octupoles that only affects the amplitude-dependent tune-shift, but does not drive fourth-order resonances. The simplest way turns out to place three equally powered octupoles with 60 ° phase advance between adjacent magnets. Using two such octupole triplets separated by a suitable phase advance cancels all fourth-order resonance driving terms and forms a double triplet we call a six-pack. Using three six-packs at places with different ratios of the beta functions allows to independently control all amplitude-dependent tune-shift terms without exciting additional fourth-order resonances in first order of the octupole excitation.
Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owens, T.L.
1979-08-01
This thesis addresses the following key issues in the lower hybrid frequency range: 1. What are the importent physics aspects of wave propagation and heating in an experimental situation. 2. How effective is plasma heating in the complex magnetic field configuration of the octupole. Experimental work is accomplished by launching 1-10ms pulses of up to 40kW of radio frequency power at 140MHz corresponding to the hot plasma lower hybrid resonance in the octupole. A diploe antenna which is moveable radially and is also rotatable couples wave power to the plasma. Coupling efficiencies greater than 95% are achieved by proper antenna placement near the edge of the plasma radial density profile
A review of experimental evidence for octupole deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zylicz, J.
1986-08-01
Experimental evidence for octupole correlations, which lead to octupole instability and octupole deformation of some nuclei, is illustrated through typical examples. Data are considered for both the 220< A<230 region and for a few medium mass nuclei. (orig.)
Odd-even parity splittings and octupole correlations in neutron-rich Ba isotopes
Fu, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.-J.; Yao, J. M.
2018-02-01
The odd-even parity splittings in low-lying parity-doublet states of atomic nuclei with octupole correlations have usually been interpreted as rotational excitations on top of octupole vibration in the language of collective models. In this paper, we report a deep analysis of the odd-even parity splittings in the parity-doublet states of neutron-rich Ba isotopes around neutron number N =88 within a full microscopic framework of beyond-mean-field multireference covariant energy density functional theory. The dynamical correlations related to symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shape fluctuation are taken into account with a generator coordinate method combined with parity, particle-number, and angular-momentum projections. We show that the behavior of odd-even parity splittings is governed by the interplay of rotation, quantum tunneling, and shape evolution. Similar to 224Ra, a picture of rotation-induced octupole shape stabilization in the positive-parity states is exhibited in the neutron-rich Ba isotopes.
Octupole correlations in the heavy elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1986-01-01
The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2 6 -pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab
Octupole correlations in superdeformed states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakatsukasa, T; Arita, K; Matsuyanagi, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizutori, S [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study; Shimizu, Y R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1992-08-01
We suggest that properties of single-particle motions in superdeformed nuclei may be significantly affected by coupling effects with low-frequency octupole vibrational modes with K = 0, 1, 2 and 3. We also indicate a possible relationship between octupole instability of superdeformed shape and supershell effects. In this connection, stability of classical periodic orbits and of KAM tori for single-particle motions in a reflection-asymmetric superdeformed potential are investigated. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs.
Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.
1980-01-01
On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb
'Static' octupole deformation at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazarewicz, W.
1985-01-01
Rotational bands characterized by spin states of alternating parity p=(-1) I connected by enhanced E1 transitions have recently been observed in several nuclei from the Ra-Th region. They can be interpreted by means of a reflection asymmetric mean field theory. The interplay between octupole deformation and rotation is briefly discussed. For nuclei with ground state octupole deformation a transition to a reflection symmetric shape is expected around I=22. (orig.)
Exotic nuclear shapes - Axial and nonaxial octupoles at normal and at super-deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skalski, J [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Heenen, P [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Bonche, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre d` Application et de Promotion des Rayonnements Ionisants; Flocard, H [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Meyer, J [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)
1992-08-01
We have studied collective octupole dynamics including nonaxial components of the octupole mean field, mainly at superdeformed shape in the Hg-Pb region. Both the Strutinsky method combined with cranking and the generator coordinate method within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock basis suggest the existence of collective octupole excitations at the superdeformed minima. GCM calculations point out to the E1 transitions as their most prominent experimental manifestation. We also comment on the nonaxial octupole components influence on octupole dynamics in traditional octupole region of Ra-Th nuclei. (author). 38 refs., 6 figs.
Enhanced E3 Excitations in 144,146Ba and the Evolution of Octupole Collectivity
Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; ANL, LLNL, LBNL, INL, UAM, Rochester, Maryland Collaboration
2017-09-01
Recent Coulomb excitation studies on 144,146Ba using the GRETINA-CHICO2 detection system with post-accelerated CARIBU beams have confirmed the existence of enhanced E3 transitions in these isotopes which are centered in a region that has long been predicted to exhibit stable octupole-deformed shapes. Furthermore, the widely-varying E1 strength observed between these isotopes is well-accounted for by models having octupole-deformed potentials, and the variation has been linked to increased occupancies of specific single-particle orbitals in the reflection-asymmetric potential. This talk will summarize the most recent experimental and theoretical results. In addition, data on octupole-related properties in the surrounding isotopes will be discussed in an attempt to better understand the origin and evolution of octupole collectivity in this mass region. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL, GRETINA), DOE DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), DE-AC07-05ID14517 (INL), and MINECO (Spain).
Isotopic dependence of giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bar Touv, J.; Moalem, A.; Shlomo, S.
1980-01-01
A procedure is presented which allows the application of linear response theory and the random phase approximation to an open shell. The procedure is applied to Ca isotopes. The general features of giant multipole resonances are found to vary smoothly with the mass. The resonances exhibit more structure in the open lfsub(7/2) shell nuclei. While the energy-weighted dipole sum is practically constant in all isotopes, the isoscalar quadrupole and octupole energy weighted sums increase continuously by approx. 30% from 40 Ca to 48 Ca. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, T.
1985-08-01
A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, T.
1985-08-01
A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.
Shell evolution of stable N = 50-56 Zr and Mo nuclei with respect to low-lying octupole excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregor, E.T.; Scheck, M.; Chapman, R.; Gaffney, L.P.; Keatings, J.; Mashtakov, K.R.; O' Donnell, D.; Smith, J.F.; Spagnoletti, P.; Wiseman, C. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering and Computing, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Thuerauf, M.; Werner, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)
2017-03-15
For the N = 50-56 zirconium (Z = 40) and molybdenum (Z = 42) isotopes, the evolution of subshells is evaluated by extracting the effective single-particle energies from available particle-transfer data. The extracted systematic evolution of neutron subshells and the systematics of the excitation energy of the octupole phonons provide evidence for type-II shape coexistence in the Zr isotopes. Employing a simplistic approach, the relative effective single-particle energies are used to estimate whether the formation of low-lying octupole-isovector excitations is possible at the proposed energies. The results raise doubts about this assignment. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antipov, S. A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.
2017-04-01
Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually lead to a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the goals of the IOTA research program is to achieve a high betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. In this report, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for suppression of space-charge induced instabilities in high intensity machines.
Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region
2002-01-01
The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...
Antipov, S. A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.
2017-04-01
Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually has both beneficial (improved Landau damping) and harmful properties, such as a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the research goals at the IOTA ring is to achieve a large betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture, using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. The configuration, although not integrable by design, approximates an autonomous 2D Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for enhancing Landau damping in high intensity machines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antipov, S.A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.
2017-01-01
Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R and D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually has both beneficial (improved Landau damping) and harmful properties, such as a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the research goals at the IOTA ring is to achieve a large betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture, using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. The configuration, although not integrable by design, approximates an autonomous 2D Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for enhancing Landau damping in high intensity machines.
Octupole correlations in positive-parity states of rare-earth and actinide nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Spieker M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this contribution, further evidence of the importance of multiphonon-octupole excitations to describe experimental data in the rare earths and actinides will be presented. First, new results of a (p, t experiment at the Q3D magnetic spectrograph in Munich will be discussed, which was performed to selectively excite Jπ = 0+ states in 240Pu. spdf interacting boson model (IBM calculations suggest that the previously proposed double-octupole phonon nature of the Jπ = 0+2 state is not in conflict with its strong (p, t population. Second, the framework of the IBM has been adopted for the description of experimental observables related to octupole excitations in the rare earths. Here, the IBM is able to describe the signature splitting for positiveand negative-parity states when multi-dipole and multi-octupole bosons are included. The present study might support the idea of octupole-phonon condensation at intermediate spin (Jπ = 10+ leading to the change in yrast structure observed in 146Nd.
Octupole Deformed Nuclei in the Actinide Region
Thorsteinsen, T; Rubio barroso, B; Simpson, J; Gulda, K; Sanchez-vega, M; Cocks, J; Nybo, K; Garcia borge, M; Aas, A; Fogelberg, B; Honsi, J; Smith, G; Naumann, R; Grant, I
2002-01-01
The aim of the present study is to investigate the limits of the "island" of octupole deformation in the mass region A=225. It is of particular importance to demonstrate experimentally the sudden disappearance of the stable octupole deformation in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field. \\\\ \\\\In order to establish the upper border line the $\\beta$ -decay chains of $^{227}$Rn $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Ra and $^{231}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ra $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ac were studied at PSB-ISOLDE using advanced fast timing and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy techniques. The lifetimes of the excited states have been measured in the picosecond range using the time-delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method.
The octupoles take pole position
2002-01-01
The first preseries octupole magnet was delivered to CERN in December 2001. Hooked up to a main quadrupole magnet, its function will be to correct imperfections in the beams. The LHC will be fitted with about 5000 corrector magnets, whose task it will be to provide maximum precision in beam collisions.
Single-beam measurements of LHC instability threshold in terms of octupole current
Mounet, N; Buffat, X; Burov, A; Hemelsoet, G; Metral, E; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Pojer, M; Salvant, B; Trad, G
2012-01-01
This note summarizes two machine development (MD) studies aimed at determining the octupole current needed in the LHC in order to stabilize all headtail instabilities at 4TeV/c, before and after the squeeze, with tight collimator settings, and when a single beam (beam 2) at maximum intensity (1380 bunches, 2.1 1014 protons) is present in the machine. The MDs followed the normal physics operation procedure, at the notable exception that a single beam was used, the other beam containing only one non-colliding nominal bunch. Octupole current (with negative polarity in the focusing octupoles and the opposite in the defocusing ones) was decreased by small steps until the instability threshold was reached. This was performed in two distinct MDs, one before the squeeze and the other after it, testing also several chromaticity values and the effect of the transverse damper in the latter case. Octupole thresholds are shown in each case studied, as well as the rise times of the instabilities observed.
The multiphonon method as a dynamical approach to octupole correlations in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piepenbring, R.
1986-09-01
The octupole correlations in nuclei are studied within the framework of the multiphonon method which is mainly the exact diagonalization of the total Hamiltonian in the space spanned by collective phonons. This treatment takes properly into account the Pauli principle. It is a microscopic approach based on a reflection symmetry of the potential. The spectroscopic properties of double even and odd-mass nuclei are nicely reproduced. The multiphonon method appears as a dynamical approach to octupole correlations in nuclei which can be compared to other models based on stable octupole deformation. 66 refs
Perturbation analysis of octupoles in circular accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moohyun Yoon
1998-01-01
The octupole effects in a circular accelerator are analyzed using a first-order canonical perturbation theory. It is shown that, to the first order, the nonlinear amplitude-dependent tune shifts due to an octupole are composed of two types: terms of second order and terms of fourth order in betatron-oscillation amplitudes. The fourth-order part of tune shifts is expressed in terms of distortion functions. Distortion functions are also expanded in harmonics to express the higher-order tune shifts in harmonically expanded form. Finally, the results are applied to an accelerator and compared with the results of numerical tracking of particles. Laskar's algorithm for numerical analysis of the fundamental frequency is used to determine tunes from the tracking data, in which the error becomes inversely proportional to the cube of the number of data points. (author)
Evidence for octupole softness of the superdeformed shape from band interactions in sup 193,4 Hg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cullen, D.M.; Riley, M.A.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Fallon, P.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hanna, F.; Mullins, S.M.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Bengtsson, T. (Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics); Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M.; Simpson, J. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.); Nazarewicz, W. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab. Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Fizyki); Poynter, R.; Regan, P.; Wadsworth, R. (York Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Satula, W. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej); Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Tandem Accelerator Lab.); Wyss, R. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden))
1990-12-24
Three superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in {sup 194}Hg and four (or five ) SD bands in {sup 193}Hg using the {sup 150}Nd+{sup 48}Ca reaction. All bands except for two in {sup 193}Hg show a steady increase in dynamical moment of inertia J{sup (2)} with rotational frequency. The two exceptional bands form a classical pair of strongly interacting bands. It is suggested that the strong interaction between the bands is caused by a softness to octupole deformation. Evidence is found for the existence of dipole transitions connecting bands of opposite signature in {sup 193}Hg. The strengths of these transitions suggest that they are probably E1 supporting the importance of the role of octupole vibrations. These data suggest the wider importance of octupole softness in enhancing E1 transitions in the SD feeding and decay mechanisms. The spectroscopy of the observed SD bands in {sup 193,4}Hg are discussed in detail and attention is drawn to the 'identical' energies of {gamma}-rays in these isotopes with those in lighter isotopes. The similarities in bands relate to the neutron sub-shell closure for SD nuclei at N=112. (orig.).
High-power ion-cyclotron heating on the levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dexter, R.N.; Fortgang, C.M.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.; Twichell, J.C.
1982-03-01
Experiments are underway in the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole to create hot, dense plasmas to facilitate the study of β limits and related phenomena such as Pfirsch-Schlueter and bootstrap currents. The question of ballooning mode instability limits on β = 8 πnk(T/sub i/+T/sub e/)/B 2 is of general importance for all toroidal systems, and ICRF heating should permit study of high β plasmas with lower collisionality and smaller gyroradii than those of the high β gun-injected plasmas currently under study in the Octupole. To these ends we are developing sources capable of delivering 4 MW to the plasma
Low-energy E1 transitions and octupole softness in odd-A deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagemann, G B [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hamamoto, I [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Kownacki, J; Satula, W [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)
1992-08-01
It is found that B(E1) values for yrast spectroscopy of deformed odd-A rare-earth nuclei calculated by using a model in which one quasiparticle is coupled to a rotor are more than an order of magnitude too small. Therefore, measured B(E1) values for {sup 169}Lu were analyzed by introducing parameters which effectively took octupole softness into account. Some preliminary results of the theoretical analysis which are presented in this paper still give do not agree completely with experiment. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.
Nonlinear Resonance Benchmarking Experiment at the CERN Proton Synchrotron
Hofmann, I; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martini, M; Métral, Elias
2003-01-01
As a first step of a space charge - nonlinear resonance benchmarking experiment over a large number of turns, beam loss and emittance evolution were measured over 1 s on a 1.4 GeV kinetic energy flat-bottom in the presence of a single octupole. By lowering the working point towards the resonance a gradual transition from a loss-free core emittance blow-up to a regime dominated by continuous loss was found. Our 3D simulations with analytical space charge show that trapping on the resonance due to synchrotron oscillation causes the observed core emittance growth as well as halo formation, where the latter is explained as the source of the observed loss.
Using octupoles for background control in linear colliders -- An exploratory conceptual study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitthan, R.
2000-01-01
If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires cooperation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octupoles right before the final focusing Quadrupoles is proposed in order to enlarge the effective beam stay clear by a factor of 2--3, thus reducing the requirements for collimation. This concept would reduce the requirement for collimation but simulation have not been carried out here in detail. To further explore and implement this concept will require a considerable effort in manpower, possibly comparable to, although less in scope, than the effort to develop the NLC RF or the CLIC RF schemes
Octupole correlations in 225Th
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, J.R.
1989-12-01
The nuclear structure of 225 Th has been studied using the reaction 226 Ra(α, 5n) 225 Th at a beam energy of 50 MeV. In-beam γ-γ, e - -n, e - e - and e - γ coincidences have been measured, using the TESSA3 array at the Daresbury NSF and the Double Orange spectrometer at the University of Bonn Cyclotron. γ-ray and electron energies and intensities, γ-ray angular distribution ratios and electron subshell ratios and conversion coefficients have been used to establish a decay scheme up to spin (39/2) ℎ and excitation energy E x ≅ 2.5 MeV. The decay scheme is found to be characterised by two ΔJ = 1 rotational bands, and these are classified in terms of the simplex quantum number, s, which is expected to be conserved for an octupole nucleus. No band crossings are observed up to a rotational frequency of ℎw ≅ 0.21 and 0.18 MeV in the s = -i and +i bands, respectively. Parity doublets have been observed, with enhanced E1 transitions linking states of opposite parity. γ-branching ratios have been measured and an average value of | Q 1 | Q 2 | (0.51±0.06) x 10 -3 ; fm -1 has been deduced. The results are compared with various calculations incorporating odd multipole degrees of freedom in the description of the nuclear shape. (author)
High power ICRH experiments on the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strait, E.J.; Fortgang, C.M.; Twichell, J.C.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.; Barter, J.D.
1980-12-01
Preliminary ICRH experiments have begun on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. In order to study heating, energy confinement, and high β plasmas, a 1.8 to 3 MHz oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator is capable of delivering 2 MW of RF power for 10 msec, and to date up to 0.5 MW has been coupled into the plasma. At a density of approx. 6 x 10 12 cm -3 , T/sub e/ reaches a maximum of 30 eV as measured by Langmuir probes and VUV spectroscopy. Charge exchange measurements of T/sub i/ show Maxwellian components at 95 and 190 eV, with an energy confinement time of approx. 1 msec. Electron energy confinement is limited by impurity radiation, and several methods of impurity control are being tested. Current experiments also include direct measurement of the RF electric field, antenna loading measurements, variation of the oscillator frequency, and ohmic heating of the electrons
Electron scattering from the octupole band in 238U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, A.; Creswell, C.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Hynes, M.V.; Kowalski, S.; Miska, H.; Norum, B.; Rad, F.N.; Sargent, C.P.; Sasanuma, T.; Turchinetz, W.
1978-01-01
A simple model for nuclear surface vibrations in permanently deformed nuclei does well in reproducing electron scattering cross sections of rotational levels built on a K/sup π/= 0 - intrinsic octupole vibration in 238 U
Multiparticle octupole coupling and magnetic moments of hn9/2 isomers in N=126 isotones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.
1992-12-01
The influence of particle-vibration coupling on the g-factors of the (h 9/2 ) n > isomers in the N = 126 isotones is assessed using the multiparticle octupole coupling model. According to the model, admixtures of the configuration (h 9/2 ) n-1 f 7/2 > in the yrast 8 + and 21/2 - states, nominally associated with the configuration (h 9/2 ) n >, increase with n. On its own, the octupole mixing mechanism therefore predicts g-factors for these states that increase with the number of valence protons. This trend is the opposite of that predicted by core-polarization blocking. Combining multiparticle octupole coupling and first order core-polarization blocking significantly reduces the discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical g-factors of these states. It is concluded that the observed breakdown in additivity for the g-factors of the (h 9/2 ) n > isomers in the N = 126 isotones arises primarily from first order core-polarization blocking and the combination of configuration mixing due to multiparticle octupole coupling and shell model residual interactions. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs
Correction of chromatic and geometric aberrations using sextupoles and octupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colton, E.
1978-01-01
The procedure for applying some chromatic corrections to a final transport line, neglecting space charge, utilizing the method suggested by Brown is described. The possibility of including octupoles into a point-to-point triplet system, as outlined by Fenster is studied. Positive results were obtained in both cases: (i) using 2 + I correcting sections with two pairs of non-interlaced sextupoles increased the fraction of beam with ΔP/P = 1% onto a 0.1 cm radius target by more than a factor of 1.75; (ii) six octupoles placed into a point-to-point triplet system increased the fraction of a full emittance ΔP/P = 0% beam striking a 0.1 cm radius target by a factor of 2.5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.
1990-01-01
Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the γ-ray energies of the yrast SD band in 146 Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in 148 Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.)
Collisional width of giant resonances and interplay with Landau damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonasera, A.; Burgio, G.F.; Di Toro, M.; Wolter, H.H.
1989-01-01
We present a semiclassical method to calculate the widths of giant resonances. We solve a mean-field kinetic equation (Vlasov equation) with collision terms treated within the relaxation time approximation to construct a damped strength distribution for collective motions. The relaxation time is evaluated from the time evolution of distortions in the nucleon momentum distribution using a test-particle approach. The importance of an energy dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section is stressed. Results are shown for isoscalar giant quadrupole and octupole motions. A quite important interplay between self-consistent (Landau) and collisional damping is revealed
Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, K.M.
1990-01-01
Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
A systematic study of the octupole correlations in the lanthanides with realistic forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egido, J.L.; Robledo, L.M.
1992-01-01
We have performed a systematic study of the octupole degree of freedom in the nuclei 140 Ba, 142-150 deg Ce, 144-152 Nd and 146-154 Sm. The static properties (ground state deformations, energy gaps, dipole moments, etc.) have been analyzed within the Hartree-Fock plus BCS approximation (HFBCS); for the dynamical ones (energy splittings, transition probabilities, etc.) the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock plus zero point energy in the cranking approximation (ATDHF+ZPE) has been applied. In both approximations the realistic density-dependent Gogny force has been used. In our parameter-free calculations we are able to describe very well the whole experimental systematic of energy splittings and B(E1), among others. The flatness of the whole experimental systematic of energy splittings and B(E1), among others. The flatness of the potential energy of some nuclei makes the mean field approach unreliable for such nuclei. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P.; Smirnova, N.A; Pietralla, N.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Mizusaki, T.
2000-01-01
The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2 + 1 state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the Interacting Boson Model including quadrupole and octupole bosons (sdf-IBM-2). Two F-spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the γ-unstable ones, are considered. We derived analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1), B(M1), B(E2), and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states. The model well reproduces many known transition strengths in the near spherical nuclei 142 Ce and 94 Mo. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Smirnova, N.A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse]|[Institute for Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Universitat zu Koln (Germany)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab; Mizusaki, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2000-07-01
The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2{sup +}{sub 1} state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the Interacting Boson Model including quadrupole and octupole bosons (sdf-IBM-2). Two F-spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the {gamma}-unstable ones, are considered. We derived analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1), B(M1), B(E2), and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states. The model well reproduces many known transition strengths in the near spherical nuclei {sup 142}Ce and {sup 94}Mo. (authors)
Isomer shifts of the octupole doublet in muonic 207Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budick, B.; Anigstein, R.; Kast, J.W.
1980-01-01
Isomer shifts in the doublet 5/2 + , 7/2 + levels in muonic 207 Pb have been measured. The shifts are essentially the same as in the core 3 - collective state. They support the hypothesis that the octupole vibration does not conserve volume. (orig.)
Measurements of octupole collectivity in Rn and Ra nuclei using Coulomb excitation
We propose to exploit the unique capability of HIE-ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{221,222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra ion beams for the study of octupole collectivity in these nuclei. We will measure E3 transition moments in $^{222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra in order to fully map out the variation in E3 strength in the octupole mass region with Z$\\thicksim$88 and N$\\thicksim$134. This will validate model calculations that predict different behaviour as a function of N. We will also locate the position of the parity doublet partner of the ground state in $^{221}$Rn, in order to test the suitability of odd-A radon isotopes for EDM searches.
Using Octupoles for Background Control in Linear Colliders an Exploratory Conceptual Study
Pitthan, R
1999-01-01
If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires co operation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octup...
Microscopic and semi-classical treatments of octupole deformation in the light actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1984-01-01
Microscopic and semi-classical descriptions of octupole deformation are compared. New semi-classical results, obtained with the use of a Woods-Saxon potential are presented. Comparisons with experiment are made. 21 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halenka, J.; Olchawa, W.
2005-01-01
From experiments, see e.g. [W. Wiese, D. Kelleher, and D. Paquette, Phys. Rev. A 6, 1132 (1972); V. Helbig and K. Nich, J. Phys. B 14, 3573 (1981).; J. Halenka, Z. Phys. D 16, 1 (1990); . Djurovic, D. Nikolic, I. Savic, S. Sorge, and A.V. Demura, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036407 (2005)], results that the hydrogen lines formed in plasma with N e φ 10 16 cm -3 are asymmetrical. The inhomogeneity of ionic micro field and the higher order corrections (quadratic and next ones) in perturbation theory are the reason for such asymmetry. So far, the ion-emitter quadrupole interaction and the quadratic Stark effect have been included in calculations. The recent work shows that a significant discrepancy between calculations and measurements occurs in the wings of H-beta line in plasmas with cm -3 . It should be stressed here that e.g. for the energy operator the correction raised by the quadratic Stark effect is proportional to (where is the emitter-perturber distance) similarly as the correction caused by the emitter-perturber octupole interaction and the quadratic correction from emitter-perturber quadrupole interaction. Thus, it is obvious that a model of the profile calculation is consistent one if all the aforementioned corrections are simultaneously included. Such calculations are planned in the future paper. A statistics of the octupole inhomogeneity tensor in a plasma is necessarily needed in the first step of such calculations. For the first time the distribution functions of the octupole inhomogeneity have been calculated in this paper using the Mayer-Mayer cluster expansion method similarly as for the quadrupole function in the paper [J. Halenka, Z. Phys. D 16, 1 (1990)]. The quantity is the reduced scale of the micro field strength, where is the Holtsmark normal field and is the mean distance defined by the relationship, that is approximately equal to the mean ion-ion distance; whereas is the screening parameter, where is the electronic Debye radius. (author)
Electroexcitation of giant multipole resonances in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasao, M.; Torizuka, Y.
1977-01-01
Electroexcitation of the nuclear continuum for 208 Pb at excitation energies up to 100 MeV has been measured at momentum transfers in the range from 0.45 to 1.2 fm -1 . Unfolding of the radiation tail was performed using a tail function which takes into account the multiple-photon emission effect. The spectra at these momentum transfers deviate significantly from the prediction of the Fermi-gas model but are consistent with the sum of the multipole strengths of the random-phase approximation; the excess cross section on the low excitation energy side indicates the excitation of multipole resonances. A series of 208 Pb spectra at low momentum transfers was expanded into E1, E2 (E0), E3, and higher multipole components using the q dependence of the Tassie model for isoscalar modes and the Goldhaber-Teller or Steinwedel-Jensen model for isovector modes. The giant dipole resonance thus obtained is consistent with that from photoreactions. Isoscalar and isovector giant quadrupole resonances are seen, respectively, at 11 and 22.5 MeV and an octupole resonance at 16 MeV. A monopole resonance is suggested at 13.5 MeV. The reduced 2 > 2 , B (E1), B (E2), and B (E3) consume most of the corresponding energy weighted sum rule if the q dependences of the Tassie and Goldhaber-Teller models are assumed. The results with these models are consistent with the random-phase approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)
1990-12-24
Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the {gamma}-ray energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 146}Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 148}Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.).
Indication for a K/sup π/ = 0- octupole band in 150Nd from electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creswell, C.; Hirsch, A.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Kowalski, S.; Sargent, C.P.; Turchinetz, W.; Dieperink, A.
1978-01-01
Recent electron scattering results on the 0.850 MeV level of 150 Nd, when analyzed in terms of the interacting boson model, are inconsistent with the interpretation of this level as a pure J/sup π/(K) = 2 + (0) state. Very recent (n,n'γ) work has shown this level to be a 1 - , 2 + doublet. Assuming this level to be the band head of a ''K/sup π/ = 0 - '' octupole band, a simple model is used to predict electron scattering form factors for the 0.850 MeV state and a 3 - octupole level observed at 0.931 MeV. Comparison is made between these predicted form factors and recent electron scattering data
Low-lying collective quadrupole and octupole strengths in even-even nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.
1991-01-01
The B(E2)↑ values for the first 2 + state of even-even nuclei in the Z≥50 region are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models. Comparative estimates of the overall agreement with the data are provided. Gaps and discrepancies in the data and examples that show interesting features such as shape changes are discussed. The B(E2)↑ values are examined critically to search for the dynamical Pauli effects predicted by the fermion dynamic symmetry model. The empirical B(E2)↑ and B(E3)↑ systematics are employed to obtain a measure of the harmonicity of the quadrupole and octupole vibrations. The fraction of the energy-weighted sum-rule strength exhausted by the sum of all known low-lying 2 + states below 2.3 MeV is found to be surprisingly constant in the 60< A<250 region except near closed shells
Excitation energy of the lowest 2+ and 3- levels in 32Mg and 146Gd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barranco, M.; Lombard, R.J.
1978-06-01
The excitation energy of the lowest 2 + and 3 - levels are calculated for neutron rich Mg-isotopes as well as for N=82 isotones. The calculations are made by assuming quadrupole-quadrupole and octupole-octupole forces. The quasi-particles energies and occupation numbers are taken from the energy density method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.
2015-01-01
The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)
Design, fabrication and cold tests of a super ferric octupole corrector for the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Tabares, L.; Calero, J.; Laurent, G.; Russenschuck, S.; Siegel, N.; Traveria, M.; Aguirre, P.; Etxeandia, J.; Garcia, J.
1996-01-01
In the corrections scheme of the LHC it is planed to install octupole corrector magnets in the short straight section of the lattice. Initially these correctors were distributed windings on the cold bore tube nested in the tuning quadrupoles. The latter being suppressed a new compact super ferric design was chosen for the octupole prototype, suitable for a two-in-one configuration. This prototype was designed by CERN and CEDEX/Spain, built at INDAR/Spain and tested at CEDEX. The paper reports on the design of the prototype, describes the fabrication and assembly and presents the measurement results. Special interest has been taken to design a simple and compact magnet, easy to fabricate and training free below nominal field. First results show the feasibility of the solution wich will be finally confirmed by magnetic measurement. (Author) 4 refs
Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youngblood, D. H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.
1980-01-01
The current status of the knowledges of giant quadrupole resonance (GQR), low energy octupole resonance (LEOR), and giant monopole resonance (GMR), is described. In the lowest order of multipole resonance, both isoscalar and isovector modes can occur. The characteristics of the GQR in light nuclei are apparent in the experimental result for Mg-24. All of the isoscalar E2 strength are known in Mg-24. The Goldhaber-Teller model is preferred over the Steinwedel-Jensen model for the giant dipole resonance (GDR) transition density. A few interesting and puzzling features have been seen in Pb-208. There is some conflict between inelastic alpha and electron scatterings. About LEOR, the RPA calculation of Liu and Brown was compared to the data for 3/sup -/ strength in Ca-40, Zr-90 and Pb-208. The calculation was employed the residual interaction of the Skyrme type. The agreement in Zr-90 was excellent. The effect of quadrupole deformation on the LEOR in Sm isotopes was large. The inelastic alpha scattering data on Al-27, Ca-40, Ti-48, Ni-58, Zn-64 and 66, Zr-90, Sn-116, 118, 120 and 124, Sm-144, 148 and 154, and Pb-208 were utilized in order to identify the GMR, and the GMR parameters were obtained. The GMR exhausting a large fraction of the sum rule was apparent in the nuclei with mass larger than 90. The splitting of the GDR and the broadening of the GQR in permanently deformed nuclei were established. The splitting of GMR was seen in Sm-154. The studies with heavy ions are also described.
Influence of an octupole arrangement of electrodes on drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, D.; Piel, A.; Schroeder, Ch.; Klinger, T.
2001-01-01
In order to influence drift waves an octupole arrangement of electrodes is placed in direct vicinity of the plasma. By applying sinusoidal signals with proper phase shift to the electrodes synchronisation of drift waves is observed. The width of the synchronisation area is taken to quantify the interaction of the electrodes with the plasma. It turns out that the synchronisability strongly depends on the frequency, amplitude and phase shift and has to be interpreted as spatiotemporal effect. (orig.)
Convective cells and their relationship to vortex diffusion in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehrhardt, A.B.
1978-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to present floating potential structure for different plasmas and operating parameters in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Second, to show how the observed potential structure can be used, within the framework of vortex diffusion, to account for enhanced diffusion in the appropriate parameter regimes
Exotic octupole deformation in proton-rich Z=N nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takami, Satoshi; Yabana, K [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Matsuo, M
1998-03-01
We study static non-axial octupole deformations in proton-rich Z=N nuclei, {sup 64}Ge, {sup 68}Se, {sup 72}Kr, {sup 76}Sr, {sup 80}Zr and {sup 84}Mo, by using the Skyrme Hartree-Fock plus BCS method with no restrictions on the nuclear shape. The calculation predicts that the oblate ground state in {sup 68}Se is extremely soft for the Y{sub 33} triangular deformation, and that in {sup 80}Zr the low-lying local minimum state coexisting with the prolate ground state has the Y{sub 32} tetrahedral deformation. (author)
Examination of different strengths of octupole correlations in neutron-rich Pr and Pm isotopes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Thiamova, G.; Alexa, P.; Hons, Zdeněk; Simpson, G.S.
2012-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), 044334/1-044334/5 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron rich nuclei * octupole correlations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.715, year: 2012
Low frequency turbulence, particle and heat transport in the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, H.R.
1982-01-01
Low frequency turbulence in the drift frequency range and its relation to the observed particle transport in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole has been studied with a microwave scattering apparatus. The experimental parameters were T/sub e/ approx. T/sub i/ 13 cm -3 , 200 G < B/sub p-average/ < 1.25 kG. The effect of shear on the transport was studied by the addition of a small toroidal field. By matching experimentally measured density profiles to those given by numerical solutions of the transport equations, diffusion coefficients were obtained. Time dependent density fluctuation spectra were measured with an 8 mm microwave scattering diagnostic to correlate the drift wave portion of the spectrum with the observed diffusion. The density fluctuation spectrum of low frequency (1 kHz < ω < 6 MHz) turbulence was measured for several values of perpendicular wavenumber, k/sub perpendicular to/. Electron heat transport was studied by fitting experimentally measured electron temperature profiles to those predicted by numerical solutions of electron energy transport equation
Ion cyclotron resonance heating in the Wisconsin supported toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1977-01-01
Ion heating at the fundamental of the cyclotron resonance (1 MHz 12 cm -3 ) with no evidence of parametric decay or enhanced particle loss other than temperature dependent losses such as thermal flow to obstacles. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange on the large neutral reflux at the higher rf powers. (author)
A novel antiproton radial diagnostic based on octupole induced ballistic loss
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.
2008-01-01
We report results from a novel diagnostic that probes the outer radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds. The diagnostic allows us to determine the profile by monitoring the time history of antiproton losses that occur as an octupole field in the antiproton confinement region is increased. We show several examples of how this diagnostic helps us to understand the radial dynamics of antiprotons in normal and nested Penning-Malmberg traps. Better understanding of these dynamics may aid current attempts to trap antihydrogen atoms
A novel antiproton radial diagnostic based on octupole induced ballistic loss
Andresen, G.B.; Bowe, P.D.; Bray, C.C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C.L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D.R.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayden, M.E.; Humphries, A.J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M.J.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R.D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D.M.; Storey, J.W.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yamazaki, Y.
2008-01-01
We report results from a novel diagnostic that probes the outer radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds. The diagnostic allows us to determine the profile by monitoring the time-history of antiproton losses that occur as an octupole field in the antiproton confinement region is increased. We show several examples of how this diagnostic helps us to understand the radial dynamics of antiprotons in normal and nested Penning-Malmberg traps. Better understanding of these dynamics may aid current attempts to trap antihydrogen atoms.
Identification of Excited States in 226U: Evidence for Octupole Deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenlees, P.T.; Amzal, N.; Andreyev, A.; Butler, P.A.; Cann, K.J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Dorvaux, O.; Enqvist, T.; Fallon, P.; Gall, B.; Guttormsen, M.; Hawcroft, D.; Helariutta, K.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hoellinger, F.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaa, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Messelt, S.; Muikku, M.; Odegard, S.; Page, R.D.; Savelius, A.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tveter, T.; Uusitalo, J.
1999-01-01
The level scheme of 226 U has been deduced from the results of two experiments carried out at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Both α- and γ-ray-spectroscopic techniques have been employed. The interleaved states of positive- and negative-parity indicate the octupole nature of this nucleus, and the behavior of the difference in aligned angular momentum between the positive- and negative-parity bands as a function of rotational frequency is consistent with that expected for a rotating reflection-asymmetric shape
Construction and Operational Experience with a Superconducting Octupole Used to Trap Antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wanderer P.; Escallier, J.; Marone, A.; Parker, B.
2011-09-06
A superconducting octupole magnet has seen extensive service as part of the ALPHA experiment at CERN. ALPHA has trapped antihydrogen, a crucial step towards performing precision measurements of anti-atoms. The octupole was made at the Direct Wind facility by the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnet was wound with a six-around-one NbTi cable about 1 mm in diameter. It is about 300 mm long, with a radius of 25 mm and a peak field at the conductor of 4.04 T. Specific features of the magnet, including a minimal amount of material in the coil and coil ends with low multipole content, were advantageous to its use in ALPHA. The magnet was operated for six months a year for five years. During this time it underwent about 900 thermal cycles (between 4K and 100K). A novel operational feature is that during the course of data-taking the magnet was repeatedly shut off from its 950 A operating current. The magnet quenches during the shutoff, with a decay constant of 9 ms. Over the course of the five years, the magnet was deliberately quenched many thousands of times. It still performs well.
238U + n resolved resonance energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Difilippo, F.C.; Ingle, R.W.
1978-01-01
Neutron transmission measurements from 100 eV to 170 keV at 150 m through four 238 U samples are reported. The energy calibration is described, and the resultant 233 U resolved resonance energies are found to be intermediate between those from other workers. In addition, some energies for sharp resonances in 23 Na, 27 Al, 32 S, and 206 Pb are given
Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouchous, D.A.
