WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy obligation support

  1. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  2. Obligation target for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensink, S.M.; Hekkenberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation asked ECN several questions about the development of a supplier's obligation. These questions addressed the volume of the certificates market. The questions are worded as follows by ECN: What is a realistic level to be set for the obligation for sustainable energy or for renewable electricity (in percentage of delivered electricity or TWh/year)? How far into the future should these obligations minimally be set? Is it desirable to limit the certificate issuance time to for example the economic life of an installation? This memo addresses the questions, knowing that the entire policy development process will still take considerable time. At the time of publication of this memo, large uncertainties still existed about the eventual shaping of future policy. [nl

  3. Stepchild Support Obligations of Stepparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargman, Marie Witkin

    1983-01-01

    Examines the legal responsibilities of support by stepparents for stepchildren during a remarriage and notes the impact of the divorce on child support and visitation and custody after divorce from the remarriage. Reviews recent state legislation and recent court decisions about stepchildren. (Author/JAC)

  4. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  5. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    find that larger obligations are associated with higher new-partner fertility among both parents. The maternal fertility response is consistent with a positive income-fertility relationship, while the paternal fertility response may reflect increased demand for new offspring as a result of reduced...

  6. Fuel poverty and energy efficiency obligations – A critical assessment of the supplier obligation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, Jan; Platt, Reg; Flanagan, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency obligations (or white certificates) are increasingly used to reduce carbon emissions. While the energy efficiency obligations were originally intended as carbon reduction and not fuel poverty policies, due to recognition of the potential for regressive outcomes they often include provisions for vulnerable and low-income customers. Intuitively, reducing carbon emissions and alleviating fuel poverty seem to be two sides of the same coin. There are, however, considerable tensions between the two when addressed through energy efficiency obligations, particularly arising from the potentially regressive impacts of rising energy prices resulting from such obligations, but also the complexity of targeting fuel poor households and the implications for deliverability. Despite those tensions, the UK government decided to use energy efficiency obligations, the supplier obligation, as the main policy for reducing fuel poverty. In light of the proposals, this paper provides an analysis of the main tensions between carbon reduction and fuel poverty alleviation within energy efficiency obligations, outlines the fuel poverty provisions of the British Supplier Obligation, assesses its rules for identifying the fuel poor, and provides a critical analysis of the planned policy changes. Based on this analysis, alternative approaches to targeting fuel poverty within future supplier obligations are proposed. - Highlights: • First comprehensive analysis of energy savings obligations and fuel poverty. • Systematic comparison of targeting efficiency of fuel poverty programmes. • Critical analysis of fuel poverty provisions in British supplier obligations. • Proposal of a new approach to targeting fuel poverty within energy savings obligations

  7. Poor energy poor: Energy saving obligations, distributional effects, and the malfunction of the priority group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The European Union’s Energy Efficiency Directive forces the Member States to install energy efficiency obligation schemes. In a first step, this paper identifies the distributional effects caused by this policy instrument which occur when energy efficiency measures are implemented (phase of delivery) and when its costs are passed on to the society (phase of financing). In the phase of delivery, suppliers prefer to implement measures at the property of those customers which enable them to minimise their costs, i.e. enterprises with large energy savings potentials and high-income households who can contribute a greater share of the costs. In the phase of financing, distributional effects occur when the costs of the scheme are passed on from the obliged suppliers to their customers, primarily affecting less competitive customers, i.e. households and small enterprises. In the British scheme, the so-called priority group was installed in order to decrease distributional effects and to support energy poor households. In a second step, this paper evaluates approaches to reduce energy poverty and indicates ineffectiveness, high transaction costs and incoherency with the aims of the obligation scheme. Alternative approaches to tackle energy poverty are briefly described. - Highlights: • The paper discusses distributional effects of energy efficiency obligations. • Significant distributional effects occur when measures are implemented. • Significant distributional effects occur when costs are passed on to the customers. • Suppliers face problems to identify energy poor households. • The priority group contradicts the scheme’s intention of cost minimisation

  8. Where to place the saving obligation: Energy end-users or suppliers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Labanca, Nicola; Rezessy, Silvia; Steuwer, Sibyl; Oikonomou, Vlasis

    2013-01-01

    Obligations to save energy differentiate, among other features, by obliged parties. These are obligations on energy suppliers and energy end-users. Supplier obligations have been introduced in North America, Europe and Australia. Under supplier obligations energy suppliers have to comply with mandatory energy saving targets and thus they implement (directly or via third parties) energy efficiency projects on their clients’ premises, or they decide to trade certified project savings if this option is envisaged by their obligation scheme. In several emerging schemes such as the UK Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Tokyo Emission Trading Scheme or the Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme in India, the obligation to reduce energy consumption is placed on large end-users directly and end-users are allowed to trade emissions allowances or energy saving certificates. The paper starts with presenting these two conceptually different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. Then it analyses advantages and disadvantages of end-users obligations compared to suppliers obligations. The preliminary conclusion of the paper is that supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector, but end-user saving obligations may offer advantages when it comes to the industrial and commercial sectors. - Highlights: • We present different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. • We analyse energy end-users obligations vs. supplier obligations. • Supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector. • End-user obligations offer advantages in the industrial and commercial sectors

  9. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  10. SDC Supplier Obligation project : household energy from 2011 : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on 'SDC Supplier Obligation engagement project : process plan'. Evaluation of the engagement process used in this report can be found in 'SDC Supplier Obligation project : an evaluation of the Sustainable Development Commission's stakeholder and public engagement process'. This report presents the findings of the Sustainable Development Commission’s stakeholder and public engagement process and informs the development of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Af...

  11. Answer by Sauvons Le Climat to the consultation launched by the Minister of ecology, sustainable development and energy on the evolution of mechanisms of support to installations under purchasing obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre; Nifenecker, H.; Schwarz, J.P.; Bacher, P.; Perves, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    After having evoked the problems created by the German energy transition in terms of energy prices, the 'Sauvons Le Climat' association makes some propositions regarding the development of renewable energies and the financial support to this development: to introduce a subsidy to the installed power, producers of intermittent renewable energy selling on the market and receiving a premium proportional to sales price. Other orientations are proposed. In a second part, Sauvons Le Climat discusses the content of the introduction of the consultation document issued by the ministry, and then proposes answers to some questions related to the content of other parts of the document which states that the present operation of support modalities disturbs the electricity market, and that an evolution towards a greater integration of renewable energies into the electric system is needed. Possible options of evolution of support to renewable energies are notably discussed, as well as challenges of transition. Documents of interest are indicated

  12. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Lees, Eoin; Baudry, Paul; Jeandel, Alexandre; Labanca, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  13. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Rezessy, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.rezessy@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Lees, Eoin, E-mail: eoin@eoinleesenergy.co [Eoin Lees Energy, 4 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, Oxon OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Baudry, Paul, E-mail: paul.baudry@edf.f [EDF R and D, Centre des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Jeandel, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.jeandel@gdfsuez.co [GDF SUEZ, 16, rue Ville L' Eveque, 75008 Paris (France); Labanca, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.labanca@polimi.i [eERG, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini n. 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  14. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of

  15. Support Seeking or Familial Obligation: An Investigation of Motives for Disclosing Genetic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marisa; Smith, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic test results reveal not only personal information about a person's likelihood of certain medical conditions but also information about the person's genetic relatives. Given the familial nature of genetic information, one's obligation to protect family members may be a motive for disclosing genetic test results, but this claim has not been methodically tested. Existing models of disclosure decision making presume self-interested motives, such as seeking social support, instead of other-interested motives, like familial obligation. This study investigated young adults' (N = 173) motives to share a genetic-based health condition, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, after reading a hypothetical vignette. Results show that social support and familial obligation were both reported as motives for disclosure. In fact, some participants reported familial obligation as their primary motivator for disclosure. Finally, stronger familial obligation predicted increased likelihood of disclosing hypothetical genetic test results. Implications of these results were discussed in reference to theories of disclosure decision-making models and the practice of genetic disclosures.

  16. Compliance with annual obligation 2011 for renewable energy transport and obligation with regard to fuels and air pollution; Naleving jaarverplichting 2011 hernieuwbare energie vervoer en verplichting brandstoffen luchtverontreiniging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The renewable energy transport regulation is to ensure that an increasing percentage of the fuels used for road transport and mobile machinery consists of renewable energy. In the year 2011 the renewable energy obligation was 4.25% (biofuels) on an energy basis. The fuels air pollution regulation is to ensure that less CO2 is emitted throughout the chain from fuel production to combustion in the engine. For 2011 there is a reporting obligation, but is no emission reduction obligation. The year 2011 was the first year in which companies have submitted data to the Dutch Emissions Authority (NEA) on biofuels. This report was prepared on the basis of these submitted data [Dutch] De regelgeving hernieuwbare energie vervoer is erop gericht dat een steeds groter percentage van de brandstoffen die worden ingezet voor het wegverkeer en mobiele machines bestaat uit hernieuwbare energie. In 2011 bedroeg de jaarverplichting hernieuwbare energie 4,25% op energiebasis. De regelgeving brandstoffen luchtverontreiniging is erop gericht dat er steeds minder CO2 wordt uitgestoten in de gehele keten vanaf de productie van de brandstof tot en met de verbranding in de motor. Voor 2011 is er een rapportageplicht, er is geen emissiereductieverplichting. Het jaar 2011 was het eerste jaar waarin bedrijven de gegevens over hun uitgeslagen biobrandstoffen bij de NEa hebben ingediend. Dit rapport is opgesteld op basis van deze ingediende gegevens.

  17. Renewable energy: the potential opportunities and obligations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy is generally recognised as a positive step on the pathway to sustainable development, but biomass-based renewable energy is becoming a controversial issue. In agriculture, the lure of first-generation biofuels is already distorting world food markets, energy crops such as sugar cane and oil palm ...

  18. Energy management. A dual obligation; Energiemanagement. Doppelte Pflicht fuer Anlagenbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, Gerald; Reisz, Thomas [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The current situation is familiar to us all: as a result, not least of all, of significant price increases in recent years, energy has now become an incalculable cost factor for companies and even for entire national economies. And: the use of energy has, equally, for decades now constituted a serious burden on the global climate. There are therefore good ecological and economic reasons for making energy consumption as efficient as possible. Via structured action, energy management assures the achievement of consumer behaviour that will be sustainable for the future.