1980-11-01
Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/
The 257 MeV 19/2/sup -/ two-phonon octupole state in /sup 147/Gd
Kleinheinz, P; Kortelahti, M; Piiparinen, M; Styczen, J
1981-01-01
The half-life of the (vf/sub 7/2/*3/sup -/*3/sup -/)/sub 19/2-/ two- phonon octupole states at 2.572 MeV in /sup 147/Gd was measured as T /sub 1/2/=0.37(8) ns, which gives a transition strength of 52(15) WU for the 1525 keV E3 transition to the 0.997 MeV (vf/sub 7/2/*3/sup -/) /sub 13/2+/ one transition to the 0.997 MeV ( nu f/sub 7/2/*3/sup -/) /sub 13/2+/ one phonon excitation. The nu i/sub 13/2/ admixture in the 13/2/sup +/ one-phonon state, as well as the dominant pi h/sub 11/2/d /sub 5//sup -1/2/ component of the /sup 146/Gd 3/sup -/ state give rise to large anharmonicities for the two-phonon excitation. An estimate of the energy shifts based on empirical coupling matrix elements gives 2.66 MeV excitation for the 19/2/sup -/ two-phonon state, in good agreement with the observed energy of that state. (9 refs).
Studies of electric dipole moments in the octupole collective regions of heavy Radiums and Bariums
Hoff, P; Kaczarowski, R
2002-01-01
%IS386 %title\\ \\It is proposed to study the electric dipole moments in the regions of octupole collective Ra-Th and Ba-Ce nuclei by means of Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma(t)$ method with a primary goal to provide new and critical data on the properties of E1 moments. The proposal focuses on the nuclei of $^{225,226,229}$Ra, $^{229,233}$Th and $^{149,150}$Ba.\\ \\The ATD $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method was first tested at ISOLDE as part of the IS322 study of Fr-Ra nuclei at the limits of octupole deformation region. The results have greatly increased the knowledge of electric dipole moments in the region and demonstrated that new and unique research capabilities in this field are now available at ISOLDE. Based on the experience and new systematics, we propose a specialized study with the aim to determine the missing key aspects of the E1 moment systematics. We propose : \\begin{enumerate}[a)] \\item to measure the lifetimes of the 1$_{1}^{-}$ and 3$_{1}^{-}$ states in $^{226}$Ra with $\\sim$15\\% prec...
Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.G.
1997-01-01
In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+ν y , 12+ν y and 36+ν y , which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances
Generating Unstable Resonances for Extraction Schemes Based on Transverse Splitting
Giovannozzi, M; Turchetti, G
2009-01-01
A few years ago, a novel multi-turn extraction scheme was proposed, based on particle trapping inside stable resonances. Numerical simulations and experimental tests have confirmed the feasibility of such a scheme for low order resonances. While the third-order resonance is generically unstable and those higher than fourth-order are generically stable, the fourth-order resonance can be either stable or unstable depending on the specifics of the system under consideration. By means of the Normal Form a general approach to control the stability of the fourth-order resonance has been derived. This approach is based on the control of the amplitude detuning and the general form for a lattice with an arbitrary number of sextupole and octupole families is derived in this paper. Numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical results and have shown that, when crossing the unstable fourth-order resonance, the region around the centre of the phase space is depleted and particles are trapped in only the four stable ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F.
2011-01-01
The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.
Investigation of octupole deformations in the Fr217 nucleus by yrast spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hulne, S.
1988-01-01
The spectroscopic characteristics of the yrast levels of Fr217 are determined. The level scheme up to a value of J = (39/2 + ) for angular momentum and parity is established. The production of the Fr217 nucleus in a heavy ion collision reaction was only possible by using a radioactive Pb210 target. The method for preparing the target is described. The Fr217 nucleus belongs to the category of nuclei showing octupole effects. Mass A = 217 seems to be the lower limit of the region where these effects occur [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tomizawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)
2017-03-09
The new accelerator complex at J-PARC will operate with both high energy and very high intensity proton beams. With a design slow extraction efficiency of greater than 99% this facility will still be depositing significant beam power onto accelerator components [2]. To achieve even higher efficiencies requires some new ideas. The design of the extraction system and the accelerator lattice structure leaves little room for improvement using conventional techniques. In this report we will present one method for improving the slow extraction efficiency at J-PARC by adding duodecapoles or octupoles to the slow extraction system. We will review the theory of resonant extraction, describe simulation methods, and present the results of detailed simulations. From our investigations we find that we can improve extraction efficiency and thereby reduce the level of residual activation in the accelerator components and surrounding shielding.
Hadronic resonances at FAIR energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogel, Sascha
2013-01-01
These proceedings cover the analysis of hadronic resonances in heavy ion collisions. The model used for these studies is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The model will be briefly explained, resonance observables will be highlighted and various kinematical issues will be investigated. Special emphasis will be put on the FAIR energy regime, especially highlighting the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) program.
Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators
Liu, Changxu; Di Falco, Andrea; Molinari, Diego P.; Khan, Yasser; Ooi, Boon S.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Fratalocchi, Andrea
2013-01-01
Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators
Liu, Changxu
2013-05-05
Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Generating unstable resonances for extraction schemes based on transverse splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Giovannozzi
2009-02-01
Full Text Available A few years ago, a novel multiturn extraction scheme was proposed, based on particle trapping inside stable resonances. Numerical simulations and experimental tests have confirmed the feasibility of such a scheme for low order resonances. While the third-order resonance is generically unstable and those higher than fourth order are generically stable, the fourth-order resonance can be either stable or unstable depending on the specifics of the system under consideration. By means of the normal form, a general approach to control the stability of the fourth-order resonance has been derived. This approach is based on the control of the amplitude detuning and the general form for a lattice with an arbitrary number of sextupole and octupole families is derived in this paper. Numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical results and have shown that, when crossing the unstable fourth-order resonance, the region around the center of the phase space is depleted and particles are trapped in only the four stable islands. A four-turn extraction could be designed using this technique.
A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Shi Yong; Fisher, Frank T
2008-01-01
Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined
We propose to study excited states in isotopes north-east of the doubly-magic $^{132}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to the determine B(E2) and B(E3) values to follow the evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity when going away from the shell closures at Z = 50 and N = 82. The B(E2; 0$^+_{gs}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$^+_{1}$) values in the even isotopes $^{138-144}$Xe have been measured at REX-ISOLDE and the systematic trend towards neutron-rich nuclei is well described even by an empirical Grodzins-type formula. An increasing dipole moment observed for $^{140,142}$Xe is interpreted as indirect signature of increasing octupole correlations peaking at N = 88. So far, no B(E3) values are known. In contrast to the Xe isotopes, the Te ones, in particular $^{136}$Te, are known for their notoriously irregular behaviour. In order to understand the nuclear structure also on a microscopic basis, the isotope $^{136}$Te with just one pair of protons and neutrons...
Intrinsic Energy Dissipation Limits in Nano and Micromechanical Resonators
Iyer, Srikanth Subramanian
Resonant microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have enabled miniaturization of high-performance inertial sensors, radio-frequency filters, timing references and mass-based chemical sensors. Despite the increasing prevalence of MEMS resonators for these applications, the energy dissipation in these structures is not well-understood. Accurate prediction of the energy loss and the resulting quality factor (Q) has significant design implications because it is directly related to device performance metrics including sensitivity for resonant sensors, bandwidth for radio-frequency filters and phase-noise for timing references. In order to assess the future potential for MEMS resonators it is critically important to evaluate the energy dissipation limits, which will dictate the ultimate performance resonant MEMS devices can achieve. This work focuses on the derivation and evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal nano and micromechanical resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction and polarization dependent mode-Gruneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. Evaluation of the quality factor limit reveals that Akhiezer damping, previously thought to depend only on material properties, has a strong dependence on crystal orientation and resonant mode shape. The robust model provides a dissipation limit for all resonant modes including shear-mode vibrations, which have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to volume-preserving phonon branches, indicating that Lame or wine-glass mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, the analytical dissipation model is integrated with commercial finite element software in order to
Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi
2018-03-01
This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.
Experiment and theory of a drift wave in the levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, E.A.
1982-08-01
A very coherent 30 kHz drift wave is observed in the Levitated Toroidal Octupole at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The density and floating potential fluctuations have a well-defined spatial structure in the poloidal magnetic field. Radially the wave has a standing wave structure with amplitude peaked in regions of locally bad magnetic curvature. Poloidally the wave has a standing wave structure with odd symmetry; nodes are located in the regions of locally good magnetic curvature. The wave propagates toroidally in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with a wavelength of 20 centimeters. No changes occur in the wave structure as the plasma is varied over three orders of magnitude in density and beta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spear, R.H.
1988-11-01
Adopted values for the excitation energy, E x( 3 1 - ), of the first 3 - state of the even-even nuclei are tabulated. Values of the reduced electric-octupole transition probability, B(E3;O 1 + → 3 1 - ), from the ground state to this state, as determined from Coulomb excitation, lifetime measurements, inelastic electron scattering, deformation parameters β 3 obtained from angular distributions of inelastically scattered nucleons and light ions, and other miscellaneous procedures are listed in separate Tables. Adopted values for B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) are presented in Table VII, together with the E3 transition strengths, in Weisskopf units, and the product E x( 3 1 - ) x B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - - ) expressed as a percentage of the energy-weighted E3 sum-rule strength. An evaluation is made of the reliability of B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) values deduced from deformation parameters β 3 . The literature has been covered to March 1988
Evidence for octupole vibration in the superdeformed well of {sup 190}Hg from eurogam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others
1995-08-01
Gammasphere experiments in 1993-94 brought to light the existence of an excited superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 190}Hg with the unusual property of decaying entirely to the lowest (yrast) SD band over 3-4 transitions, rather than to the normally deformed states as is usually the case in the A {approximately} 150 and A {approximately} 190 regions of superdeformation. Although M1 transitions between signature-partner SD bands were previously observed in {sup 193}Hg, no such mechanism was available to explain the situation in the even-even nucleus {sup 190}Hg, whose yrast SD band has no signature partner. The best explanation appears to lie in long-standing theoretical predictions that the SD minimum in the potential energy surface would be quite soft with respect to octupole vibrations. This would lead to enhanced E1 transitions connecting the one-phonon and zero-phonon states. The data and this interpretation were published. A shortcoming of the Gammasphere experiments was that they did not allow the definitive measurement of the energies of the gamma-ray transitions connecting the two bands, due to the very weak population of the excited band ({approximately}0.05% of the {sup 190}Hg channel) and also partly, we believed, to the angular distributions of the transitions, which were peaked near 90 degrees, where Gammasphere had few detectors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matova, S P; Elfrink, R; Vullers, R J M; Van Schaijk, R
2011-01-01
In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adjustable resonance frequencies have been designed—one with a solid bottom and one with membrane on the bottom. The resonance frequencies of the resonators were matched to the complementing piezoelectric harvesters during harvesting. The aim of the presented work is a feasibility study on using packaged piezoelectric energy harvesters with Helmholtz resonators for airflow energy harvesting. The maximum energy we were able to obtain was 42.2 µW at 20 m s −1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perin, R.; Siegel, N.; Bidaurrazaga, H.; Garcia Tabares, L.
1992-01-01
CERN is preparing for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be installed in the LEP tunnel. The magnetic lattice of the LHC will consist of a ring of twin aperture dipoles and quadrupoles, connected electrically in series. To adjust the working point of the machine, so called tuning quadrupoles will be installed in pairs in each regular cell, next to the main quadrupoles. Also, to correct multipolar field errors in the LHC, an octupole correction winding is required near each lattice quadrupole. A nested construction of these two magnets is foreseen. As part of the LHC R and D program, CERN and ACICA (a group of five Spanish industries: Abengoz, Canzler, Indar, Cenemesa and AME; since June 1990 Cenemesa is part of ABB Spain), signed a common development agreement for the design, fabrication and testing of a prototype tuning quadrupole and octupole corrector. This paper describes the design of these magnets, giving details of magnetic and mechanical calculations, including results from existing and specially developed computer codes, and model work. Further, the construction procedures are described, including the facilities and tooling developed by ACICA for this work
Theory of coherent resonance energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Seogjoo; Cheng, Y.-C.; Reichman, David R.; Eaves, Joel D.
2008-01-01
A theory of coherent resonance energy transfer is developed combining the polaron transformation and a time-local quantum master equation formulation, which is valid for arbitrary spectral densities including common modes. The theory contains inhomogeneous terms accounting for nonequilibrium initial preparation effects and elucidates how quantum coherence and nonequilibrium effects manifest themselves in the coherent energy transfer dynamics beyond the weak resonance coupling limit of the Foerster and Dexter (FD) theory. Numerical tests show that quantum coherence can cause significant changes in steady state donor/acceptor populations from those predicted by the FD theory and illustrate delicate cooperation of nonequilibrium and quantum coherence effects on the transient population dynamics.
The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1976-01-01
It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed
Search for the two-phonon octupole vibrational state in {sup 208}Pb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumenthal, D.J.; Henning, W.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others
1995-08-01
We performed an experiment to search for the two-phonon octupole vibrational state in {sup 208}Pb. Thick targets of {sup 208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 58,64}Ni, and {sup 160}Gd were bombarded with 1305 MeV beams of were bombard {sup 208}Pb supplied by ATLAS. Gamma rays were detected using the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma-ray facility, consisting of 12 Compton-suppressed germanium detectors surrounding an array of 50 BGO scintillators. We identified some 30 known gamma rays from {sup 208}Pb in the spectra gated by the 5{sup -} {yields} 3{sup -} and 3{sup -} {yields} 0{sup +} transitions in {sup 208}Pb. In addition, after unfolding these spectra for Compton response, we observed broad coincident structures in the energy region expected for the 2-phonon states. Furthermore, we confirmed the placement of a 2485 keV line observed previously in {sup 207}Pb and find no evidence consistent with the placement of this line in {sup 208}Pb. We are currently in the process of investigating the origin of the broadened lines observed in the spectra, extracting the excitation probability of states in {sup 208}Pb, and determining the relative probability of mutual excitation and neutron transfer in this reaction. An additional experiment is also being performed to collect much higher statistics germanium-germanium coincidence data for the thick {sup 208}Pb target.
Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation
Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S
2008-01-01
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, L. S.; Camalich, J. Martin; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2009-01-01
We present a calculation of the leading SU(3)-breaking O(p 3 ) corrections to the electromagnetic moments and charge radius of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory. In particular, the magnetic dipole moment of the members of the decuplet is predicted fixing the only low-energy constant (LEC) present up to this order with the well-measured magnetic dipole moment of the Ω - . We predict μ Δ ++ =6.04(13) and μ Δ + =2.84(2), which agree well with the current experimental information. For the electric quadrupole moment and the charge radius, we use state-of-the-art lattice QCD results to determine the corresponding LECs, whereas for the magnetic octupole moment there is no unknown LEC up to the order considered here, and we obtain a pure prediction. We compare our results with those reported in large N c , lattice QCD, heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, and other models.
Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting
Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan
2016-04-01
In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.
Atomic resonances above the total ionization energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doolen, G.
1975-01-01
A rigorous result obtained using the theory associated with dilatation analytic potentials is that by performing a complex coordinate rotation, r/subj/ → r/subj/e/subi//sup theta/, on a Hamiltonian whose potential involves only pairwise Coulombic interactions, one can show that when theta = π/2, no complex eigenvalues (resonances) appear whose energies have a real part greater than the total ionization energy of the atomic system. This appears to conflict with experimental results of Walton, Peart, and Dolder, who find resonance behavior above the total ionization energy of the H -- system and also the theoretical stabilization results of Taylor and Thomas for the same system. A possible resolution of this apparent conflict is discussed and a calculation to check its validity is proposed
Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van
2011-01-01
In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with
Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara
2015-01-01
The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.M.S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Reiniger, K.W.
1992-01-01
For the TRIUMF KAON Factory Booster Ring, a resonant-type magnet power supply has been proposed for the dipole magnet excitation. The Booster Ring magnet power supply system based on resonant circuits, coupled with distributed energy make-up networks, is a complex system, sensitive to many system parameters. When multiple resonant cells, each with its own energy make-up network, are connected in a ring, it is very difficult to derive closed-form solutions to determine the operating conditions of the power supply system. A meaningful way to understand and analyze such a complex system is to use a simulation tool. This paper presents the analysis of operating conditions of the resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells, using the circuit simulation tool, SPICE. The focus of the study is on the effect of circuit parameter variations in energy storage chokes
Energy measurement using a resonator based time-of-flight system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pardo, R.C.; Clifft, B.; Johnson, K.W.; Lewis, R.N.
1983-01-01
A resonant pick-up time-of-flight system has been developed for the precise measurement of beam energy at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The excellent timing characteristics available with ATLAS beams make it desirable to design the beam transport system to be isochronous. The advantages of the resonant time-of-flight system over other energy analysis systems such as the dispersive magnet system are numerous. The system is non-interceptive and non-destructive and preserves the beam phase space. It is non-dispersive. Path length variations are not introduced into the beam which would reduce the timing resolution. It has a large signal-to-noise ratio when compared to non-resonant beam pick-up techniques. It provides the means to precisely set the linac energy and potentially to control the energy in a feedback loop. Finally, the resonant pick-up time-of-flight system is less expensive than an equivalent magnetic system. It consists of two beam-excited resonators, associated electronics to decode the information, a computer interface to the linac PDP 11/34 control computer, and software to analyze the information and deduce the measured beam energy. This report describes the system and its components and gives a schematic overview
The combined resonance tunneling and semi-resonance level in low energy D-D reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xingzhong; Jin Dezhe; Chang Lee
1993-01-01
When nuclear potential wells are connected by an atomic potential well, a new kind of tunneling may happen even if there is no virtual energy level in nuclear potential wells. The necessary condition for this combined resonance tunneling is the resonance in the atomic potential well. Thus, the nuclear reaction may be affected by the action in atomic scale in terms of combined resonance tunneling. The nuclear spectrum data support this idea. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zmijarevic, I.
1980-01-01
Space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell was determined by solving the Boltzmann equation by spherical harmonics method applying P-3 approximation. Computer code SPLET used for these calculations is described. Resonance absorption and calculation of resonance integrals are described as well. Effective resonance integral values for U-238 resonance at 6.7 Ev are calculated for heavy water reactor cell with metal, oxide and carbide fuel elements
Formation of a uniform ion beam using octupole magnets for BioLEIR facility at CERN
Amin, T.; Barlow, R.; Ghithan, S.; Roy, G.; Schuh, S.
2018-04-01
The possibility to transform the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerator at CERN into a multidisciplinary, biomedical research facility (BioLEIR) was investigated based on a request from the biomedical community. BioLEIR aims to provide a unique facility with a range of fully stripped ion beams (e.g. He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O) and energies suitable for multidisciplinary biomedical, clinically-oriented research. Two horizontal and one vertical beam transport lines have been designed for transporting the extracted beam from LEIR to three experimental end-stations. The vertical beamline was designed for a maximum energy of 75 MeV/u, while the two horizontal beamlines shall deliver up to a maximum energy of 440 MeV/u. A pencil beam of 4.3 mm FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) as well as a homogeneous broad beam of 40 × 40 mm2, with a beam homogeneity better than ±4%, are available at the first horizontal (H1) irradiation point, while only a pencil beam is available at the second horizontal (H2) and vertical (V) irradiation points. The H1 irradiation point shall be used to conduct systematic studies of the radiation effect from different ion species on cell-lines. The H1 beamline was designed to utilize two octupole magnets which transform the Gaussian beam distribution at the target location into an approximately uniformly distributed rectangular beam. In this paper, we report on the multi-particle tracking calculations performed using MAD-X software suite for the H1 beam optics to arrive at a homogeneous broad beam on target using nonlinear focusing techniques, and on those to create a Gaussian pencil beam on target by adjusting quadrupoles strengths and positions.
Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.
1998-01-01
The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)
High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric
2015-01-01
We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minkov N.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the effects of quadrupole-octupole deformations on the energy and magnetic properties of high-K isomeric states in even-even heavy and superheavy nuclei. The neutron two-quasiparticle (2qp isomeric energies and magnetic dipole moments are calculated within a deformed shell model with the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer (BCS pairing interaction over a wide range of quadrupole and octupole deformations. We found that in most cases the magnetic moments exhibit a pronounced sensitivity to the octupole deformation, while the 2qp energies indicate regions of nuclei in which the presence of high-K isomeric states may be associated with the presence of octupole softness or even with octupole deformation. In the present work we also examine the influence of the BCS pairing strength on the energy of the blocked isomer configuration. We show that the formation of 2qp energy minima in the space of quadrupole-octupole and eventually higher multipolarity deformations is a subtle effect depending on nuclear pairing correlations.
Quadrupole deformed and octupole collective bands in 228Ra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.
1998-01-01
Spins and parities for collective states in 228 Ra have been determined from conversion electron measurements with a mini-orange β spectrometer. The fast-timing βγγ(t) method has been used to measure lifetimes of T 1/2 =550(20) ps and 181(3) ps for the 2 + 1 and 4 + 1 members of the K=0 + band, and T 1/2 ≤7 ps and ≤6 ps for the 1 - 1 and 3 - 1 members of the K=0 - band, respectively. The quadrupole moments, Q 0 , deduced from the B(E2; 2 + 1 →0 + 1 ) and B(E2; 4 + 1 →2 + 1 ) rates are in good agreement with the previously measured value and the systematics of the region. However, the B(E1) rates of ≥4 x 10 -4 e 2 fm 2 , which represent the first B(E1) measurements for this nucleus, are at least 25 times larger than the value previously suggested for 228 Ra. The new results are consistent with the B(E1) rates recently measured for the neighbouring 227 Ra and reveal octupole correlations in 228 Ra. (orig.)
New levels and reinvestigation of octupole correlations in {sup 146,147}La
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, E.H.; Zachary, C.J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Liu, S.H.; Brewer, N.T. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Lewis, W. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Furman University, Department of Physics, Greenville, SC (United States); Luo, Y.X. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rasmussen, J.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, S.J. [Tsinghua University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2017-12-15
High spin states of neutron-rich {sup 146,147}La have been reinvestigated by γ-γ-γ and γ-γ-γ-γ coincidence data from a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission experiment by using Gammasphere. Thirty-two new transitions in {sup 146}La are observed. Two new bands in {sup 146}La have been established. One of them is proposed to be the octupole parity partner of the previously known band. Twenty new transitions in {sup 147}La are observed. The ground state band of {sup 147}La has been established with a proposed 5/2{sup +} band-head. Angular correlation of cascades has been used to study the spins and parities of the states. The B(E1)/B(E2) ratios and dipole moments of bands in {sup 146,} {sup 147}La have been measured. (orig.)
Core breaking and octupole low-spin states in $^{207}$ Tl
We propose to study the low-spin level structure of the $^{207}$Tl nucleus populated by the $\\beta$- decay of $^{207}$Hg. While $^{207}$Tl is a single-proton hole nucleus, the majority of the observed states will have a three-particle structure thus requiring the breaking of the neutron or proton core, or a collective octupole phonon coupled to the single proton hole. Thus information will be obtained on the single particle orbitals in the vicinity of the N=126 and Z=82 magic numbers, and on the size of the shell gap. The results will be used to improve the predictive power of the shell model for more exotic nuclei as we move to lighter N=126 nuclei.The experiment will use the ISOLDE Decay station, and will take advantage of the $^{207}$Hg beam from the molten lead target. A test on the feasibility to produce an $^{208}$Hg beam from the same target, with the aim to study the $\\beta$-decay into $^{208}$Tl, could be performed at the same time.
POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.
2000-12-01
POLIDENT (Point Libraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.
2012-01-01
More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)
Energy Distributions from Three-Body Decaying Many-Body Resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Garrido, E.
2007-01-01
We compute energy distributions of three particles emerging from decaying many-body resonances. We reproduce the measured energy distributions from decays of two archetypal states chosen as the lowest 0 + and 1 + resonances in 12 C populated in β decays. These states are dominated by sequential, through the 8 Be ground state, and direct decays, respectively. These decay mechanisms are reflected in the ''dynamic'' evolution from small, cluster or shell-model states, to large distances, where the coordinate or momentum space continuum wave functions are accurately computed
Decay of quadrupole-octupole 1- states in 40Ca and 140Ce
Derya, V.; Tsoneva, N.; Aumann, T.; Bhike, M.; Endres, J.; Gooden, M.; Hennig, A.; Isaak, J.; Lenske, H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Savran, D.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.
2016-03-01
Background: Two-phonon excitations originating from the coupling of two collective one-phonon states are of great interest in nuclear structure physics. One possibility to generate low-lying E 1 excitations is the coupling of quadrupole and octupole phonons. Purpose: In this work, the γ -decay behavior of candidates for the (21+⊗31-)1- state in the doubly magic nucleus 40Ca and in the heavier and semimagic nucleus 140Ce is investigated. Methods: (γ ⃗,γ') experiments have been carried out at the High Intensity γ -ray Source (HI γ S ) facility in combination with the high-efficiency γ -ray spectroscopy setup γ3 consisting of HPGe and LaBr3 detectors. The setup enables the acquisition of γ -γ coincidence data and, hence, the detection of direct decay paths. Results: In addition to the known ground-state decays, for 40Ca the decay into the 31- state was observed, while for 140Ce the direct decays into the 21+ and the 02+ state were detected. The experimentally deduced transition strengths and excitation energies are compared to theoretical calculations in the framework of EDF theory plus QPM approach and systematically analyzed for N =82 isotones. In addition, negative parities for two J =1 states in 44Ca were deduced simultaneously. Conclusions: The experimental findings together with the theoretical calculations support the two-phonon character of the 11- excitation in the light-to-medium-mass nucleus 40Ca as well as in the stable even-even N =82 nuclei.
Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions
Chubb, Scott
2008-03-01
Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.
ENERGY GAIN BY MEANS OF RESONANCE IN THE TESLA COIL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. Batygin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available An analytical review of publications on the problem, first formulated by Nikola Tesla, generating «free» energy from the air in the surrounding space has been presented. The hypothesis of the resonance phenomenon as a «key» to the air energy has been advanced. The main unsolved problem is the extrac-tion of «free» energy (proposed to call it «resonance» and its supply to the electrical load have been noted. It is expected that the quality factor of the secondary circuit must be large enough.
Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.
Evans, D V; Porter, R
2012-01-28
In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.
Measurement of changes in nuclear charge radii of 2r by laser-induced resonance fluorescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gangrskij, Yu.P.; Zemlyanoj, S.G.; Marinova, K.P.; Markov, B.N.; Khoang Tkhi Kim Khueh; Chan Kong Tam; Kul'dzhanov, B.K.
1987-01-01
The optical isotopic shifts of Zr stable isotopes have been measured in three atomic transitions of type 4d 2 5s 2 → 4d 2 5s5p using the technique of laser-induced resonance fluorescence. The changes of nuclear mean-square charge radius Δ 2 > have been determined. The extracted values of Δ 2 > are compared to predictions of the droplet model. It is shown that the droplet model calculations can be made to agree with the experimental results, if changes of nuclear dynamical octupole deformation and of surface diffuseness parameter are taken into account
Ambipolar electric fields and turbulence studies in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armentrout, C.J.
1977-01-01
Detailed studies of hot ion plasmas (T/sub i/ > T/sub e/) in the poloidal field octupole show that the ambipolar electric field which is perpendicular to the flux surfaces is well explained by the observed properties of the microturbulence structures in the plasma. The turbulence structure has been measured by correlation techniques which are carefully described. In these experiments, signals were studied which are aperiodic in time and space, short lived compared to the decay times of the bulk plasma parameters, short ranged compared to the machine size, and are therefore classified as microturbulence structures. The resulting spatial and temporal correlation functions (CFs) are well fitted to a Gaussian function and the associated correlation lengths or times are the half width at half maximum of the CFs. The correlation length is measured to be the ion gyro radius for the hot hydrogen plasma and somewhat less for the helium plasma
Wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peng, Liang; Breinbjerg, Olav; Mortensen, Asger
2010-01-01
could be properly designed to minimize undesired energy dissipation in the source coil when the power receiver is out of the range. Our basic observation paves the way for more flexible design and fabrication of non-resonant mid-range wireless energy transfer systems, thus potentially impacting......We demonstrate by theoretical analysis and experimental verification that mid-range wireless energy transfer systems may take advantage of de-tuned coupling devices, without jeopardizing the energy transfer efficiency. Allowing for a modest de-tuning of the source coil, energy transfer systems...... practical implementations of wireless energy transfer....
Study of octupole deformation in n-rich Ba isotopes populated via $\\beta$-decay
We propose to exploit the unique capability of the ISOLDE facility to produce $^{150, 151, 152}$Cs beams to investigate their radioactive $\\beta$-decay to $^{150, 151, 152}$Ba. The interest to study this mass region is twofold: these nuclei are expected to show octupole deformations already in their low-lying state, secondly information on the $\\beta$-decay is needed for the nuclear astrophysical model. The experiment will be performed with the ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS) setup using the fast tape station of K.U.-Leuven, equipped with four Clover Germanium detectors, four LaBr$_{3}$(Ce) detectors and one LEP HPGe detector. Information on the $\\beta$-decay, such as lifetimes and delayed neutron-emission probabilities, will be extracted, together with the detailed spectroscopy of the daughter nuclei, via $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$-coincidences and lifetime measurement of specific states.
Energy harvesting by dynamic unstability and internal resonance for piezoelectric beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lan, Chunbo; Qin, Weiyang, E-mail: 353481781@qq.com; Deng, Wangzheng [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2015-08-31
We investigated the energy harvesting of a vertical beam with tip mass under vertical excitations. We applied dynamic unstability and internal resonance to improve the efficiency of harvesting. The experiments of harmonic excitation were carried out. Results show that for the beam there exist internal resonances in the dynamically unstable and the buckling bistable cases. The dynamic unstability is a determinant for strong internal resonance or mode coupling, which can be used to create a large output from piezoelectric patches. Then, the experiments of stochastic excitation were carried out. Results prove that the internal resonance or mode coupling can transfer the excitation energy to the low order modes, mainly the first and the second one. This can bring about a large output voltage. For a stochastic excitation, it is proved that there is an optimal weight of tip mass for realizing internal resonance and producing large outputs.
High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...
Tracing back resonances to families of Regge trajectories. New finite energy sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelbrojt, Jacques.
1975-04-01
An amplitude is supposed to be expressed for large enough energies as a sum of contributions of Regge poles. Calling family of trajectories the set of trajectories which differ by integers from one of them, a correspondance, such that the energy and width of a given resonance depend on only family of trajectories, is established between resonances of the amplitude and families of trajectories. The contribution to the amplitude of each family of trajectories is shown to satisfy the same finite energy sum rules as does the amplitude itself. In these sum rules the resonance approximation can be made where the only resonances that will appear are those which are in correspondence with the family [fr
SSC High Energy Booster resonance corrector and dynamic tune scanning simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, P.; Machida, S.
1993-05-01
A resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSCL) was investigated by means of dynamic multiparticle tracking. In the simulation the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that the bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the half integer and third integer resonance correction system is demonstrated.
Measurements of multipolarities in 227Ra as tests of evidence for stable octupole deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borge, M.J.G.; Burke, D.G.; Gietz, H.; Hill, P.; Kaffrell, N.
1987-01-01
Multipolarities of ∝30 transitions in 227 Ra have been established by measuring conversion electrons following the β - decay of 227 Fr. For this purpose a 'mini-orange'-type electron spectrometer has been constructed. The 227 Fr isotopes were produced by the ISOLDE on-line separator at the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. Internal conversion coefficients were obtained from singles spectra and also from simultaneous γe - and γγ coincidence measurements. The new results support the placement of levels and transitions in the earlier level scheme but require changes in the previously assigned parities for four of the levels. Also, one E0 transition was identified. The results are consistent with previous interpretations for most of the levels that have been used to argue in favour of a small permanent octupole deformation for 227 Ra. (orig.)
Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, J.; Tang, J., E-mail: jtang@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)
2015-11-23
This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined.
Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, J.; Tang, J.
2015-01-01
This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined
Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R., E-mail: him-lax3@yahoo.com [Laser Spectroscopy Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580003 (India)
2015-06-24
In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.
Graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for homogeneous immunoassay.
Lee, Joon Seok; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Min-Gon; Park, Chan Beum
2012-04-24
We report on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) between graphene nanosheets and chemiluminescent donors. In contrast to fluorescence resonance energy transfer, CRET occurs via nonradiative dipole-dipole transfer of energy from a chemiluminescent donor to a suitable acceptor molecule without an external excitation source. We designed a graphene-based CRET platform for homogeneous immunoassay of C-reactive protein (CRP), a key marker for human inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, using a luminol/hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. According to our results, anti-CRP antibody conjugated to graphene nanosheets enabled the capture of CRP at the concentration above 1.6 ng mL(-1). In the CRET platform, graphene played a key role as an energy acceptor, which was more efficient than graphene oxide, while luminol served as a donor to graphene, triggering the CRET phenomenon between luminol and graphene. The graphene-based CRET platform was successfully applied to the detection of CRP in human serum samples in the range observed during acute inflammatory stress.
Observation of Resonant Behavior in the Energy Velocity of Diffused Light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapienza, R.; Garcia, P. D.; Blanco, A.; Lopez, C.; Bertolotti, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Martin, M. D.; Vina, L.
2007-01-01
In this Letter we demonstrate Mie resonances mediated transport of light in randomly arranged, monodisperse dielectric spheres packed at high filling fractions. By means of both static and dynamic optical experiments we show resonant behavior in the key transport parameters and, in particular, we find that the energy transport velocity, which is lower than the group velocity, also displays a resonant behavior
On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Dongxu, E-mail: sudx@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 1538505 (Japan); Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 1538505 (Japan); Cartmell, Matthew P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2014-11-15
Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation.
On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Dongxu; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P
2014-01-01
Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation
Method for analysis of averages over transmission energy of resonance neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komarov, A.V.; Luk'yanov, A.A.
1981-01-01
Experimental data on transmissions on iron specimens in different energy groups have been analyzed on the basis of an earlier developed theoretical model for the description of resonance neutron averages in transmission energy, as the functions of specimen thickness and mean resonance parameters. The parameter values obtained agree with the corresponding data evaluated in the theory of mean neutron cross sections. The method suggested for the transmission description permits to reproduce experimental results for any thicknesses of specimens [ru
A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Jing, E-mail: jingqiu@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2015-05-07
Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{142}$Ba and $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the HIE-ISOLDE facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^-$ state in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^-$ state using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The results will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei.
Energy measurement using a resonator-based time-of-flight system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pardo, R.C.; Lewis, R.N.; Johnson, K.W.; Clifft, B.
1983-01-01
The resonant time-of-flight system which has been developed has several advantages over other potential approaches. The system is non-interceptive and nondestructive. The beam phase space is preserved. It is non-dispersive. Path length variations are not introduced into the beam transport which would reduce the timing resolution. It has a large signal-to-noise ratio when compared to non-resonant beam pick-up techniques. It provides the means to precisely set the linac energy and, potentially, to control the energy in a feedback loop is desired. It is less expensive than an equivalent magnetic system
Lovesey, S W; Detlefs, C; Laan, G V D; Sivia, D S; Staub, U
2003-01-01
The phase transition in NpO sub 2 at T sub o approx 25.5K is accompanied by the onset of superlattice reflections in the x-ray Bragg diffraction pattern, with intensity enhanced by an electric-dipole (E1) event. Additional experiments using other techniques indicate no ordering at T sub o of Np magnetic moments. Absence of long-range magnetic order below T sub o fits with the outcome of a polarization analysis of superlattice intensities at 12K; signals are observed in both the unrotated (sigma'sigma) and rotated (pi'sigma) channels of scattering while magnetic (dipole) moments would contribute only in the rotated channel. We demonstrate that these empirical findings, together with a narrow energy profile of the Bragg intensity at the Np M sub 4 edge, are consistent with magnetic and charge contributions to the El Bragg amplitude described by Np 5f multipoles of ranks 3 (octupole) and 4 (hexadecapole). Key to our understanding of the x-ray diffraction data gathered in the vicinity of the Np M sub 4 edge is re...
Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanshan Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ state in this nucleus. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decay connecting the 3$^{-}$ and 2$^{+}$ states using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The result will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in this nucleus. We require 27 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.
Spectroscopic evidence of resonance energy transfer mechanism from PbS QDs to bulk silicon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernechea M.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study the efficiency of the resonance energy transfer from PbS quantum dots to bulk silicon. We present spectroscopic evidence that resonance energy transfer from PbS quantum dots to bulk silicon can be an efficient process for separation distances below 12 nm. Temperature measurements are also presented for PbS quantum dots deposited on glass and silicon with 5 nm and 20nm spacer thicknesses substrates. Our findings show that the resonance energy transfer efficiency remains constant over the 50K to 300K temperature range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Nambu, Mitsuhiro
1995-01-01
From investigations of resonant interactions of particles and waves in turbulent plasmas it is well known that not only resonant particles contribute to expressions for the wave energy and momentum providing conservation of these quantities for closed systems. In particular, it was demonstrated that contribution of the nonresonant particles is very important for the energy conservation in the quasilinear theory: although the nonresonant terms do not appear in the diffusion equation, they contribute to the wave energy (and, in general, wave momentum) ensuring the conservation of total energy (and momentum) in the system. We note that the real part of the dielectric permittivity ε ωk as well as the wave frequency ω k of the resonant waves do not depend on time in the quasilinear approximation since only nonresonant particles (which distribution is constant) contribute to them. The resonant wave amplitude, however, is the function on time, and changing of the wave energy is completely balanced by the corresponding change of the resonant particle energy. If in the system there are only nonresonant waves, and it is closed (i.e., there is no energy exchange with some external sources or sinks), the system is stationary and the nonresonant wave as well as particle energy are not changing
Excitation and photon decay of giant resonances excited by intermediate energy heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.
1987-01-01
Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the giant resonances. In particular, recent measurements have been made of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented. 22 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, R.
1980-01-01
The experimental results are presented indicating the existence of the energy gap in the single particle level sequence at proton number Z=64. Studied experimentally yrast states of the 64 146 Gd 82 closed core nucleus and of the neighbouring nuclei are interpreted within the framework of the spherical shell model. The consideration of the simple shell model multiparticle configurations is suggested to explain the observed frequent appearance of the high-spin isomers in nuclei of the A approximately 150 region. Emphasized is the role of the octupole excitations in the level structures of considered nuclei and some aspects of the coupling of octupole vibrations with valence nucleons are discussed. (author)
Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler,; Greenwood, J. R.
1974-01-01
The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10 13 cm -3 in the toroidal quadrupole and 10 12 cm -3 in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10 9 cm -3 plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field
Quadrupole-octupole coupled states in 112Cd populated in the 111Cd(d ⃗,p ) reaction
Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Bildstein, V.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Ball, G. C.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.
2014-11-01
States in 112Cd have been studied with the 111Cd(d ⃗,p ) 12Cd reaction using 22 MeV polarized deuterons. The protons from the reaction were momentum analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, and spectra have been recorded with a position-sensitive detector located on the focal plane. Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers have been constructed for the low-lying negative-parity states observed, including the 3-,4-, and 5- members of the previously assigned quadrupole-octupole quintuplet. The 5- member at 2373-keV possess the second largest spectroscopic strength observed, and is reassigned as having the s1/2⊗h11/2 two-quasineutron configuration as the dominate component of its wave function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; France, G. de; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.R.
1991-01-01
Two discrete superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd and the twin-band mechanism studied by comparison with SD results for 146,148 Gd. Theoretical interprettion in terms of nucleonic orbitals with the Woods-Saxon potential is consistent with the pseudo-spin symmetry picture and the octupole susceptibility mechanism predicted by theory. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanida, Hiroshi; Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Satoh, Isamu; Komatsubara, Takemi
2006-01-01
Microscopic properties have been investigated on a cubic nonmagnetic non-Kramers Γ 3 doublet ground-state (GS) system PrAg 2 In by complementarily utilizing 115 In (I=9/2) and 109 Ag (I=1/2) NMR with particular emphasis on the low-frequency (low-ω) dipole and multipole (octupole and/or quadrupole) fluctuations of f-electrons as probed by the nuclear spin relaxation rates 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 . We show that 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 are anomalously enhanced respectively below≅50 K and ≅100K over those expected for the low-ω dipole fluctuations of the excited magnetic Γ 4 and Γ 5 states in a simple crystalline-electric-field model for a Γ 3 GS system. By comparing 1/( 115 T 1 T) and 1/( 109 T 1 T) and also by considering an invariant form of the hyperfine and/or quadrupole couplings of Γ 3 octupole and/or quadrupole moments with Ag/In nuclear dipole and/or quadrupole moments, we show that Γ 3 octupole fluctuations dominate 1/ 109 T 1 and quadrupole ones can possibly contribute to 1/ 115 T 1 at low T. (author)
Hoke, Eric T.; Hardin, Brian E.; McGehee, Michael D.
2010-01-01
Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation
Non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for car-key applications
Li, X.; Hehn, T.; Thewes, M.; Kuehne, I.; Frey, A.; Scholl, G.; Manoli, Y.
2013-12-01
This paper presents a novel non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for application in a remote car-key, to extend the lifetime of the battery or even to realize a fully energy autonomous, maintenance-free car-key product. Characteristic for a car-key are low frequency and large amplitude motions during normal daily operation. The basic idea of this non-resonant generator is to use a round flat permanent magnet moving freely in a round flat cavity, which is packaged on both sides by printed circuit boards embedded with multi-layer copper coils. The primary goal of this structure is to easily integrate the energy harvester with the existing electrical circuit module into available commercial car-key designs. The whole size of the energy harvester is comparable to a CR2032 coin battery. To find out the best power-efficient and optimal design, several magnets with different dimensions and magnetizations, and various layouts of copper coils were analysed and built up for prototype testing. Experimental results show that with an axially magnetized NdFeB magnet and copper coils of design variant B a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.1V can be observed.
Research of isolated resonances using the average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritzay, O.O.; Grymalo, A.K.; Kolotyi, V.V.; Mityushkin, O.O.; Venediktov, V.M.
2010-01-01
This work is devoted to detailed description of one of the research directions in the Neutron Physics Department (NPD), namely, to research of resonance parameters of isolated nuclear level at the filtered neutron beam on the horizontal experimental channel HEC-8 of the WWR-M reactor. Research of resonance parameters is an actual problem nowadays. This is because there are the essential differences between the resonance parameter values in the different evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) for many nuclei. Research of resonance parameter is possible due to the set of the neutron cross sections received at the same filter, but with the slightly shifted filter average energy. The shift of the filter average energy is possible by several processes. In this work this shift is realized by neutron energy dependence on scattering angle. This method is provided by equipment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung Ho Sun
2014-10-01
Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics
2015-10-16
This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunshun Zhang
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The collection of clean power from ambient vibrations is considered a promising method for energy harvesting. For the case of wheel rotation, the present study investigates the effectiveness of a piezoelectric energy harvester, with the application of stochastic resonance to optimize the efficiency of energy harvesting. It is hypothesized that when the wheel rotates at variable speeds, the energy harvester is subjected to on-road noise as ambient excitations and a tangentially acting gravity force as a periodic modulation force, which can stimulate stochastic resonance. The energy harvester was miniaturized with a bistable cantilever structure, and the on-road noise was measured for the implementation of a vibrator in an experimental setting. A validation experiment revealed that the harvesting system was optimized to capture power that was approximately 12 times that captured under only on-road noise excitation and 50 times that captured under only the periodic gravity force. Moreover, the investigation of up-sweep excitations with increasing rotational frequency confirmed that stochastic resonance is effective in optimizing the performance of the energy harvester, with a certain bandwidth of vehicle speeds. An actual-vehicle experiment validates that the prototype harvester using stochastic resonance is capable of improving power generation performance for practical tire application.
Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.
1995-10-01
It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation
EXAMINING A SERIES RESONANT INVERTER CIRCUIT TO USE IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Engin ÇETİN
2004-03-01
Full Text Available As we know, solar energy is the energy source which is environment friendly, renewable, and can be found easily. Particularly, in the recent years, interest on producing electrical energy by alternative energy sources increased because of the fact that underground sources are not enough to produce energy in the future and also these sources cause enviromental pollution. The solar energy is one of the most popular one among the alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic systems produce the electrical energy from the sunlight. In this study, a series resonant inverter circuit which is used in the photovoltaic energy conversion systems has been examined.Effects of the series resonant inverter circuit on the photovoltaic energy conversion system have been investigated and examined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwood, W.G.; Tang, K.T.
1987-01-01
The R -6 , R -8 , and R -10 terms in the long-range expansion for the hyperfine frequency shift are calculated for hydrogen in the presence of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The R -6 terms are based on the dipole oscillator strength sums. For helium, the R -8 and R -10 terms are based on quadrupole and octupole oscillator strength sums. For the heavier inert gases, the results for the R -8 and R -10 terms are obtained from the sum rules and the static polarizabilities. Upper bounds are also determined for the R -8 and R -10 terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downar, T.
2009-01-01
The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multidimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. Specifically, the methods here utilize the existing continuous energy SCALE5 module, CENTRM, and the multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solver, NEWT to develop a new code, CENTRM( ) NEWT. The work here addresses specific theoretical limitations in existing CENTRM resonance treatment, as well as investigates advanced numerical and parallel computing algorithms for CENTRM and NEWT in order to reduce the computational burden. The result of the work here will be a new computer code capable of performing problem dependent self-shielding analysis for both existing and proposed GENIV fuel designs. The objective of the work was to have an immediate impact on the safety analysis of existing reactors through improvements in the calculation of fuel temperature effects, as well as on the analysis of more sophisticated GENIV/NGNP systems through improvements in the depletion/transmutation of actinides for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives.
Resonance interaction energy between two entangled atoms in a photonic bandgap environment.
Notararigo, Valentina; Passante, Roberto; Rizzuto, Lucia
2018-03-26
We consider the resonance interaction energy between two identical entangled atoms, where one is in the excited state and the other in the ground state. They interact with the quantum electromagnetic field in the vacuum state and are placed in a photonic-bandgap environment with a dispersion relation quadratic near the gap edge and linear for low frequencies, while the atomic transition frequency is assumed to be inside the photonic gap and near its lower edge. This problem is strictly related to the coherent resonant energy transfer between atoms in external environments. The analysis involves both an isotropic three-dimensional model and the one-dimensional case. The resonance interaction asymptotically decays faster with distance compared to the free-space case, specifically as 1/r 2 compared to the 1/r free-space dependence in the three-dimensional case, and as 1/r compared to the oscillatory dependence in free space for the one-dimensional case. Nonetheless, the interaction energy remains significant and much stronger than dispersion interactions between atoms. On the other hand, spontaneous emission is strongly suppressed by the environment and the correlated state is thus preserved by the spontaneous-decay decoherence effects. We conclude that our configuration is suitable for observing the elusive quantum resonance interaction between entangled atoms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; France, G. de; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.R. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)
1991-01-24
Two discrete superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd and the twin-band mechanism studied by comparison with SD results for {sup 146,148}Gd. Theoretical interprettion in terms of nucleonic orbitals with the Woods-Saxon potential is consistent with the pseudo-spin symmetry picture and the octupole susceptibility mechanism predicted by theory. (orig.).
Energy-loss of He ions in carbon allotropes studied by elastic resonance in backscattering spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tosaki, Mitsuo, E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Rauhala, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)
2015-10-01
Backscattering spectra for {sup 4}He ions incident on carbon allotropes have been measured in the energy range from 4.30 to 4.95 MeV in steps of 50–100 keV at scattering angles of 106° and 170°. We used three carbon allotropes: graphite, diamond and amorphous carbon. For all these allotropes, we can observe the sharp ({sup 4}He, {sup 12}C) elastic nuclear resonance at the He ion energy of 4.265 MeV in the backscattering spectra. By varying the incident He energy, we have systematically analyzed the profiles of the resonance peaks to study the energy-loss processes: stopping cross-sections and energy-loss straggling around the interesting region of the stopping maximum at about 500 keV. We focus on the resonance profiles and investigate an allotropic effect concerning the energy-loss. Furthermore, an energy bunching effect on the straggling is presented and the mechanism is discussed.
Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2014-06-28
Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Förster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.
Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy
Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Ukita, G. M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Bondi, M.; De Napoli, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Linares, R.; Lombardo, I.
2014-12-01
The 9Be(6Li,d)13C and 12,13C(6Li,d)16,17O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13C and 15-30 keV for 16O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θd = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility.
Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, M R D; Borello-Lewin, T; Miyake, H; Duarte, J L M; Rodrigues, C L; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L B; Ukita, G M; Cappuzzello, F; Foti, A; Cavallaro, M; Agodi, C; Cunsolo, A; Carbone, D; Bondi, M; Napoli, M De; Roeder, B T; Linares, R; Lombardo, I
2014-01-01
The 9 Be( 6 Li,d) 13 C and 12,13 C( 6 Li,d) 16,17 O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13 C and 15-30 keV for 16 O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θ d = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility
Shape resonances in low-energy-electron collisions with halopyrimidines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F., E-mail: bettega@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil)
2013-12-07
We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy electrons with halopyrimidines, namely, 2-chloro, 2-bromo, and 5-bromopyrimidine. We employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials to compute the cross sections in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization levels of approximation for energies up to 10 eV. We found four shape resonances for each molecule: three of π* nature localized on the ring and one of σ* nature localized along the carbon–halogen bond. We compared the calculated positions of the resonances with the electron transmission spectroscopy data measured by Modelli et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 10775 (2011)]. In general the agreement between theory and experiment is good. In particular, our results show the existence of a π* temporary anion state of A{sub 2} symmetry for all three halopyrimidines, in agreement with the dissociative electron attachment spectra also reported by Modelli et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 10775 (2011)].
Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin
2016-01-01
Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts. (paper)
Assessment of Coulomb shifts in nucleon scattering resonances on light nuclei at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takibaev, N.Zh.; Uzakova, Zh.; Abdanova, L.
2003-01-01
The assessments of the Coulomb forces contribution to position and width of the resonances at nucleons scattering on light nuclei within low energy field are given. In particular the shifts of resonances in amplitudes arising in the processes protons scattering on light nuclei relatively neutrons scattering resonance characteristics on these nuclei are considered
Nano Sensing and Energy Conversion Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iltai (Isaac Kim
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Nanophotonic technique has been attracting much attention in applications of nano-bio-chemical sensing and energy conversion of solar energy harvesting and enhanced energy transfer. One approach for nano-bio-chemical sensing is surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging, which can detect the material properties, such as density, ion concentration, temperature, and effective refractive index in high sensitivity, label-free, and real-time under ambient conditions. Recent study shows that SPR can successfully detect the concentration variation of nanofluids during evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Spoof surface plasmon resonance based on multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate SPR dispersion control, which can be combined with SPR imaging, to characterize high refractive index materials because of its exotic optical properties. Furthermore, nano-biophotonics could enable innovative energy conversion such as the increase of absorption and emission efficiency and the perfect absorption. Localized SPR using metal nanoparticles show highly enhanced absorption in solar energy harvesting. Three-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial cavity nanostructure shows enhanced spontaneous emission. Recently ultrathin film perfect absorber is demonstrated with the film thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating wavelength using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ phenomena at the wavelength close to SPR. It is expected to provide a breakthrough in sensing and energy conversion applications using the exotic optical properties based on the nanophotonic technique.
Sakkaravarthi, K; Kanna, T; Vijayajayanthi, M; Lakshmanan, M
2014-11-01
We consider a general multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system with arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction of multiple short waves with a long wave in two spatial dimensions. The general multicomponent LSRI system is shown to be integrable by performing the Painlevé analysis. Then we construct the exact bright multisoliton solutions by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method and study the propagation and collision dynamics of bright solitons in detail. Particularly, we investigate the head-on and overtaking collisions of bright solitons and explore two types of energy-sharing collisions as well as standard elastic collision. We have also corroborated the obtained analytical one-soliton solution by direct numerical simulation. Also, we discuss the formation and dynamics of resonant solitons. Interestingly, we demonstrate the formation of resonant solitons admitting breather-like (localized periodic pulse train) structure and also large amplitude localized structures akin to rogue waves coexisting with solitons. For completeness, we have also obtained dark one- and two-soliton solutions and studied their dynamics briefly.
A Wireless Magnetic Resonance Energy Transfer System for Micro Implantable Medical Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianyang Yang
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Based on the magnetic resonance coupling principle, in this paper a wireless energy transfer system is designed and implemented for the power supply of micro-implantable medical sensors. The entire system is composed of the in vitro part, including the energy transmitting circuit and resonant transmitter coils, and in vivo part, including the micro resonant receiver coils and signal shaping chip which includes the rectifier module and LDO voltage regulator module. Transmitter and receiver coils are wound by Litz wire, and the diameter of the receiver coils is just 1.9 cm. The energy transfer efficiency of the four-coil system is greatly improved compared to the conventional two-coil system. When the distance between the transmitter coils and the receiver coils is 1.5 cm, the transfer efficiency is 85% at the frequency of 742 kHz. The power transfer efficiency can be optimized by adding magnetic enhanced resonators. The receiving voltage signal is converted to a stable output voltage of 3.3 V and a current of 10 mA at the distance of 2 cm. In addition, the output current varies with changes in the distance. The whole implanted part is packaged with PDMS of excellent biocompatibility and the volume of it is about 1 cm^{3}.
Hoke, Eric T.
2010-02-11
Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others
1997-04-01
Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state.
Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M.
1997-01-01
Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state
Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.
Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E
2014-10-01
An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.
Nammari, Abdullah; Caskey, Logan; Negrete, Johnny; Bardaweel, Hamzeh
2018-03-01
This article presents a non-resonant magneto-mechanical vibration energy harvester. When externally excited, the energy harvester converts vibrations into electric charge using a guided levitated magnet oscillating inside a multi-turn coil that is fixed around the exterior of the energy harvester. The levitated magnet is guided using four oblique mechanical springs. A prototype of the energy harvester is fabricated using additive manufacturing. Both experiment and model are used to characterize the static and dynamic behavior of the energy harvester. Measured restoring forces show that the fabricated energy harvester retains a mono-stable potential energy well with desired stiffness nonlinearities. Results show that magnetic spring results in hardening effect which increases the resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Additionally, oblique mechanical springs introduce geometric, negative, nonlinear stiffness which improves the harvester's response towards lower frequency spectrum. The unique design can produce a tunable energy harvester with multi-well potential energy characteristics. A finite element model is developed to estimate the average radial flux density experienced by the multi-turn coil. Also, a lumped parameter model of the energy harvester is developed and validated against measured data. Both upward and downward frequency sweeps are performed to determine the frequency response of the harvester. Results show that at higher excitation levels hardening effects become more apparent, and the system dynamic response turns into non-resonant. Frequency response curves exhibit frequency jump phenomena as a result of coexistence of multiple energy states at the frequency branch. The fabricated energy harvester is hand-held and measures approximately 100.5 [cm3] total volume. For a base excitation of 1.0 g [m/s2], the prototype generates a peak voltage and normalized power density of approximately 3.5 [V] and 0.133 [mW/cm3 g2], respectively, at 15.5 [Hz].
The potential energy of an infinite system of nucleons and delta resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodwin, N.H.
1980-01-01
The nature and properties of the delta resonance, Δ (1236), in infinite nuclear and neutron matter are investigated. Calculations of the potential energy of a system of separate Fermi seas of nucleons and delta resonances have been performed using Jastrow lowest-order constrained variational techniques. Using the Reid soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction and a model, consistent, energy-dependent, static one-pion- and one-rho-meson-exchange nucleon-delta potential, a significant reduction in the potential energy of the system is found at densities above nuclear matter density (0.17 fm -3 ) when deltas are present. The density at which the formation of a separate Fermi sea of deltas is favourable is estimated and the consequences for the possible formation of a pion condensate and the properties of neutron star matter are discussed. (author)
Tiwari, Vivek; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.
2017-10-01
Non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance in the excited electronic states of natural photosynthetic antennas drastically alters the adiabatic framework, in which electronic energy transfer has been conventionally studied, and suggests the possibility of exploiting non-adiabatic dynamics for directed energy transfer. Here, a generalized dimer model incorporates asymmetries between pigments, coupling to the environment, and the doubly excited state relevant for nonlinear spectroscopy. For this generalized dimer model, the vibrational tuning vector that drives energy transfer is derived and connected to decoherence between singly excited states. A correlation vector is connected to decoherence between the ground state and the doubly excited state. Optical decoherence between the ground and singly excited states involves linear combinations of the correlation and tuning vectors. Excitonic coupling modifies the tuning vector. The correlation and tuning vectors are not always orthogonal, and both can be asymmetric under pigment exchange, which affects energy transfer. For equal pigment vibrational frequencies, the nonadiabatic tuning vector becomes an anti-correlated delocalized linear combination of intramolecular vibrations of the two pigments, and the nonadiabatic energy transfer dynamics become separable. With exchange symmetry, the correlation and tuning vectors become delocalized intramolecular vibrations that are symmetric and antisymmetric under pigment exchange. Diabatic criteria for vibrational-excitonic resonance demonstrate that anti-correlated vibrations increase the range and speed of vibronically resonant energy transfer (the Golden Rule rate is a factor of 2 faster). A partial trace analysis shows that vibronic decoherence for a vibrational-excitonic resonance between two excitons is slower than their purely excitonic decoherence.
Acoustic energy harvesting using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.
Liu, Fei; Phipps, Alex; Horowitz, Stephen; Ngo, Khai; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark
2008-04-01
This paper presents the development of an acoustic energy harvester using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The EMHR consists of an orifice, cavity, and a piezoelectric diaphragm. Acoustic energy is converted to mechanical energy when sound incident on the orifice generates an oscillatory pressure in the cavity, which in turns causes the vibration of the diaphragm. The conversion of acoustic energy to electrical energy is achieved via piezoelectric transduction in the diaphragm of the EMHR. Moreover, the diaphragm is coupled with energy reclamation circuitry to increase the efficiency of the energy conversion. Lumped element modeling of the EMHR is used to provide physical insight into the coupled energy domain dynamics governing the energy reclamation process. The feasibility of acoustic energy reclamation using an EMHR is demonstrated in a plane wave tube for two power converter topologies. The first is comprised of only a rectifier, and the second uses a rectifier connected to a flyback converter to improve load matching. Experimental results indicate that approximately 30 mW of output power is harvested for an incident sound pressure level of 160 dB with a flyback converter. Such power level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices.
Photopion production from nuclei in the energy region of the Δ resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamas, G.
1979-01-01
The γD→p+p+π - and the γ 4 He→p+π+3 nucleons reactions in the energy region of the Δ resonance are studied. As a temporary conclusion, it is possible to explain the largest part of the photon-nucleus interaction for D and 4 He in the Δ resonance region by the quasi-free production and the pion and proton rescattering
56Fe resonance parameters for neutron energies up to 850 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, C.M.; Perey, F.G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Larson, N.M.
1990-12-01
High-resolution neutron measurements for 56 Fe-enriched iron targets were made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in transmission below 20 MeV and in differential elastic scattering below 5 MeV. Transmission measurements were also performed with a natural iron target below 160 keV. The transmission data were analyzed from 5 to 850 keV with the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY which uses Bayes' theorem for the fitting process. This code provides energies and neutron widths of the resonances inside the 5- to 850-keV energy region, as well as possible parameterization for resonances external to the analyzed region to describe the smooth cross section from a few eV to 850 keV. The resulting set of resonance parameters yields the accepted values for the thermal total and capture cross sections. The differential elastic-scattering data at several scattering angles were compared to theoretical calculations from 40 to 850 keV using the R-matrix code RFUNC based on the Blatt-Biedenharn formalism. Various combinations of spin and parity were tried to predict cross sections for the well defined ell > 0 resonances; comparison of these predictions with the data allowed us to determine the most likely spin and parity assignments for these resonances. The results of a capture data analysis by Corvi et al. (COR84), from 2 to 350 keV, were combined with our results to obtain the radiation widths of the resonances below 350 keV observed in transmission, capture, and differential elastic-scattering experiments
Investigation of the 93Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.; Mezentseva, Zh.V.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.
2002-01-01
The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for 93 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% 93 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of 93 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of 93 Nb. Standard capture cross-sections of 238 U and experimental gamma-ray multiplicity spectra were also used for determination of capture cross section 93 Nb in energy groups. Similar values were calculated using the ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries with the help of the GRUKON computer program. Within the limits of experimental errors there is observed an agreement between the experiment and calculation, but in some groups the experimental values differ from the calculated ones. (author)
New energy replacement method for resonant power supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.
1989-01-01
The Resonant Power Supply is an economically and technically advanced solution for Rapid Cycling Accelerators. Several papers dealt with the design and operation of these power supplies, however, the energy replacement methods were not discussed in the past. This paper analyzes different energy-replacement methods and presents a new method. This method uses a 24-pulse converter to regulate the magnet current during flat-top and injection periods and replaces the energy loss by charging the accelerator capacitor bank during the flat-top, reset and injection periods, charge is injected in the circuit during the acceleration period, when it replaces the energy loss. This paper compares the new method with the existing ones. The analyses proved the feasibility of the proposed method. The operation of the proposed method was verified by a model experiment, which showed that the new circuit can be controlled accurately and operates with smaller disturbances to the power line than the existing systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method for histone methyltransferases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Devkota, Kanchan; Lohse, Brian; Nyby Jakobsen, Camilla
2015-01-01
A simple dye–quencher fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay for methyltransferases was developed and used to determine kinetic parameters and inhibitory activity at EHMT1 and EHMT2. Peptides mimicking the truncated histone H3 tail were functionalized in each end with a dye...
Foerster resonance energy transfer in inhomogeneous non-dispersive nanophotonic environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.
A nondispersive inhomogeneous dielectric environment of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum emitters affects their Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) rate. We find that this rate does not depend on the emission frequency and hence not on the local optical density of states (LDOS) at that freq...
Resonant scattering and charm showers in ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions
Wilczek, F.
1985-01-01
Electron antineutrinos with energy of about 7 x 10 to the 6th GeV have much-enhanced cross sections due to W-boson production off electrons. Possible signals due to cosmic-ray sources are estimated. Higher-energy antineutrinos can efficiently produce a W accompanied by radiation. Another possibility, which could lead to shadowing at modest depths, is resonant production of a charged Higgs particle. The importance of muon production by charm showers in rock is pointed out.
Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.
Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H
2014-04-18
We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14 eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant β>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of λ=20 μm (95% C.L.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumenfeld, Y.
1987-09-01
The results obtained in similar studies at low incident energies are first of all reviewed. The time of flight spectrometer built for the experiments is then described. A study of the properties of the projectile-like fragments shows numerous deviations from the relativistic energy fragmentation model. Evidence for a strong surface transfer reaction component is given and the persistence of mean field effects at intermediate energies is stressed. A calculation of the contribution of the transfer evaporation mechanism to the inelastic spectra shows that this mechanism is responible for the major part of the background measured at high excitation energy and can in some cases induce narrow structures in the spectra. The inelastic spectra shows a strong excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance. In the region between 20 and 80 MeV excitation energy narrow structures are present for all the studied systems. Statistical and Fourier analysises allow to quantify the probabilities of existence, the widths and the excitation energies of these structures. A transfer evaporation hypothesis cannot consistently reproduce all the observed structures. The excitation energies of the structures can be well described by phenomenological laws where the energies are proportional to the -1/3 power of the target mass. Complete calculations of the excitation probabilities of giant resonances and multiphonon states are performed within a model where the nuclear excitation are calculated microscopically in the Random Phase Approximation. It is shown that a possible interpretation of the structures is the excitation of multiphonon states built with 2 + giant resonances [fr
Nanophotonic Control of the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Efficiency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blum, Christian; Zijlstra, Niels; Lagendijk, Ad
2012-01-01
We have studied the influence of the local density of optical states (LDOS) on the rate and efficiency of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a donor to an acceptor. The donors and acceptors are dye molecules that are separated by a short strand of double-stranded DNA. The LDOS...... is controlled by carefully positioning the FRET pairs near a mirror. We find that the energy transfer efficiency changes with LDOS, and that, in agreement with theory, the energy transfer rate is independent of the LDOS, which allows one to quantitatively control FRET systems in a new way. Our results imply...
Observations of resonance-like structures for positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dou, L.
1993-01-01
Absolute values of elastic differential cross sections (DCS's) are measured for position (e + ) scattering by argon (8.7-300 eV) krypton (6.7-400 eV) and also neon (13.6-400 eV) using a crossed-beam experimental setup. When the DCS's are plotted at fixed scattering angles of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees and 120 degrees versus energy it has been found that well-defined resonance-like structures are found at an energy of 55-60 eV for argon and at 25 and 200 eV for krypton, with a broader structure found between 100-200 eV for neon. These observed resonance-like structures are unusual because they occur at energies well above the known inelastic thresholds for these atoms. They may represent examples of open-quotes coupled channel shape resonancesclose quotes, first predicted by Higgins and Burke [1] for e + -H scattering in the vicinity of 36 eV (width ∼ 4 eV), which occurs only when both the elastic and positronium formation scattering channels are considered together. A more recent e + -H calculation by Hewitt et al. [2] supports the Higgins and Burke prediction. These predictions and the present observations suggest the existence of a new type of atomic scattering resonance
Confinement properties of high energy density plasmas in the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Twichell, J.C.
1984-08-01
The confinement of particles and energy is critically dependent on the plasma-wall interaction. Results of a study detailing this interaction are presented. High power ICRF heated and gun afterglow plasmas were studied to detail the mechanisms determining particle and energy confinement. An extensive zero-D simulation code is used to assist in interpreting the experimental data. Physically reasonable models for plasma surface interactions, time dependent coronal treatment of impurities and multiple region treatment of neutrals are used in modeling the plasma. Extensive diagnostic data are used to verify the model. Non-heated plasmas decay from 28 to 3 eV allowing clear identification of wall impact energy thresholds for desorption and particle reflection. The charge state distribution of impurities verifies the reflux to plasma diffusion rate ratio. Close agreement between the simulation and experimental data is found
Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators
Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart
2014-01-01
An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots
Wideband energy harvesting for piezoelectric devices with linear resonant behavior.
Luo, Cheng; Hofmann, Heath F
2011-07-01
In this paper, an active energy harvesting technique for a spring-mass-damper mechanical resonator with piezoelectric electromechanical coupling is investigated. This technique applies a square-wave voltage to the terminals of the device at the same frequency as the mechanical excitation. By controlling the magnitude and phase angle of this voltage, an effective impedance matching can be achieved which maximizes the amount of power extracted from the device. Theoretically, the harvested power can be the maximum possible value, even at off-resonance frequencies. However, in actual implementation, the efficiency of the power electronic circuit limits the amount of power harvested. A power electronic full-bridge converter is built to implement the technique. Experimental results show that the active technique can increase the effective bandwidth by a factor of more than 2, and harvests significantly higher power than rectifier-based circuits at off-resonance frequencies.
Auger vs resonance neutralization in low energy He+ ion scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodruff, D.P.
1983-01-01
He + ions incident on a metal surface can neutralize either by an Auger or resonant charge exchange. While the Auger process has always been thought to be dominant, recent theoretical interest in the simpler one-electron resonance process has led to suggestions that this alone can account for the neutralization seen in low energy He + ion scattering. In this paper this assertion is analysed by looking at the wider information available on charge exchange processes for He + ion scattering through comparison with Li + ion scattering, the importance of multiple scattering in both these scattering experiments and the results of ion neutralization spectroscopy. These lead to the conclusion that while resonance neutralization to produce metastable He* may well occur at a substantial rate in He + ion scattering, the dominant process leading to loss of ions from the final scattered signal is Auger neutralization as originally proposed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Lu; Sui, Ning; Wang, Ying-Hui; Qian, Cheng; Ma, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Han-Zhuang
2015-01-01
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Coumarin 6 (C-6) to Sulforhodamine B (S-B) infiltrated into opal PMMA (poly-methyl-methacrylate) photonic crystals (PCs) has been studied in detail. The intrinsic mesh micro-porous structure of opal PCs could increase the luminescent efficiency through inhibiting the intermolecular interaction. Meanwhile, its structure of periodically varying refractive indices could also modify the FRET through affecting the luminescence characteristics of energy donor or energy acceptor. The results demonstrate that the FRET efficiency between conjugated dyes was easily modified by opal PCs. - Highlights: • We investigate the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between two kinds of dyes. • These two kinds of dyes are infiltrated in PMMA opal photonic crystals. • The structure of opal PCs could improve the luminescent characteristics. • The structure of opal PCs could improve the energy transfer characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwenk, G.A. Jr.
1980-01-01
The calculation of neutron-nuclei reaction rates in the lower resolved resonance region (167 eV - 1.855 eV) is considered in this dissertation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation of these reaction rates for tight lattices where their accuracy is most important. The results of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, VIM, are chosen as reference values for this study. The primary objective of this work is to develop a method for calculating resonance reaction rates which agree well with the reference solution, yet is efficient enough to be used by nuclear reactor fuel cycle designers on a production basis. A very efficient multigroup solution of the two spatial region energy dependent integral transport equation is developed. This solution, denoted the Broad Group Integral Method (BGIM), uses escape probabilities to obtain the spatial coupling between regions and uses an analytical flux shape within a multigroup to obtain weighted cross sections which account for the rapidly varying resonance cross sections. The multigroup lethargy widths chosen for the numerical integration of the two region energy-dependent neutron continuity equations can be chosen much wider (a factor of 30 larger) than in the direct numerical integration methods since the analytical flux shape is used to account for fine structure effects. The BGIM solution is made highly efficient through the use of these broad groups. It is estimated that for a 10 step unit cell fuel cycle depletion calculation, the computer running time for a production code such as EPRI-LEOPARD would be increased by only 6% through the use of the more accurate and intricate BGIM method in the lower resonance energy region
31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Impaired energy metabolism in latent hyperthyroidism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theissen, P.; Kaldewey, S.; Moka, D.; Bunke, J.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.
1993-01-01
31 Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows an in vivo examination of energy metabolism. The present study was designed to evaluate whether in patients with latent hyperthyroidism alterations of muscle energy metabolism could be found similar to those observed in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. In 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism before therapy and 20 with latent hyperthyroidism (also without therapy) and in 24 healthy volunteers magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscle was performed within a 1.5-Tesla magnet. Muscle concentrations of phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and ATP were quantified compared to an external standard solution of K 2 HPO 4 . In the patients with overt hyperthyroidism and with latent hyperthyroidism a significant decrease of phosphocreatine was found. Further, the ATP concentration in patients with latent and manifest hyperthyroidism tended towards lower values. There were no significant differences in the decrease of phosphocreatine and ATP between both patient groups. Therefore, this study for the first time shows that alterations of energy metabolism in latent hyperthyroidism can be measured and that they are similar to those observed in overt hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de
Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.
2018-02-01
Vibrational-electronic resonance in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes invalidates Förster's adiabatic framework for interpreting spectra and energy transfer, thus complicating determination of how the surrounding protein affects pigment properties. This paper considers the combined effects of vibrational-electronic resonance and inhomogeneous variations in the electronic excitation energies of pigments at different sites on absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and hole-burning spectra for a non-degenerate homodimer. The non-degenerate homodimer has identical pigments in different sites that generate differences in electronic energies, with parameters loosely based on bacteriochlorophyll a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein. To explain the intensity borrowing, the excited state vibrational-electronic eigenvectors are discussed in terms of the vibrational basis localized on the individual pigments, as well as the correlated/anti-correlated vibrational basis delocalized over both pigments. Compared to those in the isolated pigment, vibrational satellites for the correlated vibration have the same frequency and precisely a factor of 2 intensity reduction through vibrational delocalization in both absorption and emission. Vibrational satellites for anti-correlated vibrations have their relaxed emission intensity reduced by over a factor 2 through vibrational and excitonic delocalization. In absorption, anti-correlated vibrational satellites borrow excitonic intensity but can be broadened away by the combination of vibronic resonance and site inhomogeneity; in parallel, their vibronically resonant excitonic partners are also broadened away. These considerations are consistent with photosynthetic antenna hole-burning spectra, where sharp vibrational and excitonic satellites are absent. Vibrational-excitonic resonance barely alters the inhomogeneously broadened linear absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra from those for a
Controlling resonance energy transfer in nanostructure emitters by positioning near a mirror
Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Andrews, David L.
2017-08-01
The ability to control light-matter interactions in quantum objects opens up many avenues for new applications. We look at this issue within a fully quantized framework using a fundamental theory to describe mirror-assisted resonance energy transfer (RET) in nanostructures. The process of RET communicates electronic excitation between suitably disposed donor and acceptor particles in close proximity, activated by the initial excitation of the donor. Here, we demonstrate that the energy transfer rate can be significantly controlled by careful positioning of the RET emitters near a mirror. The results deliver equations that elicit new insights into the associated modification of virtual photon behavior, based on the quantum nature of light. In particular, our results indicate that energy transfer efficiency in nanostructures can be explicitly expedited or suppressed by a suitably positioned neighboring mirror, depending on the relative spacing and the dimensionality of the nanostructure. Interestingly, the resonance energy transfer between emitters is observed to "switch off" abruptly under suitable conditions of the RET system. This allows one to quantitatively control RET systems in a new way.
Multi-resonant electromagnetic shunt in base isolation for vibration damping and energy harvesting
Pei, Yalu; Liu, Yilun; Zuo, Lei
2018-06-01
This paper investigates multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts applied to base isolation for dual-function vibration damping and energy harvesting. Two multi-mode shunt circuit configurations, namely parallel and series, are proposed and optimized based on the H2 criteria. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the relative displacement between the base and the primary structure is minimized. Practically, this will improve the safety of base-isolated buildings subjected the broad bandwidth ground acceleration. Case studies of a base-isolated building are conducted in both the frequency and time domains to investigate the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts under recorded earthquake signals. It shows that both multi-mode shunt circuits outperform traditional single mode shunt circuits by suppressing the first and the second vibration modes simultaneously. Moreover, for the same stiffness ratio, the parallel shunt circuit is more effective at harvesting energy and suppressing vibration, and can more robustly handle parameter mistuning than the series shunt circuit. Furthermore, this paper discusses experimental validation of the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts for vibration damping and energy harvesting on a scaled-down base isolation system.
A dual resonance model for high energy electroweak reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picard, Jean-Francois
1995-01-01
The aim of this work is to propose an original model for the weak interaction at high energy (about 1 TeV) that is inspired from resonance dual models established for hadron physics. The first chapter details the basis and assumptions of the standard model. The second chapter deals with various scenarios that go beyond the standard model and that involve a strong interaction and a perturbative approach to assess coupling. The third chapter is dedicated to the main teachings of hadron physics concerning resonances, the model of Regge poles and the concept of duality. We present our new model in the fourth chapter, we build a scenario in which standard fermions and the 3 massive gauge bosons would have a sub-structure alike that of hadrons. In order to give non-null values to the width of resonances we use the K matrix method, we describe this method in the last chapter and we apply it for the computation of the width of the Z 0 boson. Our model predicts a large spectra of states particularly with the 143-up-lets of ff-bar states. The K matrix method has allowed us to compute amplitudes for helicity, then to collapse them in amplitudes invariant with SU(2) and to project these amplitudes in partial waves of helicity. For most resonances partial widths are very low compared to their mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Finkel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.
Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei
2016-12-01
In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s 2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.
Energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in Nd2CuO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.P.; Kao, C.C.; Haemaelaeinen, K.
1998-01-01
The authors report the energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from Nd 2 CuO 4 . An energy loss feature at ∼6 eV is observed in the vicinity of the Cu K-edge. Numerical calculations based on the Anderson impurity model identify this as a charge transfer excitation to the anti-bonding state. The incident polarization is shown to select the intermediate states participating in the resonance process. Resonances are observed at 8,990 eV and 9,000 eV with the incident polarization perpendicular and parallel to the CuO planes, respectively. In contrast to the single-site model calculations, no resonances are observed associated with the 1s3d 10 L intermediate states, suggesting non-local effects play a role
Generation of low-energy muons with laser resonant ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Iwasaki, M.; Matsuzaki, T.; Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Strasser, P.; Shimomura, K.; Makimura, S.; Nagamine, K.