  19. Green obligations at the service of the energy and ecological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, Dorine; Phantharangsi, Maryvonne; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Besson, Leo

    2016-09-01

    Green obligations are an important lever for the financing of energy transition as they allow enterprises and public bodies to finance their environmental projects, notably their investments and infrastructures. They comprise a reporting on financed investments and the description of the green characteristic of the financed projects. This publication proposes an overview of this arrangement which has been introduced in 2007 and has been displaying a strong development since 2013, and was also boosted by the COP21. The market diversification and internationalisation are outlined, and concern large companies, private banks, and local and regional communities, with rather well identified objectives. The publication outlines that the precise definition of green obligations is however still missing, that private and public initiatives are emerging to structure this market. It finally outlines the need for a harmonisation of reporting standards

  20. Considerations on post-production obligations in terms of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebentisch, M.

    1992-01-01

    The article describes and evaluates the laws concerning the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and offers suggestions for possible new regulations. The contribution examines fundamental legal aspects, the instrumentalization of post-production obligations in terms of atomic energy laws, especially the question as to how to bring the Atomic Energy Law into accord with the Federal Emission Control Law within the realm of decommissioning laws, licences for safe confinement and dismantling of a plant, and in addition questions on making financial provisions for decommissioning. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  2. Energy-mediated versus ammonium-regulated gene expression in the obligate ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y Stein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia serves as the source of energy and reductant and as a signaling molecule that regulates gene expression in obligate ammonia-oxidizing chemolithotrophic microorganisms. The gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani, was the first obligate ammonia-oxidizer isolated from seawater and is one of the model systems for ammonia chemolithotrophy. We compared global transcriptional responses to ammonium and the catabolic intermediate, hydroxylamine, in ammonium-starved and non-starved cultures of N. oceani to discriminate transcriptional effects of ammonium from a change in overall energy and redox status upon catabolite availability. The most highly expressed genes from ammonium- or hydroxylamine-treated relative to starved cells are implicated in catabolic electron flow, carbon fixation, nitrogen assimilation, ribosome structure and stress tolerance. Catabolic inventory-encoding genes, including electron flow-terminating Complexes IV, FoF1 ATPase, transporters, and transcriptional regulators were among the most highly expressed genes in cells exposed only to ammonium relative to starved cells, although the differences compared to steady-state transcript levels were less pronounced. Reduction in steady-state mRNA levels from hydroxylamine-treated relative to starved-cells were less than five-fold. In contrast, several transcripts from ammonium-treated relative to starved cells were significantly less abundant including those for forward Complex I and a gene cluster of cytochrome c encoding proteins. Identified uneven steady-state transcript levels of co-expressed clustered genes support previously reported differential regulation at the levels of transcription and transcript stability. Our results differentiated between rapid regulation of core genes upon a change in cellular redox status versus those responsive to ammonium as a signaling molecule in N. oceani, both confirming and extending our knowledge of metabolic modules involved in ammonia

  3. NCI & Division Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Displays obligations for grants, contracts, training fellowships, intramural research, and management and support, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percent of the total NCI budget.

  4. Pricing in quota obligation schemes for renewable energy. A stochastic model with reference to the Swedish quota obligation; Preisbildung in Quotenmodellen zur Foerderung Erneuerbarer Energien. Modellierung mit stochastischem Ansatz am Beispiel des schwedischen Quotenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Philipp

    2013-12-11

    The PhD thesis develops a stochastic model to explain pricing in Quota Obligation schemes for renewable energy (RE). It is based on the fact that electricity production from RE is depending on weather and other conditions, which leads to a random fluctuation. In the developed model the price for RE is depending on the probability of a lack of certificates at the end of an obligation period. In contrast to deterministic models, the stochastic model has a direct link between the price for RE and their high investment costs. Moreover, the stochastic model can be used to describe the development of prices over an obligation period. The model is adopted to the Swedish quota obligation. It is shown that the real RE prices there are much higher than the estimated prices derived from the model. This result is consistent to the fact that installed RE capacity in Sweden is much higher than necessary to fulfill the quota obligation.

  5. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  6. Local Content Requirements in Renewable Energy Schemes - Government Procurement or a Violation of International Obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Numerous States have adopted renewable energy schemes aimed at incentivising investments in renewable energy generation capacity that contain local content requirements as an eligibility criterion to obtain support, such as a feed-in tariff. However, these requirements may violate the international

  7. Support for solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  8. The market of natural gas for the power plant sector under the obligation of CO{sub 2} reduction. A model supported analysis of the European energy market; Der Erdgasmarkt fuer den Kraftwerkssektor unter CO{sub 2}-Minderungsverpflichtungen. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse des europaeischen Energiemarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlwitz, Holger

    2007-02-12

    The contribution under consideration describes the development of a certificate market model for natural gas, electricity and carbon dioxide for the analysis of the significance of the natural gas market for power stations under the obligation of the reduction of carbon dioxide. The author of this contribution develops the integrated PERSEUS EEM model. Thus, strategic questions in the European energy sector can be analyzed quantitatively by means of the multi periodical linear optimization. Russia, Algeria and Norway dominate in the offer of natural gas in Europe. The use of gas-fired power stations is the most important strategy for the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxide. The comparison of the generation of current from natural gas for the scenario EuETS with the scenario NoETS shows a higher generation of electricity from natural gas in the scenario EuETS. Within the time period of consideration, France, Great Britain, Poland and Czech Republic are the largest supplier of CO{sub 2} emission trading in the scenario EuETS. With this model, substantial fundamental connections of the markets for natural gas, electricity and CO{sub 2} certificate could be analyzed simultaneously for the first time.

  9. A comparative study on the energy policies in Japan and Malaysia in fulfilling their nations' obligations towards the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Lee Chung; Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Global warming and the associated changes in the world climate pattern have been accepted world wide as the gravest threat to humanity in the 20th century. To mitigate the impacts of global warming, the Kyoto Protocol was established in 1997 with the objective of reducing global greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, in particular carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), by 5.2% below 1990 levels. Developed nations that ratified the Protocol are committed to GHG reduction targets while developing nations are encouraged to reduce GHG emissions on a voluntary basis. Since most of the GHGs emissions come from the energy sector, energy policy plays an important role in fulfilling the Kyoto Protocol obligations. This year marks the beginning of the commitment period for the 2012 Kyoto Protocol. In this case, it would be worthwhile to compare the energy policies in Malaysia and Japan as these nations move towards fulfilling their obligations towards the Kyoto Protocol; bearing in mind that both countries ratified the Protocol, but that Japan commits a reduction target of 6% while Malaysia bears no obligation. Based on the comparison, recommendations were made on how a developing nation like Malaysia could adopt the policies implemented in Japan to suit local conditions and contribute significantly to GHG reduction.

  10. Obliging children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Children may sometimes undergo healthcare procedures that are not intended to improve their health status. Such interventions might include the use of young children as bone marrow donors or their enrolment in non-therapeutic research. One of the justifications used to legitimise these interventions is the premise that children have obligations to others; to their family in the case of related bone marrow transplantation, and to wider society in the case of non-therapeutic research. However, this 'obligation model' (the notion that children possess positive obligations to advance the health status of others) fails as a justificatory paradigm because it is based upon a confusion, identified by Hart, between two notions; that of 'being under an obligation to do something' and that of 'being obliged to do something'. Instead the 'obligation model' is a device employed to put a justificatory gloss upon a consequentialist decision-making process; removing the legitimising gloss allows for a more transparent look at the conflict between parental rights and an individual child's right to bodily integrity.

  11. Understanding the Public Service Obligation in the Electricity Sector. Lessons for the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karova, R. [Energy Community Secretariat, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    The paper underlines that the EU energy acquis does not simply require the Contracting Parties to the Energy Community Treaty to liberalize their electricity markets, but it also provides for a 'safety net' to ensure the available of public services through the imposition of Public Service Obligations (PSO). Nevertheless, the paper points out that the present understanding of the PSOs in the Contracting Parties is not in compliance with the conditions provided byArtide 3 of the Electricity Directive. Therefore, it includes some policy recommendations and a proposal for introducing a duty of notification, which should be instructive for the Contracting Parties to improve their understanding of PSO in line with EU law, by thus effectively safeguarding the availability of public services in the electricity sector to their citizens without jeopardizing the effective electricity market liberalization.

  12. Development of a modelling framework in response to new European energy-efficiency regulatory obligations: The Irish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, David; O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Walker, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Momentum has been building for an EU-wide approach to energy policy in which energy end-use efficiency is regarded as one of the main planks. Member States are already obliged to plan for the achievement of energy savings targets in respect of the period 2008-2016 and they now face additional economy-wide targets for 2020. Efficiency investments are widely regarded as capable of improving industrial competitiveness, security of energy supply and the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, the design of policy packages may involve trade-offs between these objectives. The challenge for energy modellers is to quantify future energy savings associated with combinations of efficiency measures. This paper draws on the international experience in energy modelling and tracks recent progress that has been made towards a harmonised European framework for verification of savings. It points to the significant development work that remains to be done, particularly to enable an increased reliance on bottom-up evaluation methods. One significant gap in our knowledge relates to the required adjustment of technical savings due to behavioural factors such as rebound effects. The paper uses one country (Ireland) as a case study to demonstrate how a framework is being developed to respond to these new requirements.