2006-01-01
We have constructed a low-energy muSR spectrometer at RIKEN-RAL muon facility in ISIS, the UK. With low-background of pulsed muon beam, and short pulse width from laser resonant ionization method, it is hoped this instrument will open new possibilities for studies of material sciences with muon beam. It is enphasized that this method is well suited to the facility where intense pulsed proton beam is available
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng
2016-01-01
and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity......This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...
Mueller-Klieser, W; Schaefer, C; Walenta, S; Rofstad, E K; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M
1990-03-15
The energy and oxygenation status of tumors from two murine sarcoma lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) were assessed using three independent techniques. Tumor energy metabolism was investigated in vivo by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, tumors were frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine the tissue ATP concentration by imaging bioluminescence and to register the intracapillary oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation using the cryospectrophotometric method. There was a positive correlation between the nucleoside triphosphate beta/total resonance ratio or a negative correlation between the Pi/total resonance ratio and the model ATP concentration obtained by bioluminescence, respectively. This was true for small tumors with no extended necrosis irrespective of tumor type. Moreover, a positive correlation was obtained between the HbO2 saturations and the ATP concentration measured with bioluminescence. The results demonstrate the potential of combined studies using noninvasive, integrating methods and high-resolution imaging techniques for characterizing the metabolic milieu in tumors.
Plasmonic resonance-enhanced local photothermal energy deposition by aluminum nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chong Xinyuan; Jiang Naibo; Zhang Zhili; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.
2013-01-01
Local energy deposition of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) by localized surface plasmon resonance-enhanced photothermal effects is demonstrated. Low-power light stimuli are efficiently and locally concentrated to trigger the oxidation reactions of Al NPs because of the large ohmic absorption and high reactivity of the Al. Numerical simulations show that both ultraviolet and visible light are more efficient than infrared light for photothermal energy coupling. The natural oxidation layer of alumina is found to have minimum impact on the energy deposition because of its negligible dielectric losses. The near-field distributions of the electric field indicate that slight aggregation induces much higher local enhancement, especially at the interface region of multiple contacting nanoparticles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dou, L.; Kauppila, W.E.; Kwan, C.K.; Stein, T.S.
1993-01-01
We have measured absolute values of elastic differential cross sections (DCS's) for positron (e + ) scattering by argon (8.7-300 eV), krypton (6.7-400 eV), and also neon (13.6-400 eV) using a crossed-beam experimental setup. When the DCS's are plotted at fixed scattering angles of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees versus energy it has been found that well-defined resonance-like structures were found at an energy of 55-60 eV for argon and at 25 and 200 eV for krypton, with a broader structure found between 100-200 eV for neon. These observed resonance-like structures are unusual because they occur at energies well above the known inelastic thresholds for these atoms. They may represent examples of open-quotes coupled channel shape resonancesclose quotes, first predicted by Higgins and Burke for e + -H scattering in the vicinity of 36 eV (width ∼ 4 eV), which occurs only when both the elastic and positronium formation scattering channels are considered together. A more recent e + -H calculation by Hewitt et al. supports the Higgins and Burke prediction. These predictions and the present observations suggest the existence of a new type of atomic scattering resonance
Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shekhtman, V.L.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs
Investigation of the sup 9 sup 3 Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
Grigoriev, Y V; Faikov-Stanchik, H; Ilchev, G; Kim, G N; Kitaev, V Ya; Mezentseva, Z V; Panteleev, T; Sinitsa, V V; Zhuravlev, B V
2001-01-01
The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for sup 9 sup 3 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% sup 9 sup 3 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of sup 9 sup 3 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of sup...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapunidi, S. A.; Paraschuk, D. Yu.
2008-01-01
A model is proposed for photoluminescence quenching due to resonant energy transfer in a blend of a conjugated polymer and a low-molecular energy acceptor. An analytical dependence of the normalized photoluminescence intensity on the acceptor concentration is derived for the case of a homogeneous blend. This dependence can be described by two fitting parameters related to the Foerster radii for energy transfer between conjugated segments of the polymer and between the conjugated polymer segment and the energy acceptor. Asymptotic approximations are obtained for the model dependence that make it possible to estimate the contribution from the spatial migration of excitons to the photoluminescence quenching. The proposed model is used to analyze experimental data on the photoluminescence quenching in a blend of the soluble derivative of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and trinitrofluorenone [13]. The Foerster radius for resonant energy transfer between the characteristic conjugated segment of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and the energy acceptor is determined to be r F = 2.6 ± 0.3 nm
Measurement of the E1/E3 phase in 226Ra
Amzal, N.; Butler, P. A.; Hawcroft, D.; Hammond, N. J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Jones, G. D.; Scholey, C.; Stezowski, O.; Czosnyka, T.; Iwanicki, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Julin, R.; Mach, H.; Cerderka¨Ll, J.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Isolde Collaboration
2004-04-01
We report experimental attempts to determine the sign of the electric dipole moment (relative to the electric octupole moment) in the octupole deformed nucleus 226Ra. Sensitivity to this quantity is observed in the measured yields of γ-ray transitions following very low energy Coulomb excitation.
Yu-Jen, Wang; Tsung-Yi, Chuang; Jui-Hsin, Yu
2017-09-01
Vibration-based energy harvesters have been developed as power sources for wireless sensor networks. Because the vibration frequency of the environment is varied with surrounding conditions, how to design an adaptive energy harvester is a practical topic. This paper proposes a design for a piezoelectric energy harvester possessing the ability to self-adjust its resonant frequency in rotational environments. The effective length of a trapezoidal cantilever is extended by centrifugal force from a rotating wheel to vary its area moment of inertia. The analytical solution for the natural frequency of the piezoelectric energy harvester was derived from the parameter design process, which could specify a structure approaching resonance at any wheel rotating frequency. The kinetic equation and electrical damping induced by power generation were derived from a Lagrange method and a mechanical-electrical coupling model, respectively. An energy harvester with adequate parameters can generate power at a wide range of car speeds. The output power of an experimental prototype composed of piezoelectric thin films and connected to a 3.3 MΩ external resistor was approximately 70-140 μW at wheel speeds ranging from 200 to 700 RPM. These results demonstrate that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester can be applied as a power source for the wireless tire pressure monitoring sensor.
Eckstein, Martin; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Vrakking, Marc J J; Kornilov, Oleg
2016-04-22
Autoionizing Rydberg states of molecular N_{2} are studied using time-, energy-, and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a photon energy of 17.5 eV excites the resonance and a subsequent IR pulse ionizes the molecule before the autoionization takes place. The angular-resolved photoelectron spectra depend on pump-probe time delay and allow for the distinguishing of two electronic states contributing to the resonance. The lifetime of one of the contributions is determined to be 14±1 fs, while the lifetime of the other appears to be significantly shorter than the time resolution of the experiment. These observations suggest that the Rydberg states in this energy region are influenced by the effect of interference stabilization and merge into a complex resonance.
Derivative corrections to the symmetry energy and the isovector dipole-resonance structure in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blocki, J P; Magner, A G; Ring, P
2015-01-01
The effective surface approximation is extended accounting for derivatives of the symmetry energy density per particle. The new expressions for the isovector surface energy constants are used for calculations of improved energies and sum rules of the isovector dipole-resonance strength structure within the Fermi-liquid droplet model. Our results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical approaches. (paper)
James, Andrew M; Laconsay, Croix J; Galbraith, John Morrison
2017-07-13
Bond dissociation energies and resonance energies for H n A-BH m molecules (A, B = H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na) have been determined in order to re-evaluate the concept of electronegativity in the context of modern valence bond theory. Following Pauling's original scheme and using the rigorous definition of the covalent-ionic resonance energy provided by the breathing orbital valence bond method, we have derived a charge-shift corrected electronegativity scale for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na. Atomic charge shift character is defined using a similar approach resulting in values of 0.42, 1.06, 1.43, 1.62, 1.64, 1.44, 0.46, and 0.34 for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na, respectively. The charge-shift corrected electronegativity values presented herein follow the same general trends as Pauling's original values with the exception of Li having a smaller value than Na (1.57 and 1.91 for Li and Na respectively). The resonance energy is then broken down into components derived from the atomic charge shift character and polarization effects. It is then shown that most of the resonance energy in the charge-shift bonds H-F, H 3 C-F, and Li-CH 3 and borderline charge-shift H-OH is associated with polarity rather than the intrinsic atomic charge-shift character of the bonding species. This suggests a rebranding of these bonds as "polar charge-shift" rather than simply "charge-shift". Lastly, using a similar breakdown method, it is shown that the small effect the substituents -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -OH, and -F have on the resonance energy (<10%) is mostly due to changes in the charge-shift character of the bonding atom.
Resonance Energy Transfer in Hybrid Devices in the Presence of a Surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kopylov, Oleksii; Huck, Alexander; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima
2014-01-01
to approximately 10 nm was observed. By comparing the carrier dynamics of the quantum wells and the nanocrystals, we found that nonradiative recombination via surface states, generated during dry etching of the wafer, counteracts the nonradiative energy-transfer process to the nanocrystals and therefore decreases......We have studied room-temperature, nonradiative resonant energy transfer from InGaN/GaN quantum wells to CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals separated by aluminum oxide layers of different thicknesses. Nonradiative energy transfer from the quantum wells to the nanocrystals at separation distances of up...
Pietropaolo, Antonino; Andreani, Carla; Filabozzi, Alessandra; Senesi, Roberto; Gorini, Giuseppe; Perelli-Cippo, Enrico; Tardocchi, Marco; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.
2006-04-01
Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements have been performed on a liquid water sample at two different temperatures and pressures. The experiments were carried out using the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. This experiment represents the first DINS measurement from water using the Resonance Detector configuration, employing yttrium-aluminum-perovskite scintillator and a 238U analyzer foil. The maximum energy of the scattered neutrons was about 70 eV, allowing to access an extended kinematic space with energy and wave vector transfers at the proton recoil peak in the range 1 eV <= hbarω <= 20 eV and 25 Å-1 <= q <= 90 Å-1, respectively. Comparison with DINS measurements on water performed in the standard Resonance Filter configuration indicates the potential advantages offered by the use of Resonance Detector approach for DINS measurements at forward scattering angles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2014-09-15
This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.
Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Smart Sensor Engineering Center, Jiangsu R& D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214315 (China)
2015-07-15
This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes.
Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie; Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen
2015-01-01
This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes
Mechanism of nuclear dissipation in fission and heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.
1986-01-01
Recent advances in the theoretical understanding of nuclear dissipation at intermediate excitation energies are reviewed, with particular emphasis on a new surface-plus-window mechanism that involves interactions of either one or two nucleons with the moving nuclear surface and also, for dumbbell-like shapes encountered in fission and heavy-ion reactions, the transfer of nucleons through the window separating the two portions of the system. This novel dissipation mechanism provides a unified macroscopic description of such diverse phenomena as widths of isoscalar giant quadrupole and giant octupole resonances, mean fission-fragment kinetic energies and excitation energies, dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation, enhancement in neutron emission prior to fission, and widths of mass and charge distributions in deep-inelastic heavy-ion reactions. 41 refs., 8 figs
Power Take-Off with Integrated Resonator for Energy Extraction from Linear Motions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
The invention relates to a magnetic gear for converting linear motion into rotational motion and vice versa. The present invention converts slow linear irregular oscillating motion of wave energy devices into torque on a high speed shaft for powering a generator while making the wave energy device...... of sea or ocean waves into useful energy, such as electricity. The invention relates to the control and operation of a magnetic gear based motor/generator system. The invention provides a high force density electric powered linear actuator....... resonate with the waves. The invention relates to the field of energy-harvesting from energy sources, where the energy-harvesting requires the extraction of energy from slow and often irregular reciprocating motion of bodies. The present invention relates to a wave power apparatus for converting power...
Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.
2018-03-01
Background: Nucleosynthesis of mid-mass elements is thought to occur under hot and explosive astrophysical conditions. Radiative α capture on 34S has been shown to impact nucleosynthesis in several such conditions, including core and shell oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning, and type Ia supernovae. Purpose: Broad uncertainties exist in the literature for the strengths of three resonances within the astrophysically relevant energy range (ECM=1.94 -3.42 MeV at T =2.2 GK ). Further, there are several states in 38Ar within this energy range which have not been previously measured. This work aimed to remeasure the resonance strengths of states for which broad uncertainty existed as well as to measure the resonance strengths and energies of previously unmeasured states. Methods: Resonance strengths and energies of eight narrow resonances (five of which had not been previously studied) were measured in inverse kinematics with the DRAGON facility at TRIUMF by impinging an isotopically pure beam of 34S ions on a windowless 4He gas target. Prompt γ emissions of de-exciting 38Ar recoils were detected in an array of bismuth germanate scintillators in coincidence with recoil nuclei, which were separated from unreacted beam ions by an electromagnetic mass separator and detected by a time-of-flight system and a multianode ionization chamber. Results: The present measurements agree with previous results. Broad uncertainty in the resonance strength of the ECM=2709 keV resonance persists. Resonance strengths and energies were determined for five low-energy resonances which had not been studied previously, and their strengths were determined to be significantly weaker than those of previously measured resonances. Conclusions: The five previously unmeasured resonances were found not to contribute significantly to the total thermonuclear reaction rate. A median total thermonuclear reaction rate calculated using data from the present work along with existing literature values
Sensing DNA Opening in Transcription Using Quenchable Förster Resonance Energy Transfer
Cordes, Thorben; Santoso, Yusdi; Tomescu, Alexandra I.; Gryte, Kristofer; Hwang, Ling Chin; Camará, Beatriz; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.
2010-01-01
Many biological processes, such as gene transcription and replication, involve opening and closing of short regions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Few techniques, however, can study these processes in real time or at the single-molecule level. Here, we present a Förster resonance energy transfer
Some exploitations of the self-consistent QRPA approach with the Gogny force
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peru, S.; Martini, M.; Dupuis, M. [CEA,DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, 1050 Brussels, Belgium and CEA,DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); CEA,DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2012-10-20
Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation calculations have been performed with the D1S Gogny force. Giant resonances in exotic nuclei as well as in deformed Mg and Si isotopes have been studied. Dipole responses have been calculated in Ne isotopes and N=16 isotones to study the existence of soft dipole modes in exotic nuclei. The same formalism has been used to describe multipole responses up to octupole in the deformed and heavy nucleus {sup 238}U. Low energy spectroscopy of nickel isotopes has been studied, revealing 0{sup +} states which display a particular structure.
Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri
2007-09-28
For the first time Feshbach-type resonances important in recombination reactions are characterized using the semiclassical wave packet method. This approximation allows us to determine the energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of the resonances and also to observe a very interesting correlation between them. Most important is that this approach permits description of a quantum delta-zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions and reproduces the anomalous rates of ozone formation.
High accuracy 235U(n,f) data in the resonance energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; David, S.; Ferrant, L.; Tarrio, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Tagliente, G.; Terlizzi, R.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, S.J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Martinez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Lukic, S.; Rudolf, G.; Becvar, F.; Embid-Segura, M.; Krticka, M.; Vincente, M.C.; Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Calviani, M.; Cennini, P.; Chiaveri, E.; Dahlfors, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Rubbia, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, V.; Weiss, C.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J.; Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Tavora, L.; Vaz, P.; Chepel, V.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Lindote, A.; Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Wiesher, M.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Tain, J.L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Lampoudis, C.; Savvidis, I.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Furman, W.; Konovalov, V.; Goverdovski, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P.; Praena, J.; Guerrero, C.; Haight, R.; Koehler, P.; Reifarth, R.; Igashira, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Massimi, C.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Mengoni, A.; Plompen, A.; Rullhusen, P.; Rauscher, T.; Ventura, A.; Pavlik, A.
2016-01-01
The 235 U neutron-induced cross section is widely used as reference cross section for measuring other fission cross sections, but in the resonance region it is not considered as an IAEA standard because of the scarce experimental data covering the full region. In this work, we deal with a new analysis of the experimental data obtained with a detection setup based on parallel plate ionization chambers (PPACs) at the CERN n-TOF facility in the range from 1 eV to 10 keV. The relative cross section has been normalised to the IAEA value in the region between 7.8 and 11 eV, which is claimed as well-known. Its comparison with the last IAEA reference files and with the present version of the ENDF evaluation leads to the following conclusions: 1) there is very good agreement with the shape of the ENDF cross-section in the resolved resonance range, while showing a lower background; 2) the ENDF integral values, apart from a 2% difference in the normalisation value at 7.8-11.0 eV, show a sharp drop at the transition from the resolved to the unresolved resonance energy regions; And 3) There is a very good agreement with the IAEA integral-data set, provided that an offset of 0.09 barn is applied in the whole energy range
Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator
Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco
2018-03-01
Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.
Fraissard, Jacques
1984-01-01
This volume contains the lectures presented at an Advanced Study Institute on "Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Fossil Energy Problems," which was held at the village of Maleme, Crete, in July of 1983. As of this writing, a different popular attitude prevails from that when the ASI was proposed as far as how critical the world energy picture is. In the popular press, a panglossian attitude (the "petroleum glut" of the 80's) has replaced the jeremiads of the 70's ( a catastrophic "energy crisis"). Yet, there are certain important constants: (a) for the foreseeable future, fossil energy sources (petroleum, coal, oil shale, etc. ) will continue to be of paramount importance; and (b) science and technology of the highest order are needed to extend the fossil ener~y resource base and to utilize it in a cost-effective manner that is also environmentally acceptable. It is precisely this second item that this volume addresses. The volume introduces the phenomenology of magnetic resonance ~n a unified and detailed man...
Investigation of neutron resonances of 247Cm in the 0.5-20 eV energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belanova, T.S.; Kolesov, A.G.; Klinov, A.V.; Nikol'skij, S.N.; Poruchikov, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Artamonov, V.S.; Ivanov, R.N.; Kalebin, S.M.
1979-01-01
The neutron resonance parameters of 247 Cm were calculated from the transmission of a curium sample measured by the time-of-flight method. The neutron resonance parameters were calculated by the shape method using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. Since the neutron resonance parameters of 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 243 Am and 240 Pu are well known, it was possible to identify the neutron resonances of 247 Cm from the measured transmission and calculate their parameters. We identified only five neutron resonances of 247 Cm with high values of 2gGAMMAsub(n). This is due to the fact that the 247 Cm content of the sample is low (1.7mg) and the resonances of this isotope are identified against the background of a large number of resonances of 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 243 Am and 240 Pu situated in the energy range in question
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.
1977-01-01
The long-time average of level populations in a coherently-excited anharmonic sequence of energy levels (e.g., an anharmonic oscillator) exhibits sharp resonances as a function of laser frequency. For simple linearly-increasing anharmonicity, each resonance is a superposition of various multiphoton resonances (e.g., a superposition of 3, 5, 7, . . . photon resonances), each having its own characteristic width predictable from perturbation theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Looger Loren L
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineering microorganisms to improve metabolite flux requires detailed knowledge of the concentrations and flux rates of metabolites and metabolic intermediates in vivo. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors represent a promising technology for measuring metabolite levels and corresponding rate changes in live cells. These sensors have been applied successfully in mammalian and plant cells but potentially could also be used to monitor steady-state levels of metabolites in microorganisms using fluorimetric assays. Sensors for hexose and pentose carbohydrates could help in the development of fermentative microorganisms, for example, for biofuels applications. Arabinose is one of the carbohydrates to be monitored during biofuels production from lignocellulose, while maltose is an important degradation product of starch that is relevant for starch-derived biofuels production. Results An Escherichia coli expression vector compatible with phage λ recombination technology was constructed to facilitate sensor construction and was used to generate a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for arabinose. In parallel, a strategy for improving the sensor signal was applied to construct an improved maltose sensor. Both sensors were expressed in the cytosol of E. coli and sugar accumulation was monitored using a simple fluorimetric assay of E. coli cultures in microtiter plates. In the case of both nanosensors, the addition of the respective ligand led to concentration-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer responses allowing quantitative analysis of the intracellular sugar levels at given extracellular supply levels as well as accumulation rates. Conclusion The nanosensor destination vector combined with the optimization strategy for sensor responses should help to accelerate the development of metabolite sensors. The new carbohydrate fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors can be used for in vivo
Topology of the Adiabatic Potential Energy Surfaces for theResonance States of the Water Anion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haxton, Daniel J.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William
2005-04-15
The potential energy surfaces corresponding to the long-lived fixed-nuclei electron scattering resonances of H{sub 2}O relevant to the dissociative electron attachment process are examined using a combination of ab initio scattering and bound-state calculations. These surfaces have a rich topology, characterized by three main features: a conical intersection between the {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 2} Feshbach resonance states; charge-transfer behavior in the OH ({sup 2}{Pi}) + H{sup -} asymptote of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} and {sup 2}A{sub 1} resonances; and an inherent double-valuedness of the surface for the {sup 2}B{sub 2} state the C{sub 2v} geometry, arising from a branch-point degeneracy with a {sup 2}B{sub 2} shape resonance. In total, eight individual seams of degeneracy among these resonances are located.
Non-resonant energy harvester with elastic constraints for low rotating frequencies
Machado, Sebastián P.; Febbo, Mariano; Gatti, Claudio D.; Ramirez, José M.
2017-11-01
This paper presents a non-resonant piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) which is designed to capture energy from low frequency rotational vibration. The proposed device works out of the plane of rotation where the motion of a mass-spring system is transferred to a piezoelectric layer with the intention to generate energy to power wireless structural monitoring systems or sensors. The mechanical structure is formed by two beams with rigid and elastic boundary conditions at the clamped end. On the free boundaries, heavy masses connected by a spring are placed in order to increase voltage generation and diminish the natural frequency. A mathematical framework and the equations governing the energy-harvesting system are presented. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed for different rotation speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Hz. An output power of 125 μW is obtained for maximum rotating frequency demonstrating that the proposed design can collect enough energy for the suggested application.
Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.
Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang
2016-03-09
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.
Energy-resolved fast neutron resonance radiography at CSNS
Tan, Zhixin; Tang, Jingyu; Jing, Hantao; Fan, Ruirui; Li, Qiang; Ning, Changjun; Bao, Jie; Ruan, Xichao; Luan, Guangyuan; Feng, Changqin; Zhang, Xianpeng
2018-05-01
The white neutron beamline at the China Spallation Neutron Source will be used mainly for nuclear data measurements. It will be characterized by high flux and broad energy spectra. To exploit the beamline as a neutron imaging source, we propose a liquid scintillator fiber array for fast neutron resonance radiography. The fiber detector unit has a small exposed area, which will limit the event counts and separate the events in time, thus satisfying the requirements for single-event time-of-flight (SEToF) measurement. The current study addresses the physical design criteria for ToF measurement, including flux estimation and detector response. Future development and potential application of the technology are also discussed.
Deng, Wei; Wang, Ya
2017-09-01
This paper reports a dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter (RROC) for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. An approximate theoretical model has been established to integrate the electromechanical coupling into a comprehensive electromagnetic-dynamic model of the dual resonant RROC. Numerical simulation has proved the nature of dual resonances by revealing that both the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be achieved when the stand-alone rectilinear oscillator (RLO) and the stand-alone rotary oscillator (RTO) were excited independently. Simulation on the magnetically coupled RROC has also shown that the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be obtained simultaneously in the low-frequency region (2-14 Hz) with well-defined restoring torque (M r ) and the initial rotation angle of the RLO (ψ). The magnetic interaction patterns between the rectilinear and the RTOs have been categorized based on aforementioned simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results have demonstrated broadband output attributing from the dual resonances. Experimental results have also indicated that the RROC could have wide bandwidth in a much lower frequency region (2-8 Hz) even without the rotary resonance as long as the system parameters are carefully tuned. Parameter analysis on different values of M r and ψ are experimentally carried out to provide a quantitative guidance of designing the RROC to achieve an optimal power density.
Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.
The single-particle neutron states in 112Cd have been probed with the 111Cd(d,p) reaction. Beams of up to 1.2 µA of polarized 22 MeV deuterons bombarded 111Cd targets. The reaction protons were momentum analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with spectra were recorded at 10 angles between 10 and 60° with a resolution of 6-7 keV FWHM. In addition to the (d,p) transfer data, (d,d) elastic-scattering data were also obtained and used to ascertain the proper optical model parameters. Cross sections and analyzing powers for all levels observed to be populated were fit to results of DWBA and ADWA calculations, and spectroscopic factors were determined. The 5- level at 2373 keV, previously assigned as a member on the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet set of states because of its enhanced B(E2;5 - to 31 - ) value, was observed to be one of the strongest peaks in the spectrum, and is reassigned as the s1/2 otimes h11/2 two-quasineutron configuration.
Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vuchev Stoyan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.
In vivo measurement of phosphorus energy metabolites by topical magnetic resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watari, Hiroshi [National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki Aichi (Japan); Koizuka, Izumi; Takada, Muneharu; Naruse, Shoji
1982-12-01
An apparatus of TMR (topical magnetic resonance) was briefly described, and the technique to use it was shown. The effect of digital filter was demonstrated and measurement of a pulse width was shown using a phantom. Pulse width and /sup 31/P-NMR spectrum measured in a rat head were shown. The /sup 31/P-NMR spectrum well revealed the phosphorus energy metabolites such as creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and ADP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shinohara, T.; Kai, T.; Ooi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2–4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Shiota, Y. [Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8 Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)
2014-05-11
The sharp variation of neutron attenuation at certain energies specific to particular nuclides (the lower range being from ∼1 eV up to ∼1 keV), can be exploited for the remote mapping of element and/or isotope distributions, as well as temperature probing, within relatively thick samples. Intense pulsed neutron beam-lines at spallation sources combined with a high spatial, high-timing resolution neutron counting detector, provide a unique opportunity to measure neutron transmission spectra through the time-of-flight technique. We present the results of experiments where spatially resolved neutron resonances were measured, at energies up to 50 keV. These experiments were performed with the intense flux low background NOBORU neutron beamline at the J-PARC neutron source and the high timing resolution (∼20 ns at epithermal neutron energies) and spatial resolution (∼55 µm) neutron counting detector using microchannel plates coupled to a Timepix electronic readout. Simultaneous element-specific imaging was carried out for several materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼150 µm. The high timing resolution of our detector combined with the low background beamline, also enabled characterization of the neutron pulse itself – specifically its pulse width, which varies with neutron energy. The results of our measurements are in good agreement with the predicted results for the double pulse structure of the J-PARC facility, which provides two 100 ns-wide proton pulses separated by 600 ns, broadened by the neutron energy moderation process. Thermal neutron radiography can be conducted simultaneously with resonance transmission spectroscopy, and can reveal the internal structure of the samples. The transmission spectra measured in our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of mapping elemental distributions using this non-destructive technique, for those elements (and in certain cases, specific isotopes), which have resonance energies below a few keV, and with lower
Modeling the neutron spin-flip process in a time-of-flight spin-resonance energy filter
Parizzi, A A; Klose, F
2002-01-01
A computer program for modeling the neutron spin-flip process in a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spin-resonance energy filter has been developed. The software allows studying the applicability of the device in various areas of spallation neutron scattering instrumentation, for example as a dynamic TOF monochromator. The program uses a quantum-mechanical approach to calculate the local spin-dependent spectra and is essential for optimizing the magnetic field profiles along the resonator axis. (orig.)
Observation of the M1 giant resonance by resonance averaging in 106Pd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopecky, J.
1987-01-01
An investigation of capture of 2 keV and 24 keV neutrons in a 105 Pd target resulted in resonance-averaged intensities of primary gamma rays with energies between 5.2 and 9.5 MeV. From these intensities the gamma ray strength functions have been evaluated for E1, M1 and E2 radiation and compared with predictions of the giant resonance theory. The inclusion of an energy dependent spreading width for the E1 giant resonance is necessary. The energy distribution of M1 reduced strength is consistent with an interpretation of a broad resonance around 8.8 MeV. E2 data agrees satisfactorily with the giant extrapolation. (orig.)
Resonance Strength Measurement at Astrophysical Energies: The 17O(p,α14N Reaction Studied via THM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergi M.L.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the Trojan Horse Method (THM has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 17O nuclei, overcoming extrapolation procedures and enhancement effects due to electron screening. We will report on the indirect study of the 17O(p,α14N reaction via the Trojan Horse Method by applying the approach developed for extracting the resonance strength of narrow resonance in the ultralow energy region. The mean value of the strengths obtained in the two measurements was calculated and compared with the direct data available in literature.
Förster resonance energy transfer between acridinediones and selected fluorophores—Medium dependence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krishnaveni, R. [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600113 (India); Ramamurthy, P., E-mail: prm60@hotmail.com [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600113 (India)
2013-06-15
We report highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer process between acridinedione dyes and basic fluorophores. FRET between free and β-cyclodextrin modified acridinediones as donors and fluorophoric dyes like safranine as acceptor were investigated in an alcoholic medium, polymer solution and a polymeric film. Efficiency of the processes were experimentally found by steady-state and time-resolved experiments for different donor and acceptor combinations. The associated spectral parameters viz., R{sup 0}, J(λ) were calculated, the Stern–Volmer relations based on fluorescence intensity and lifetime were constructed and the rates of energy transfer were calculated. The results indicated that the dominant mechanism responsible for the excitation energy transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole–dipole interaction and the process was found to be highly efficient when the medium was a constrained one as in the case of a polymeric film. A multifold enhancement in efficiency of energy transfer was also observed when the donor was a modified acridinedione when compared to a free acridinedione. The reason is attributed to the effective binding of the acceptor into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Highlights: ► FRET between acridinediones and fluorophoric acceptors were investigated. ► FRET analysis was carried out in methanol, a 5% PVA solution and in PVA matrix. ► FRET efficiency was maximum when the medium was PVA matrix. ► FRET efficiency was also more when β-CD modified ADR is used as the donor. ► Efficiency enhancement is due to the inclusion of acceptor into the cavity of β-CD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez T, C. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, O
1998-07-01
The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)
Kazimierczuk, Marian K
2012-01-01
This book is devoted to resonant energy conversion in power electronics. It is a practical, systematic guide to the analysis and design of various dc-dc resonant inverters, high-frequency rectifiers, and dc-dc resonant converters that are building blocks of many of today's high-frequency energy processors. Designed to function as both a superior senior-to-graduate level textbook for electrical engineering courses and a valuable professional reference for practicing engineers, it provides students and engineers with a solid grasp of existing high-frequency technology, while acquainting them wit
Quasiparticle phonon model description of low-energy states in 152Pr
Alexa, P.; Ramdhane, M.; Thiamova, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Faust, H. R.; Genevey, J.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Orlandi, R.; Pinston, J. A.; Scherillo, A.; Hons, Z.
2018-03-01
Delayed γ -ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy is performed on A =152 fission fragments, at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the Institut Laue-Langevin, providing a new decay scheme for 152Pr. The quasiparticle phonon model, combined with the particle-rotor model, which allows octupole correlations and Coriolis mixing to be taken into account, is applied to analyze its low-energy structure. The main configurations are found to be (π 3 /2 [422 ] ⊗ν 5 /2 [642 ] ) 1+ for the isomer and (π 3 /2 [541 ] ⊗ν 3 /2 [521 ] ) 3+ for the ground state.
Vibration energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on flexible coil and liquid spring
Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Tang, Y.; Shkel, A.; Kim, E. S.
2016-11-01
This paper reports an electromagnetic vibration-energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on liquid spring composed of ferrofluid. Cylinder magnet array formed by four disc NdFeB magnets is suspended by ferrofluid in a laser-machined acrylic tube which is wrapped by flexible planar coil fabricated with microfabrication process. The magnet array and coil are aligned automatically by the ferrofluid. Restoring force when the magnet array is deviated from the balance position is proportional to the deviated distance, which makes the ferrofluid work as a liquid spring obeying Hook's law. Experimental results show that the electromagnetic energy harvester occupying 1.8 cc and weighing 5 g has a resonant frequency of 16 Hz and generates an induced electromotive force of Vrms = 2.58 mV (delivering 79 nW power into matched load of 21 Ω) from 3 g acceleration at 16 Hz.
Quantum electrodynamics of resonant energy transfer in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juzeliunas, G.; Andrews, D.L.
1994-01-01
A microscopic many-body QED theory for dipole-dipole resonance energy transfer has been developed from first principles. A distinctive feature of the theory is full incorporation of the dielectric effects of the supporting medium. The approach employs the concept of bath polaritons mediating the energy transfer. The transfer rate is derived in terms of the Green's operator corresponding to the polariton matrix Hamiltonian. In contrast to the more common lossless polariton models, the present theory accommodates an arbitrary number of energy levels for each molecule of the medium. This includes, a case of special interest, where the excitation energy spectrum of the bath molecules is sufficiently dense that it can be treated as a quasicontinuum in the energy region in question, as in the condensed phase normally results from homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening. In such a situation, the photon ''dressed'' by the medium polarization (the polariton) acquires a finite lifetime, the role of the dissipative subsystem being played by bath molecules. It is this which leads to the appearance of the exponential decay factor in the microscopically derived pair transfer rates. Accordingly, the problem associated with potentially infinite total ensemble rates, due to the divergent R -2 contribution, is solved from first principles. In addition, the medium modifies the distance dependence of the energy transfer function A(R) and also produces extra modifications due to screening contributions and local field effects. The formalism addresses cases where the surrounding medium is either absorbing or lossless over the range of energies transferred. In the latter case the exponential factor does not appear and the dielectric medium effect in the near zone reduces to that which is familiar from the theory of radiationless (Foerster) energy transfer
Molding resonant energy transfer by colloidal crystal: Dexter transfer and electroluminescence
González-Urbina, Luis; Kolaric, Branko; Libaers, Wim; Clays, Koen
2010-05-01
Building photonic crystals by combination of colloidal ordering and metal sputtering we were able to construct a system sensitive to an electrical field. In corresponding crystals we embedded the Dexter pair (Ir(ppy3) and BAlq) and investigated the influence of the band gap on the resonant energy transfer when the system is excited by light and by an electric field respectively. Our investigations extend applications of photonic crystals into the field of electroluminescence and LED technologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tepikian, S.
1988-01-01
Siberian Snakes provide a practical means of obtaining polarized proton beams in large accelerators. The effect of snakes can be understood by studying the dynamics of spin precession in an accelerator with snakes and a single spin resonance. This leads to a new class of energy independent spin depolarizing resonances, called snake resonances. In designing a large accelerator with snakes to preserve the spin polarization, there is an added constraint on the choice of the vertical betatron tune due to the snake resonances. 11 refs., 4 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, S.J.; Wang, M.G.; Long, G.L.; Zhu, L.Y.; Gan, C.Y.; Yang, L.M.; Sakhaee, M.; Li, M.; Deng, J.K. [Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, Peoples Republic of (China); Zhu, S.J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Jones, E.F.; Hwang, J.K.; Zhang, X.Q.; Gore, P.M.; Peker, L.K.; Drafta, G.; Babu, B.R.; Deng, J.K.; Ginter, T.N.; Beyer, C.J.; Kormicki, J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Zhu, S.J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Ma, W.C. [Physics Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Drigert, M.W. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Asztalos, S.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Chu, S.Y.; Gregorich, K.E.; Mohar, M.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Kliman, J. [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Donangelo, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RG (Brazil); Stoyer, M.A.; Lougheed, R.W.; Moody, K.J.; Wild, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Prussin, S.G. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kliman, J. [Institute of Physics, SASc, Dubravskacesta 9, 84228 Bratislava (Slovakia); Griffin, H.C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 (United States)
1999-11-01
High spin states in neutron-rich odd-{ital Z} {sup 143,145}Ba nuclei have been investigated from the study of prompt {gamma} rays in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf by using {gamma}-{gamma}- and {gamma}-{gamma}-{gamma}- coincidence techniques. Alternating parity bands are identified for the first time in {sup 145}Ba and extended in {sup 143}Ba. A new side band, with equal, constant dynamic, and kinetic moments of inertia equal to the rigid body value, as found in superdeformed bands, is discovered in {sup 145}Ba. Enhanced E1 transitions between the negative- and positive-parity bands in these nuclei give evidence for strong octupole deformation in {sup 143}Ba and in {sup 145}Ba. These collective bands show competition and coexistence between symmetric and asymmetric shapes in {sup 145}Ba. Evidence is found for crossing M1 and E1 transitions between the s=+i and s={minus}i doublets in {sup 143}Ba. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montanini, Roberto, E-mail: rmontanini@unime.it; Quattrocchi, Antonino, E-mail: aquattrocchi@unime.it [University of Messina, Dept. of Engineering, Contrada di Dio, Messina (Italy)
2016-06-28
A cantilever-type resonant piezoelectric generator (RPG) has been designed by gluing a PZT patch working in d{sub 31} mode onto a glass fibre reinforced composite cantilever beam with a discrete mass applied on its free end. The electrical and dynamic behaviour of the RPG prototype has been investigated by carrying out laboratory tests aimed to assess the effect of definite design parameters, specifically the electric resistance load and the excitation frequency. Results showed that an optimum resistance load exists, at which power generation is maximized. Moreover, it has been showed that power generation is strongly influenced by the vibration frequency highlighting that, at resonance, output power can be increased by more than one order of magnitude. Possible applications include inertial resonant harvester for energy recovery from vibrating machines, sea waves or wind flux and self-powering of wireless sensor nodes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandra Delplanque
Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+ act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5 modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+ and the acceptor (Cy5 with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.
Delplanque, Aleksandra; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Jaworski, Pawel; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Buckle, Malcolm; Nyk, Marcin; Nogues, Claude; Samoc, Marek
2015-01-01
Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio) probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+) act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm) NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA) by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5) modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+) and the acceptor (Cy5) with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging of CFP/YFP labeled NDH in cyanobacterium cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Dongmei; Lv Wei; Huang Zhengxi; Xia Andong; Xu Min; Ma Weimin; Mi Hualing; Ogawa Teruo
2007-01-01
The laser confocal scanning microscopy combined with time-correlated single photon counting imaging technique to obtain fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime images for fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurement is reported. Both the fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and intensity images show inhomogeneous cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein (CFP /YFP) expression or inhomogeneous energy transfer between CFP and YFP over whole cell. The results presented in this work show that FLIM could be a potential method to reveal the structure-function behavior of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complexes in living cell
Cyclotron resonance for electrons over helium in resonator
Shikin, V B
2002-01-01
The problem on the cyclotron resonance (CR) for electrons on the helium film, positioned in the resonator lower part, is solved. It is shown, that it relates to one of the examples of the known problem on the oscillations of the coupled oscillators system. The coupling constant between these oscillators constituting the variable function of the problem parameters. It is minimal in the zero magnetic field and reaches its maximum under the resonance conditions, when the cyclotron frequency coincides with one of the resonator modes. The CR details of the Uhf CR-energy absorption coupled by the electrons + resonator system, are calculated. The applications of the obtained results to the available CR experiments for electrons over helium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L
2007-01-01
To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive muta......To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase...
Sensitivity of the Geomagnetic Octupole to a Stably Stratified Layer in the Earth's Core
Yan, C.; Stanley, S.
2017-12-01
The presence of a stably stratified layer at the top of the core has long been proposed for Earth, based on evidence from seismology and geomagnetic secular variation. Geodynamo modeling offers a unique window to inspect the properties and dynamics in Earth's core. For example, numerical simulations have shown that magnetic field morphology is sensitive to the presence of stably stratified layers in a planet's core. Here we use the mMoSST numerical dynamo model to investigate the effects of a thin stably stratified layer at the top of the fluid outer core in Earth on the resulting large-scale geomagnetic field morphology. We find that the existence of a stable layer has significant influence on the octupolar component of the magnetic field in our models, whereas the quadrupole doesn't show an obvious trend. This suggests that observations of the geomagnetic field can be applied to provide information of the properties of this plausible stable layer, such as how thick and how stable this layer could be. Furthermore, we have examined whether the dominant thermal signature from mantle tomography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) (a degree & order 2 spherical harmonic) can influence our results. We found that this heat flux pattern at the CMB has no outstanding effects on the quadrupole and octupole magnetic field components. Our studies suggest that if there is a stably stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, it must be limited in terms of stability and thickness, in order to be compatible with the observed paleomagnetic record.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui
2016-01-01
Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottini, St.
1998-01-01
Two new detectors have been developed to study reactions resulting from exotic beams. The first one, MUST, a set of Si strip detectors is devoted to light recoil particles detection between 500 eV and 120 MeV. The 40 Ar elastic and inelastic scattering analysis at 77 MeV per nucleon showed a non ambiguous identification of the particles in the detector, thanks the time and energy resolutions. The second one, CATs, is a set of beam detectors. These low pressure wire chambers allow each particle measurement of the exotic beams with an accuracy of 0,4 mm. A special interest is given to the halo nuclei low excitation energy spectra. A dipolar low energy resonance should be observed. The inelastic scattering at 60 MeV per nucleon on two targets ( 40 Ca and 48 Ca) has been studied with SPEG at Ganil (France), to search a low energy resonance. It is not possible to conclude on this low energy resonance existence. (A.L.B.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anders A.; Hansen, Jakob L; Sheikh, Søren P
2002-01-01
-induced intermolecular movements in the CaR homodimer using the new bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique, BRET2, which is based on the transference of energy from Renilla luciferase (Rluc) to the green fluorescent protein mutant GFP2. We tagged CaR with Rluc and GFP2 at different intracellular locations...
N* resonances from KΛ amplitudes in sliced bins in energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anisovich, A.V.; Nikonov, V.A.; Sarantsev, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Particle and Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Burkert, V. [Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Omerovic, R.; Stahov, J. [University of Tuzla, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Ireland, D.G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Klempt, E. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Svarc, A. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Thoma, U. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)
2017-12-15
The two reactions γp → K{sup +}Λ and π{sup -}p → K{sup 0}Λ are analyzed to determine the leading photoproduction multipoles and the pion-induced partial wave amplitudes in slices of the invariant mass. The multipoles and the partial-wave amplitudes are simultaneously fitted in a multichannel Laurent+Pietarinen model (L+P model), which determines the poles in the complex energy plane on the second Riemann sheet close to the physical axes. The results from the L+P fit are compared with the results of an energy-dependent fit based on the Bonn-Gatchina (BnGa) approach. The study confirms the existence of several poles due to nucleon resonances in the region at about 1.9 GeV with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +}, 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}, 5/2{sup -}. (orig.)
Transit time for resonant tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Calderon, G.; Rubio, A.
1990-09-01
This work considers properties of the partial widths in one dimensional elastic resonant tunneling in order to propose a transit-time τ tr = (h/2π)/Γ n T res ) where Γ n is the elastic width and T res the transmission coefficient at resonance energy. This time is interpreted as an average over the resonance energy width. It is shown that the tunneling current density integrated across a sharp resonance is inversely proportional to τ tr . This transit time may be much larger than the values predicted by other definitions. (author). 20 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cisneros S, A.; McIntosh, H.V.
1982-01-01
A discussion of the nature of quantum mechanical resonances is presented from the point of view of the spectral theory of operators. In the case of Bohr-Feshbach resonances, graphs are presented to illustrate the theory showing the decay of a doubly excited metastable state and the excitation of the resonance by an incident particle with proper energy. A characterization of resonances is given as well as a procedure to determine widths using the spectral density function. A sufficient condition is given for the validity of the Breit-Wigner formula for Bohr-Feshbach resonances. (author)
Stener, M; Bolognesi, P; Coreno, M; O'Keeffe, P; Feyer, V; Fronzoni, G; Decleva, P; Avaldi, L; Kivimäki, A
2011-05-07
Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF(6) molecule have been studied experimentally and theoretically in the excitation energy range up to 100 eV above the S 2p ionization potentials. In addition to the well-known 2t(2g) and 4e(g) shape resonances, the spin-orbit-resolved S 2p photoionization cross sections display two weak resonances between 200 and 210 eV, a wide resonance around 217 eV, a Fano-type resonance around 240 eV, and a second wide resonance around 260 eV. Calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory allow us to assign the 217-eV and 260-eV features to the shape resonances in S 2p photoionization. The Fano resonance is caused by the interference between the direct S 2p photoionization channel and the resonant channel that results from the participator decay of the S 2s(-1)6t(1u) excited state. The weak resonances below 210-eV photon energy, not predicted by theory, are tentatively suggested to originate from the coupling between S 2p shake-up photoionization and S 2p single-hole photoionization. The experimental and calculated angular anisotropy parameters for S 2p photoionization are in good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehner, E.G.F.
1982-01-01
In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances were looked for by inelastic electron scattering up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of Esub(o) = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. Basing on this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as a superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forwards angles a further weak excitation appears at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is also observed in (α,α') scattering experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has partly to be assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gels because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehner, G.
1982-01-01
In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV were looked for by medium resolution inelastic electron scattering. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of E 0 = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. On the base of this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forward angles a further weak excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV appears which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is observed also in (α, α') experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also a Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has to be partly assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gets because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de
Investigation of the 232Th neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.L.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.
2001-01-01
The alternative path in the development of atomic energy is the uranium-thorium cycle. In connection with this, the measurements of the 232 Th neutron capture and total cross-sections and its resonance self-shielding coefficients in resonance energy range are necessary because of their low accuracy. In this work, the results of the investigations of the thorium-232 neutron cross-sections are presented. The measurements have been carried out on the gamma-ray multisection liquid detector and neutron detector as a battery of boron counters on the 120 m flight path of the pulsed fast reactor IBR-30. As the filter samples were used the metallic disks of various thickness and diameter of 45 mm. Two plates from metallic thorium with thickness of 0.2 mm and with the square of 4.5x4.5 cm 2 were used as the radiator samples. The group neutron total and capture cross-sections within the accuracy of 2-7% in the energy range of (10 eV-10 keV) were obtained from the transmissions and the sum spectra of g-rays from the fourth multiplicity to the seventh one. The neutron capture group cross-sections of 238 U were used as the standard for obtaining of thorium ones. Analogous values were calculated on the GRUCON code with the ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries. Within the limits of experimental errors an agreement between the experiment and calculation is observed, but in some groups the experimental values are larger than the calculated ones. (author)
Jo, Eun-Jung; Byun, Ju-Young; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Min-Gon
2017-07-01
We report an aptasensor for homogeneous ochratoxin A (OTA) detection based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). This system uses upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), such as NaYF4:Yb3+, Er 3+, as the donor. The aptamer includes the optimum-length linker (5-mer-length DNA) and OTA-specific aptamer sequences. Black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), as the acceptor, was modified at the 3' end of the aptamer sequence. BHQ1 plays as a quencher in LRET aptasensor and shows absorption at 543 nm, which overlaps with well the emission of the UCNPs. When OTA is added, the BHQ1-labeled OTA aptamer was folded due to the formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex, which induced the BHQ1 close to the UCNPs. Consequently, resonance energy transfer between UCNPs (donor) and BHQ1 (acceptor) enables quenching of upconversion luminescence signals under laser irradiation of 980 nm. Our results showed that the LRET-based aptasensor allows specific OTA analysis with a limit of detection of 0.03 ng/mL. These results demonstrated that the OTA in diverse foods can be detected specifically and sensitively in a homogeneous manner.
Paneta, V.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.
2017-09-01
The present work aims at contributing to the field of Ion Beam Analysis by providing a set of standard, high-accuracy nuclear resonance reaction data points to be used for accelerator energy calibration up to 4.6 MeV, more specifically with the use of the 27Al(p,γ), 13C(p,γ), 12C(p,p0) and 32S(p,p‧γ) resonant reactions, as a result of a comprehensive investigation in two different laboratories. The use of resonances at higher energies, namely up to 6 MeV, is also discussed. The measurements have been performed at two different electrostatic accelerators, namely at the 5.5 MV HV TN-11 of NCSR "Demokritos", Greece, and at the 5 MV 15SDH-2 Pelletron Tandem accelerator at Uppsala University in Uppsala, Sweden. Common points were used to normalize and validate the data. The possible use of the 16O(p,p0) resonance at 3.47 MeV is also discussed and analyzed.
Improved focusing-and-deflection columns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mui, P.H.; Szilagyi, M.
1995-01-01
Our earlier design procedures for constructing quadrupole columns are further expanded to include octupole corrector units and ''octupole'' deflectors with no third-order harmonics. The additional complications are finer partitioning of the plates and increased number of voltage controllers. Two sample designs, one having only the additional octupole deflectors and one having both the deflectors and the correctors, are presented and compared to our previous quadrupole system. The additional octupole components are shown to be capable of increasing the current density from 30% to more than 300% for a four-plate system, designed to focus and scan the electron beam over a circular area of 0.25 mm radius. The electron beam is assumed to have an initial divergence of ±2.3 mrad, an initial energy of 6 kV, a total energy spread of 1 eV, and a final acceleration of 30 keV. These systems are then slightly reoptimized for a superficial comparison with the commercially available column by Micrion Corporation. The numerical results indicate a potential for substantial improvements, demonstrating the power of this design procedure. Finally, a discussion is presented on how the individual components can interact with each other to reduce the various aberrations. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society
High-energy localized eigenstates in a Fabry-Perot graphene resonator in a magnetic field
Zalipaev, V. V.
2012-06-01
A semiclassical analysis of the high-energy eigenstates of Dirac fermions inside a graphene monolayer nanoribbon resonator of Fabry-Perot type in a magnetic field with zigzag boundary conditions is discussed. A semiclassical asymptotic method of construction of Maslov spectral series of energy spectrum and eigenfunctions, localized in an asymptotically small neighborhood of a periodic orbit, is developed for the graphene Dirac system. The isolated periodic orbit is confined between two flat boundaries. The analysis involves constructing a localized asymptotic solution to the Dirac system (electron-hole Gaussian beam). Then, the stability of a continuous family of periodic orbits (POs) confined between reflecting boundaries of the resonator is studied. The asymptotics of the eigenfunctions are constructed as a superposition of two Gaussian beams propagating in opposite directions between two reflecting points of the periodic orbit. The asymptotics of the energy spectrum are obtained by means of the generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition only for stable POs. It provides two parts of semiclassical Maslov spectral series with positive and negative energies, for electrons and holes, correspondingly, with two different Hamiltonian dynamics and families of classical trajectories. The presence of electrostatic potential is vital as it makes a family of periodic orbit stable. For one subclass of lens-shaped periodic orbits, for a piecewise linear potential, localized eigenstates were computed numerically by the finite element method using COMSOL, and proved to be in very good agreement with the ones computed semiclassically.
The differential cross section of the 12C(p,p)12C reaction near the resonance at energy 1.726 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duvanov, S.M.; Kobzev, A.P.
1996-01-01
New experimental results on the differential cross section of the 12 C(p,p) 12 C reaction near the separate resonance at 1726 keV were obtained for the 170 deg scattering angle. The cross section measured with a thin target has been used for computer simulation of the spectra measured for a defined initial proton energy for two thick targets. The precision measurements of the proton energies have been carried out using the resonance of 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si reaction at 1726.0 keV. The energy scale of the excitation function of the 12 C(p,p) 12 C reaction near the resonance at 1726 keV has been defined more exactly. It will improve the precision of depth profiling of carbon in solids. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Story, J.S.
1969-09-01
The data available up to the end of November 1968 on the thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance absorption integrals, and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes are collected and discussed. Estimates are given of the mean spacing of the energy levels of the compound nuclei near the neutron binding energy. It is concluded that the thermal neutron absorption cross-section and resonance absorption integral of natural silicon are not well established. The data on these two parameters are somewhat correlated, and three different assessments of the resonance integral are presented which differ over-all by a factor of 230. Many resonances have been detected by charged particle reactions which have not yet been observed in neutron cross-section measurements. One of these resonances of Si 2 8, at E n = 4 ± 5 keV might account for the large resonance integral which is derived, very uncertainly, from integral data. The principal source of the measured resonance integral of Si 3 0 has not yet been located. The thermal neutron absorption cross-section of Si 2 8 appears to result mainly from a negative energy resonance, possibly the resonance at E n = - 59 ± 5 keV detected by the Si 2 8 (d,p) reaction. (author)
Equilateral Triangular Dielectric Resonator Nantenna at Optical Frequencies for Energy Harvesting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waleed Tariq Sethi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a remarkable growth in the telecommunication industry. With the introduction of smart gadgets, the demand for high data rate and bandwidth for wireless applications have increased exponentially at the cost of exponential consumption of energy. The latter is pushing the research and industry communities to devise green communication solutions that require the design of energy saving devices and techniques in one part and ambient energy harvesting techniques in the other part. With the advent of nanocomponents fabrication technology, researchers are now able to tap into the THz frequency regime and fabricate optical low profile antennas at a nanoscale. Optical antennas have proved their potential and are revolutionizing a class of novel optical detectors, interconnectors, sensors, and energy harvesting related fields. Authors in this paper propose an equilateral triangular dielectric resonator nantenna (ETDRNA working at 193.5 THz standard optical frequency. The simulated antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth from 192.3 THz to 197.3 THz with an end-fire directivity of 8.6 dBi, covering the entire standard optical window of C-band. Numerical demonstrations prove the efficiency of the nantenna at the frequencies of interest, making it a viable candidate for future green energy harvesting and high speed optical applications.
Cui, Boyu; Wang, Yao; Song, Yunhong; Wang, Tietao; Li, Changfu; Wei, Yahong; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui
2014-05-20
Protein-protein interactions are important for virtually every biological process, and a number of elegant approaches have been designed to detect and evaluate such interactions. However, few of these methods allow the detection of dynamic and real-time protein-protein interactions in bacteria. Here we describe a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system based on the bacterial luciferase LuxAB. We found that enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) accepts the emission from LuxAB and emits yellow fluorescence. Importantly, BRET occurred when LuxAB and eYFP were fused, respectively, to the interacting protein pair FlgM and FliA. Furthermore, we observed sirolimus (i.e., rapamycin)-inducible interactions between FRB and FKBP12 and a dose-dependent abolishment of such interactions by FK506, the ligand of FKBP12. Using this system, we showed that osmotic stress or low pH efficiently induced multimerization of the regulatory protein OmpR and that the multimerization induced by low pH can be reversed by a neutralizing agent, further indicating the usefulness of this system in the measurement of dynamic interactions. This method can be adapted to analyze dynamic protein-protein interactions and the importance of such interactions in bacterial processes such as development and pathogenicity. Real-time measurement of protein-protein interactions in prokaryotes is highly desirable for determining the roles of protein complex in the development or virulence of bacteria, but methods that allow such measurement are not available. Here we describe the development of a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology that meets this need. The use of endogenous excitation light in this strategy circumvents the requirement for the sophisticated instrument demanded by standard fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Furthermore, because the LuxAB substrate decanal is membrane permeable, the assay can be performed without lysing the bacterial cells
Liu, W. Y.; Xu, H. K.; Su, F. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Tian, Ye; Han, Siyuan; Zhao, S. P.
2018-03-01
Superconducting quantum multilevel systems coupled to resonators have recently been considered in some applications such as microwave lasing and high-fidelity quantum logical gates. In this work, using an rf-SQUID type phase qudit coupled to a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator, we study both theoretically and experimentally the energy spectrum of the system when the qudit level spacings are varied around the resonator frequency by changing the magnetic flux applied to the qudit loop. We show that the experimental result can be well described by a theoretical model that extends from the usual two-level Jaynes-Cummings system to the present four-level system. It is also shown that due to the small anharmonicity of the phase device a simplified model capturing the leading state interactions fits the experimental spectra very well. Furthermore we use the Lindblad master equation containing various relaxation and dephasing processes to calculate the level populations in the simpler qutrit-resonator system, which allows a clear understanding of the dynamics of the system under the microwave drive. Our results help to better understand and perform the experiments of coupled multilevel and resonator systems and can be applied in the case of transmon or Xmon qudits having similar anharmonicity to the present phase device.
Devatha, Gayathri; Roy, Soumendu; Rao, Anish; Mallick, Abhik; Basu, Sudipta; Pillai, Pramod P
2017-05-01
Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots (InP QDs) have emerged as an alternative to toxic metal ion based QDs in nanobiotechnology. The ability to generate cationic surface charge, without compromising stability and biocompatibility, is essential in realizing the full potential of InP QDs in biological applications. We have addressed this challenge by developing a place exchange protocol for the preparation of cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The quaternary ammonium group provides the much required permanent positive charge and stability to InP/ZnS QDs in biofluids. The two important properties of QDs, namely bioimaging and light induced resonance energy transfer, are successfully demonstrated in cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence of cationic InP/ZnS QDs inside cells make them ideal candidates as optical probes for cellular imaging. An efficient resonance energy transfer ( E ∼ 60%) is observed, under physiological conditions, between the cationic InP/ZnS QD donor and anionic dye acceptor. A large bimolecular quenching constant along with a linear Stern-Volmer plot confirms the formation of a strong ground state complex between the cationic InP/ZnS QDs and the anionic dye. Control experiments prove the role of electrostatic attraction in driving the light induced interactions, which can rightfully form the basis for future nano-bio studies between cationic InP/ZnS QDs and anionic biomolecules.
Excitation of the Roper resonance and study of higher baryon resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsch, H.P.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH
1992-01-01
The region of the P 11 resonance N(1440) is investigated in inelastic α-scattering on hydrogen using alpha-particles from Saturne with a beam momentum of 7 GeV/c. In the missing mass spectra of the scattered α-particles two effects are observed, excitation of the projectile, preferentially excited to the Δ-resonance, and excitation of the Roper resonance. The large differential cross sections indicate a structure of a compression mode. From this the compressibility of the nucleon K N may be extracted. The Roper resonance excitation corresponds to a surface mode which may be related to an oscillation of the meson cloud. The other monopole mode which corresponds to a vibration of the valence quarks should lie at about 800 MeV of excitation or above. This is the region of the P 11 (1710 MeV) resonance. Therefore experiments are important to measure the monopole strength in this energy region. Another interesting aspect is the scalar polarizability which can be extracted from inelastic dipole excitations (squeezing modes) as excitation energies above 500 MeV
Nuclear statistics of dysprosium resonance parameters in the energy range 10 - 1000 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, G. N.; Namkung, W.; Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R.; Roe, T. I.
2016-01-01
A resonance parameter analysis is often performed in the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR) in order to estimate the average level spacing, distribution of the reduced widths and so on. Neutron Capture experiments on dysprosium isotopes were performed at the electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility of the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the neutron energy region from 10 eV to 1 keV. The following nuclear statistics of the resonance parameters will be discussed in this paper. The D 0 for 161 Dy and 163 Dy were judged to be constant up to 120.6 and 163.9 eV, respectively. It was assumed that the D 0 of 162 Dy and 164 Dy is constant up to 1000 eV because they have few resonances. The results were compared with the values from Reference 11 as shown in Figure 1. Statistical distributions of reduced neutron were investigated for the three isotopes in the region from 0 to 1000 eV; 161 Dy, 162 Dy, and 163 Dy, but not for 164 Dy because of a few number of resonances. The reduced neutron widths Γ n 0 were divided by the unweighted average reduced neutron width < Γ n 0 > for each isotope. A cumulative distribution of these unitless ratios is compared with the integral of the Porter-Thomas distribution (χ 2 distribution with one degree of freedom). The results agree reasonably with the Porter Thomas distributions.
Liu, Yue-Yang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu
2015-12-02
As an important way to control and manage heat transport, thermal rectification has become an elementary issue in the field of phononics and plays a key role in the designing of thermal devices. Here we investigate systematically the standing wave and the accompanying resonance process in asymmetric nanowires to understand the standing wave itself and its great effect on thermal rectification. Results show that the standing wave is sensitive to both the structural and thermal properties of the material, and its great effect on enhancing the thermal rectification is realized not only by the energy-localization nature of the standing wave, but also by the resonance-caused large amplitude and high energy of the standing wave.
Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Small-scale field experiments and first full-scale prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arena, Felice; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Iannolo, Roberto; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati Federica Maria
2015-01-01
The Resonant Wave Energy Converter 3 (REWEC3) is a device belonging to the family of Oscillating Water Columns (OWCs), that can convert the energy of incident waves into electrical energy via turbines. In contrast to classical OWCs, it incorporates a small vertical U-shaped duct to connect the water column to the open wave field. This article shows the results of a small-scale field experiment involving a REWEC3 designed for working with a 2 kW turbine. Then, the next experimental activity on a REWEC3 installed in the NOEL laboratory with the collaboration of ENEA, is presented. Finally, the first prototype of ReWEC3 under construction in Civitavecchia (Rome, Italy) is shown. The crucial features of the construction stage are discussed and some initial performances are provided. [it
Spectroscopic study of 228-234Th nuclei using multi-nucleon transfer reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amzal, N.; Butler, P.A.; Cann, K.J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, G.D.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Asztalos, S.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lees, I.Y.; Machiavelli, A.O.; MacLeod, R.W.; Stephens, F.S.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Smith, J.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Zhang, C.T.
1999-01-01
Light-actinide nuclei in the octupole deformed region have been populated using multi-nucleon transfer from 232 Th. The energy level schemes of several thorium isotopes with A=228-234 have been extended up to I∼24ℎ and negative parity states have been observed for the first time in 234 Th. A systematic study of the difference in alignment between the positive- and negative-parity bands in thorium nuclei in this mass region shows that 228,230,234 Th behave like octupole vibrators, in contrast with 224,226 Th, which are octupole-deformed in character. An intrinsic electric dipole moment has been measured for the first time in 234 Th. The small value obtained is consistent with the vibrational description of this nucleus. (author)
Wang, Jilong; Su, Siheng; Wei, Junhua; Bahgi, Roya; Hope-Weeks, Louisa; Qiu, Jingjing; Wang, Shiren
2015-08-01
In this paper, a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) ration-metric fluorescent probe based on heteroatom N, S doped carbon dots (N, S-CDs) was developed to determine riboflavin in aqueous solutions. The ratio of two emission intensities at different wavelengths is applied to determine the concentration of riboflavin (RF). This method is more effective in reducing the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. Therefore, this probe obtains high sensitivity with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.9 nM (0.7 ng/ml) which is in the highest level of all riboflavin detection approaches and higher than single wavelength intensity detection (1.9 μM). In addition, this sensor has a high selectivity of detecting riboflavin in deionized water (pH=7) with other biochemical like amino acids. Moreover, riboflavin in aqueous solution is very sensitive to sunlight and can be degraded to lumiflavin, which is toxic. Because the N, S doped carbon dots cannot serve as an energy donor for N, S doped carbon dots and lumiflavin system, this system makes it easy to determine whether the riboflavin is degraded or not, which is first to be reported. This platform may provide possibilities to build a new and facile fluorescence resonance energy transfer based sensor to detect analytes and metamorphous analytes in aqueous solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Aroudi A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the model of a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF spring resonator with end stopper for an energy harvesting application is presented. Then we characterize its nonlinear dynamical behavior by numerical simulations when some suitable parameters are varied. The system is formed by two resonators subject to external vibrational excitation and with an end stopper. We present the continuous time dynamical model of the system in the form of a switched fourth order differential equation. Harmonic vibrations are considered as the main ambient energy source for the system and its frequency response representing the RMS value of the displacement is first computed. The dynamical behavior is unveiled by computing state-space trajectories, timedomain series and FFT spectra and frequency response as the excitation amplitude is varied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, T.; Kanungo, R.; Samanta, C.; Ghosh, S.; Basu, P.; Rebel, H.
1996-01-01
Alpha- particle scattering from the resonant (3 + 1 ) and non-resonant continuum states of 6 Li is studied at incident energy 10 MeV/A. The α+d breakup continuum part within the excitation energy E ex = 1.475-2.475 MeV is discretized in two energy bins. Unlike the results at higher incident energies, here the coupled-channel calculations show significant breakup continuum coupling effects on the elastic and inelastic scattering. It is shown that even when the continuum-continuum coupling effects are strong, the experimental data of the ground state and the resonant as well as discretized non-resonant continuum states impose stringent constraint on the coupling strengths of the non-resonant continuum states. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab
Space charge in nanostructure resonances
Price, Peter J.
1996-10-01
In quantum ballistic propagation of electrons through a variety of nanostructures, resonance in the energy-dependent transmission and reflection probabilities generically is associated with (1) a quasi-level with a decay lifetime, and (2) a bulge in electron density within the structure. It can be shown that, to a good approximation, a simple formula in all cases connects the density of states for the latter to the energy dependence of the phase angles of the eigen values of the S-matrix governing the propagation. For both the Lorentzian resonances (normal or inverted) and for the Fano-type resonances, as a consequence of this eigen value formula, the space charge due to filled states over the energy range of a resonance is just equal (for each spin state) to one electron charge. The Coulomb interaction within this space charge is known to 'distort' the electrical characteristics of resonant nanostructures. In these systems, however, the exchange effect should effectively cancel the interaction between states with parallel spins, leaving only the anti-parallel spin contribution.
Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.
1987-01-01
Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei
Projection operator treatment of single particle resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lev, A.; Beres, W.P.
1976-01-01
A projection operator method is used to obtain the energy and width of a single particle resonance. The resonance energy is found without scanning. An example of the first g/sub 9/2/ neutron resonance in 40 Ca is given and compared with the traditional phase shift method. The results of both approaches are quite similar. 4 figures
Organic solar cells: understanding the role of Förster resonance energy transfer.
Feron, Krishna; Belcher, Warwick J; Fell, Christopher J; Dastoor, Paul C
2012-12-12
Organic solar cells have the potential to become a low-cost sustainable energy source. Understanding the photoconversion mechanism is key to the design of efficient organic solar cells. In this review, we discuss the processes involved in the photo-electron conversion mechanism, which may be subdivided into exciton harvesting, exciton transport, exciton dissociation, charge transport and extraction stages. In particular, we focus on the role of energy transfer as described by F¨orster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory in the photoconversion mechanism. FRET plays a major role in exciton transport, harvesting and dissociation. The spectral absorption range of organic solar cells may be extended using sensitizers that efficiently transfer absorbed energy to the photoactive materials. The limitations of F¨orster theory to accurately calculate energy transfer rates are discussed. Energy transfer is the first step of an efficient two-step exciton dissociation process and may also be used to preferentially transport excitons to the heterointerface, where efficient exciton dissociation may occur. However, FRET also competes with charge transfer at the heterointerface turning it in a potential loss mechanism. An energy cascade comprising both energy transfer and charge transfer may aid in separating charges and is briefly discussed. Considering the extent to which the photo-electron conversion efficiency is governed by energy transfer, optimisation of this process offers the prospect of improved organic photovoltaic performance and thus aids in realising the potential of organic solar cells.
Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Role of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul C. Dastoor
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Organic solar cells have the potential to become a low-cost sustainable energy source. Understanding the photoconversion mechanism is key to the design of efficient organic solar cells. In this review, we discuss the processes involved in the photo-electron conversion mechanism, which may be subdivided into exciton harvesting, exciton transport, exciton dissociation, charge transport and extraction stages. In particular, we focus on the role of energy transfer as described by F¨orster resonance energy transfer (FRET theory in the photoconversion mechanism. FRET plays a major role in exciton transport, harvesting and dissociation. The spectral absorption range of organic solar cells may be extended using sensitizers that efficiently transfer absorbed energy to the photoactive materials. The limitations of F¨orster theory to accurately calculate energy transfer rates are discussed. Energy transfer is the first step of an efficient two-step exciton dissociation process and may also be used to preferentially transport excitons to the heterointerface, where efficient exciton dissociation may occur. However, FRET also competes with charge transfer at the heterointerface turning it in a potential loss mechanism. An energy cascade comprising both energy transfer and charge transfer may aid in separating charges and is briefly discussed. Considering the extent to which the photo-electron conversion efficiency is governed by energy transfer, optimisation of this process offers the prospect of improved organic photovoltaic performance and thus aids in realising the potential of organic solar cells.
The inelastic scattering of medium energy α particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crut, M.
1960-01-01
The aim of this work is to find out what are the properties of the so-called 'anomalous states' in medium weight nuclei. These states preferentially excited in the inelastic scattering of medium energy charged particles have an excitation energy at about 4 MeV for nuclei with Z ≤ 29 and in the range 2-3 MeV for high Z nuclei. From a combination of angular distribution data in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 30 MeV α particles, and correlation data between inelastic α particles and deexcitation γ rays, we show that for even-even nuclei, we can attribute spin 3 and parity minus to these 'anomalous states'. This is quite in agreement with the interpretation of these levels suggested by Lane as due to collective octupole oscillations. We give a resume of the theories used in the analysis of the data and a description of the experimental set-up. (author) [fr
Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Alikhanov
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ken Chin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Inspired by vortex induced vibration energy harvesting development as a new source of renewable energy, a T-shaped design vibration energy harvester is introduced with the aim of enhancing its performance through vortex induced vibration at near resonance conditions. The T-shaped structural model designed consists of a fixed boundary aluminum bluff splitter body coupled with a cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH plate model which is a piezoelectric bimorph plate made of a brass plate sandwiched between 2 lead zirconate titanate (PZT plates. A 3-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation analysis is carried out with Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model under wind speed of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22.5, and 25 m/s. The results showed that with 19 m/s wind speed, the model generates 75.758 Hz of vortex frequency near to the structural model’s natural frequency of 76.9 Hz. Resonance lock-in therefore occurred, generating a maximum displacement amplitude of 2.09 mm or a 49.76% increment relatively in vibrational amplitude. Under the effect of resonance at the PVEH plate’s fundamental natural frequency, it is able to generate the largest normalized power of 13.44 mW/cm3g2.
Onuki, Y.; Hibiya, T.
2016-02-01
The baroclinic tides are thought to be the dominant energy source for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior. In contrast to the geography of the energy conversion rates from the barotropic to baroclinic tides, which has been clarified in recent numerical studies, the global distribution of the energy sink for the resulting low-mode baroclinic tides remains obscure. A key to resolve this issue is the resonant wave-wave interactions, which transfer part of the baroclinic tidal energy to the background internal wave field enhancing the local energy dissipation rates. Recent field observations and numerical studies have pointed out that parametric subharmonic instability (PSI), one of the resonant interactions, causes significant energy sink of baroclinic tidal energy at mid-latitudes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quantitative aspect of PSI to demonstrate the global distribution of the intensity of resonant wave interactions, namely, the attenuation rate of low-mode baroclinic tidal energy. Our approach is basically following the weak turbulence theory, which is the standard theory for resonant wave-wave interactions, where techniques of singular perturbation and statistical physics are employed. This study is, however, different from the classical theory in some points; we have reformulated the weak turbulence theory to be applicable to low-mode internal waves and also developed its numerical calculation method so that the effects of stratification profile and oceanic total depth can be taken into account. We have calculated the attenuation rate of low-mode baroclinic tidal waves interacting with the background Garrett-Munk internal wave field. The calculated results clearly show the rapid attenuation of baroclinic tidal energy at mid-latitudes, in agreement with the results from field observations and also show the zonal inhomogeneity of the attenuation rate caused by the density structures associated with the subtropical gyre. This study is expected
Selected topics in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stachura, Z.
1984-09-01
19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)
Gupta, Vinay; Bharti, Vishal; Kumar, Mahesh; Chand, Suresh; Heeger, Alan J
2015-08-01
Optically resonant donor polymers can exploit a wider range of the solar spectrum effectively without a complicated tandem design in an organic solar cell. Ultrafast Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a polymer-polymer system that significantly improves the power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells from 6.8% to 8.9% is demonstrated, thus paving the way to achieving 15% efficient solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ho Jin; Cho, Jin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
In this study, multi-group cross section libraries for the DeCART code were generated using a new procedure. The new procedure includes generating the RI tables based on the MC calculations, correcting the effective fission product yield calculations, and considering most of the fission products as resonant nuclides. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the transport lattice code KARMA (Kernel Analyzer by Ray-tracing Method for fuel Assembly) and DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) for a multi-group neutron transport analysis of light water reactors (LWRs). These codes adopt the method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the multi-group transport equation and resonance fixed source problem, the subgroup and the direct iteration method with resonance integral tables for resonance treatment. With the development of the DeCART and KARMA code, KAERI has established its own library generation system for a multi-group transport calculation. In the KAERI library generation system, the multi-group average cross section and resonance integral (RI) table are generated and edited using PENDF (point-wise ENDF) and GENDF (group-wise ENDF) produced by the NJOY code. The new method does not need additional processing because the MC method can handle any geometry information and material composition. In this study, the new method is applied to the dominant resonance nuclide such as U{sup 235} and U{sup 238} and the conventional method is applied to the minor resonance nuclides. To examine the newly generated multi-group cross section libraries, various benchmark calculations such as pin-cell, FA, and core depletion problem are performed and the results are compared with the reference solutions. Overall, the results by the new method agree well with the reference solution. The new procedure based on the MC method were verified and provided the multi-group library that can be used in the SMR nuclear design analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sergi, M. L., E-mail: sergi@lns.infn.it; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli studi di Catania, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Irgaziev, B. [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, Districti Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Tang, X. D.; Wiescher, M. [Department of Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame 46556, Indiana (United States); Mrazek, J.; Kroha, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR, Rez (Czech Republic)
2015-10-15
In recent years, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of proton-induced reactions on {sup 17}O nuclei, overcoming extrapolation procedures and enhancement effects due to electron screening. We will report on the indirect study of the {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 14}N reaction via the THM by applying the approach developed for extracting the resonance strength of narrow resonance in the ultralow energy region. Two measurements will be described and the experimental THM cross sections will be shown for both experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Guanqiang; Chen, Guangde; Peng, Ping; Cao, Zhenzhou; Ye, Honggang
2013-01-01
We investigate the resonant transmission of Dirac electrons through inhomogeneous band gap graphene with square superlattice potentials by transfer matrix method. The effects of the incident angle of the electrons, Fermi energy and substrate-induced Dirac gaps on the transmission are considered. It is found that the Dirac gap of graphene adds another degree of freedom with respect to the incident angle, the Fermi energy and the parameters of periodic superlattice potentials (i.e., the number, width and height of the barriers) for the transmission. In particular, the inhomogeneous Dirac gap induced by staggered substrates can be used to manipulate the transmission. The properties of the conductance and Fano factor at the resonant peaks are found to be affected by the gaps significantly. The results may be helpful for the practical application of graphene-based electronic devices
Energy transport in mirror machine LISA at electron cyclotron resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha Rapozo, C. da; Serbeto, A.; Torres-Silva, H.
1993-01-01
It is shown that a classical transport calculation is adequate to predict the steady state temperature of the RF produced plasma in LISA machine for both large and small resonant volumes. Temperature anisotropy ranging from 55 to 305 was found which was larger for small resonant volume, and the temperature relaxation was larger at large resonant one. This agrees with the fact that there is a Coulomb relaxation ν c which is proportional to T e -3/2 . It is also shown that the fitting parameter alpha is larger for large resonant volume than for small resonant one. (L.C.J.A.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sankari, A.; Alitalo, S.; Nikkinen, J.; Kivimaeki, A.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-01-01
The energy dependencies of the intensities and angular distribution parameters β of the resonant Auger final states 4p 4 ( 1 D)np (n=5,6) of Kr were determined experimentally in the excitation-energy region of the overlapping 3d 3/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p resonances. The experimental results were compared with the outcome of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Combining experimental and calculated results allowed us to study interference effects between the direct and several resonant channels that populate the 4p 4 ( 1 D)np states. The inclusion of the direct channel was crucial in order to reproduce the observed energy behavior of the angular distribution parameters. It was also important to take into account experimentally observed shake transitions
Resonance charge exchange mechanism at high and moderate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.
1984-01-01
Charge exchange mechanisms at high and medium energies are investigated, ta king the resonance charge exchange of a proton by an hydrogen atom as an example . It is established that there are two classical charge exchange mechanisms rel ated to direct proton knockout from the bound state and one quantum-mechanical mechanism corresponding to the electron tunnelling from one bound state to anoth er. The classical cross-section diverges for two of these mechanisms, and the quasiclassical scattering amplitude must be calculated on the base of a complex classical trajectory. Physical grounds for the choice of such trajectories are discussed and calculations of the Van Vleck determinant for these mechanisms a re presented. Contributions from different mechanisms to the total charge excha nge cross-section are analyzed. A comparison with experimental data and results of other authors is made
Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.