  13. Slovenia and Kyoto Obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsek, A.; Jevsek, F.; Plavcak, V.-P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives the possibilities of emission reduction as an obligation from Kyoto Protocol. The Slovenia environmental and energy strategies are regulated to implement the agreement to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8% to the year 2012 as regard the basic year 1986 in energy, transportation, industrial and other sectors, especially focused on electric power sector. (author)

  14. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    these institutions is vitally important for creating and sustaining an ethos of constitutionalism among the inhabitants of the Republic.The Constitution makes explicit provision for the protection of the judiciary and the other independent state institutions and thereby indirectly for the development of habits of constitutionalism. The constitutional protection and support given to the independent state institutions are very similar to that given to the courts. One important distinction is to be noted. In the case of the courts, the Constitution provides that they "are subject only to the Constitution and the law" and no provision is made for them to be accountable to any other organ of state or any other institution or person, for that matter. By contrast, the independent institutions envisaged in section 181 of the Constitution are expressly made accountable to the National Assembly and are obliged to report on their activities and the performance of their functions to the Assembly at least once a year. While the formal independence of state institutions may at all times be scrupulously recognised by the legislature and the executive, their substantive independence can easily be undermined by fiscal starvation and their ability to function properly impeded by bureaucratic administrative obstruction or obfuscation or even, quite innocently, by a lack of appreciation of what the Constitution demands from public administration in support of these institutions. Adequate financial and administrative resources are required to achieve aspects of judicial independence. All South Africans must still be vigilant to ensure, from the outset, that all state organs develop habits and practices of constitutionalism and that they do not, whether by omission, error, or otherwise endanger the independence of our independent state institutions by neglecting their constitutional obligations.For the Constitutional Court to fulfil its role as the ultimate guardian of the Constitution, it

  15. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... the orientation and tilt of the solar energy panels, reflectance, environment, and ocular factors are... energy systems on the airport must attach the SGHAT report, outlining solar panel glare and ocular impact... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar...

  16. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  17. EU Energy Market Development in Light of Fulfilling Obligations from the Paris Climate Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdarevic, N.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Paris Climate Agreement, the Union has set an ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent below the 1990 level until year 2050. The climate and energy frame of the EU defines goals for 2030 that include at least 40 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in comparison with the 1990 level, as well as achieving at least 27 percent share of RES in energy consumption for the entire Union and at least 27 percent improvement of energy efficiency. It is expected that the power sector will give a decisive contribution to decarbonization. It is estimated that, in order to fulfil such goals, the share of low-carbon technologies in energy mix will have to increase from the current 45 percent to 60 percent in 2020, through fulfilling the goal with the RES share, then to 75-80 percent in 2030 and eventually to almost 100 percent in 2050. The bulk of that share will be investments to RES with a variable production (wind and solar power plants; further on addressed as variable RES producers). For the fulfilment of said goals, a structural change of electricity generation sector will be necessary to achieve a significant level of decarbonization in 2030, which will have significant repercussions on the electricity market considering the participation of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. Therefore, it is necessary to start with the transition as soon as possible and to send signals about the vitality of lowering investments into high-carbon technologies to a minimum in the next two decades. In that context, this paper is dedicated to the restructure of electricity generation sector and the reform of electricity market with the purpose of achieving high share of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. After the introduction, the base setting of the Paris Agreement will be pointed out and its influence on the EU electricity market will be examined. After that, the achieved level of electricity market development in the

  18. Nuclear energy supports sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article is aimed at acceptability, compatibility and sustainability of nuclear energy as non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy , radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously abjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  19. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    . The first example covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their support schemes, the second countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising...

  20. UNDP support to renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbogoma, J [UNDP, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    UNDP has set, as one of its main goals, to help the entire UN system to become a powerful force for sustainable human development - i.e., development that is people-centred, that both generates economic growth and distributes the fruits of growth equitably, and that empowers people to participate in the decisions that shape their lives. Specifically, UNDP has - determined that it will focus on four key aspects of sustainable human development - eradicating poverty, providing people with income-earning opportunities, increasing women`s role in development, and protecting and regenerating the environment. Energy can either serve as a barrier to achieving these objectives or it can become an instrument for attaining them. As countries develop, their needs for energy services expand and develop. How those needs are met has significant implications for the environment and the continued capacity of countries to grow. If current patterns of energy production, distribution, and consumption continue and spread to other countries, development and growth in at least some of those countries could slow dramatically. What is needed are new, more efficient systems for producing, distributing, and consuming energy as well as increased reliance on environmentally sound energy systems that contribute to economic growth and expand people`s opportunities. (au)

  1. UNDP support to renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbogoma, J. [UNDP, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    UNDP has set, as one of its main goals, to help the entire UN system to become a powerful force for sustainable human development - i.e., development that is people-centred, that both generates economic growth and distributes the fruits of growth equitably, and that empowers people to participate in the decisions that shape their lives. Specifically, UNDP has - determined that it will focus on four key aspects of sustainable human development - eradicating poverty, providing people with income-earning opportunities, increasing women`s role in development, and protecting and regenerating the environment. Energy can either serve as a barrier to achieving these objectives or it can become an instrument for attaining them. As countries develop, their needs for energy services expand and develop. How those needs are met has significant implications for the environment and the continued capacity of countries to grow. If current patterns of energy production, distribution, and consumption continue and spread to other countries, development and growth in at least some of those countries could slow dramatically. What is needed are new, more efficient systems for producing, distributing, and consuming energy as well as increased reliance on environmentally sound energy systems that contribute to economic growth and expand people`s opportunities. (au)

  2. Wormholes supported by phantom energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Guzman, F. S.; Montelongo-Garcia, N.; Zannias, T.

    2009-01-01

    By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we demonstrate the existence of spherical, asymptotically flat traversable wormholes supported by exotic matter whose stress tensor relative to the orthonormal frame of Killing observers takes the form of a perfect fluid possessing anisotropic pressures and subject to linear equations of state: τ=λρc 2 , P=μρc 2 . We show that there exists a four parameter family of asymptotically flat spherical wormholes parametrized by the area of the throat A(0), the gradient Λ(0) of the red shift factor evaluated on the throat as well as the values of (λ,μ). The latter are subject to restrictions: λ>1 and 2μ>λ or λ<0 and 2μ<-|λ|. For particular values of (λ,μ), the stress tensor may be interpreted as representing a phantom configuration, while for other values represents exotic matter. All solutions have the property that the two asymptotically flat ends possess finite Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass.

  3. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  4. Climate oblige

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognasse, Olivier; Dumas, Arnaud; Dupin, Ludovic; Gateaud, Pascal; Moragues, Manuel; Ducamp, Pauline; Lucas, Thierry; Meddah, Hassan; Delamarche, Myrtille

    2015-01-01

    This file contains 15 articles discussing various aspects of the struggle against climatic change: 'greening' the industry in order to cope with the COP 21 expectations of a 2 deg C maximum warming at the end of this century; financing the transition energy policy in the poorest countries; the issues and stakes for the COP 21 conference to be held in Paris; towards an energy system with fossil fuels to be left in the ground, especially coal; emerging and developing countries could be in the future at the forefront to benefit from the renewable energy technologies; towards a 100 pc renewable France with wind and solar power; low carbon electric power (including nuclear power) is one of the best solutions against global warming; solar energy: the example of India and its 100 GW objective in 2022; the main struggle against climatic change lies in the cities and especially with the development of low-energy buildings and energy conservation systems; with de-polluted engine, connectivity and light structure technologies, the automotive sector can mix mobility and environment protection; some examples of the environmental policy underway in Grenoble city; green collective transportation systems in Sweden; application of simulation tools and satellite observations for climatic change forecasting and analysis; the importance of eco-design of manufactured products following the 'from well to wheel' and 'from cradle to grave' concepts

  5. Exchange of notes constituting an implementing arrangement, concerning international obligation exchanges, to the agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) concerning transfers of nuclear material of 21 September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The implementing arrangement which entered into force on 8 September 1993, concerns the safeguard obligations attaching to nuclear material transferred or re transferred pursuant to the Agreement on Nuclear Transfers between Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community

  6. Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK: Cost competitiveness and the importance of 'banded' Renewables Obligation Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant; Gilmartin, Michelle; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, publicly available cost data are used to calculate the private levelised costs of two marine energy technologies for UK electricity generation: Wave and Tidal Stream power. These estimates are compared to those for ten other electricity generation technologies whose costs were identified by the UK Government (). Under plausible assumptions for costs and performance, point estimates of the levelised costs of Wave and Tidal Stream generation are Pounds 190 and Pounds 81/MWh, respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows how these relative private levelised costs calculations are affected by variation in key parameters, specifically the assumed capital costs, fuel costs and the discount rate. We also consider the impact of the introduction of technology-differentiated financial support for renewable energy on the cost competitiveness of Wave and Tidal Stream power. Further, we compare the impact of the current UK government support level to the more generous degree of assistance for marine technologies that is proposed by the Scottish government. - Research highlights: → Levelised costs of electricity generation from wave and tidal stream in UK calculated. → Comparison to ten renewable and non-renewable technologies demonstrated. → Sensitivity of levelised costs to key assumptions is demonstrated. → Technology-specific financial support revealed to be insufficient at current costs.

  7. [Coping with chronic illness and multiple medicines in older age: self-management support as an obligation in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Mundt, G; Schaeffer, D

    2011-02-01

    In later stages of chronic disease and especially in older age, chronically ill people are often dependent on multiple medicines. Coming to terms with complex medication regimes in everyday life is a challenging task. To provide the support actually needed, patient-centered interventions are essential, not only taking into account the patients' needs and preferences, but also promoting their ability to self manage their disease(s) and their medication regime. This paper outlines the results of a research project aimed at developing and evaluating an intervention to integrate self-management support into primary care, based on a qualitative exploration of the patients' and professionals' views. The findings stress that home care nurses should take an active part in self-management support but need to be prepared adequately. Therefore, a two-tier intervention was developed and evaluated in a prospective control study, consisting of a qualified training and guidelines for practice. The intervention serves to expand the nurses' professional competence to provide the needed individually tailored self-management support in home care.

  8. Experiences with auctions for renewable energy support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora Alvarez, David Fernando; Islam, Marco; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    Auctions is an increasingly popular instrument for introducing competitiveness in the support schemes for renewable energy, however, designing successful auctions appears to be a challenge. Policy makers seeking to introduce auctions are faced with a range of design choices, which may affect...

  9. On the obligation to obey the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the question of a general obligation to obey the law. The author presents and analyzes the most significant views and arguments in support of the thesis that there is a general obligation to obey the law, as well as those understandings which are refuse this thesis. In concluding remarks the author presents a critical review of some key issues about general obligation to obey the law. In addition, the author outlines a hypothetical model of society and the legal system under which such an obligation is possible and has also asserted the basic assumptions and principles upon which it can be justified and reasonable. .