2016-01-01
We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.
New evaluation of 238U neutron resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C.; Larson, Nancy M.
2003-01-01
The neutron resonance parameters of 238 U were obtained in the energy range 1 keV to 20 keV from a SAMMY Reich-Moore analysis of high resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA. In the energy range 1 keV to 10 keV, the analysis used as prior values the ENDF/B-VI resonance parameters. The analysis in the energy range 10 keV to 20 keV resulted in the creation of a set of resonance parameters for the representation of the cross section in this energy range. The results are compared to the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. Some statistical properties of the new resonance parameters are examined. (author)
Giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
1982-11-01
The several roles of multipole giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. In particular, the modifications in the effective ion-ion potencial due to the virtual excitation of giant resonances at low energies, are considered and estimated for several systems. Real excitation of giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies are then discussed and their importance in the approach phase of deeply inelastic processes in emphasized. Several demonstrative examples are given. (Author) [pt
Fourier analysis of the parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koike, Masafumi; Ota, Toshihiko; Saito, Masako; Sato, Joe
2009-01-01
Parametric enhancement of the appearance probability of the neutrino oscillation under the inhomogeneous matter is studied. Fourier expansion of the matter density profile leads to a simple resonance condition and manifests that each Fourier mode modifies the energy spectrum of oscillation probability at around the corresponding energy; below the MSW resonance energy, a large-scale variation modifies the spectrum in high energies while a small-scale one does in low energies. In contrast to the simple parametric resonance, the enhancement of the oscillation probability is itself an slow oscillation as demonstrated by a numerical analysis with a single Fourier mode of the matter density. We derive an analytic solution to the evolution equation on the resonance energy, including the expression of frequency of the slow oscillation.
Spectroscopy of 215Ra: the shell model and enhanced E3 transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Kibedi, T.; Fabricius, B.; Lane, G.J.; Poletti, A.R.; Baxter, A.M.
1998-01-01
Excited states in the N=127 nucleus 215 Ra have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following reactions of 13 C on 206 Pb targets. Levels were identified up to spins of ∝61/2 ℎ and excitation energies of ∝6 MeV. Enhanced octupole transitions are a feature of the level scheme. Lifetimes and magnetic moments were measured for several isomeric levels. The level scheme, transition rates and magnetic moments are compared with empirical shell model calculations and multiparticle octupole-coupled shell model calculations. In general, the experimental data are well described, but in comparison with its success in describing enhanced E3 transitions between related states in the radon isotopes, some limitations of the multiparticle octupole-coupling approach are revealed in 215 Ra. (orig.)
Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan
2016-01-01
This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...
Equilibrium, stability and heating of plasmas in linear and toroidal Extrap pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnevier, B.; Drake, J.R.; Dalhed, H.E.
1983-01-01
The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field. The total magnetic field has no component along the pinch axis. Globally stable Z-pinch equilibria with a distributed plasma current density and a duration of about 100 Alfven transit times have been observed in linear and toroidal sector experiments. Theoretical studies indicate that this stability can be the result of constraints introduced by the octupole field and the resulting separatrix of the total field, in combination with finite-Larmor-radius effects. A scheme for ICRF heating of the plasma in configurations with a magnetic neutral line, being applicable to Extrap and FRC, is analysed. Wave propagation arises owing to the Hall effect. Particle resonances are responsible for the absorption, owing to a high parallel wavenumber and a weak magnetic field. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peng, Liang; Wang, Jingyu; Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, L.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the efficiency analysis of a mid-range wireless energy transfer system is performed through non-resonant magnetic coupling. It is shown that the self-resistance of the coils and the mutual inductance are critical in achieving a high efficiency, which is indicated by our theoretical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Bondì, M.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Azaiez, F.; Franchoo, S.; Khan, E.; Bonaccorso, A.; Fortunato, L.; Foti, A.; Linares, R.; Lubian, J.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Vitturi, A.
2015-01-01
The 12 C( 18 O, 16 O) 14 C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been explored up to high excitation energy of the residual nucleus thanks to the use of the MAGNEX spectrometer to detect the ejectiles. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a resonance has been observed at 16.9 MeV. A multipolarity analysis of the cross section angular distribution indicates an L = 0 character for such a transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tavares, Luciana; Cadelano, Michele; Quochi, Francesco
2015-01-01
Multi-layered epitaxial nanofibers are exemplary model systems for the study of exciton dynamics and lasing in organic materials due to their well-defined morphology, high luminescence efficiencies, and color tunability. We resort to temperature-dependent cw and picosecond photoluminescence (PL......) spectroscopy to quantify exciton diffusion and resonance-energy transfer (RET) processes in multi-layered nanofibers consisting of alternating layers of para-hexaphenyl (p6P) and α-sexithiophene (6T), serving as exciton donor and acceptor material, respectively. The high probability for RET processes...... is confirmed by Quantum Chemical calculations. The activation energy for exciton diffusion in p6P is determined to be as low as 19 meV, proving p6P epitaxial layers also as a very suitable donor material system. The small activation energy for exciton diffusion of the p6P donor material, the inferred high p6P...
Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2009-01-01
The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...
Tan, Chuang; Guo, Lijun; Ai, Yuejie; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Luo, Yi; Zhong, Dongping
2014-11-13
Photoantenna is essential to energy transduction in photoinduced biological machinery. A photoenzyme, photolyase, has a light-harvesting pigment of methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) that transfers its excitation energy to the catalytic flavin cofactor FADH¯ to enhance DNA-repair efficiency. Here we report our systematic characterization and direct determination of the ultrafast dynamics of resonance energy transfer from excited MTHF to three flavin redox states in E. coli photolyase by capturing the intermediates formed through the energy transfer and thus excluding the electron-transfer quenching pathway. We observed 170 ps for excitation energy transferring to the fully reduced hydroquinone FADH¯, 20 ps to the fully oxidized FAD, and 18 ps to the neutral semiquinone FADH(•), and the corresponding orientation factors (κ(2)) were determined to be 2.84, 1.53 and 1.26, respectively, perfectly matching with our calculated theoretical values. Thus, under physiological conditions and over the course of evolution, photolyase has adopted the optimized orientation of its photopigment to efficiently convert solar energy for repair of damaged DNA.
Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang
1989-01-01
The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed
3C-SiC microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances at radio frequencies
Lee, Jaesung; Zamani, Hamidrera; Rajgopal, Srihari; Zorman, Christian A.; X-L Feng, Philip
2017-07-01
We report on the design, modeling, fabrication and measurement of single-crystal 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances operating at radio frequencies (RF). These microdisk resonators (center-clamped on a vertical stem pedestal) offer multiple flexural-mode resonances with frequencies dependent on both disk and anchor dimensions. The resonators are made using a novel fabrication method comprised of focused ion beam nanomachining and hydroflouic : nitric : acetic (HNA) acid etching. Resonance peaks (in the frequency spectrum) are detected through laser-interferometry measurements. Resonators with different dimensions are tested, and multimode resonances, mode splitting, energy dissipation (in the form of quality factor measurement) are investigated. Further, we demonstrate a feedback oscillator based on a passive 3C-SiC resonator. This investigation provides important guidelines for microdisk resonator development, ranging from an analytical prediction of frequency scaling law to fabrication, suggesting RF microdisk resonators can be good candidates for future sensing applications in harsh environments.
Resonance spin memory in low-energy gamma-ray spectra from Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta odd-odd compound nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olejniczak, U.; Gundorin, N.A.; Pikelner, L.B.; Serov, D.G.; Przytula, M.
2002-01-01
The low-energy gamma-ray spectra from neutron resonance capture with natural samples of Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta were measured using a HPGe detector at the IBR-30 pulsed reactor (JINR, Dubna). The resonance spin memory effect in the spectra from the odd-odd compound nuclei of 122 Sb, 160 Tb and 166 Ho was found to be quite distinct. For the 182 Ta compound nucleus it proved to be rather weak
Entropy, energy and negativity in Fermi-resonance coupled states of substituted methanes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Xiwen; Wan Mingfang; Ma Zhongqi
2010-01-01
Several measures of entanglement have attracted considerable interest in the relationship of a measure of entanglement with other quantities. The dynamics of entropy, energy and negativity is studied for Fermi-resonance coupled vibrations in substituted methanes with three kinds of initial mixed states, which are the mixed density matrices of binomial states, thermal states and squeezed states on two vibrational modes, respectively. It is demonstrated that for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes the entropies of the stretch and the bend are anti-correlated in the same oscillatory frequency, so do the energies for each kind of state with small magnitudes, whereas the entropies exhibit positive correlations with the corresponding energies. Furthermore, for small magnitudes quantum mutual entropy is positively correlated with the interacting energy. Analytic forms of entropies and energies are provided with initial conditions in which they are stationary, and the agreement between analytic and numerical simulations is satisfactory. The dynamical entanglement measured by negativity is examined for those states and conditions. It is shown that negativity displays a sudden death for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes, and the time-averaged negativity has the minimal value under the conditions of stationary entropies and energies. Moreover, negativity is positively correlated with the mutual entropy and the interacting energy just for mixed squeezed states with small magnitudes. Those are useful for molecular quantum information processing and dynamical entanglement.
Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation
Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.
2012-10-09
Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamberlain, M.B.; Baun, W.L.
1975-01-01
Soft x-ray appearance potential spectra of the 3d and 4d levels of polycrystalline cerium metal are reported in this paper. Resonant x-ray emissions are observed when the electron-excitation energy sweeps through the ionization energies of the 3d and 4d levels. The resonant x rays excited at the 3d-level onsets are considerably more intense, and are excited at a lower electron-excitation energy than the 3d-series characteristic x rays. In the neighborhood of the 4d-electron thresholds, four line-like structures extend to approx.8 eV below the 4d-electron binding energies, while two broad and more intense structures occur above the 4d onsets, with the largest one reaching a peak intensity at 12 eV above the 4d thresholds. The resonant emissions apparently arise from the decay of threshold-excited states which are bound to the inner vacancy and have core configurations nd 9 4f 3 , (n=3,4). The exchange interaction between the three 4f electrons and the respective d-orbital vacancy spreads the 4d-threshold structures over a 20 eV range of excitation energies and the 3d-threshold structures over a much smaller range
Critical temperature for shape transition in hot nuclei within covariant density functional theory
Zhang, W.; Niu, Y. F.
2018-05-01
Prompted by the simple proportional relation between critical temperature for pairing transition and pairing gap at zero temperature, we investigate the relation between critical temperature for shape transition and ground-state deformation by taking even-even Cm-304286 isotopes as examples. The finite-temperature axially deformed covariant density functional theory with BCS pairing correlation is used. Since the Cm isotopes are the newly proposed nuclei with octupole correlations, we studied in detail the free energy surface, the Nilsson single-particle (s.p.) levels, and the components of s.p. levels near the Fermi level in 292Cm. Through this study, the formation of octupole equilibrium is understood by the contribution coming from the octupole driving pairs with Ω [N ,nz,ml] and Ω [N +1 ,nz±3 ,ml] for single-particle levels near the Fermi surfaces as it provides a good manifestation of the octupole correlation. Furthermore, the systematics of deformations, pairing gaps, and the specific heat as functions of temperature for even-even Cm-304286 isotopes are discussed. Similar to the relation between the critical pairing transition temperature and the pairing gap at zero temperature Tc=0.6 Δ (0 ) , a proportional relation between the critical shape transition temperature and the deformation at zero temperature Tc=6.6 β (0 ) is found for both octupole shape transition and quadrupole shape transition for the isotopes considered.
Ting, David Z.
2007-01-01
The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.
Study of the multi-strange resonance $\\Xi(1530)^{0}$ production with ALICE at the LHC energies
AUTHOR|(CDS)2080748
The primary goal of the relativistic heavy-ion physics program at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland is to study the nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The measurement of resonances in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions allows one to study the properties of the hadronic medium. Resonances with short lifetimes compared to the duration of the time span between chemical and kinetic freeze-out are good candidates to prove the interplay of particle re-scattering and regeneration in the hadronic phase, which result in a modification of their measured yields. The ALICE detector and its subsystem used for the analysis presented in this thesis are explained. Particle identification method and a coordinate system of ALICE are provided. Measurements of multi-strange resonance $\\Xi(1530)^{0}$ were performed with the ALICE detector in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC energies. The ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}$-spectra of $\\Xi(1530)^{0}$ are obtained and compared with model predictions. The y...
Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois
2017-02-01
Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.
Dyverfeldt, Petter; Hope, Michael D; Tseng, Elaine E; Saloner, David
2013-01-01
The authors sought to measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the ascending aorta of patients with aortic stenosis and to assess its relationship to irreversible pressure loss. Irreversible pressure loss caused by energy dissipation in post-stenotic flow is an important determinant of the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis. The simplified Bernoulli equation used to estimate pressure gradients often misclassifies the ventricular overload caused by aortic stenosis. The current gold standard for estimation of irreversible pressure loss is catheterization, but this method is rarely used due to its invasiveness. Post-stenotic pressure loss is largely caused by dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy into heat. Recent developments in magnetic resonance flow imaging permit noninvasive estimation of TKE. The study was approved by the local ethics review board and all subjects gave written informed consent. Three-dimensional cine magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to measure TKE in 18 subjects (4 normal volunteers, 14 patients with aortic stenosis with and without dilation). For each subject, the peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was compared with a pressure loss index. The pressure loss index was based on a previously validated theory relating pressure loss to measures obtainable by echocardiography. The total TKE did not appear to be related to global flow patterns visualized based on magnetic resonance-measured velocity fields. The TKE was significantly higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in normal volunteers (p < 0.001). The peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was strongly correlated to index pressure loss (R(2) = 0.91). Peak total TKE in the ascending aorta correlated strongly with irreversible pressure loss estimated by a well-established method. Direct measurement of TKE by magnetic resonance flow imaging may, with further validation, be used to estimate irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2013 American
Analytic Solution of the Electromagnetic Eigenvalues Problem in a Cylindrical Resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Martinello, Martina [Fermilab
2016-10-06
Resonant accelerating cavities are key components in modern particles accelerating facilities. These take advantage of electromagnetic fields resonating at microwave frequencies to accelerate charged particles. Particles gain finite energy at each passage through a cavity if in phase with the resonating field, reaching energies even of the order of $TeV$ when a cascade of accelerating resonators are present. In order to understand how a resonant accelerating cavity transfers energy to charged particles, it is important to determine how the electromagnetic modes are exited into such resonators. In this paper we present a complete analytical calculation of the resonating fields for a simple cylindrical-shaped cavity.
Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents.
Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook
2017-04-19
Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power P OUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage V RECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a P OUT of 288 μW and a V RECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier.
Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents
Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook
2017-01-01
Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power POUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage VRECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a POUT of 288 μW and a VRECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier. PMID:28422085
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors
Chou, Kenny F.; Dennis, Allison M.
2015-01-01
Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Lipovský, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 042101. ISSN 0022-2488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : self-adjoint coupling * high-energy regime * resonances in quantum graphs Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.077, year: 2016
Study on 2D arbitrary geometry coupling resonance method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Lei; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi
2014-01-01
The paper firstly proposes a coupling resonance method in which subgroup method is employed in the serried peak energy region, and wavelet expansion method is employed in single peak energy region. The original subgroup model and wavelet expansion model are improved and coupled through the calculation of scattering source from subgroup to wavelet expansion, so that the self-shielding cross section in the whole energy region can be calculated accurately. To verify these theories and to prove the improvements, a PWR cell benchmark problem is calculated. It is demonstrated that, compared with other traditional multi-group resonance methods and continuous energy resonance method, this coupling resonance method has the ability to accurately calculate the whole energy region's self-shielding cross section while Keeping enough efficiency and finally has an ability to offer the accurate self-shielding parameters for latter transport, calculation. (authors)
Wireless Energy Transfer Using Resonant Magnetic Induction for Electric Vehicle Charging Application
Dahal, Neelima
The research work for this thesis is based on utilizing resonant magnetic induction for wirelessly charging electric vehicles. The background theory for electromagnetic induction between two conducting loops is given and it is shown that an RLCequivalent circuit can be used to model the loops. An analysis of the equivalent circuit is used to show how two loosely coupled loops can be made to exchange energy efficiently by operating them at a frequency which is the same as the resonant frequency of both. Furthermore, it is shown that the efficiency is the maximum for critical coupling (determined by the quality factors of the loops), and increasing the coupling beyond critical coupling causes double humps to appear in the transmission efficiency versus frequency spectrum. In the experiment, as the loops are brought closer together which increases the coupling between them, doubles humps, as expected from the equivalent circuit analysis is seen. Two models for wireless energy transfer are identified: basic model and array model. The basic model consists of the two loosely coupled loops, the transmitter and the receiver. The array model consists of a 2 x 2 array of the transmitter and three parasites, and the receiver. It is shown that the array model allows more freedom for receiver placement at the cost of degraded transmission efficiency compared to the basic model. Another important part of the thesis is software validation. HFSS-IE and 4NEC2 are the software tools used and the simulation results for wire antennas are compared against references obtained from a textbook and a PhD dissertation. It is shown that the simulations agree well with the references and also with each other.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nanda, Jyotirmayee [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769008 (India)]. E-mail: jnanda_b9@rediffmail.com; Mahapatra, P.K. [Department of Physics and Technophysics, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, 721102 (India)]. E-mail: pkmahapatra@vidyasagar.ac.in; Roy, C.L. [Department of Physics and Meterology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)
2006-09-01
A computational model based on non-relativistic approach is proposed for the determination of transmission coefficient, resonant tunneling energies, group velocity, resonant tunneling lifetime and traversal time in multibarrier systems (GaAs/Al {sub y} Ga{sub 1-} {sub y} As) for the entire energy range {epsilon}
Dihadronic and dileptonic resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gareev, F.A.; Barabanov, M.Yu.; Kazacha, G.S.
1997-01-01
Simple phenomenological rules are suggested for calculation of dihadron and dilepton resonance masses. A general interpretation is given for different exotic resonances in nuclear physics: Darmstadt-effect, dibaryon, dipion and other resonances. Information about the inner structure of e ± , proton, neutron, pions and so on can be obtained from the usual reactions of the type e + + e - =>γγ, e ± +γ=>e ± γ, e ± μ ± , e ± N... at low, intermediate and high energies using existing experimental devices
Ilieva, R. S.; Cooper, N.; Werner, V.; Rusev, G.; Pietralla, N.; Kelly, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E.
2013-10-01
Dipole resonances in 76Ge have been studied using the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF). The experiment was performed using the Free Electron Laser facility at HI γS/TUNL, which produced linearly polarised quasi-monoenergetic photons in the 4-9 MeV energy range. Photon strength, in particular dipole strength, is an important ingredient in nuclear reaction calculations, and recent interest in its study has been stimulated by observations of a pygmy dipole resonance near the neutron separation energy Sn of certain nuclei. Furthermore, 76Ge is a candidate for 0 ν 2 β -decay. The results are complimentary to a relevant experiment done at TU Darmstadt using Bremsstrahlung beams. Single-resonance parities and a preliminary estimate of the total photo-excitation cross section will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under grant no. DE-FG02-91ER40609.
ρ0 Resonance in e+e- interactions at the 60 GeV centre of mass energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zomorodian, M. E.; Sepehri, A.
2009-01-01
We study in this paper the ρ 0 resonance production, by using the electron annihilation data in 60 Ge V centre of mass energy. To achieve this we make a plot of the π + π - effective mass distributions for all combinations in an event. Then we fit this distribution by using Breit - Wigner formula. We observe that approximately 8% of the events come from the P 0 decay. Thus a correction should be made when investigating the particles coming straight from the primary vertex. These corrections are due to the particles which originate from the resonance decay. By dividing the events into the forward and backward regions, we observe that the cross section for ρ 0 production is equal in the two regions.
Giant first-forbidden resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krmpotic, F.; Nakayama, K.; Sao Paulo Univ.; Pio Galeao, A.; Sao Paulo Univ.
1983-01-01
Recent experimental data on first-forbidden charge-exchange resonances are discussed in the framework of a schematic model. We also evaluate the screening of the weak coupling constants induced by both the giant resonances and the δ-isobar. It is shown that the last effect does not depend on the multipolarity of the one-particle moment. Due to the same reason, the fraction of the reaction strength pushed up into the δ-resonance region is always the same regardless of the quantum numbers carried by the excitation. Simple expressions are derived for the dependence of the excitation energies of the first-forbidden giant resonances on the mass number and isospin of the target. The model reproduces consistently both the Gamow-Teller and the first-forbidden resonances. (orig.)
n+235U resonance parameters and neutron multiplicities in the energy region below 100 eV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pigni Marco T.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In August 2016, following the recent effort within the Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization (CIELO pilot project to improve the neutron cross sections of 235U, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA to release a resonance parameter evaluation. This evaluation restores the performance of the evaluated cross sections for the thermal- and above-thermal-solution benchmarks on the basis of newly evaluated thermal neutron constants (TNCs and thermal prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS. Performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP in an effort to provide the highest fidelity general purpose nuclear database for nuclear criticality applications, the resonance parameter evaluation was submitted as an ENDF-compatible file to be part of the next release of the ENDF/B-VIII.0 nuclear data library. The resonance parameter evaluation methodology used the Reich-Moore approximation of the R-matrix formalism implemented in the code SAMMY to fit the available time-of-flight (TOF measured data for the thermal induced cross section of n+235U up to 100 eV. While maintaining reasonably good agreement with the experimental data, the validation analysis focused on restoring the benchmark performance for 235U solutions by combining changes to the resonance parameters and to the prompt resonance v̅ below 100 eV.
Neutron capture resonances in 56Fe and 58Fe in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeppeler, F.; Wisshak, K.; Hong, L.D.
1982-11-01
The neutron capture cross section of 56 Fe and 58 Fe has been measured in the energy range from 10 to 250 keV relative to the gold standard. A pulsed 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and the 7 Li(p, n) reaction served as a neutron source. Capture gamma rays were detected by two C 6 D 6 detectors, which were operated in coincidence and anticoincidence mode. Two-dimensional data acquisition allowed to apply the pulse height weighting technique off-line. The samples were located at a flight path of 60 cm. The total time resolution was 1.2 ns thus allowing for an energy resolution of 2 ns/m. The experimental set-up was optimized with respect to low background and low neutron sensitivity. The additional flight path of 4 cm from the sample to the detector was sufficient to discriminate capture of sample scattered neutrons by the additional time of flight. In this way reliable results were obtained even for the strong s-wave resonances of both isotopes. The experimental capture yield was analyzed with the FANAC code. The energy resolution allowed to extract resonance parameters in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV. The individual systematic uncertainties of the experimental method are discussed in detail. They were found to range between 5 and 10% while the statistical uncertainty is 3-5% for most of the resonances. A comparison to the results of other authors exhibits in case of 56 Fe systematic differences of 7-11%. For 58 Fe the present results differ up to 50% from the only other measurement for this isotope. (orig.) [de
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenny F. Chou
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting.
Storage and Dissipation Limits in Resonant Switched-Capacitor Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan C. Mayo-Maldonado
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is twofold, first we introduce an energy-based modeling framework for the analysis of resonant switched-capacitor (SC converters and second we demonstrate that energy storage and dissipation in resonant SC with ideal switches are bounded by a fundamental physical limit that, up until now, has been only associated with the special case of pure SC topologies. For instance, we show that the maximum energy stored in the small size inductors in resonant SC converters is equal to the energy that would be dissipated by their purely SC counterpart. The presented analysis permits the computation of resonant inductances in terms of maximum current peak values, which is experimentally validated. Furthermore, we introduce a relative loss factor that permits determining the efficiency of a design for a general case in the presence of parasitic resistances. These results corroborate that migrating to resonant SC technologies is one of the most compelling alternatives to overcome well-known disadvantages in pure SC topologies.
The isovector quadrupole resonance in yttrium excited by neutron radiative capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorro, R.; Bergqvist, I.
1987-01-01
In order to investigate the properties of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance (ΔT=1, ΔS=0) in the A=90 mass region, gamma-ray spectra from the reaction 89 Y(n,γ) 90 Y were recorded at several neutron energies in the energy range 12 to 27 MeV at 55 0 , 90 0 and 125 0 . The measured fore-aft asymmetry for the ground-state transition is very small in the low-energy region, but becomes appreciable above a neutron energy of 18 MeV. The observed asymmetry is attributed to interference between radiation from the isovector giant quadrupole resonance and radiation of opposite parity (from the high-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance and direct E1 capture). The data obtained in the present work, interpreted in terms of the direct-semidirect capture model, indicate that the excitation energy of the isovector E2 resonance in 90 Y is 26 ± 1 MeV. The data are consistent with a resonance width of 10 ± 2 MeV and with complete exhaustion of the energy-weighted sum rule for the lower isospin component of the resonance. (orig.)
Two-dimensional Forster resonance energy transfer (2-D FRET) and the membrane raft hypothesis
Acasandrei, Maria; Dale, Robert; VAN DE VEN, Martin; AMELOOT, Marcel
2006-01-01
A model for analyzing Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data in relation to the cell plasma membrane raft hypothesis is developed to take into account: (a) the distribution of FRET donors and acceptors at the surface of probing antibody fragments specific for a putative raft component; (b) partitioning of the raft component between raft and non-raft areas of the membrane; and (c) the dependence of the raft partition on the expression level of the considered component. Analysis of relev...
Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da
2005-01-01
This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U 238 were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)
Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br
2005-07-01
This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U{sup 238} were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)
Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru; Lukin, V.G.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khatymova, L.Z.; Kinzyabulatov, R.R.; Tseplin, E.E.
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chuang, Cheng-Hao [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kapilashrami, Mukes [Center for Engineering Concepts Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guo, Jinghua, E-mail: jguo@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2015-04-15
Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Kapilashrami, Mukes; Guo, Jinghua
2015-01-01
Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaesemann, C.-P.; Huart, M.; Mueller, P.; Sigalov, A.
2006-01-01
The electrical power and energy for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is provided by three separate pulsed networks based on flywheel generators. Major damages at couplings of the shaft of the synchronous generator EZ4 (220 MVA / 600 MWs) were discovered during a routine check. The damage can only be explained by torsional resonances in the generator shaft which are excited by active power transients from the converter loads. For generator protection, torque sensors were installed near the coupling between the flywheel and the rotor. They cause an early termination of plasma experiments if a predefined torque level is exceeded. These terminations limited the achievable plasma current flattop time of AUG significantly. Since a low natural damping of the torsional resonances was identified as a major cause of the phenomena observed, novel feedback controlled DC circuits were developed providing electromagnetic damping for the generator shafts in case of excitation. Each damping circuit consists of a DC choke, acting as a buffer storage of magnetic energy, fed by a thyristor converter. The current reference for the converter is derived from the torque sensor signals. This enables the choke current to alternate with the measured natural frequency of the shaft assembly. Thus, with proper phasing, torsional resonances in generator shaft systems weighing more than 100 tons can be damped with little additional power. Since April 2003, the damping circuits have been routinely operated during all plasma experiments. Despite the low damping power used, torsional resonances could be reduced to a value that avoids a trip signal from the torque sensors. This paper describes the results from analysing, designing and testing of the feedback controlled buffer storage of magnetic energy, representing an effective and low cost solution for damping torsional resonances in electric power systems. It will present the layout, analyse the results of measurements obtained during commissioning and
Properties of resonance wave functions.
More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.
1973-01-01
Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagaki, Y.
2015-01-01
The helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) experience appreciable quantum mechanical scattering in narrow channels when the width changes abruptly. The interference of the geometry scattering in narrow-wide-narrow waveguide structures is shown to give rise to the strong suppression of transmission when the incident energy is barely above the propagation threshold. Periodic resonant transmission takes place in this high reflection regime while the length of the wide section is varied. The resonance condition is governed by the transverse confinement in the wide section, where the form of quantization is manifested to differ for the two orthogonal directions. The confined energy levels in TI quantum dots are derived based on this observation. In addition, the off-diagonal spin-orbit term is found to produce an anomalous resonance state, which merges with the bottom ordinary resonance state to annihilate
Two- to one-phonon E3 transition strength in {sup 148}Gd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piiparinen, M [Niels Bohr Institute, Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Atac, A; Nyberg, J; Ramsoy, T; Sletten, G [Niels Bohr Institute, Tandem Acceleratory Laboratory, Roskile, (Denmark); Virtanen, A; Muller, D [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Kleinheinz, P [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Blomqvist, J [Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)
1992-08-01
In a plunger experiment the mean life of the ({nu} f{sub 6}{sup 2}x3{sup -}x3{sup -})12{sup +} state at 3.981 MeV in {sub 64}{sup 148}Gd{sub 84} was measured as {tau}=83(10)ps, giving 77(11)B{sub w} for the 1286 keV 12{sup +} {yields} 9{sup -} E3 transition rate, which confirms the double-octupole character of the 12{sup +} state. The observed deviations in energy and transition rate from harmonic vibration are shown to be caused by the exclusion principle acting between nucleons in the two phonons and are related to the dominant contributions to the {sup 148}Gd octupole phonon of the low-lying {Delta}l={Delta}j=3 proton- and neutron in-shell 3{sup -} excitations which are of vital significance for the octupole mode in open-shell nuclei. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.
Barranco Garcia, Javier; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider has shown with various experimental verifications that one of the main limitations to the collider performance and to a possible upgrade can come from the long-range beam-beam effects which will define the operational parameters (intensities and emittances) and machine set-up (crossing angles and the minimum beta function at the interaction points). The High Luminosity project aims at very high intensities and will therefore need much larger separations to keep the long range effects weak. In the past several studies of possible active compensators have been carried out and experimental studies are planned to explore such schemes in the LHC. In this note we show the feasibility of using octupole magnets to compensate the effects of long range beam-beam interactions by use of dynamical aperture simulations. A prove of principle of such a compensation scheme is shown for the HL-LHC optics. Preliminary studies for the LHC optics ATS and standard are also presented pointing to the import...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullen, D.E.
1979-01-01
Program RECENT reconstructs energy-dependent neutron total, elastic, capture, and fission cross sections from a combination of resonance parameters and tabulated background cross sections in the ENDF/B format. Entire evaluations, not just cross sections, are written to the result file, which is in ENDF/B format. The output includes the original resonance parameters in a form that can be used in Doppler broadening and self-shielding calculations. A listing of the source deck is available on request. 5 figures, 5 tables
Inelastic scattering in resonant tunneling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wingreen, Ned S.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Wilkins, John W.
1989-01-01
The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability or the esc......The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability...
Classical resonances and quantum scarring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manderfeld, Christopher
2003-01-01
We study the correspondence between phase-space localization of quantum (quasi-)energy eigenstates and classical correlation decay, given by Ruelle-Pollicott resonances of the Frobenius-Perron operator. It will be shown that scarred (quasi-)energy eigenstates are correlated: pairs of eigenstates strongly overlap in phase space (scar in same phase-space regions) if the difference of their eigenenergies is close to the phase of a leading classical resonance. Phase-space localization of quantum states will be measured by L 2 norms of their Husimi functions
The CEBAF Separator Cavity Resonance Control System
Wissmann, Mark J; Hovater, Curt; Plawski, Tomasz
2005-01-01
The CEBAF energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12GeV will increase the range of beam energies available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three experimental halls. Consequently with the increase in RF separator cavity gradient needed for the higher energies, RF power will also increase requiring the cavities to have active resonance control. At the 6 GeV energy, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW), which is maintained at constant temperature of 95o Fahrenheit. This is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system, that controls both water temperature and flow has been built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to control water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately closed loop control will be maintained by monit...
Order and chaos in nuclear and metal cluster deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radu, S.
1995-08-01
The vast amount of nuclear and metal cluster data indicates that shell structure and deformation are two simultaneous properties. A conflicting situation is therefore encountered as the shell structure, a firm expression of order, is apparently not compatible with the non-integrable nature of the models incorporating deformation. The main issue covered in this thesis is the intricate connection between deformation and chaotic behaviour in deformation models pertinent to nuclear structure and metal cluster physics. It is shown that, at least in some cases, it is possible to reconcile the occurrence of shell structure with non-integrability. The coupling of an axially deformed harmonic oscillator to an axially symmetric octupole term renders the problem non-integrable. The chaotic character of the motion is strongly dependent on the type of deformation, in that a prolate shape shows virtually no chaos, while in an oblate case the motion exhibits fully developed chaos when the octupole term is switched on. Whereas the problem is non-integrable, the quantum mechanical spectrum nevertheless shows some shell structure in the prolate case for particular, yet fairly large octupole strengths; for spherical or oblate deformation the shell structure disappears. This result is explained in terms of classical periodic orbits which are found by employing the 'removal of resonances method'. Particular emphasis is put on the effect of the hexadecapole deformation which is important in fission processes. The combined effect of octupole and hexadecapole deformation leads to important conclusions for the experimental work as a high degree of ambiguity is signaled for the interpretation of data. The ambiguity results from the discovery of a mutual cancellation of the octupole and hexadecapole deformation in prolate superdeformed systems. The phenomenological Nilsson model is treated in a similar way. It is argued that while in nuclei it produces good results for the low-lying levels
Photon induced resonant Raman scattering in CdS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muzart, J.; Lluesma, E.G.; Arguello, C.A.; Leite, R.C.C.
1975-01-01
A novel aspect of resonant Raman scattering is observed in CdS by means of the ratio of Stokes to anti-Stokes intensities. With increasing temperature, as the forbidden band energy approaches a value that is twice the incident photon energy, (from a Nd-Yag-laser) a large enhancement of the above ratio is observed for both the LO and the 2LO phonon Raman intensities. The results indicate a resonance with the scattered photon. Resonance is only observed for high incident photon intensities. A possible explanation for the above observations is that flooding of the crystal with photons of energy hν induces states of energy hν displaced from the electronic bands by mixing of electronic and photon states
Review of 241 Pu resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrien, H.
1981-10-01
The status of 241 Pu resonance parameters is reviewed. The most important recent results are compared in some energy ranges, both from single level and multilevel point of view. It appears that an accurate set of resonance parameters is not still obtained for a general description of the cross-sections in the resonance region. Some recommendations are given for further experiments or evaluations
Resonance self-shielding methodology of new neutron transport code STREAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung; Hong, Ser Gi
2015-01-01
This paper reports on the development and verification of three new resonance self-shielding methods. The verifications were performed using the new neutron transport code, STREAM. The new methodologies encompass the extension of energy range for resonance treatment, the development of optimum rational approximation, and the application of resonance treatment to isotopes in the cladding region. (1) The extended resonance energy range treatment has been developed to treat the resonances below 4 eV of three resonance isotopes and shows significant improvements in the accuracy of effective cross sections (XSs) in that energy range. (2) The optimum rational approximation can eliminate the geometric limitations of the conventional approach of equivalence theory and can also improve the accuracy of fuel escape probability. (3) The cladding resonance treatment method makes it possible to treat resonances in cladding material which have not been treated explicitly in the conventional methods. These three new methods have been implemented in the new lattice physics code STREAM and the improvement in the accuracy of effective XSs is demonstrated through detailed verification calculations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matausek, M.
1972-01-01
A new proposed method for solving the space-energy dependent spherical harmonics equations represents a methodological contribution to neutron transport theory. The proposed method was applied for solving the problem of spec-energy transport of fast and resonance neutrons in multi-zone, cylindrical y symmetric infinite reactor cell and is related to previously developed procedure for treating the thermal energy region. The advantages of this method are as follows: a unique algorithm was obtained for detailed determination of spatial and energy distribution of neutrons (from thermal to fast) in the reactor cell; these detailed distributions enable more precise calculations of criticality conditions, obtaining adequate multigroup data and better interpretation of experimental data; computing time is rather short
Resonant laser printing of structural colors on high-index dielectric metasurfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Levy, Uriel
2017-01-01
-dependent resonances. Strong on-resonance energy absorption under pulsed laser irradiation locally elevates the lattice temperature (exceeding 1200 K) in an ultrashort time scale (1 ns). This forms the basis for resonant laser printing, where rapid melting allows for surface energy-driven morphology changes...
Resonance phenomena at high level density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobeslavsky, E.; Dittes, F.M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden
1994-11-01
We investigate the behaviour of resonances as a function of the coupling strength between bound and unbound states on the basis of a simple S-matrix model. Resonance energies and widths are calculated for well isolated, overlapping and strongly overlapping resonance states. The formation of shorter and longer time scales (trapping effect) is traced. We illustrate that the cross section results from an interference of all resonance states in spite of the fact that their lifetimes may be very different. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Cognata, M.; Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Goldberg, V.; Tribble, R.; Coc, A.; Hammache, F.; Sereville, N. de; Irgaziev, B.; Tumino, A.
2010-01-01
The 18 O(p, α) 15 N and 17 O(p, α) 14 N reactions are of primary importance in several as-trophysical scenarios, including nucleosynthesis inside Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. They are also key reactions to understand exotic systems such as R-Coronae Borealis stars and novae. Thus, the measurement of their cross sections in the low energy region can be crucial to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions, because the resonance parameters are poorly determined. The Trojan Horse Method, in its newly developed form particularly suited to investigate low-energy resonances, has been applied to the 2 H( 18 O, α 15 N)n and 2 H( 17 O, α 14 N)n reactions to deduce the 18 O(p, α) 15 N and 17 O(p, α) 14 N cross sections at low energies. Resonances in the 18 O(p, α) 15 N and 17 O(p, α) 14 N excitation functions have been studied and the resonance parameters deduced.
Martin, S J; Bandey, H L; Cernosek, R W; Hillman, A R; Brown, M J
2000-01-01
We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness-shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of pi/2 rad. For low-loss films, this model accurately predicts the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. Elements of the parallel LCR resonator are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and Sauerbrey models.
Nuclear elasticity applied to giant resonances of fast rotating nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, S.; Bouyssy, A.