  10. The EU THERMIE energy support programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio Nunes, P. de

    1994-01-01

    THERMIE is a five-year (1990-1994) European Union programme to encourage the development of innovative energy technologies. The financial support of projects is aimed in particular at promoting and disseminating advanced and innovative technologies which might not easily be put into effect otherwise, owing to financial (rather than technological) risks. A THERMIE programme covering the period 1995-1998 is being prepared. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Decision support tools for advanced energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Karel; Schindler, Zdenek; Stluka, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Rising fuel costs boost energy prices, which is a driving force for improving efficiency of operation of any energy generation facility. This paper focuses on enhancing the operation of distributed integrated energy systems (IES), system that bring together all forms of cooling, heating and power (CCHP) technologies. Described methodology can be applied in power generation and district heating companies, as well as in small-scale systems that supply multiple types of utilities to consumers in industrial, commercial, residential and governmental spheres. Dispatching of such system in an optimal way needs to assess large number of production and purchasing schemes in conditions of continually changing market and variable utility demands influenced by many external factors, very often by weather conditions. The paper describes a combination of forecasting and optimization methods that supports effective decisions in IES system management. The forecaster generates the future most probable utility demand several hours or days ahead, derived from the past energy consumer behaviour. The optimizer generates economically most efficient operating schedule for the IES system that matches these forecasted energy demands and respects expected purchased energy prices. (author)

  12. Incentive-based Financial Support Scheme for Immature Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2015-01-01

    Most of today’s renewable energy systems rely heavily on investments as well as public financial support. This support is often given by means of a higher sales price for each kWh produced, i.e. feed-in tariffs (FITs), green certificates or Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs), or by a fixed...... amount, being a percentage of the construction costs of the facility. All these ways of financing have different downsides. The feed-in tariff based kWh prices have some incentives to improve the technology, but enables infeasible solutions to stay financially supported even while R&D is in status quo....... The fixed amount only helps with installation costs, which should not be an issue once the technology is sufficiently feasible. This means that the current ways of granting financial support all lack incentives for increasing production or decreasing construction costs. This paper presents a unique scheme...

  13. Down with the 'official renewable', up with the nuclear / To be really interested in energy before being obliged to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This document proposes a short and a longer version of an article. In the first and short one, the author states that wind turbines produce a larger volume of wastes, and consume more steel and coal than nuclear power stations. He discusses and minimizes the issue of uranium resources, the level of risk of a nuclear accident, and associated health risks. He outlines the example of Sweden where energy production relies on nuclear and hydraulic. In the second and longer article, the author addresses the issue of energy by first evoking the cost of energy for France, and then by discussing and sometimes criticizing the different ways and existing scenarios to reduce fossil energy consumption, and notably oil consumption. The author proposes another energy mix with increased shares for wood, biofuels, heat pumps and solar energy. He discusses the cost of energy transition in terms investments, predicts the failure of the official renewable energy due to some limits for each type of energy. He notably outlines the cost and low production of wind energy, criticizes the large scale European programme for wind energy. The next part of the article is in fact the first and short article

  14. Scientific support of nuclear energy in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, Y.; Ilieva, K.; Ruskov, T.

    2002-01-01

    Taking into consideration the scientific and technical potential of the Institute and actual for this country problems, yet 3-4 years ago the priority tasks with application character were clearly defined: Safety of nuclear energy; The problems of radioactive waste; Ecology: control and monitoring of environment; Information maintenance. Specialists of the INRNE have been studying various problems and tasks intended to the scientific support of nuclear energy, which are of crucial national significance with respect to ensuring a high level of safety, an optimization of processes and effectiveness of operation of the Kozloduy NPP. These are programmes, accomplished in narrow collaboration with domestic, foreign and International institutions. In this relation, the more substantial examples of programmes and tasks, carried out by the INRNE are pointed out

  15. 30 CFR 717.11 - General obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction, operation, and reclamation of shafts, adits, underground support facilities, underground mining... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.11 General obligations. (a...

  16. Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Economics of the German Laender, relating to the act obliging electric utilities to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Conference of Ministers welcomes the minimum payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources as defined in the planned act as a suitable incentive to exploit renewable energy sources, but at the same time regrets that the Federal Government still does not give appropriate support in general to enhanced use of these energy sources. The resolution comprises seven statements. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Renewable energy support in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Minovski, Dragan; Sarac, Vasilija; Bozinovski, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Republic of Macedonia is, highly dependent on energy commodities import. Apart the whole consumption of natural gas and oil, 30% from the total annual consumption of electrical energy is from import. In order to increase electrical energy production from RES Government of the Republic of Macedonia, together with Energy Regulatory Commission and Energy Agency brought new Energy Law and new regulations for renewable energy sources. For the different type of renewable energy source is determinat...

  18. What lessons have been learned in reforming the Renewables Obligation? An analysis of internal and external failures in UK renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Geoffrey; Dow, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Despite operating a delivery programme for RES-E since 1990, UK targets and policy goals have not been achieved. In response, the Government reformed the RO. This article re-examines UK renewable energy policy by analysing the internal and external failures of the various mechanisms to determine if Government has learnt from previous experience in reforming the RO. Government did not learn from their own actions during the NFFO/RO transition, evidenced by high-levels of similarity in internal/external failures. The reformed-RO is expected to significantly increase deployment, has provided a 'renewables package' by comprehensively addressing both internal/external failures but major internal failures (price/financial risk) still remain, resulting in contiguous failures over two decades and two mechanism changes (NFFO, RO, RO/reformed-RO). Success will again be heavily dependent on a select few technologies and new/untested measures to combat external failures. Mechanism-extension to 2037 is probably the single most important factor underlying potential deployment increases. However, introducing a FIT-like system via the sheer number of 'bolt-on' reforms to counter policy failures indicates loss of direction and clarity. Overall, although Government appears to have learnt some of its lessons from the past two-decades, significant doubt remains whether renewable energy policy objectives will be met via the latest mechanism change. - Research highlights: → Review of UK renewable energy policy learning behaviour via the 2009 Renewable Obligation reform. → Applies key lessons and analysis of NFFO/RO, RO reform and possible FIT schemes. → Finds UK Government has learnt some lessons from the past but some failures remain contiguous over two decades. → In contrast to previous changes, 2009 reform provided a comprehensive reform package. → Significant doubt remains whether objectives will be met via latest mechanism change.

  19. Financial instruments supporting for energy and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maino, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the close connection between the production and consumption of energy and environmental sustainability. Saving and rational use of energy on the one side, and reduction of environmental impacts of the energy production on the other, are by now constantly recurring among the strategic objectives of modern energy policies. In this scenario the financial aspect is crucial; it may remove obstacles to competition, giving innovative companies greater opportunities [it

  20. Energy Efficiency Resources to Support State Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-06-01

    An early step for most energy efficiency planning is to identify and quantify energy savings opportunities, and then to understand how to access this potential. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offers resources that can help with both of these steps. This fact sheet presents those resources. The resources are also available on the DOE State and Local Solution Center on the "Energy Efficiency: Savings Opportunities and Benefits" page: https://energy.gov/eere/slsc/energy-efficiency-savings-opportunities-and-benefits.

  1. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  2. The route to resource: marine energy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.

    2005-01-01

    A case is made for the inclusion of marine-derived energy to be a part of the energy mix which will deliver clean secure energy in the future. But at present, in Europe, only the United Kingdom and Portugal are offering the necessary incentives to realise the marine renewable energy potential. The UK government's views were expressed in May 2005 in a paper called Wave and Tidal Energy Demonstration Scheme. The government's policy is to encourage a large number of small diverse projects rather than a small number of large projects. Details of the financial incentives on offer are given. It is concluded that in the UK at least, policymakers must guarantee a smooth path to resource for first arrays or risk losing what could be their last chance to build an indigenous energy industry for a significant international market

  3. How to support growth with less energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Mark; Lowe, Robert; Oreszczyn, Tadj; Steadman, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Economic growth with less use of primary energy and lower carbon emissions can be achieved through existing and new technical solutions and by behavioural change. These solutions secure growth with lower carbon emissions and reduce our dependence on oil and gas, thereby improving security of energy supply. The implication of the Energy White Paper goal of reducing CO 2 emissions by 60% by 2050 is a six-fold reduction in the carbon intensity of the UK economy, and further reductions will be needed. Efficient and renewable supply, distribution and end-use technologies have multiplicative effects, but constraining demand growth is crucial to the rate and extent of reducing emissions. Goals include reductions in the energy intensity of transport and buildings and in the energy intensity of major building materials with the development of technologies and demand management. There will also need to be infrastructural developments that encourage low-carbon technologies and increase energy diversity and security of supply, better low-carbon planning and improved co-ordination of planning, building control and other policy tools, better monitoring and feedback on the real performance of energy-efficient technologies, and improved capabilities to model whole energy systems, including demand and supply as well as social and economic issues

  4. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  5. Promoting energy efficiency: supporting Public Administration and Local Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, G.; Manila, E.

    2008-01-01

    ENEAS's institutional tasks include technical and scientific support to Public Administration and Local Bodies in the field of energy. Recently such a role has been strengthened by setting up the Agency for Energy Efficiency which ENEA is responsible for [it

  6. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  7. Supporting energy efficiency and renewable energy in liberalized markets: the new incentive frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    This article compares the old and new action principles in the area of energy efficiency and renewable energies, and reviews the new types of instruments implemented in the competitive environment of some pioneer countries. It is usually viewed that energy industry liberalization limits the direct capacity of action by states that used to rely on public monopolies. Actually, all it takes is some clarification of the historical operator's and agent's obligations, and some adjustment of action method to the competition environment. To do so, the same duties need to be imposed on agents, whether directly or indirectly, and the financing methods for the cost of actions need to be adjusted so as not to distort competition. Systems may also be considered that combine quantity duties (duty to achieve or duty to perform) and market mechanisms; as is the case with quotas accompanied by 'green' and very recently 'white' certificate markets for gas and power savings. (authors)

  8. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  9. Economic modelling of price support mechanisms for renewable energy: Case study on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Claus; Ryan, Lisa; O Gallachoir, Brian; Resch, Gustav; Polaski, Katrina; Bazilian, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    The Irish Government is considering its future targets, policy and programmes for renewable energy for the period beyond 2005. This follows a review in 2003 of policy options that identified a number of different measures to stimulate increased deployment of renewable energy generation capacity. This paper expands this review with an economic analysis of renewable energy price support mechanisms in the Irish electricity generation sector. The focus is on three primary price support mechanisms quota obligations, feed in tariffs and competitive tender schemes. The Green-X computer model is utilised to characterise the RES-E potential and costs in Ireland up until, and including, 2020. The results from this dynamic software tool are used to compare the different support mechanisms in terms of total costs to society and the average premium costs relative to the market price for electricity. The results indicate that in achieving a 20% RES-E proportion of gross electricity consumption by 2020, a tender scheme provides the least costs to society over the period 2006-2020 but only in case there is limited or no strategic bidding. Considering, however, strategic bidding, a feed-in tariff can be the more efficient solution. Between the other two support mechanisms, the total costs to society are highest for feed-in-tariffs (FIT) until 2013, at which point the costs for the quota system begin to rise rapidly and overtake FIT in 2014-2020. The paper also provides a sensitivity analysis of the support mechanism calculations by varying default parameters such as the interim (2010) target, the assumed investment risk levels and the amount of biomass co-firing. This analysis shows that a 2010 target of 15% rather than 13.2% generates lower costs for society over the whole period 2006-2020, but higher costs for the RES-E strategy over the period 2006-2010

  10. Economic modelling of price support mechanisms for renewable energy: case study on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, C.; Resch, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Irish Government is considering its future targets, policy and programmes for renewable energy for the period beyond 2005. This follows a review in 2003 of policy options that identified a number of different measures to stimulate increased deployment of renewable energy generation capacity. This paper expands this review with an economic analysis of renewable energy price support mechanisms in the Irish electricity generation sector. The focus is on three primary price support mechanisms quota obligations, feed in tariffs and competitive tender schemes. The Green-X computer model is utilised to characterise the RES-E potential and costs in Ireland up until, and including, 2020. The results from this dynamic software tool are used to compare the different support mechanisms in terms of total costs to society and the average premium costs relative to the market price for electricity. The results indicate that in achieving a 20% RES-E proportion of gross electricity consumption by 2020, a tender scheme provides the least costs to society over the period 2006-2020 but only in case there is limited or no strategic bidding. Considering, however, strategic bidding, a feed-in tariff can be the more efficient solution. Between the other two support mechanisms, the total costs to society are highest for feed-in-tariffs (FIT) until 2013, at which point the costs for the quota system begin to rise rapidly and overtake FIT in 2014-2020. The paper also provides a sensitivity analysis of the support mechanism calculations by varying default parameters such as the interim (2010) target, the assumed investment risk levels and the amount of biomass co-firing. This analysis shows that a 2010 target of 15% rather than 13.2% generates lower costs for society over the whole period 2006-2020, but higher costs for the RES-E strategy over the period 2006-2010. (author)

  11. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  12. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  13. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  14. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  15. Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs were issued in 1987 by bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. A decade later, CDOs became the leading power on the credit derivative markets, on which the value of derivative assets was derived from the value of other assets. However, unlike options and credit swamps, CDOs are not real, which means that they are constructed, and sometimes even the construction of their construction. CDOs were made to satisfy different types of investors, at one end, there is low-risk with low-income, and at the other, high-risk with high-income. By 2007, following the bubble burst on the US real estate market, losses on the CDO market started to expand. By 2008, the crisis on the CDO market turned into what we call today 'the global financial crisis.' CDOs are 'in the heart' of the crisis, and even wider. Our attempt is to reveal the mechanism of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs and the way in which CDOs expanded the negative effects of the present global financial crisis.

  16. Support compass energy. BINE database. Support programs for energy saving measures and renewable energies; Foerderkompass Energie. Eine BINE-Datenbank. Foerderprogramme fuer Energie sparende Massnahmen und erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    With respect to energy saving measures and renewable energies, BINE Informationsdienst (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a database with a comprehensive description of supply information. These information are fast in access, available at any time and up to date by an internet actualization service. The database contains: (a) actual support programs for private, commercial and institutional investors; (b) support conditions and references to the filling of an application; (c) filling of an application, sheets of instruction, original texts of the regulations, addresses, internet links; (d) information with respect to the ability of accumulation of different support programs. The functions of the database under consideration are: (a) comfortable search according to projects and target group; (b) daily actualization service via internet; (c) assumption and processing of the results in usual office applications; (d) printout of all results of search, individually or completely; (e) fast overview of all changes of the last four weeks. The advantages are: time-saving fast search; actual and carefully inquired knowledge as well as adhoc availability on your personal computer.

  17. Governmental Support Mechanism of the Renewable Energy in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nata V. Kozaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available German Energy transition could be considered to be one of the most challenging a widescaled reforms, quite capital-intensive, requiring a high level of scientific input, having an influence on other economic sectors and economic entities. Energy reform is intended to increase the energy security level by increasing the share of renewables in its energy portfolio, environmental protection by decreasing the emission into the atmosphere and the level of energy consumption. Since 1990 the share of renewables in the whole energy sector and in electricity sector has been rising steadily. Governmental support, including direct finance, fiscal benefits and creating favorable market conditions for the sector has been expanding for renewable and declining for traditional energy. The costs for renewable energy are more transparent, during those for traditional energy are often hidden and indirectly charge the budget, can emerge later in form of subsequent costs of the climate. However, the system of support itself discloses its imperfection, when its implementation causes an opposite impact or contradiction between several instruments, which are actually aimed to solve one problem. Given the high strategic importance of the goals set, even an evident necessity to revise the mechanism of governmental support doesn't, however, mean that the government doubts the usefulness of the reform.

  18. Public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Public support for nuclear energy in the next millennium will depend on the extent to which two essential qualities are exercised now by industry and governments. These qualities are leadership and vision. However, a fear of leadership in supporting nuclear energy afflicts government officials and legislators and many industry stakeholders as well. The paper examines a root cause of this fear of leadership, namely the use of an incomplete and outdated model of public opinion on nuclear energy. The old model leads to the conclusion that expressing support for nuclear energy is politically risky. Yet a new, more complete, model of public opinion on nuclear energy is readily available from the social science research. By underestimating various types of support that exist, the old model causes stakeholders in the industry to believe that their position is unpopular. This may make them reluctant to lead the way in speaking out. Thus, politicians and government officials hear most from a small opposition. Leadership in speaking out and advocating solutions is not sufficient for assuring public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century. Under the umbrella of sustainable development, opinion leaders worldwide are assessing energy sources on the basis of ethical and environmental considerations, not just economics. Leaders in the nuclear industry for years have made a strong case for nuclear energy as a moral imperative, based on the absence of emissions and the preservation of natural resources. This case can and must be developed through active participation in world movements, by listening to all views, and by helping to define what is sustainable and just for future generations. (author)

  19. Supporting energy efficiency and renewable energy in liberalized markets: the new incentive frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique; Menanteau, Philippe

    2003-02-01

    This article compares the old and new action principles in the area of energy efficiency and renewable energies, and reviews the new types of instruments implemented in the competitive environment of some pioneer countries. It is usually viewed that energy industry liberalization limits the direct capacity of action by states that used to rely on public monopolies. Actually, all it takes is some clarification of the historical operator's and agent's obligations, and some adjustment of action method to the competition environment. To do so, the same duties need to be imposed on agents, whether directly or indirectly, and the financing methods for the cost of actions need to be adjusted so as not to distort competition. Systems may also be considered that combine quantity duties (duty to achieve or duty to perform) and market mechanisms; as is the case with quotas accompanied by 'green' and very recently 'white' certificate markets for gas and power savings

  20. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  1. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  2. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Klāvs G.; Kundziņa A.; Kudrenickis I.

    2016-01-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 – the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) – on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas ut...

  3. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  4. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Seven Tidal Power Group and the Mersey Barrage Company Ltd is presented. The current state of the development of the projects, prices at which electricity could be generated, governmental support, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NNFFO), export potential, and discounted cashflow analysis and discount rate are discussed. (author)

  5. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  6. Baseline brain energy supports the state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Robert G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L

    2009-07-07

    An individual, human or animal, is defined to be in a conscious state empirically by the behavioral ability to respond meaningfully to stimuli, whereas the loss of consciousness is defined by unresponsiveness. PET measurements of glucose or oxygen consumption show a widespread approximately 45% reduction in cerebral energy consumption with anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness. Because baseline brain energy consumption has been shown by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be almost exclusively dedicated to neuronal signaling, we propose that the high level of brain energy is a necessary property of the conscious state. Two additional neuronal properties of the conscious state change with anesthesia. The delocalized fMRI activity patterns in rat brain during sensory stimulation at a higher energy state (close to the awake) collapse to a contralateral somatosensory response at lower energy state (deep anesthesia). Firing rates of an ensemble of neurons in the rat somatosensory cortex shift from the gamma-band range (20-40 Hz) at higher energy state to energy state. With the conscious state defined by the individual's behavior and maintained by high cerebral energy, measurable properties of that state are the widespread fMRI patterns and high frequency neuronal activity, both of which support the extensive interregional communication characteristic of consciousness. This usage of high brain energies when the person is in the "state" of consciousness differs from most studies, which attend the smaller energy increments observed during the stimulations that form the "contents" of that state.

  7. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  8. Wormhole supported by dark energy admitting conformal motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Singur, Department of Mathematics, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Farook; Banerjee, Ayan [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Commerce Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In this article, we study the possibility of sustaining static and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole geometries admitting conformal motion in Einstein gravity, which presents a more systematic approach to search a relation between matter and geometry. In wormhole physics, the presence of exotic matter is a fundamental ingredient and we show that this exotic source can be dark energy type which support the existence of wormhole spacetimes. In this work we model a wormhole supported by dark energy which admits conformal motion. We also discuss the possibility of the detection of wormholes in the outer regions of galactic halos by means of gravitational lensing. Studies of the total gravitational energy for the exotic matter inside a static wormhole configuration are also performed. (orig.)

  9. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  10. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  11. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju

    2015-01-01

    -discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. This paper reviews the state of the art of the ESS technologies for wind power integration support from different aspects......With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging...

  12. The Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory research and support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Regulatory Research and Support Program is to augment and extend the capability of the Atomic Energy Control Board's (AECB) regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the program is to produce pertinent and independent scientific and other knowledge and expertise that will assist the AECB in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating the development, application and use of atomic energy. The objectives are achieved through contracted research, development, studies, consultant and other kinds of projects administered by the Research and Radiation Protection Branch (RRB) of the AECB

  13. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klāvs, G.; Kundziņa, A.; Kudrenickis, I.