1987-06-01
Isoscalar giant resonances in fast rotating nuclei are investigated within the framework of nuclear elasticity by solving the equation of motion of elastic nuclear medium in a rotating frame of reference. Both Coriolis and centrifugal forces are taken into account. The nuclear rotation removes completely the azimuthal degeneracy of the giant resonance energies. Realistic large values of the angular velocity, which are still small as compared to the giant resonance frequencies, are briefly reviewed in relation to allowed high angular momenta. It is shown that for the A=150 region, the Coriolis force is dominating for small values (< ∼ 0.05) of the ratio of angular velocity to resonance frequency, whereas the centrifugal force plays a prominent part in the shift of the split resonance energies for larger values of the ratio. Typical examples of the resonance energies and their fragmentation due to both rotation and deformation are given
Improving the wide resonance approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.
1999-01-01
A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-α A )/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when α A →1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit
Improving the wide resonance approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S
1999-03-01
A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-{alpha}{sub A})/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when {alpha}{sub A}{yields}1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit.
Extracting complex resonance energies from real calculations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Durand, Ph.; Paidarová, Ivana
2013-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 7 (2013), 075001 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/12/0665 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : states * dynamics * modeling quantum resonance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2013
Improved switching using Fano resonances in photonic crystal structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Elesin, Yuriy
2013-01-01
difference time domain simulations taking into account the signal bandwidth. The results suggest a significant energy reduction by employing Fano resonances compared to more well established Lorentzian resonance structures. A specific example of a Kerr nonlinearity shows an order of magnitude energy...
Fundamentals of nanomechanical resonators
Schmid, Silvan; Roukes, Michael Lee
2016-01-01
This authoritative book introduces and summarizes the latest models and skills required to design and optimize nanomechanical resonators, taking a top-down approach that uses macroscopic formulas to model the devices. The authors cover the electrical and mechanical aspects of nano electromechanical system (NEMS) devices. The introduced mechanical models are also key to the understanding and optimization of nanomechanical resonators used e.g. in optomechanics. Five comprehensive chapters address: The eigenmodes derived for the most common continuum mechanical structures used as nanomechanical resonators; The main sources of energy loss in nanomechanical resonators; The responsiveness of micro and nanomechanical resonators to mass, forces, and temperature; The most common underlying physical transduction mechanisms; The measurement basics, including amplitude and frequency noise. The applied approach found in this book is appropriate for engineering students and researchers working with micro and nanomechanical...
DEEBAR - A BASIC interactive computer programme for estimating mean resonance spacings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, M.; Pope, A.L.; Smith, R.W.; Story, J.S.
1988-02-01
DEEBAR is a BASIC interactive programme, which uses the theories of Dyson and of Dyson and Mehta, to compute estimates of the mean resonance spacings and associated uncertainty statistics from an input file of neutron resonance energies. In applying these theories the broad scale energy dependence of D-bar, as predicted by the ordinary theory of level densities, is taken into account. The mean spacing D-bar ± δD-bar, referred to zero energy of the incident neutrons, is computed from the energies of the first k resonances, for k = 2,3...K in turn and as if no resonances are missing. The user is asked to survey this set of D-bar and δD-bar values and to form a judgement - up to what value of k is the set of resonances complete and what value, in consequence, does the user adopt as the preferred value of D-bar? When the preferred values for k and D-bar have been input, the programme calculates revised values for the level density parameters, consistent with this value for D-bar and with other input information. Two short tables are printed, illustrating the energy variation and spin dependence of D-bar. Dyson's formula based on his Coulomb gas analogy is used for estimating the most likely energies of the topmost bound levels. Finally the quasi-crystalline character of a single level series is exploited by means of a table in which the resonance energies are set alongside an energy ladder whose rungs are regularly spaced with spacing D-bar(E); this comparative table expedites the search for gaps where resonances may have been missed experimentally. Used in conjunction with the program LJPROB, which calculates neutron strengths and compares them against the expected Porter Thomas distribution, estimates of the statistical parameters for use in the unresolved resonance region may be derived. (author)
Bound states, resonances and poles in the low-energy K-barN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landau, R.H.
1994-01-01
The locations in the complex energy plane of the dynamic poles of the T matrix for the (K-bar N,Σπ) system are calculated. Investigated are a quark bag model and several potential models, including one which agrees with the strong interaction shift in kaonic hydrogen as well as scattering data. The parameters of the model are fit to K - p scattering and reaction cross sections, branching ratios, and mass spectra from K - p→ Σπππ, Λπππ. The Σ P1322 (1385) and Λ D03 (1520) resonances are found to be predominately elementary bag states with considerable dressing for the Σ P13 . The Λ S01 (1405) appears as a complicated composite systems arising from two poles. The model with certain parameter sets does predict two sign changes in the real part of the K-bar N scattering amplitude near threshold, but they are not quite at the correct energies to produce agreement with the sign of the strong interaction shift of kaonic hydrogen. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs
Magnetic field induced incommensurate resonance in cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jingge; Cheng Li; Guo Huaiming; Feng Shiping
2009-01-01
The influence of a uniform external magnetic field on the dynamical spin response of cuprate superconductors in the superconducting state is studied based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the magnetic scattering around low and intermediate energies is dramatically changed with a modest external magnetic field. With increasing the external magnetic field, although the incommensurate magnetic scattering from both low and high energies is rather robust, the commensurate magnetic resonance scattering peak is broadened. The part of the spin excitation dispersion seems to be an hourglass-like dispersion, which breaks down at the heavily low energy regime. The theory also predicts that the commensurate resonance scattering at zero external magnetic field is induced into the incommensurate resonance scattering by applying an external magnetic field large enough
An analysis of uncertainties in the reference resonance absorption calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.
1997-05-01
A recently appeared generation of design-oriented methods, which allows to compute the space and energy dependence of the resonant absorption inside the fuel rod, induces a new problem of validation of results obtained with improved resonance treatments, Because no experimental results are available on the spatial and energy distribution of resonance absorption, detailed reference calculations were generated with the continuos-energy Monte Carlo and energy pointwise slowing-down codes. The accuracy of these calculations depends>on various in.fluences. In this paper an analysis of some influences, such as differences ;n nuclear data libraries and philosophy of reproducing the cross section data, is presented. Example application is given for a calculation benchmark that consists of determination of resonance absorption by 238 U in typical PWR pin cell geometry (author)
Effect of magnetic field gradient on power absorption in compact microwave plasma sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, Indranuj; Shamim, Md.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep
2006-01-01
We study the effect of the change in magnetic field gradient at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point, on the generated plasma for two different cylindrical minimum B-field configurations, viz. the hexapole and the octupole. The plasma parameters such as the electron and ion density, electron temperature including the wave field characteristics (B-field and E-field) in the plasma will be measured and compared for the two configurations. (author)
Resonance energy transfer: The unified theory via vector spherical harmonics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grinter, Roger, E-mail: r.grinter@uea.ac.uk; Jones, Garth A., E-mail: garth.jones@uea.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)
2016-08-21
In this work, we derive the well-established expression for the quantum amplitude associated with the resonance energy transfer (RET) process between a pair of molecules that are beyond wavefunction overlap. The novelty of this work is that the field of the mediating photon is described in terms of a spherical wave rather than a plane wave. The angular components of the field are constructed in terms of vector spherical harmonics while Hankel functions are used to define the radial component. This approach alleviates the problem of having to select physically correct solution from non-physical solutions, which seems to be inherent in plane wave derivations. The spherical coordinate system allows one to easily decompose the photon’s fields into longitudinal and transverse components and offers a natural way to analyse near-, intermediate-, and far-zone RET within the context of the relative orientation of the transition dipole moments for the two molecules.
Molecular resonances in sub-Coulomb energy region (12C-12C, 12C-24Mg, 12C-9Be systems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takimoto, Kiyohiko; Shimomura, Susumu; Tanaka, Makoto; Murakami, Tetsuya; Fukada, Mamoru; Sakaguchi, Atsushi
1982-01-01
Molecular resonance in sub-Coulomb energy region was studied on 12 C- 12 C, 12 C- 24 Mg and 12 C- 9 Be systems. The excitation functions and the angular distributions were measured on the reactions 12 C( 12 C, 8 Besub(g,s,)) 16 Osub(g,s,), 24 Mg( 12 C, α) 32 S and 9 Be ( 12 C, 8 Besub(g,s,)) 13 Csub(g,s,). Sub-Coulomb resonances were observed in all systems and the contribution of the 12 Csub(2nd)*(0 + , 7.65 MeV) state is proposed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomason, M.D.
1982-07-01
Rates for resonant vibrational and rotational energy transfer from the 001 state by CO 2 + CO 2 collisions have been measured. All data were obtained by double resonance spectroscopy with CO 2 lasers in a 2.5 meter absorption cell at 700 0 K. Results for rotation transfer include pumped-level relaxation and the response of other 001 levels with ΔJ up to 18. These data are compared to four relevant collision models via a 35-level rate equation analysis. Sequence-band (002 → 101) and hot-band (011 → 110) lasting have been used to observe resonant nu 3 -transfer relaxation involving 001 + 001 reversible 002 + 000, 001 + 100 reversible 101 + 000, and 001 + 010 reversible 011 + 000. A multilevel rate analysis has been utilized to determine the rate coefficients for 001 going to the 002, the 101, and the 011 levels. Part of the hot-band data has been interpreted as due to 110 + 000 reversible 100 + 010, and the associated rate constant has been estimated. The results of the study are compared to the theory and to other experiments
Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, T.
1995-12-01
This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadert Nicole
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are a potential safety risk since the energy absorption may increase temperature of the surrounding tissue. The temperature rise is highly dependent on implant size. Numerical examinations can be used to calculate the energy absorption in terms of the specific absorption rate (SAR induced by MRI on orthopaedic implants. This research presents the impact of titanium osteosynthesis spine implants, called spondylodesis, deduced by numerical examinations of energy absorption in simplified spondylodesis models placed in 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI body coils. The implants are modelled along with a spine model consisting of vertebrae and disci intervertebrales thus extending previous investigations [1], [2]. Increased SAR values are observed at the ends of long implants, while at the center SAR is significantly lower. Sufficiently short implants show increased SAR along the complete length of the implant. A careful data analysis reveals that the particular anatomy, i.e. vertebrae and disci intervertebrales, has a significant effect on SAR. On top of SAR profile due to the implant length, considerable SAR variations at small scale are observed, e.g. SAR values at vertebra are higher than at disc positions.
Crosby, K.C.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Winkel, B.S.J.
2011-01-01
We have used Förster resonance energy transfer detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) to provide the first evidence from living plants cells for the existence of a flavonoid metabolon. The distribution of flux within this system may be regulated by the direct competition of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amar B. T. Ghisaidoobe
2014-12-01
Full Text Available F resonance energy transfer (FRET occurs when the distance between a donor fluorophore and an acceptor is within 10 nm, and its application often necessitates fluorescent labeling of biological targets. However, covalent modification of biomolecules can inadvertently give rise to conformational and/or functional changes. This review describes the application of intrinsic protein fluorescence, predominantly derived from tryptophan (\\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{ex}}\\sim\\ nm, \\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{em}}\\sim\\ 350 nm, in protein-related research and mainly focuses on label-free FRET techniques. In terms of wavelength and intensity, tryptophan fluorescence is strongly influenced by its (or the proteinlocal environment, which, in addition to fluorescence quenching, has been applied to study protein conformational changes. Intrinsic F resonance energy transfer (iFRET, a recently developed technique, utilizes the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in conjunction with target-specific fluorescent probes as FRET donors and acceptors, respectively, for real time detection of native proteins.
McCaffery, Anthony J.
2018-03-01
This study of near-resonant, vibration-vibration (V-V) gas-phase energy transfer in diatomic molecules uses the theoretical/computational method, of Marsh & McCaffery (Marsh & McCaffery 2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117, 503 (doi:10.1063/1.1489998)) The method uses the angular momentum (AM) theoretical formalism to compute quantum-state populations within the component molecules of large, non-equilibrium, gas mixtures as the component species proceed to equilibration. Computed quantum-state populations are displayed in a number of formats that reveal the detailed mechanism of the near-resonant V-V process. Further, the evolution of quantum-state populations, for each species present, may be followed as the number of collision cycles increases, displaying the kinetics of evolution for each quantum state of the ensemble's molecules. These features are illustrated for ensembles containing vibrationally excited N2 in H2, O2 and N2 initially in their ground states. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.
Efficient near-field wireless energy transfer using adiabatic system variations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamam, Rafif E.; Karalis, Aristeidis; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin
2017-11-28
Disclosed is a method for transferring energy wirelessly including transferring energy wirelessly from a first resonator structure to an intermediate resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the first resonator structure and the intermediate resonator structure is .kappa..sub.1B, transferring energy wirelessly from the intermediate resonator structure to a second resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the intermediate resonator structure and the second resonator structure is .kappa..sub.B2, and during the wireless energy transfers, adjusting at least one of the coupling rates .kappa..sub.1B and .kappa..sub.B2 to reduce energy accumulation in the intermediate resonator structure and improve wireless energy transfer from the first resonator structure to the second resonator structure through the intermediate resonator structure.
NNΔ resonance and pd → 3He πo reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, T.
1988-01-01
On the basis of the I = 1, JP = 2+ resonant NΔ interaction (the pp 1D2 dibaryon), one argues that in NNΔ system a three-body resonance is generated. With a clustering binding energy of a few 10 MeV between the N and the Δ making the dibaryon and another binding energy of about 10 MeV between the NΔ cluster and the spectator N due to the attractive interaction of the Δ exchange between the cluster and spectator, the NNΔ system is bound about 40 - 60 MeV below the NNΔ threshold. Because of the Δ decay width the NNΔ bound state is actually a resonant state. The case where the spins of all the particles align in the same direction is most favorable to be bound, since the driving term is largest here. Assigning the zero orbital angular momenta, the spin-parity of the NNΔ resonance is JP = (5/2)+ . The resonance couples with NNN system through NN(1D2)-NΔ(5S2). Thus the total spin of the NNN system which couples easily with the NNΔ resonance is 1/2. Namely the spin doublet pd channel creates the NNΔ resonance. Similar argument applies to NΔΔ system. Then one summarize: NNΔ resonance : M = 3.07 GeV, JP = (5/2)+. NΔΔ resonance : M = 3.36 GeV, JP = (7/2)+. Both are easy to couple with the spin-doublet pd channel. Assuming the NNΔ and NΔΔ resonance terms, combined with the background ones which are mild in the energy dependence, one analyses the differential cross section and the deuteron tensor polarization of pd → 3 He π o at deuteron incident energy 410 ∼ 2200 MeV at θ = 0 and π. The remarkable energy-dependent structure of the tensor polarization is fairly explained by the existence of the NNΔ and NΔΔ resonances. (author)
Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com
2017-05-01
Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.
Formalization, equivalence and generalization of basic resonance electrical circuits
Penev, Dimitar; Arnaudov, Dimitar; Hinov, Nikolay
2017-12-01
In the work are presented basic resonance circuits, which are used in resonance energy converters. The following resonant circuits are considered: serial, serial with parallel load parallel capacitor, parallel and parallel with serial loaded inductance. For the circuits under consideration, expressions are generated for the frequencies of own oscillations and for the equivalence of the active power emitted in the load. Mathematical expressions are graphically constructed and verified using computer simulations. The results obtained are used in the model based design of resonant energy converters with DC or AC output. This guaranteed the output indicators of power electronic devices.
The CEBAF separator cavity resonance control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M. Wissmann; C. Hovater; A. Guerra; T. Plawski
2005-01-01
The CEBAF energy upgrade will increase the maximum beam energy from 6 GeV to 12 GeV available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three halls. The resulting increase in RF separator cavity gradient and subsequent increase in RF power needed for these higher energies will require the cavities to have active resonance control. Currently, at the present 4 to 6 GeV energies, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW) which is maintained at a constant temperature of 95 Fahrenheit. This approach is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system that controls both water temperature and flow has been designed and built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to regulate water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately, closed loop control will be maintained by monitoring each cavity's reflected power. This paper describes this system
Fano resonances in bilayer phosphorene nanoring
Zhang, Rui; Wu, Zhenhua; Li, X. J.; Li, L. L.; Chen, Qiao; Li, Yun-Mei; Peeters, F. M.
2018-05-01
Tunable transport properties and Fano resonances are predicted in a circular bilayer phosphorene nanoring. The conductance exhibits Fano resonances with varying incident energy and applied perpendicular magnetic field. These Fano resonance peaks can be accurately fitted with the well known Fano curves. When a magnetic field is applied to the nanoring, the conductance oscillates periodically with magnetic field which is reminiscent of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. Fano resonances are tightly related to the discrete states in the central nanoring, some of which are tunable by the magnetic field.
Pion elastic scattering from polarized 13C in the energy region of the P33 resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yifen, Yen
1992-08-01
Asymmetries (A y ) and differential cross sections (dσ/dΩ) were measured for π + and π - elastic scattering using polarized and unpolarized 13 C targets. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility with the pion beam from the Low Energy Pion channel. The scattered pions were detected with the Large Acceptance Spectrometer. The 13 C nuclei in 13 C-enriched 1-butanol were polarized by the dynamic nuclear polarilization method. Angular distributions of both A y and dσ/dΩ were measured below the P 33 resonance at the incident energy of 130 MeV for π + and π - , and above the resonance at 223 MeV for π + and at 226 MeV for π - . In addition, A y and dσ/dΩ were measured in a range of momentum transfers, 1.75 ≤ q ≤ 2.05 fm - , at several energies. At 130 MeV, the values of A y are significantly different from zero for π - scattering. For π + at 130 MeV and for both π - and π + at all other energies, the A y are mostly consistent with zero. Theoretical analyses were done using different nuclear structure models. The data were not reproduced by the presently available nuclear wave functions. It was found that the asymmetry is strongly sensitive to the quadrupole spin flip part of the transition. The data of this thesis complement measurements of the magnetic form factor from electron scattering. In attempts to fit both the asymmetry and the magnetic form factor, it was found that the pion asymmetry data are not reproduced by the wavefunctions which fit the magnetic form factor at low momentum transfers
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Deepa Khushalani. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 23 Issue 3 March 2018 pp 355-369 General Article. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy · Deepa Khushalani · More Details Abstract ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dileep Kumar Varma Sagiraju
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The load voltage and frequency should be controlled under steady state and transient conditions in off grid applications. Power quality and power management is very important task for rural communities under erratic wind and load conditions. This paper presents a coordinated Proportional resonant (PR and battery energy controller for enhancement of power quality and power management in direct drive standalone wind energy system. The dynamic performance of standalone direct drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG is investigated with the proposed control scheme under various operating conditions such as fluctuating wind with step increase and decrease in wind velocity, balanced and unbalanced load conditions. The proposed PR control strategy with battery energy controller also ensures effective power balance between wind and battery source in order to fulfill the load demand. The superiority of the proposed control strategy is confirmed by comparing with the traditional vector control strategy under fluctuating wind and load conditions through MATLAB/SIMULINK platform.
Resonant nuclear battery may aid in mitigating the greenhouse effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, P.M.
1989-01-01
A new process for the direct conversion of radioactive decay energy directly into electricity of a usable form is currently being developed by Peripheral Systems, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. United States Patent 4,835,433 was issued May 30, 1989 to protect this Resonant Nuclear Power Supply. When developed, this system promises cheap, reliable power from a package small and light enough to be mobile and an energy density great enough for use as a space-based power supply. One of the potential domestic applications could be to power electric automobiles. Use in highly populated areas would have a tremendous beneficial effect on the ecology. The principle of operation for the resonant nuclear power supply is an LCR (inductance capacitance resistance) resonant tank circuit oscillating at its self-resonant frequency (at resonance, the inductive reactance and the capacitive reactance cancel to leave the ohmic resistance of the circuit as the only major loss of energy). A means for absorbing the natural radioactive decay energy emitted from an alpha or beta source is provided in the primary tank circuit and contributes an amount of energy, by means of the beta voltaic effect, in excess of the energy required to sustain the oscillation of the LCR primary tank. A transformer is impedance matched to this oscillating primary circuit for efficient energy transfer of the excess energy to a secondary output circuit, which yields net electrical power in a high-frequency usable form to drive a load
Vibrational analysis of HOCl up to 98% of the dissociation energy with a Fermi resonance Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jost, R.; Joyeux, M.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.
1999-01-01
We have analyzed the vibrational energies and wave functions of HOCl obtained from previous ab initio calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2662 (1998); 109, 10273 (1998)]. Up to approximately 13 and h;000 cm -1 , the normal modes are nearly decoupled, so that the analysis is straightforward with a Dunham model. In contrast, above 13 and h;000 cm -1 the Dunham model is no longer valid for the levels with no quanta in the OH stretch (v 1 =0). In addition to v 1 , these levels can only be assigned a so-called polyad quantum number P=2v 2 +v 3 , where 2 and 3 denote, respectively, the bending and OCl stretching normal modes. In contrast, the levels with v 1 ≥2 remain assignable with three v i quantum numbers up to the dissociation (D 0 =19 and h;290 and h;cm -1 ). The interaction between the bending and the OCl stretch (ω 2 congruent 2ω 3 ) is well described with a simple, fitted Fermi resonance Hamiltonian. The energies and wave functions of this model Hamiltonian are compared with those obtained from ab initio calculations, which in turn enables the assignment of many additional ab initio vibrational levels. Globally, among the 809 bound levels calculated below dissociation, 790 have been assigned, the lowest unassigned level, No. 736, being located at 18 and h;885 cm -1 above the (0,0,0) ground level, that is, at about 98% of D 0 . In addition, 84 resonances located above D 0 have also been assigned. Our best Fermi resonance Hamiltonian has 29 parameters fitted with 725 ab initio levels, the rms deviation being of 5.3 cm -1 . This set of 725 fitted levels includes the full set of levels up to No. 702 at 18 and h;650 cm -1 . The ab initio levels, which are assigned but not included in the fit, are reasonably predicted by the model Hamiltonian, but with a typical error of the order of 20 cm -1 . The classical analysis of the periodic orbits of this Hamiltonian shows that two bifurcations occur at 13 and h;135 and 14 and h;059 cm -1 for levels with v 1 =0. Above each
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbone, D., E-mail: carboned@lns.infn.it; Cavallaro, M.; Bondì, M.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Azaiez, F.; Franchoo, S.; Khan, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universitè Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Bonaccorso, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fortunato, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Linares, R.; Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil); Scarpaci, J. A. [Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de Matieres, Universitè Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Vitturi, A. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)
2015-10-15
The {sup 12}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 14}C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been explored up to high excitation energy of the residual nucleus thanks to the use of the MAGNEX spectrometer to detect the ejectiles. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a resonance has been observed at 16.9 MeV. A multipolarity analysis of the cross section angular distribution indicates an L = 0 character for such a transition.
An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.
2008-01-01
To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed
An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.
Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z
2008-02-01
To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.
Foley, W Dennis; Shuman, William P; Siegel, Marilyn J; Sahani, Dushyant V; Boll, Daniel T; Bolus, David N; De Cecco, Carlo N; Kaza, Ravi K; Morgan, Desiree E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Vrtiska, Terri J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Berland, Lincoln L
This is the second of a series of 4 white papers that represent Expert Consensus Documents developed by the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance through its task force on dual-energy computed tomography. This paper, part 2, addresses radiation dose and iodine sensitivity in dual-energy computed tomography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van'kov, A.A.; Blokhin, A.I.; Manokhin, V.N.; Kravchenko, I.V.
1985-01-01
This paper analyses the reasons for the differences which exist between group-averaged evaluated cross-section data from different evaluated data files for U235, U238 and Pu239 in the unresolved resonance energy region. (author)
Micro-machined resonator oscillator
Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.
1994-01-01
A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.
Accidental degeneracy of resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Jauregui, A.
2001-01-01
Full text: It will be shown that a degeneracy of resonances is associated with a second rank pole in the scattering matrix and a Jordan cycle of generalized eigenfunctions of the radial Schrodinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in complex resonance energy eigenfunctions. In this orthonormal basis, the Hamiltonian is represented by a non-diagonal complex matrix with a Jordan block of rank two. Some general properties of the degeneracy of resonances will be exhibited and discussed in an explicit example of degeneracy of resonant states and double poles in the scattering matrix of a double barrier potential. The cross section, scattering wave functions and Jordan-Gamow eigenfunctions are computed at degeneracy and their properties as functions of the control parameters of the system are discussed. (Author)
Influence of resonance parameters' correlations on the resonance integral uncertainty; 55Mn case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zerovnik, Gasper; Trkov, Andrej; Capote, Roberto; Rochman, Dimitri
2011-01-01
For nuclides with a large number of resonances the covariance matrix of resonance parameters can become very large and expensive to process in terms of the computation time. By converting covariance matrix of resonance parameters into covariance matrices of background cross-section in a more or less coarse group structure a considerable amount of computer time and memory can be saved. The question is how important is the information that is discarded in the process. First, the uncertainty of the 55 Mn resonance integral was estimated in narrow resonance approximation for different levels of self-shielding using Bondarenko method by random sampling of resonance parameters according to their covariance matrices from two different 55 Mn evaluations: one from Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG (with large uncertainties but no correlations between resonances), the other from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (with smaller uncertainties but full covariance matrix). We have found out that if all (or at least significant part of the) resonance parameters are correlated, the resonance integral uncertainty greatly depends on the level of self-shielding. Second, it was shown that the commonly used 640-group SAND-II representation cannot describe the increase of the resonance integral uncertainty. A much finer energy mesh for the background covariance matrix would have to be used to take the resonance structure into account explicitly, but then the objective of a more compact data representation is lost.
The new classification of elementary particle resonance mass spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gareev, F.A.; Barabanov, M.Yu.; Kazacha, G.S.
1997-01-01
Elementary particle resonances have been systematically analyzed from the first principles: the conservation laws of energy-momentum and Ehrenfest adiabatic invariant. As a result, resonance decay product momenta and masses of resonances were established to be quantized. Radial excited states of resonances were revealed. These observations give us a possibility to formulate the strategy of experimental searches for new resonances and to systematize already known ones. (author)
Resonance phenomena near thresholds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden
1995-12-01
The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattar, S.L.; Kolekar, G.B.; Patil, S.R.
2008-01-01
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between perylene and riboflavin is studied in micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The fluorescence of perylene is quenched by riboflavin and quenching is in accordance with Stern-Volmer relation. The efficiency of energy transfer is found to depend on the concentration of riboflavin. The value of critical energy transfer distance (R 0 ) calculated by using Foster relation is 32.13 A, and as it is less than 50 A, it indicates efficient energy transfer in the present system. The analytical relation was established between extent of sensitization and concentration of riboflavin, which helped to estimate vitamin B 2 directly from pharmaceutical tablets
Blueshift of the surface plasmon resonance in silver nanoparticles: substrate effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei; Stenger, Nicolas
2013-01-01
We study the blueshift of the surface plasmon (SP) resonance energy of isolated Ag nanoparticles with decreasing particle diameter, which we recently measured using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) [1]. As the particle diameter decreases from 26 down to 3.5 nm, a large blueshift of 0.5 e......V of the SP resonance energy is observed. In this paper, we base our theoretical interpretation of our experimental findings on the nonlocal hydrodynamic model, and compare the effect of the substrate on the SP resonance energy to the approach of an effective homogeneous background permittivity. We derive...
Yefimova, Svetlana L; Kurilchenko, Irina Yu; Tkacheva, Tatyana N; Kavok, Nataliya S; Todor, Igor N; Lukianova, Nataliya Yu; Chekhun, Vasyl F; Malyukin, Yuriy V
2014-03-01
We report the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labeling of liposomal vesicles as an effective approach to study in dynamics the interaction of liposomes with living cells of different types (rat hepatocytes, rat bone marrow, mouse fibroblast-like cells and human breast cancer cells) and cell organelles (hepatocyte nuclei). The in vitro experiments were performed using fluorescent microspectroscopic technique. Two fluorescent dyes (DiO as the energy donor and DiI as an acceptor) were preloaded in lipid bilayers of phosphatidylcholine liposomes that ensures the necessary distance between the dyes for effective FRET. The change in time of the donor and acceptor relative fluorescence intensities was used to visualize and trace the liposome-to-cell interaction. We show that FRET-labeling of liposome vesicles allows one to reveal the differences in efficiency and dynamics of these interactions, which are associated with composition, fluidity, and metabolic activity of cell plasma membranes.
Mode Coupling and Nonlinear Resonances of MEMS Arch Resonators for Bandpass Filters
Hajjaj, Amal Z.
2017-01-30
We experimentally demonstrate an exploitation of the nonlinear softening, hardening, and veering phenomena (near crossing), where the frequencies of two vibration modes get close to each other, to realize a bandpass filter of sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband. The concept is demonstrated based on an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS arch resonator operated in air. The in-plane resonator is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a deliberate curvature to form an arch shape. A DC current is applied through the resonator to induce heat and modulate its stiffness, and hence its resonance frequencies. We show that the first resonance frequency increases up to twice of the initial value while the third resonance frequency decreases until getting very close to the first resonance frequency. This leads to the phenomenon of veering, where both modes get coupled and exchange energy. We demonstrate that by driving both modes nonlinearly and electrostatically near the veering regime, such that the first and third modes exhibit softening and hardening behavior, respectively, sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband is achievable. We show a flat, wide, and tunable bandwidth and center frequency by controlling the electrothermal actuation voltage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiao, Yi, E-mail: jiaoyi@ihep.ac.cn; Duan, Zhe
2017-01-01
In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theissen, P. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany)); Kaldewey, S. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany)); Moka, D. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany)); Bunke, J. (Philips Medizin Systeme, Hamburg (Germany)); Voth, E. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany)); Schicha, H. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany))
1993-06-01
[sup 31]Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows an in vivo examination of energy metabolism. The present study was designed to evaluate whether in patients with latent hyperthyroidism alterations of muscle energy metabolism could be found similar to those observed in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. In 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism before therapy and 20 with latent hyperthyroidism (also without therapy) and in 24 healthy volunteers magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscle was performed within a 1.5-Tesla magnet. Muscle concentrations of phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and ATP were quantified compared to an external standard solution of K[sub 2]HPO[sub 4]. In the patients with overt hyperthyroidism and with latent hyperthyroidism a significant decrease of phosphocreatine was found. Further, the ATP concentration in patients with latent and manifest hyperthyroidism tended towards lower values. There were no significant differences in the decrease of phosphocreatine and ATP between both patient groups. Therefore, this study for the first time shows that alterations of energy metabolism in latent hyperthyroidism can be measured and that they are similar to those observed in overt hyperthyroidism. (orig.)
DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF RESONANT DC-DC CONVERTERS
Belqasem Aljafari
2016-01-01
Resonant DC/DC converters are the class of converters, which have L-C resonant tank serving as a major part of the power conversion process. The fundamental concept of the resonant converter is that the circulating energy in an L-C resonant circuit is manageable by changing the operating frequency, and therefore the converter can condition the input power to the desired output voltage. The development in power conversion technology is steady demand for high power efficiency and high power den...
The resonance between runaway electrons and magnetic ripple in HT-7 Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Ruijie; Hu Liqun; Lu Hongwei; Lin Shiyao; Zhong Guoqiang; Xu Ping; Zhang Jizong
2011-01-01
For suppressing the energy of runaway electrons in tokamak plasma, we analyzed the X-ray energy spectra by runaway electrons in different discharges of the HT-7 tokamak experiment performed in the autumn of 2009. The resonant phenomenon between runaway electrons and magnetic ripple was found. Although, the energy of runaway electrons in the plasma core can be as high as several tens of MeV, but when they are transported to the edge, the electron energy are limited to a certain range by resonance with the magnetic ripple of different harmonic numbers. The runaway electrons under high loop voltage resonate with low step magnetic perturbations, with high energy gain; whereas the runaway electrons under low loop voltage resonate with high level magnetic perturbations, with low energy gain. Using this mechanism, the energy of runaway electrons can be restricted to a low level, and this will significantly mitigate the damage effect on the equipment caused by runaway electrons. (authors)
Effect of membrane microheterogeneity and domain size on fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
Towles, Kevin B; Brown, Angela C; Wrenn, Steven P; Dan, Nily
2007-07-15
Studies of multicomponent membranes suggest lateral inhomogeneity in the form of membrane domains, but the size of small (nanoscale) domains in situ cannot be determined with current techniques. In this article, we present a model that enables extraction of membrane domain size from time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) data. We expand upon a classic approach to the infinite phase separation limit and formulate a model that accounts for the presence of disklike domains of finite dimensions within a two-dimensional infinite planar bilayer. The model was tested against off-lattice Monte Carlo calculations of a model membrane in the liquid-disordered (l(d)) and liquid-ordered (l(o)) coexistence regime. Simulated domain size was varied from 5 to 50 nm, and two fluorophores, preferentially partitioning into opposite phases, were randomly mixed to obtain the simulated time-resolved FRET data. The Monte Carlo data show clear differences in the efficiency of energy transfer as a function of domain size. The model fit of the data yielded good agreement for the domain size, especially in cases where the domain diameter is membrane domains using time-resolved FRET.
Multilevel resonance parameters of 241Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weston, L.W.; Todd, J.H.
1978-01-01
The data previously reported by the authors on the neutron fission and capture cross sections of 241 Pu were simultaneously fit with the Adler formalism to obtain multilevel resonance parameters. The neutron energy range of the fit was 0.01 to 100 eV. The 241 Pu cross sections in the resonance region of neutron energies are complex, and the Adler parameters present an efficient method of representing these cross sections, which are important for plutonium-fueled reactors. The parameters represent the data to an accuracy within the quoted experimental errors. 5 figures, 2 tables
A new theoretical approach to resonant dtμ formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armour, E.A.G.
1996-01-01
A key process in the muon-catalysed fusion cycle is a low-energy collision of Tμ with a D 2 molecule which leads, at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing DTμ. In this paper the result is described of a formal derivation of the partial wave cross section for resonant DTμ formation, which makes use of elements of Feshbach's treatment of resonances. The expression obtained is similar to the Breit-Wigner formula. Full details of the calculation will be published elsewhere. (orig.)
Zhang, Hui; Fang, Congcong; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping
2015-11-15
In this work, a biosensor based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to SYBR Green I has been developed. The aptamers are covalently linked to UCNPs and hybridized with their complementary strands. The subsequent addition of SYBR Green allows SYBR Green I to insert into the formed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) duplex and brings the energy donor and acceptor into close proximity, leading to the fluorescence of UCNPs transferred to SYBR Green I. When excited at 980 nm, the UCNPs emit luminescence at 477 nm, and this energy is transferred to SYBR Green I, which emits luminescence at 530 nm. In the presence of oxytetracycline (OTC), the aptamers prefer to bind to its corresponding analyte and dehybridize with the complementary DNA. This dehybridization leads to the liberation of SYBR Green I, which distances SYBR Green I from the UCNPs and recovers the UCNPs' luminescence. Under optimal conditions, a linear calibration is obtained between the ratio of I530 to I477 nm (I530/I477) and the OTC concentration, which ranges from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.054 ng/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Resonances in the proton-6Li scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haller, M.
1986-01-01
The differential cross section and the analyzing power of the p+ 6 Li scattering were measured in the laboratory energy range from 1.6 respectively 2.8 MeV to 10 MeV at 45 respectively 40 energies in full angular distributions. The data were subjected both to an analysis in the optical model which yielded already hints to resonance effects and to a comphrehensive scattering-phase analysis for L=0, 1, and 2 under inclusion of channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixings. The consistent description of all data required the assumption of broad resonance structures. An approximate parametrization by a Breit-Wigner formula allowed the estimation of the resonance parameters. (orig./HSI) [de
Isotopic effect giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.
1981-10-01
The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Barroso, Margarida; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge
2017-01-01
Főrster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a quantum-physical phenomenon where energy may be transferred from one molecule to a neighbour molecule if the molecules are close enough. Using fluorophore molecule marking of proteins in a cell it is possible to measure in microscopic images to what....... In this paper we propose a new likelihood-based approach to statistical inference for FRET microscopic data. The likelihood function is obtained from a detailed modeling of the FRET data generating mechanism conditional on a protein configuration. We next follow a Bayesian approach and introduce a spatial point...
Excitation of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogata, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M. [and others; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics
1980-01-01
Recent studies on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in /sup 144/Sm and /sup 208/Pb using the ..cap alpha..-scattering performed at RCNP are summarized. The observed angular range covered 1.6/sup 0/ -- 7/sup 0/ with a coupled system of a dipole and a triplet quadrupole magnet. The incident energy was changed from 84 to 119 MeV. The resonance shapes and energy-weighted sum-rule strengths of the GMR and the GQR were reliably deduced as a function of incident energy. The quadrupole strength of --20% was found in the GMR region. The observed excitation function of the GMR was compared with the DWBA calculation, in which the Satchler's Version I was used as a form factor representing the compressional motion of the nucleus. It was found that the experimental excitation function of the GMR shows steeper decrease as lowering the incident energy than the DWBA prediction whereas that of the GQR is successfully described by the DWBA. This suggests that examination of the model describing the GMR is necessary.
LOW-TEMPERATURE EQUATION OF STATE OF SOLID METHANE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. N. Yakub
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The theoretical equation of state for solid methane, developed within the framework of perturbation theory, with the crystal consisting of spherical molecules as zero-order approximation, and octupole – octupole interaction of methane molecules as a perturbation, is proposed. Thermodynamic functions are computed on the sublimation line up to the triple point. The contribution of the octupole – octupole interaction to the thermodynamic properties of solid methane is estimated.
Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giancarlo C. Righini
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.
Observation of electrons from the 1P0 resonance of D-
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, M.M.; Menendez, M.G.
1989-01-01
We have measured the electron energy spectra near 0 0 produced in collisions of D - with Ar. Using a 400-keV D - beam and with good experimental energy and angular resolution we have found structure in the ejected electron energy spectra which is due to the decay of the 1 P 0 shape resonance. The doubly differential cross sections (DDCS's) have been measured as a function of angle and it was found that this structure disappeared for laboratory angles greater than 1 0 as expected. A resonance contribution to the DDCS's was extracted at θ/sub L/ = 0 0 , transformed to the projectile frame, and fit with a Breit-Wigner shape. Our resonant energy is in reasonable agreement with other experiments. We also find a small asymmetry in the two resonant structures in the laboratory measurements at θ/sub L/ = 0 0
Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi
2015-01-01
Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs
Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)
2015-09-28
Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.