    2016-10-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 - the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) - on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation) is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors' estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  14. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klāvs G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy sources (RES might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 – the investment support (IS and the feed-in tariff (FIT – on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors’ estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  15. Policies to support renewable energies in the heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Veit; Klinski, Stefan; Lehr, Ulrike; Leprich, Uwe; Nast, Michael; Ragwitz, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the contribution from renewable energies in the electrical power market is increasing rapidly, similar progress in the heat market is yet to be made. A prerequisite for progress is the development of innovative support instruments that transcend the usual support through public subsidies or tax reductions. We present an overview of the various classes of possible instruments. Some particularly interesting instruments will be selected and evaluated, comparing them qualitatively and quantitatively for the case of Germany. The most favourable model is found to be a new, allocation-financed model known as the Bonus Model. This model will be described in more detail

  16. Superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus structural support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Gregory J.; Meier, Stephen W.; Walter, Robert J.; Child, Michael D.; DeGraaf, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus comprising a cylindrical superconducting coil; a cylindrical coil containment vessel enclosing the coil and adapted to hold a liquid, such as liquefied helium; and a cylindrical vacuum vessel enclosing the coil containment vessel and located in a restraining structure having inner and outer circumferential walls and a floor; the apparatus being provided with horizontal compression members between (1) the coil and the coil containment vessel and (2) between the coil containment vessel and the vacuum vessel, compression bearing members between the vacuum vessel and the restraining structure inner and outer walls, vertical support members (1) between the coil bottom and the coil containment vessel bottom and (2) between the coil containment vessel bottom and the vacuum vessel bottom, and external supports between the vacuum vessel bottom and the restraining structure floor, whereby the loads developed by thermal and magnetic energy changes in the apparatus can be accommodated and the structural integrity of the apparatus be maintained.

  17. Solar energy support in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avril, Sophie; Mansilla, Christine; Lemaire, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    The transition to a sustainable energy system now seems to be inevitable. The role of renewable energy sources in this mutation will be crucial. Amongst these, photovoltaic electricity has recently grown due to strong national policy support. Indeed, it appears as a good solution to substitute conventional fossil fuel, especially in the Asia Pacific region where reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a real challenge. This paper aims to review public support for photovoltaic energy by focusing on the policies of three emblematic developed countries of the Asia Pacific region: Australia, Japan and Korea. The efficiency of these different policies is assessed by comparing their estimated total costs. These costs can have different origins: market incentives, demonstration programs and subsidies for research and development (R and D). The public investment was compared with installed capacities in order to evaluate the efficiency of the energy strategy. The point made by this study is that a well-planned policy limiting unwanted side effects should be preferred. Even if expensive in the short term, innovative technologies are beneficial in the longer term, and thus R and D subsidies should be maintained. (authors)

  18. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  19. Supporting Scientific Research with the Energy Sciences Network

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet  helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...

  20. New and renewable energy. Prospects for the 21st century. Conclusions in response to the Public Consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report gives details of the key elements of the UK government's policy on renewable energy sources and provides a guide to the new Renewables Obligation. The aims, strategy and targets of the government's policy, market stimulation, the Renewable Energy Obligation, the climate change levy, and the supporting programme including research, development, demonstration and dissemination are examined. Regional planning and targets are reviewed. (UK)

  1. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  2. Hybrid renewable energy support policy in the power sector: The contracts for difference and capacity market case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onifade, Temitope Tunbi

    2016-01-01

    The article employs qualitative methods in contextualizing and conceptualizing the hybrid renewable energy support policy. It claims that hybrid policies may combine distinct mechanisms to drive desirable objectives better than traditional policies. A policy cycle helps to frame the United Kingdom's Contracts for Difference and Capacity Market (CFD & CM) scheme as a case study. The CFD & CM policy emerged to address environmental and energy challenges through the deployment of renewable energy (RE) in a low-carbon economy, employing liberalization: Environmental protection is foremost in this scheme. The policy combines and improves on the elements of feed-in tariff (FIT) and quota obligation (QO), and strives to solve the problems of these traditional policies. It addresses regulatory uncertainty under FIT by employing private law mechanics to guarantee above-loss reward for low carbon generation, and addresses market uncertainty under QO by incentivizing the capacity to supply future low carbon energy based on projected demand, hence creating a predictable and stable market. It also accommodates other important commitments. Overall, the CFD & CM scheme is a hybrid policy that engages the energy market mainly for advancing the end goal of environmental protection. To thrive however, it needs to meet private sector interests substantially. - Highlights: •The hybrid support policy combines traditional support systems. •Hybrid policies may drive objectives better than traditional policies. •The UK's contract for difference and capacity market system is a hybrid policy. •Environmental protection is foremost in the UK's hybrid policy. •To thrive, the UK's hybrid policy should address private sector interests.

  3. Energy modelling platforms for policy and strategy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyner, I.

    2000-01-01

    The energy field has been dominated by 'hard' modelling approaches by researchers from engineering and economics discipline. The recent trend towards a more liberalised environment moves away from central planning to market-based resource allocation, leading to the creation and use of strategic tools, with much 'softer' specifications, in the 'system-thinking' tradition. This paper presents the use of system dynamics in a generalised way, to provide a platform for integrated energy analysis. Issues of modularity and policy evolution are important in the design of the modelling platform to facilitate its use, and reuse. Hence the concepts of a platform, rather than a model, has to be implemented in a coherent way if it is to provide sustained value for ongoing support to both government policy and corporate strategy. (author)

  4. Kalimantan energy resource management to support energy independence and industry growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizki Firmansyah Setya Budi; Wiku Lulus Widodo; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of energy resource in Kalimantan such as coal, oil, CBM, gas and nuclear. While the electricity consumption still low. That condition caused by the bad energy planning. The aim of the study are to know the number and the ability of energy resource to supply the energy demand that support the growth of Kalimantan industry. The methodology are collecting and processing data through calculation using MESSAGE Program. The result is energy resource in Kalimantan can support Kalimantan energy independence and industry growth in Kalimantan. The coal resource is 34,814 million ton consumption 835 million ton, gas resource is 31,814 BSCF consumption 3,281 BSCF, Oil resource is 920 MMSTB consumption 4406 MMSTB, CBM resource is 210 TCF consumption 2.1 TCF, U 3 O 8 resource is 12,409 ton consumption zero. Whereas for hydro and biomass, the resource are 256 and 138 MWyr, the maximum consumption 185 and 126 MWyr every year. Oil consumption will exceed the resource so need import from other island or replaced by others energy that have large resource such as gas, CBM, or coal. Potency to make cleaner environment can be done by used nuclear energy. (author)

  5. Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America to bring International Obligation Exchanges under the Coverage of the Agreement concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, and Agreed Minute, of 5 July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Exchange of Notes, which entered into force on 16 December 1991, refers to the safeguards obligations of both Contracting Parties under their Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Exchange of Notes of 2 August 1985 concerning the duration of safeguards. Both Parties agree that the Agreement will apply to the quantity of materials to which either Party, at the request of the other Party, has consented that it should apply as part of the arrangement to exchange safeguards obligations, or that it should no longer apply. (NEA)

  6. Discharge your obligations 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, K.E.; Alston Coombs, Y.R. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    These papers constitute the proceedings of a conference held at Kenilworth, Warwickshire on the 10th, 11th and 12th March 1992. The purpose of this conference was to bring together representatives of landfill operators, regulatory authorities and companies offering technical support to landfill in order to identify and discuss issues in both legislation and technology with special emphasis on the effect of changes within Europe and the UK's position in the European Community. (author)

  7. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  8. Supporting the externality of intermittency in policies for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Derek W.; Muñoz, José I.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the joint problem of supporting renewables and resource adequacy in a liberalised electricity market and present a detailed model-based comparison of two alternative policies. We undertake this in the context of the British market. We show how, ceteris paribus, the progressive replacement of coal with wind imposes extra costs of reserve and evaluate alternative way to meet this, whether through capacity payments funded by customers, or a reliability requirement on wind generators with capital cost or energy feed-in subsidies. We consider the reality of market concentration and the extent to which pragmatic regulation could allow prices to rise above marginal cost to reduce the extent of direct subsidies and complex market designs. We also evaluate the implied cost of carbon reduction in a progressive replacement of coal with wind, when the security is maintained by extra peaking gas. We find that support through capital allowances rather than the energy market is more efficient. - Highlights: • Progressively replacing coal by offshore wind may require increasing subsidies. • Risk-averse investors seek higher financial hurdles with more intermittent technologies. • The externality of providing extra reserves should be bundled with the renewable subsidies. • Using capital grants rather than green certificates leads to lower costs.