Resonant Tunnelling in Barrier-in-Well and Well-in-Well Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang-Hong, Yao; Zhang-Yan; Wei-Wu, Li; Yong-Chun, Shu; Zhan-Guo, Wang; Jing-Jun, Xu; Guo-Zhi, Jia
2008-01-01
A Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for a barrier in a quantum well and a quantum well in another well structure by the transfer matrix technique. Effect of structure parameters on the transmission probabilities is investigated in detail. The results suggest that symmetry plays an important role in the coupling effect between the quantum wells. The relationship between the width of the inner well and the resonant energy levels in well-in-well structures is also studied. It is found that the ground state energy and the second resonant energy decrease with increasing width of the inner well, while the first resonant energy remains constant
Atomic resonances in nuclear fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clauser, C. F.; Barrachina, R. O.
2013-01-01
We present a study of zero energy resonances of photoionization and radiative recombination cross section for the different species in a fusion reactor. In this context, the interaction potential is screened and its typical length depends on the plasma density and temperature. Due to the nature of these resonances, we propose other atomic processes in which they can take place. Finally, we show the density and temperature conditions where these resonances occur and their probable consequence on the reactor performance. (author)
Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D
2013-09-01
The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements.
Vibrational resonances in biological systems at microwave frequencies.
Adair, Robert K
2002-03-01
Many biological systems can be expected to exhibit resonance behavior involving the mechanical vibration of system elements. The natural frequencies of such resonances will, generally, be in the microwave frequency range. Some of these systems will be coupled to the electromagnetic field by the charge distributions they carry, thus admitting the possibility that microwave exposures may generate physiological effects in man and other species. However, such microwave excitable resonances are expected to be strongly damped by interaction with their aqueous biological environment. Although those dissipation mechanisms have been studied, the limitations on energy transfers that follow from the limited coupling of these resonances to the electromagnetic field have not generally been considered. We show that this coupling must generally be very small and thus the absorbed energy is so strongly limited that such resonances cannot affect biology significantly even if the systems are much less strongly damped than expected from basic dissipation models.
D-wave resonances in positronium hydride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.
2002-01-01
In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032721 (2002)] we reexamined a model describing the structure of the low-energy Ps-H resonances as being due to quasibound states of the positron in the perturbed Coulomb potential of the H - ion appearing in the closed, rearranged channel. In particular, we wished to understand why the lowest p-state resonance was so far away from the lowest quasibound (2p) state. We found that the lowest resonance actually corresponds to the first-excited [3p] state, while the lowest state is not recognizable as a resonance. In the present work we repeat our analysis, but this time for the lowest d state. We find that the lowest [3d] state does correspond to a resonance shifted moderately
Tong, Hao; Xu, Renxin
2013-03-01
The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.
Study on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdS quantum dots and Eosin Y.
Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Chen, Jianqiu
2015-03-01
Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using mercaptoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer in an aqueous system. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was constructed between water-soluble CdS QDs (donor) and Eosin Y (acceptor). Several factors that impacted the fluorescence spectra of the FRET system, such as pH (3.05-10.10), concentration of Eosin Y (2-80 mg/L) and concentration of CdS QDs (2-80 mg/L), were investigated and refined. Donor-to-acceptor ratios, the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between CdS QDs and Eosin Y were obtained. The results showed that a FRET system could be established between water-soluble CdS QDs and Eosin Y at pH 5.0; donor-to-acceptor ratios demonstrated a 1: 8 proportion of complexes; the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between the QDs and Eosin Y were 20.07% and 4.36 nm,respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Distribution of radiative strength with excitation energy: the E1 and M1 giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, G.E.; Speth, J.
1979-01-01
Calculations of the giant dipole resonance in the particle-hole model, employing empirical values for the unperturbed particle and hole energies, have been unsuccessful in pushing the dipole state to a sufficiently high energy. it is argued that unperturbed levels correspondign to an effective mass of m*/m approx. 0.6 to 0.7 should be employed. The couplings of particles and holes to vibrations are the crucial ingredients in these considerations. More generally, it is argued that the effective mass relevant to excitations near the Fermi surface is that corresponding to empirical single-particle levels, m*/m greater than or equal to 1.0. For particle-hole excitations above the Fermi surface, it is a decreasing function of excitation energy, reaching the above values 0.6 to 0.7 for E greater than or equal to 2 dirac constant/b omega, dirac constant/sub omega/ being the shell spacing. This has the consequence of spreading out the M1 strength. A new interpretation of experimental strengths is proposed
Near-Infrared Resonance Energy Transfer Glucose Biosensors in Hybrid Microcapsule Carriers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mike McShane
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Fluorescence-based sensing systems offer potential for noninvasive monitoring with implantable devices, but require carrier technologies that provide suitable immobilization, accessibility, and biocompatibility. Recent developments towards this goal include a competitive binding assay for glucose that has been encapsulated in semipermeable microcapsule carriers. This paper describes an extension of this work to increase the applicability to in vivo monitoring, wherein two significant developments are described: (1 a near-infrared resonance energy transfer system for transducing glucose concentration, and (2 novel hybrid organic-inorganic crosslinked microcapsules as carriers. The quenching-based assay is a competitive binding (CB system based on apo-glucose oxidase (AG as the receptor and dextran as the competitive ligand. The encapsulated quencher-labeled dextran and near infrared donor-labeled glucose receptor showed a stable and reversible response with tunable sensitivity of 1Ã¢Â€Â“5%/mM over the physiological range, making these transducers attractive for continuous monitoring for biomedical applications.
Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams
Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M
2013-01-01
There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...
Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.
Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris
2017-06-01
We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Resonant Effects in Neutral beam Moderation at TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.; Fuentes, C.
1999-01-01
The structure of fast ion losses in neutral beam moderation at TJ-II is analysed theoretically, in particular the influence of resonant effects and the radial electric field dependence. The direct losses show strong resonant effects when the ratio of the poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities pass near the values -4/3, -2 or 0. These effects are visible as strong maxima on the loss fractions and also as characteristic trajectory behaviours. The delayed losses present resonant effects also, generally at intermediate energies (5 to 20 KeV for 40 keV injection). Near the resonances the population of passing particles in these losses is very high and the loss fraction can equal or even surpass the direct losses. In these delayed losses the particles concentrate along vertical strips on the loss cone diagrams of roughly constant parallel velocity. This parallel velocity increases with the electric field, the loss maxima are reached usually when the pitch and energy of these strips are near the initial injection values. The trapped particle population in these delayed losses is maximal at null electric and decreases with the field intensity for both potential signs. The corresponding final energies are usually low (1 to 5 keV). Except at extreme potentials, where the -4 resonance can appear, no resonant effects are observed for this population. The resonance ordering is similar for all configurations and follows reasonably the predictions of a simple model. The extreme configurations are dominated by the effects of the 0 and -2 resonances, giving very high loss fractions even for null electric field. In contrast the intermediate configurations, near the Reference one, do not present resonant effects and the losses are moderate at low potentials. Only above 2000 v the resonant effects start to appear. (Author) 11 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snover, K.A.
1989-01-01
Giant nuclear resonances are elementary mods of oscillation of the whole nucleus, closely related to the normal modes of oscillation of coupled mechanical systems. They occur systematically in most if not all nuclei, with oscillation energies typically in the range 10-30 MeV. One of the best - known examples is the giant electric dipole (El) resonance, in which all the protons and all the neutrons oscillate with opposite phase, producing a large time - varying electric dipole moment which acts as an effective antenna for radiating gamma ray. This paper discusses this mode as well as quadrupole and monopole modes
Neutron resonance parameters of CM isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belanova, T.S.; Kolesov, A.G.; Poruchikov, V.A.
1977-01-01
The total neutron cross sections of isotopes 244, 245, 246, 248 Curium have been measured on reactor CM-2 using the time-of-flight method. Single-level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters: energy E 0 , neutron width 2g GITAn, total width GITA, total neutron cross section in resonance sigma 0 have been obtained by the shape and area methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattar, S.L.; Kolekar, G.B. [Fluorescence Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Patil, S.R. [Fluorescence Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: srp_fsl@rediffmail.com
2008-03-15
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between perylene and riboflavin is studied in micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The fluorescence of perylene is quenched by riboflavin and quenching is in accordance with Stern-Volmer relation. The efficiency of energy transfer is found to depend on the concentration of riboflavin. The value of critical energy transfer distance (R{sub 0}) calculated by using Foster relation is 32.13 A, and as it is less than 50 A, it indicates efficient energy transfer in the present system. The analytical relation was established between extent of sensitization and concentration of riboflavin, which helped to estimate vitamin B{sub 2} directly from pharmaceutical tablets.
Resonant and Ground Experimental Study on the Microwave Plasma Thruster
Yang, Juan; He, Hongqing; Mao, Genwang; Qu, Kun; Tang, Jinlan; Han, Xianwei
2002-01-01
chemistry. Therefore, the application of EP for the attitude control and station keeping of satellite, the propulsion of deep space exploration craft allows to reduce substantially the mass of on-board propellant and the launching cost. The EP research is now receiving high interest everywhere. microwave generating subsystem, the propellant supplying subsystem and the resonator (the thruster). Its principle is that the magnetron of the microwave generating subsystem transfers electric energy into microwave energy at given frequency which is introduced into a resonant cavity. Microwave will resonate within the cavity when it is adjusted. When the propellant gas (N2, Ar, He, NH3 or H2) is put into the cavity and coupled with microwave energy at the maximal electric intensity place, it will be broken down to form free-floating plasma, which flows from nozzle with high speed to produce thrust. Its characteristic is high efficiency, simple power supply and without electrode ablation, its specific impulse is greater than arcjet. 2450MHz, have been developed. The microwave generating subsystem and resonator of lower power MPT, 70-200W, are coaxial. The resonator with TEM resonating mode is section of coaxial wave-guide, of which one end is shorted, another is semi-opened. The maximal electric intensity field is in the lumped capacity formed between the end surface of inner conductor, retracting in the cavity, and the semi-opened surface of outer conductor. It provides favorable condition for gas breakdown. The microwave generating system and resonator of middle power MPT, 500-1,000W, are wave-guide cavity. The resonator with TM011 resonating mode is cylinder wave-guide cavity, of which two end surface are shorted. The distribution of electromagnetic field is axial symmetry, its maximal electric intensity field locates on the axis and closes to the exit of nozzle, where the propellant gas is breakdown to form free floating plasma. The plasma is free from the wall of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, G.F.; Vasilevsky, V.S.; Kovalenko, T.P.
1984-01-01
The reaction of 4 He electrodisintegration at small momenta transfered to the nucleus by electrons is considered on the basis of an algebraic version of the resonating group method. The calculated matrix element of the monopole transition from the ground state of 4 He into the O + -resonance state and the calculated monopole energy weighted sum rules confirm the assumption on the cluster nature of O + -resonance. In the dipole approximation the photonuclear reaction of 4 He(γ, n)He 3 at small energies of γ-quanta is studied. The obtained values of the electric dipole transition probabilities and the effective cross sections reveal a good agreement with experimental data
New resonance cross section calculational algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, D.R.
1978-01-01
Improved resonance cross section calculational algorithms were developed and tested for inclusion in a fast reactor version of the MICROX code. The resonance energy portion of the MICROX code solves the neutron slowing-down equations for a two-region lattice cell on a very detailed energy grid (about 14,500 energies). In the MICROX algorithms, the exact P 0 elastic scattering kernels are replaced by synthetic (approximate) elastic scattering kernels which permit the use of an efficient and numerically stable recursion relation solution of the slowing-down equation. In the work described here, the MICROX algorithms were modified as follows: an additional delta function term was included in the P 0 synthetic scattering kernel. The additional delta function term allows one more moments of the exact elastic scattering kernel to be preserved without much extra computational effort. With the improved synthetic scattering kernel, the flux returns more closely to the exact flux below a resonance than with the original MICROX kernel. The slowing-down calculation was extended to a true B 1 hyperfine energy grid calculatn in each region by using P 1 synthetic scattering kernels and tranport-corrected P 0 collision probabilities to couple the two regions. 1 figure, 6 tables
Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance
Harriman, John E
2013-01-01
Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f
Revealing Nucleic Acid Mutations Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Probes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nina P. L. Junager
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Nucleic acid mutations are of tremendous importance in modern clinical work, biotechnology and in fundamental studies of nucleic acids. Therefore, rapid, cost-effective and reliable detection of mutations is an object of extensive research. Today, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET probes are among the most often used tools for the detection of nucleic acids and in particular, for the detection of mutations. However, multiple parameters must be taken into account in order to create efficient FRET probes that are sensitive to nucleic acid mutations. In this review; we focus on the design principles for such probes and available computational methods that allow for their rational design. Applications of advanced, rationally designed FRET probes range from new insights into cellular heterogeneity to gaining new knowledge of nucleic acid structures directly in living cells.
Determining properties of baryon resonances in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, M.B.; Chen, C.M.; Ernst, D.J.; Jiang, M.F.
1996-01-01
Meson-nucleus and photon-nucleus interactions are important sources of information about the medium modifications of baryon resonances in nuclei. Indications of how large the medium effects are for resonances above the Δ 33 (1232) are provided by it combined analysis of photonuclear and pion cross sections in the GeV range of energies. Tile existing data indicate a possible 10-20% renormalization of the pion coupling to higher-lying resonances in nuclei
Resonant power processors. I - State plane analysis
Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.
1984-01-01
State-plane techniques in conjunction with piecewise-linear analysis is employed to study the steady-state and transient characteristics of a series resonant converter. With the direct viewing of the resonant tank energy and the device switching instants, the state portrayal provides unique insights into the complex behavior of the converter. Operation of the converter under both continuous and discontinuous current modes and at frequencies both below and above resonant frequency are discussed.
Issues in vibration energy harvesting
Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei
2018-05-01
In this study, fundamental issues related to bandwidth and nonlinear resonance in vibrational energy harvesting devices are investigated. The results show that using bandwidth as a criterion to measure device performance can be misleading. For a linear device, an enlarged bandwidth is achieved at the cost of sacrificing device performance near resonance, and thus widening the bandwidth may offer benefits only when the natural frequency of the linear device cannot match the dominant excitation frequency. For a nonlinear device, since the principle of superposition does not apply, the ''broadband" performance improvements achieved for single-frequency excitations may not be achievable for multi-frequency excitations. It is also shown that a large-amplitude response based on the traditional ''nonlinear resonance" does not always result in the optimal performance for a nonlinear device because of the negative work done by the excitation, which indicates energy is returned back to the excitation. Such undesired negative work is eliminated at global resonance, a generalized resonant condition for both linear and nonlinear systems. While the linear resonance is a special case of global resonance for a single-frequency excitation, the maximum potential of nonlinear energy harvesting can be reached for multi-frequency excitations by using global resonance to simultaneously harvest energy distributed over multiple frequencies.
Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2018-01-17
We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency is modulated through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the microbeam. A multi-physics finite element model is used to verify the effectiveness of the axial modulation. We present two case studies: first, a reconfigurable two-input logic gate based on the linear resonance frequency modulation, and second, a memory element based on the hysteretic frequency response of the resonator working in the nonlinear regime. The energy consumptions of the device for both logic and memory operations are in the range of picojoules, promising for energy efficient alternative computing paradigm.
Polarization of nuclear spins by a cold nanoscale resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, Mark C.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.
2011-01-01
A cold nanoscale resonator coupled to a system of nuclear spins can induce spin relaxation. In the low-temperature limit where spin-lattice interactions are ''frozen out,'' spontaneous emission by nuclear spins into a resonant mechanical mode can become the dominant mechanism for cooling the spins to thermal equilibrium with their environment. We provide a theoretical framework for the study of resonator-induced cooling of nuclear spins in this low-temperature regime. Relaxation equations are derived from first principles, in the limit where energy donated by the spins to the resonator is quickly dissipated into the cold bath that damps it. A physical interpretation of the processes contributing to spin polarization is given. For a system of spins that have identical couplings to the resonator, the interaction Hamiltonian conserves spin angular momentum, and the resonator cannot relax the spins to thermal equilibrium unless this symmetry is broken by the spin Hamiltonian. The mechanism by which such a spin system becomes ''trapped'' away from thermal equilibrium can be visualized using a semiclassical model, which shows how an indirect spin-spin interaction arises from the coupling of multiple spins to one resonator. The internal spin Hamiltonian can affect the polarization process in two ways: (1) By modifying the structure of the spin-spin correlations in the energy eigenstates, and (2) by splitting the degeneracy within a manifold of energy eigenstates, so that zero-frequency off-diagonal terms in the density matrix are converted to oscillating coherences. Shifting the frequencies of these coherences sufficiently far from zero suppresses the development of resonator-induced correlations within the manifold during polarization from a totally disordered state. Modification of the spin-spin correlations by means of either mechanism affects the strength of the fluctuating spin dipole that drives the resonator. In the case where product states can be chosen as energy
Theoretical evaluation of self-shielding factors due to scattering resonances in foils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selander, W.N.
1960-06-01
A semi-analytical method is given for evaluating self-shielding factors for activation measurements which use thin foils having neutron scattering resonances. The energy loss by scattering in the foil is taken into account. The energy-dependent neutron angular distribution is expanded as a double series, the coefficients of which are (energy dependent) solutions of an infinite set of coupled integral equations. These are truncated in some suitable manner and solved numerically. The leading term of the series is proportional to the average, or effective flux in the activation sample. The product of this terra and the neutron capture cross-section is integrated numerically over the resonance to give the resonance self-shielding correction. Figure 4 shows resonance self-shielding factors derived in this mariner for the 132ev resonance in Co-59 and figure 5 shows similar results for the two Mn-55 resonances at 337ev and 1080ev. Self-shielding factors for 1/v capture are not significantly different from unity. (author)
Altevogt, Dominik; Hrenn, Andrea; Kern, Claudia; Clima, Lilia; Bannwarth, Willi; Merfort, Irmgard
2009-10-07
Herein we report a feasibility study for a new concept to detect DNA binding protein NF-kappaB based on a DNA triple helix formation in combination with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The new principle avoids expensive antibodies and radioactivity and might have implications for assays of other DNA binding proteins.
Packets of resonant modes in the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genta, Tommaso; Giorgilli, Antonio; Paleari, Simone; Penati, Tiziano
2012-01-01
We reconsider the phenomenon of localization of energy in low frequency modes in the FPU system, exploiting the resonances in the lower part of the spectrum. Using the resonant normal form of Birkhoff we construct some candidates of approximate first integrals which we put in correspondence to packets of low frequency modes. By numerical calculation we show that the packet associated to the best quasi-integral involves all modes up to a frequency ω ⁎ (ε), where ε is the specific energy. The phenomenon disappears when the specific energy is bigger than a threshold value. The dependence of the relevant quantities on the number N of particles is also investigated. A final section is devoted to a first comparison with the Toda model. -- Highlights: ► We study the role of resonances for energy localization and metastability in the FPU model. ► We construct an approximated first integral associated to the metastable state. ► We propose to identify the metastable state as a packet of resonant modes. ► The packet extend up to a frequency ω ⁎ (ε), which depends only on the specific energy ε.
Packets of resonant modes in the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genta, Tommaso, E-mail: tomgenta@gmail.com [Università degli Studi di Milano, Corso di Laurea in Matematica, Via C. Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Giorgilli, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.giorgilli@unimi.it [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Via C. Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Paleari, Simone, E-mail: simone.paleari@unimi.it [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Via C. Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Penati, Tiziano, E-mail: tiziano.penati@unimi.it [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Via C. Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2012-06-04
We reconsider the phenomenon of localization of energy in low frequency modes in the FPU system, exploiting the resonances in the lower part of the spectrum. Using the resonant normal form of Birkhoff we construct some candidates of approximate first integrals which we put in correspondence to packets of low frequency modes. By numerical calculation we show that the packet associated to the best quasi-integral involves all modes up to a frequency ω{sup ⁎}(ε), where ε is the specific energy. The phenomenon disappears when the specific energy is bigger than a threshold value. The dependence of the relevant quantities on the number N of particles is also investigated. A final section is devoted to a first comparison with the Toda model. -- Highlights: ► We study the role of resonances for energy localization and metastability in the FPU model. ► We construct an approximated first integral associated to the metastable state. ► We propose to identify the metastable state as a packet of resonant modes. ► The packet extend up to a frequency ω{sup ⁎}(ε), which depends only on the specific energy ε.
Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.
Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F
2017-12-13
An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nai-Tzu Chen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes sensitive to specific changes in the biological environment that are especially attractive from the biomedical point of view. This article reviews recent progress in bringing these nanoparticle-modulated energy transfer schemes to fruition for applications in biosensing, molecular imaging and drug delivery.
The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)
2014-05-09
Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.
The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.
2014-01-01
Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance
New properties of giant resonances in highly excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsch, H.P.
1991-01-01
Studies on the giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei investigated in heavy ion-induced particle-γ coincidence experiments are reviewed. A signature is found in the γ-decay of excited nuceli which shows direct decay of the giant dipole resonance. This provides a new dimension in giant resonance studies and the possibility to study the dependence of giant resonance energy, width and sum rule strength on excitation energy and rotation of the system. Further, the fact that the giant resonance splits in deformed nuclei provides a unique way to get information on the shape of hot nuclei. First results are obtained on the following questions: (i)What is the nuclear shape at high temperature (T≥2 MeV)? (ii)Is there a phase transition in the nuclear shape at T∼1.7 MeV? (iii)Does motional narrowing exist in hot nuclei? (author). 19 refs., 11 figs
Neutron Spin Resonance in the 112-Type Iron-Based Superconductor
Xie, Tao; Gong, Dongliang; Ghosh, Haranath; Ghosh, Abyay; Soda, Minoru; Masuda, Takatsugu; Itoh, Shinichi; Bourdarot, Frédéric; Regnault, Louis-Pierre; Danilkin, Sergey; Li, Shiliang; Luo, Huiqian
2018-03-01
We use inelastic neutron scattering to study the low-energy spin excitations of the 112-type iron pnictide Ca0.82La0.18Fe0.96Ni0.04As2 with bulk superconductivity below Tc=22 K . A two-dimensional spin resonance mode is found around E =11 meV , where the resonance energy is almost temperature independent and linearly scales with Tc along with other iron-based superconductors. Polarized neutron analysis reveals the resonance is nearly isotropic in spin space without any L modulations. Because of the unique monoclinic structure with additional zigzag arsenic chains, the As 4 p orbitals contribute to a three-dimensional hole pocket around the Γ point and an extra electron pocket at the X point. Our results suggest that the energy and momentum distribution of the spin resonance does not directly respond to the kz dependence of the fermiology, and the spin resonance intrinsically is a spin-1 mode from singlet-triplet excitations of the Cooper pairs in the case of weak spin-orbital coupling.
Implementation of optimal trajectory control of series resonant converter
Oruganti, Ramesh; Yang, James J.; Lee, Fred C.
1987-01-01
Due to the presence of a high-frequency LC tank circuit, the dynamics of a resonant converter are unpredictable. There is often a large surge of tank energy during transients. Using state-plane analysis technique, an optimal trajectory control utilizing the desired solution trajectory as the control law was previously proposed for the series resonant converters. The method predicts the fastest response possible with minimum energy surge in the resonant tank. The principle of the control and its experimental implementation are described here. The dynamics of the converter are shown to be close to time-optimal.
Semimicroscopic description of the giant quadrupole resonances in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurchev, G.; Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.
1976-01-01
The calculation results of the giant quadrupole isoscalar and isovector resonances performed within the random phase approximation are represented. The strength functions for E2-transitions are calculated for doubly even deformed nuclei in the regions 150 (<=) A < 190 and 228 (<=) A < 248 in the energy interval (0-40) MeV. The following integral characteristics of giant quadrupole resonances are obtained: the position, widths, the contribution to the energy weighted sum rule and the contribution to the total cross section of photoabsorption. The calculations have shown that giant quadrupole resonances are common for all the considered nuclei. The calculated characteristics of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance agree with the available experimental data. The calculations also show that the semimicroscopic theory can be successfully applied for the description of giant multipole resonances
Investigating hadronic resonances in pp interactions with HADES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Przygoda Witold
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report on the investigation of baryonic resonance production in proton-proton collisions at the kinetic energies of 1.25 GeV and 3.5 GeV, based on data measured with HADES. Exclusive channels npπ+ and ppπ0 as well as ppe+e− were studied simultaneously in the framework of a one-boson exchange model. The resonance cross sections were determined from the one-pion channels for Δ(1232 and N(1440 (1.25 GeV as well as further Δ and N* resonances up to 2 GeV/c2 for the 3.5 GeV data. The data at 1.25 GeV energy were also analysed within the framework of the partial wave analysis together with the set of several other measurements at lower energies. The obtained solutions provided the evolution of resonance production with the beam energy, showing a sizeable non-resonant contribution but with still dominating contribution of Δ(1232P33. In the case of 3.5 GeV data, the study of the ppe+e− channel gave the insight on the Dalitz decays of the baryon resonances and, in particular, on the electromagnetic transition form-factors in the time-like region. We show that the assumption of a constant electromagnetic transition form-factors leads to underestimation of the yield in the dielectron invariant mass spectrum below the vector mesons pole. On the other hand, a comparison with various transport models shows the important role of intermediate ρ production, though with a large model dependency. The exclusive channels analysis done by the HADES collaboration provides new stringent restrictions on the parameterizations used in the models.
Doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H− in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao, L. G.; Ho, Y. K.
2013-01-01
We investigate the doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H − system in Debye plasmas modeled by static screened Coulomb potentials. The screening effects of the plasma environment on resonance parameters (energy and width) are investigated by employing the complex-scaling method with Hylleraas-type wave functions for both the shape and Feshbach resonances associated with the H(N = 2 to 6) thresholds. Under the screening conditions, the H(N) threshold states are no longer l degenerate, and all the H − resonance energy levels are shifted away from their unscreened values toward the continuum. The influence of Debye plasmas on resonance widths has also been investigated. The shape resonance widths are broadened with increasing plasma screening strength, whereas the Feshbach resonance widths would generally decrease. Our results associated with the H(N = 2) and H(N = 3) thresholds are compared with others in the literature
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Nan Wu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluorescence and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (F/BRET are two forms of Förster resonance energy transfer, which can be used for optical transduction of biosensors. BRET has several advantages over fluorescence-based technologies because it does not require an external light source. There would be benefits in combining BRET transduction with microfluidics but the low luminance of BRET has made this challenging until now. METHODOLOGY: We used a thrombin bioprobe based on a form of BRET (BRET(H, which uses the BRET(1 substrate, native coelenterazine, with the typical BRET(2 donor and acceptor proteins linked by a thrombin target peptide. The microfluidic assay was carried out in a Y-shaped microfluidic network. The dependence of the BRET(H ratio on the measurement location, flow rate and bioprobe concentration was quantified. Results were compared with the same bioprobe in a static microwell plate assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The BRET(H thrombin bioprobe has a lower limit of detection (LOD than previously reported for the equivalent BRET(1-based version but it is substantially brighter than the BRET(2 version. The normalised BRET(H ratio of the bioprobe changed 32% following complete cleavage by thrombin and 31% in the microfluidic format. The LOD for thrombin in the microfluidic format was 27 pM, compared with an LOD of 310 pM, using the same bioprobe in a static microwell assay, and two orders of magnitude lower than reported for other microfluidic chip-based protease assays. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that BRET based microfluidic assays are feasible and that BRET(H provides a useful test bed for optimising BRET-based microfluidics. This approach may be convenient for a wide range of applications requiring sensitive detection and/or quantification of chemical or biological analytes.
Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangelov, A.A.; Vitanov, N.V.
2012-01-01
A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter–mediator (EM), mediator–receiver (MR) and emitter–receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter–mediator–receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: ► Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. ► The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.
Resonance shielding in thermal reactor lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothenstein, W.; Taviv, E.; Aminpour, M.
1982-01-01
The theoretical foundations of a new methodology for the accurate treatment of resonance absorption in thermal reactor lattice analysis are presented. This methodology is based on the solution of the point-energy transport equation in its integral or integro-differential form for a heterogeneous lattice using detailed resonance cross-section profiles. The methodology is applied to LWR benchmark analysis, with emphasis on temperature dependence of resonance absorption during fuel depletion, spatial and mutual self-shielding, integral parameter analysis and treatment of cluster geometry. The capabilities of the OZMA code, which implements the new methodology are discussed. These capabilities provide a means against which simpler and more rapid resonance absorption algorithms can be checked. (author)
Resonant power processors. II - Methods of control
Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.
1984-01-01
The nature of resonant converter control is discussed. Employing the state-portrait, different control methods for series resonant converter are identified and their performance evaluated based on their stability, response to control and load changes and range of operation. A new control method, optimal-trajectory control, is proposed which, by utilizing the state trajectories as control laws, continuously monitors the energy level of the resonant tank. The method is shown to have superior control properties especially under transient operation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Polydiacetylene Liposomes
Li, Xuelian; Matthews, Shelton; Kohli, Punit
2009-01-01
Conjugated polydiacetylene (PDA) possessing stimuli-responsive properties has been intensively investigated for developing efficient sensors. We report here fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in liposomes synthesized using different molar ratios of dansyl-tagged diacetylene and diacetylene–carboxylic acid monomers. Photopolymerization of diacetylene resulted in cross-linked PDA liposomes. We used steady-state electronic absorption, emission, and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) analysis to characterize the thermal-induced FRET between dansyl fluorophores (donor) and PDA (acceptor). We found that the monomer ratio of acceptor to donor (Rad) and length of linkers (functional part that connects dansyl fluorophores to the diacetylene group in the monomer) strongly affected FRET. For Rad = 10 000, the acceptor emission intensity was amplified by more than 18 times when the liposome solution was heated from 298 to 338 K. A decrease in Rad resulted in diminished acceptor emission amplification. This was primarily attributed to lower FRET efficiency between donors and acceptors and a higher background signal. We also found that the FRET amplification of PDA emissions after heating the solution was much higher when dansyl was linked to diacetylene through longer and flexible linkers than through shorter linkers. We attributed this to insertion of dansyl in the bilayer of the liposomes, which led to an increased dansyl quantum yield and a higher interaction of multiple acceptors with limited available donors. This was not the case for shorter and more rigid linkers where PDA amplification was much smaller. The present studies aim at enhancing our understanding of FRET between fluorophores and PDA-based conjugated liposomes. Furthermore, receptor tagged onto PDA liposomes can interact with ligands present on proteins, enzymes, and cells, which will produce emission sensing signal. Therefore, using the present approach, there exist opportunities for designing FRET
Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka
1995-01-01
Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers
Resonance reactions and enhancement of weak interactions in collisions of cold molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.
2006-01-01
With the creation of ultracold atoms and molecules, a new type of chemistry - 'resonance' chemistry - emerges: chemical reactions can occur when the energy of colliding atoms and molecules matches a bound state of the combined molecule (Feshbach resonance). This chemistry is rather similar to reactions that take place in nuclei at low energies. In this paper we suggest some problems for future experimental and theoretical work related to the resonance chemistry of ultracold molecules. Molecular Bose-Einstein condensates are particularly interesting because in this system collisions and chemical reactions are extremely sensitive to weak fields; also, a preferred reaction channel may be enhanced due to a finite number of final states. The sensitivity to weak fields arises due to the high density of narrow compound resonances and the macroscopic number of molecules with kinetic energy E=0 (in the ground state of a mean-field potential). The high sensitivity to the magnetic field may be used to measure the distribution of energy intervals, widths, and magnetic moments of compound resonances and study the onset of quantum chaos. A difference in the production rate of right-handed and left-handed chiral molecules may be produced by external electric E and magnetic B fields and the finite width Γ of the resonance (correlation ΓE·B). The same effect may be produced by the parity-violating energy difference in chiral molecules
Studies on inclusive meson resonance and particle production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saarikko, Heimo
1978-01-01
Production and decay of meson resonances are studied in medium energy meson-proton collisions. Strong evidence is found that hadronic collisions are dominated by resonance production. Especially the vector mesons have often large inclusive cross sections, typically of the order of few millibarns at the present energies. In all, a majority of pions and kaons appear to be decay products of resonances or other unstable particles. The detailed kinematics of the parent resonance's decays is found to play an important role in determining inclusive pion spectra. The squared transverse momentum distributions of hadrons heavier than the pion appear to have in common an exponential behaviour, with a universal slope for the esponential fall-off. The observed vector meson yields suggest that only a small fraction of the direct lepton production observed at large transverse momentum in nucleon-nucleon interactions is accounted for by the ''old'' vector mesons. An attempt has been made to separate out the central production and fragmentation components of the meson production. Both the central production and the fragmentation of the incoming meson are found to be important mechanisms in the non-strange meson production whereas the central production of strange meson resonances is rare at our energies. The ratios of the observed meson yields are found to be generally in good agreement with a simple quark-counting model. (author)
Resonances in the potential scattering and decay of metastable states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batsch, J.
1975-04-01
The analytic properties of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane are reviewed for potential scattering with particular attention to resonance scattering and decay of metastable states. For a one dimensional model potential with a potential barrier and a repulsive core exact formulas are derived for the energy and width of a resonance in terms of the scattering amplitudes of the barrier and the repulsive core alone. For narrow resonances simple and intuitive results are obtained, which are applied to semiclassical cases where the WKB approximation is valid. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lark, R.H.
1988-01-01
Bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase was studied by affinity labeling and resonance energy transfer. The enzyme uses the 2', 3'-dialdehyde derivative of NADPH (oNADPH) in the reductive amination of α-ketoglutarate. A 300 min enzyme incubation with 250 μM oNADPH at pH 8.0 leads to a covalent incorporation of 1 mol oNADPH/mol enzyme subunit. Similar rate constants are measured when assaying the change in inhibition by 600 μM NADH or by 1 μM GTP, suggesting that inhibition loss at the two regulatory sites results from oNADPH reaction at one location. oNADPH-modified enzyme is still 93% inhibited by saturating GTP concentrations. The presence of 5 mM NADS(P)H plus 200 μM GTP prevents the kinetic changes and reduces the incorporation of oNADPH. oNADPH is concluded to modify the reduced coenzyme regulatory site, and GTP affects the binding of ligands to this site. The linkage between glutamate dehydrogenase and [ 14 C]oNADPH proved too labile to allow isolation of a radioactive modified peptide. Three corrections in the amino acid sequence were made after sequencing peptides. Resonance energy transfer was used to measure the distance between sites on the enzyme
Xi, Gaina; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng
2016-01-01
A novel fluorescence nanoprobe (reduced nano-graphene oxide [nrGO]/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide [Pep-FITC]) for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the Pep-FITC comprising the specific MMP2 substrate domain (PLGVR) onto the surface of nrGO particles through non-covalent linkage. The nrGO was obtained by water bathing nano-graphene oxide under 90°C for 4 hours. After mixing the nrGO and Pep-FITC for 30 seconds, the fluorescence from Pep-FITC was almost completely quenched due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and nrGO. Upon cleavage of the amide bond between Leu and Gly in the Pep-FITC by protease-MMP2, the FITC bound to nrGO was separated from nrGO surface, disrupting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process and resulting in fluorescence recovery of FITC. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence recovery of nrGO/Pep-FITC was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of MMP2 within 0.02-0.1 nM. The detection limit of the nrGO/Pep-FITC was determined to be 3 pM, which is approximately tenfold lower than that of the unreduced carboxylated nano-graphene oxide/Pep-FITC probe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wada Masayuki
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.
Determination of giant resonance strengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serr, F.E.
1983-01-01
Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)
Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD
Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.
2018-04-01
The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lighter hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This article reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. The challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Toshihiko; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Ban, Nobuyuki
1987-01-01
Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess the changes in hepatic high-energy phosphate metabolites in rabbits with obstructive jaundice. The rabbits, which had undergone operative ligation of the common bile duct, were studied using a 2.0 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imager. Comparison of the peak phosphorus signal values relative to α-ATP showed that the peak phosphodiester and γ-ATP values in the livers of the one-day-after-ligation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the peak phosphomonoester and phosphodiester values in the five-days-after-ligation group were larger than those in the control group, but not significantly. Comparison of the peak T 1 values in the one-day-after-ligation group with those of the control group revealed that the T 1 value of phosphodiester was significantly larger than that in control group. It is suggested that dysfunction of phospholipid metabolism appears in the early phase of hepatic dysfunction due to obstructive jaundice. (author)
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Shaowei Ding
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs, including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET. This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.
The direct neutron decay of giant resonances in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bracco, A.
1988-01-01
The neutron decay of the giant multipole resonance region from 9 to 15 MeV of excitation energy in 208 Pb has been studied. Neutron branching ratios for the decay to the ground state and to the low-lying excited states of 207 Pb were measured as a function of the excitation energy of 208 Pb and compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations. While the neutron branching ratios from the energy region of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance are reproduced by the calculations, the ratios from the energy region of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance show a conspicuous excess with respect to the statistical model predictions. The neutron yield from this energy region was analysed in terms of a multistep model of the compound nucleus which includes collective doorway channels. The total direct escape width as well as the associated direct partial escape widths to the lowest five valence hole states of 207 Pb were determined. (orig.)
12 O resonant structure evaluated by two-proton emission process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite, T.N.; Teruya, N.; Goncalves, M.
2009-06-01
The characteristics of 12 O resonant ground state are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton decay process. The sequential and simultaneous two-proton emission decay modes have been considered in a statistical calculation of the decay energy distribution. The resonant structures of 11 N have been employed as intermediate states for the sequential mode, having their parameters determined by considering the structure of single particle resonance in quantum scattering problem. The width of 12 O resonant ground state has been extracted from a best fit to the experimental data. The contributions from the different channels to the decay energy distribution have been evaluated, and width and peak location parameters of 12 O resonant ground state are compared with results of other works for the sequential and simultaneous two-proton decay modes. (author)