  9. Can the future EU ETS support wind energy investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the future Emissions Trading Scheme legislation should be designed to allow the European Union to comply with the 20% CO 2 emissions reduction target, while at the same time promoting wind energy investments. We examine whether CO 2 prices could eventually replace the existing support schemes for wind and if they adequately capture its benefits. The analysis also looks at the effectiveness of the clean development and joint implementation mechanisms to trigger wind projects and technology transfer in developing countries. We find out that climate policy is unlikely to provide sufficient incentives to promote wind power, and that other policies should be used to internalise the societal benefits that accrue from deploying this technology: CO 2 prices can only reflect the beneficial impact of wind on climate change but not its contribution to the security of supply or employment creation. A minimum price of around Euro 40/tCO 2 should be attained to maintain present support levels for wind and this excludes income risks and intermediation costs. Finally, CDM improves the return rate of wind energy projects in third countries, but it is the local institutional framework and the long-term stability of the CO 2 markets that matters the most

  10. Can the future EU ETS support wind energy investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, Faculty of Economics,University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigues, Gloria [European Wind Energy Association, EWEA, Rue D' Arlon 63-65, 1040 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses how the future Emissions Trading Scheme legislation should be designed to allow the European Union to comply with the 20% CO{sub 2} emissions reduction target, while at the same time promoting wind energy investments. We examine whether CO{sub 2} prices could eventually replace the existing support schemes for wind and if they adequately capture its benefits. The analysis also looks at the effectiveness of the clean development and joint implementation mechanisms to trigger wind projects and technology transfer in developing countries. We find out that climate policy is unlikely to provide sufficient incentives to promote wind power, and that other policies should be used to internalise the societal benefits that accrue from deploying this technology: CO{sub 2} prices can only reflect the beneficial impact of wind on climate change but not its contribution to the security of supply or employment creation. A minimum price of around EUR40/tCO{sub 2} should be attained to maintain present support levels for wind and this excludes income risks and intermediation costs. Finally, CDM improves the return rate of wind energy projects in third countries, but it is the local institutional framework and the long-term stability of the CO{sub 2} markets that matters the most. (author)

  11. Exergo-Ecological Assessment of Waste to Energy Plants Supported by Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mendecka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization of Waste to Energy (WtE plants with solar facilities can take competing energy technologies and make them complementary. However, realizing the benefits of the solar integration requires careful consideration of its efficiency. To analyse such systems from the point of view of resource efficiency, the pure energy analysis is not sufficient since the quality of particular energy carriers is not evaluated. This work applies the exergo-ecological analysis using the concepts of thermoecological cost (TEC and exergy cost for the performance evaluation of an integrated Solar-Waste to Energy plant scheme, where solar energy is used for steam superheating. Different plant layouts, considering several design steam parameters as well as different solar system configurations, in terms of area of heliostats and size of the thermal storage tank, were studied. The results for the solar integrated plant scheme were compared with the scenarios where superheating is performed fully by a non-renewable energy source. The presented results of exergy cost analysis indicate that the most favorable system is the one supported by non-renewable energy. Such an analysis does not consider the advantage of the use of renewable energy sources. By extending the system boundary to the level of natural resource and applying the thermoecological cost analysis, an opposite result was obtained.

  12. 2 + 1-dimensional traversable wormholes supported by positive energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    We revisit the shapes of the throats of wormholes, including thin-shell wormholes (TSWs) in 2 + 1 dimensions. In particular, in the case of TSWs this is done in a flat 2 + 1-dimensional bulk spacetime by using the standard method of cut-and-paste. Upon departing from a pure time-dependent circular shape i.e., r = a(t) for the throat, we employ a θ-dependent closed loop of the form r = R(t, θ), and in terms of R(t, θ) we find the surface energy density σ on the throat. For the specific convex shapes we find that the total energy which supports the wormhole is positive and finite. In addition, we analyze the general wormhole's throat. By considering the specific equation of r = R(θ) instead of r = r{sub 0} = const., and upon certain choices of functions for R(θ), we find the total energy of the wormhole to be positive. (orig.)

  13. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  14. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-06-05

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  15. Assessing the Atmospheric Pollution of Energy Facilities for Supporting Energy Policy Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses Ruiz, E.; Alonso García, D.; Pérez Zayas, G.; Piñera Hernández, I.; Martinez Varona, M.; Molina Esquivel, E.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of different energy facilities on the environment and human health are a matter of interest and concern throughout the world. For example, fossil fuels are one of the energy sources of more undesirable effects on the environment, but this energy is still one of the most competitive at the market, especially for the developing countries. However, it is necessary to find out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost. With a view to solving the current deficit in energy production (mainly in electricity generation) in the light of major transformations in the energy sector, the Cuban Government is evaluating ways of incorporating new sources and technologies and the expansion of existing capabilities. In this context non-fossil energy sources will play an increasingly important role. The present work shows the results obtained in the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project CUB7007. The project integrated several tools and methodologies in the field of air quality modelling and its assessment, emissions measurement and nuclear techniques. The main objective was to assess atmospheric pollution from various energy facilities for supporting energy policy decisions by incorporating nuclear techniques (proton-induced X–ray emission, neutron activation and X–ray fluorescence) for estimating the elementary composition of particulate matter. As results were consolidated national laboratories in the application of nuclear and nonnuclear techniques to support environmental studies, especially for the analysis of emissions in chimneys and ambient air sampling. Moreover, all energy technologies considered in the national strategy of development were assessed. (author)

  16. OBLIGATION TO FURNISH INFORMATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    Members of the personnel are reminded that they must declare spontaneously:The amount of any social or family benefits paid by a source outside the Organisation (paragraph 2, Article R IV 1.13 of the Staff Regulations).Any periodic adjustment in the amount of these benefits must also be declared. If you have not yet notified us of variations in family benefits, which have occurred, since your last declaration, you should do so without delay. (Questionnaire on Allowances and Grants, PE417N 08/90).Any change in their family status (paragraph 1, Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations), including those arising from divorce.Any change in the income or health insurance cover of their spouse (paragraph 2, Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations). (Confidential Declaration of Family Situation, PE-ADS 07/98).Any change of usual address (paragraph 4, Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations).These benefits and changes must be notified in writing and accompanied by supporting documents. Questionnaires and decla...

  17. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  18. Clean energy funds: An overview of state support for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2001-04-01

    Across the United States, as competition in the supply and delivery of electricity has been introduced, states have sought to ensure the continuation of ''public benefits'' programs traditionally administered or funded by electric utilities. Many states have built into their restructuring plans methods of supporting renewable energy sources. One of the most popular policy mechanisms for ensuring such continued support has been the system-benefits charge (SBC), a non-bypassable charge to electricity customers (usually applied on a cents/kWh basis) used to collect funds for public purpose programs. Thus far, at least fourteen states have established SBC funds targeted in part towards renewable energy. This paper discusses the status and performance of these state renewable or ''clean'' energy funds supported by system-benefits charges. As illustrated later, existing state renewable energy funds are expected to collect roughly $3.5 billion through 2012 for renewable energy. Clearly, these funds have the potential to provide significant support for clean energy technologies over at least the next decade. Because the level of funding for renewable energy available under these programs is unprecedented and because fund administrators are developing innovative and new programs to fund renewable projects, a certain number of program failures are unavoidable. Also evident is that states are taking very different approaches to the distribution of these funds and that many lessons are being learned as programs are designed, implemented, and evaluated. Our purpose in this paper is therefore to relay early experience with these funds and provide preliminary lessons learned from that experience. It is our hope that this analysis will facilitate learning across states and help state fund managers develop more effective and more coordinated programs. Central to this paper are case studies that provide information on the SBC-funded renewable

  19. Build together the problem, obligatory passage for the conception of acceptable energy solutions?; Construire ensemble le probleme, passage oblige pour la conception de solutions energetiques acceptables?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Marie-Jose; Le Floch, Sophie

    2010-09-15

    Social acceptance is a condition in performing energy projects. This notion is however complex: just like 'build', it is based on several factors and is changing. We would like to show that its construction requires that some time be spend at a stage often neglected, that of the formulation of the problem. So that the 'awareness' would be aimed not only to the public, but also to the decision makers and promoters, so that everyone has a good knowledge of the concerns of the others, and of their limits. To this end, the 'participation' could take several forms, complementary to the 'public' one generally accepted. [French] L'acceptabilite sociale est une condition de realisation de projets energetiques. Cette notion est toutefois complexe : comme 'construit', elle se fonde sur plusieurs facteurs et est evolutive. Nous voudrions montrer que sa construction exige qu'un temps soit consacre a une etape souvent negligee, celle de la formulation du probleme. Ainsi, la 'sensibilisation' serait destinee non seulement au grand public, mais aussi aux decideurs et promoteurs, afin que tous aient une bonne connaissance des preoccupations des uns et des autres, comme de leurs contraintes. A cette fin, la 'participation' pourrait prendre plusieurs formes, complementaires a celle 'publique' generalement adoptee.

  20. Clean energy funds: An overview of state support for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Milford, Lew; Stoddard, Michael; Porter, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    As competition in the supply and delivery of electricity has been introduced in the United States, states have sought to ensure the continuation of ''public benefits'' programs traditionally administered or funded by electric utilities. One of the most popular policy mechanisms for ensuring such continued support has been the system-benefits charge (SBC). This paper summarizes the status and performance of fourteen state renewable energy funds supported by system-benefits charges, and is based on a more detailed recent LBNL report that can be downloaded from the web

  1. Cancer Moonshot Funding Obligations FY 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI reports Cancer Moonshot obligations by funding mechanism. See obligations for Moonshot grants, intramural research, and contracts, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percentages by mechanism of the total Cancer Moonshot budget.

  2. Prevention Obligations in International Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2013-01-01

    The paper seeks to examine the content and nature of prevention obligations in international environmental law. Despite their frequent reference to these obligations in practice and in the literature their exact content remains ill-defined. Similarly, the exact nature of these obligations has not

  3. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  4. Differential Transcriptional Activation of Genes Encoding Soluble Methane Monooxygenase in a Facultative Versus an Obligate Methanotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Angela V; Dunfield, Peter F

    2018-03-06

    Methanotrophs are a specialized group of bacteria that can utilize methane (CH₄) as a sole energy source. A key enzyme responsible for methane oxidation is methane monooxygenase (MMO), of either a soluble, cytoplasmic type (sMMO), or a particulate, membrane-bound type (pMMO). Methylocella silvestris BL2 and Methyloferula stellata AR4 are closely related methanotroph species that oxidize methane via sMMO only. However, Methyloferula stellata is an obligate methanotroph, while Methylocella silvestris is a facultative methanotroph able to grow on several multicarbon substrates in addition to methane. We constructed transcriptional fusions of the mmo promoters of Methyloferula stellata and Methylocella silvestris to a promoterless gfp in order to compare their transcriptional regulation in response to different growth substrates, in the genetic background of both organisms. The following patterns were observed: (1) The mmo promoter of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris was either transcriptionally downregulated or repressed by any growth substrate other than methane in the genetic background of Methylocella silvetris ; (2) Growth on methane alone upregulated the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris in its native background but not in the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata ; (3) The mmo promoter of Methyloferula stellata was constitutive in both organisms regardless of the growth substrate, but with much lower promoter activity than the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris . These results support a conclusion that a different mode of transcriptional regulation of sMMO contributes to the facultative lifestyle of Methylocella silvetris compared to the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata .

  5. Differential Transcriptional Activation of Genes Encoding Soluble Methane Monooxygenase in a Facultative Versus an Obligate Methanotroph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela V. Smirnova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanotrophs are a specialized group of bacteria that can utilize methane (CH4 as a sole energy source. A key enzyme responsible for methane oxidation is methane monooxygenase (MMO, of either a soluble, cytoplasmic type (sMMO, or a particulate, membrane-bound type (pMMO. Methylocella silvestris BL2 and Methyloferula stellata AR4 are closely related methanotroph species that oxidize methane via sMMO only. However, Methyloferula stellata is an obligate methanotroph, while Methylocella silvestris is a facultative methanotroph able to grow on several multicarbon substrates in addition to methane. We constructed transcriptional fusions of the mmo promoters of Methyloferula stellata and Methylocella silvestris to a promoterless gfp in order to compare their transcriptional regulation in response to different growth substrates, in the genetic background of both organisms. The following patterns were observed: (1 The mmo promoter of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris was either transcriptionally downregulated or repressed by any growth substrate other than methane in the genetic background of Methylocella silvetris; (2 Growth on methane alone upregulated the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris in its native background but not in the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata; (3 The mmo promoter of Methyloferula stellata was constitutive in both organisms regardless of the growth substrate, but with much lower promoter activity than the mmo promoter of Methylocella silvetris. These results support a conclusion that a different mode of transcriptional regulation of sMMO contributes to the facultative lifestyle of Methylocella silvetris compared to the obligate methanotroph Methyloferula stellata.

  6. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]|[Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The combination of substantial public funding of nascent energy technologies and recent increases in the costs of those that have been most heavily supported has raised questions about whether policy makers should sustain, alter, enhance, or terminate such programs. This paper uses experience curves for photovoltaics (PV) and wind to (1) estimate ranges of costs for these public programs and (2) introduce new ways of evaluating recent cost dynamics. For both technology cases, the estimated costs of the subsidies required to reach targets are sensitive to the choice of time period on which cost projections are based. The variation in the discounted social cost of subsidies exceeds an order of magnitude. Vigilance is required to avoid the very expensive outcomes contained within these distributions of social costs. Two measures of the significance of recent deviations are introduced. Both indicate that wind costs are within the expected range of prior forecasts but that PV costs are not. The magnitude of the public funds involved in these programs heightens the need for better analytical tools with which to monitor and evaluate cost dynamics. (author)

  7. Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders; Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The Danish EEO can give inspiration as to how to design an EEO that meets the requirements and target of the EED, encourages cost-effective savings in industry, effectively includes third parties and implements a solid verification and measurement system. With regards to cost recovery, fault in r...

  8. [Analysis of DNA-DNA homologies in obligate methylotrophic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Govorukhina, N I; Lysenko, A M; Trotsenko, Iu A

    1988-01-01

    The genotypic affinity of 19 bacterial strains obligately dependent on methanol or methylamine as carbon and energy sources was studied by techniques of molecular DNA hybridization. The high homology level (35-88%) between motile strain Methylophilus methanolovorus V-1447D and nonmotile strain Methylobacillus sp. VSB-792 as well as other motile strains (Pseudomonas methanolica ATCC 21704, Methylomonas methanolica NRRL 5458, Pseudomonas sp. W6, strain A3) indicates that all of them belong to one genus. Rather high level of homology (62-63%) was found between Methylobacillus glycogenes ATCC 29475 and Pseudomonas insueta ATCC 21276 and strain G-10. The motile strain Methylophilus methylotrophus NCIB 10515 has a low homology (below 20%) to other of the studied obligate methylobacteria. Therefore, at least two genetically different genera of obligate methylobacteria can be distinguished, namely Methylophilus and Methylobacillus, the latter being represented by both motile and nonmotile forms.

  9. A concept of cartographic support for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Агапова

    2016-10-01

    Internet services. The article presents a list of maps for alternative energy in Ukraine and the algorithm of their compilation. The regional cartographic products system comprises a series of alternative energy resources maps (wind, solar, small hydro, biomass and geothermal energy; map series of natural, social, economic, technical and environmental conditions and factors that affect the placement of objects belonging to different branches of alternative energy; a series of maps showing the level of alternative energy development in Ukraine, including an inventory of existing in Ukraine thermal and power plants that use alternative energy sources, as well as enterprises for the production of alternative fuels. In addition, the cartographic system includes a recommendation and forecast maps showing perspective regions of alternative energy industries development and projected production of energy from alternative sources.

  10. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, L.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  11. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Asia Alternative Energy Unit

    1999-07-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  12. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to

  13. Ancillary obligations as an additional obligation of a limited liability company's member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary obligation can be defined as an obligation of a limited liability company's member undertaken through the instrument of incorporation, which can take the form of monetary or non-monetary obligation (usually it is an obligation of a non-monetary character, which has a certain financial value and can be the object of a legally valid obligation. Ancillary obligations, as a contribution to activities of the company, are not regulated in the Law on Companies. The legal nature of this obligation is different from the obligation to make a contribution in money or in kind to a company's assets, to make additional pay-ins or from the landing of funds to the company. Ancillary obligation is an optional and additional obligation of a limited liability company's member and the obligation itself and its contents is defined in the instrument of incorporation. When a limited liability company's member undertakes an ancillary obligation this creates a distinctive relationship between the member and the company, concerning their respective obligations and the legal status of the company, as well as certain consequences derived from those obligations.

  14. Electricity supply: Supporting analysis for the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Energy Information Administration at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. The results are based on assumptions provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. This report serves as an auxiliary document to the publication, Improving Technology: Modeling Energy Futures for the National Energy Strategy, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to be used as input to the development of a National Energy Strategy. The excursions discussed in this report are not necessarily the policy options which will be selected for inclusion in the National Energy Strategy (NES). This report examines the effects of various supply side options for electric utilities. The three excursions presented are: (1) Effects of the Clean Air Act Amendments on Reducing SO 2 /NO x Emissions which evaluates the impacts of proposed legislation to amend the Clean Air Act (Title V of H.R. 3030 as amended on May 23, 1990); (2) Nuclear Life Extension/New Nuclear Orders which illustrates the impact of new nuclear power plant orders and the life extension of existing nuclear plants; and (3) Nuclear and Accelerated Fossil-Fueled Generating Technologies which portrays accelerated research and development of advanced fossil-fueled generating technologies, making them commercially available earlier, with the inclusion of the nuclear option. The baseline case of this report is an update and an extension of the base case projections in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication, the Annual Energy Outlook 1990 (AEO), extending that forecast an additional 20 years to 2030. It represents the baseline case as it was on July 1990. 29 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs. (JF)

  15. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  16. Modernizing international maintenance obligations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modernization of private international law of maintenance in Serbia in the light of the two newest international instruments drawn up by the Hague Conference on Private International Law. As Serbia has ratified the Hague Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations in January 2013 introducing modern rules to the legal system of Serbia, the issue of ratification of the Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance has arisen, in order to modernize this aspect of the international maintenance as well. In order to establish a position on the issue, the paper presents and analyzes the essential provisions of the Convention (scope of application, administrative cooperation, recognition and enforcement of decisions, stricto sensu enforcement. Based on the analyses, the concluding remarks offers some elements on the bases of which the competent authorities could form an opinion on the necessity and desirability of the ratification of the Convention.

  17. Supporting the Energy Transition: the Role of Low Interest Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Low interest rates tend to favor 'green technologies' competitiveness while also increasing their cost volatility. Our analysis of the impact of interest rates on green energy technologies costs points to three key conclusions: - A low interest rate environment makes green energy technologies more competitive. Hydroelectric power is less expensive than any other technology across the entire spectrum of interest rate levels that we analyzed in this paper. Wind on-shore is competitive with all other technologies up until interest rates of about 8%. - Green energy technologies' LCOEs react more significantly to a change in interest rates than the LCOEs of brown energy technologies, implying a greater volatility for green energy technologies' costs in response to interest rate volatility. A higher volatility is damaging because it brings more uncertainty in investment decisions. As a result, stable interest rates are more beneficial for green energy investments than for brown energy investments. - In order to increase the ratio of green to brown energy investments, we can consider a discount on the interest rates for the former or a premium on interest rates for the latter. Our estimations indicate that, because interest rate changes have a greater impact on the costs of green energy technologies, a discount on green investments' interest rates would be more efficient than a premium on brown investments' interest rates. (author)

  18. Supporting Renewable energies in Europe - The German Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about Germany's energy transition (Energiewende), the leading up to the Renewable energy Sources Act (EEG) and its amendments, the Current EEG Act: push to direct marketing and the market premium model, and the future challenges and the planned EEG reform in 2014

  19. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  20. Assessing the effectiveness of policies to support renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -size-fits all approach to designing renewable policies, a number of principles of policy design exist, which can dramatically increase the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy policies. Some recommendations for policy- makers include: - assessing which of the three factors is holding back deployment......Close to 80% of the world’s energy supply could be generated through renewables by mid-century with the right enabling public policies. Policies can play a fundamental role in promoting a sustainable energy-mix and it is key to measure their effectiveness in the medium and long run. What...... is the most effective way to measure and monitor this effectiveness? What can we learn from Brazil, one of the first emerging countries to refocus its national energy strategies toward renewable energy? And from South Africa, which committed to develop 42% of additional capacity in renewable by 2030...

  1. Learning from experience? The development of the Renewables Obligation in England and Wales 2002-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, B.; Mitchell, C.

    2011-01-01

    The UK has enviable renewable resources, both onshore (wind) and offshore (wind, wave and tidal) (). The government has had policy mechanisms in place since 1990 to encourage these resources to be developed. The current mechanism, the Renewables Obligation (RO), was specifically designed to emphasise competition and therefore to fit in with the UK's overall strategic approach to energy policy. However, as yet, it has not delivered the capacity that it was designed to do, and as a result the UK faces a difficult challenge in attempting to meet European-wide renewable energy targets for 2020, as well as longer term decarbonisation targets. This paper explores some of the major reasons why the RO has performed so poorly to date and considers the prospects for improvement up to 2020. It concludes that the strategic emphasis on competition in the support mechanisms has played a key role in limiting renewables development, but that the mechanism has changed significantly since it was introduced. However, these changes, together with proposals for electricity market reform, still do not address important elements of risk in comparison with a standard Feed In Tariff. - Highlights: → We outline the design of the Renewables Obligation and some shortcomings. → The mechanism has performed poorly because of the risks it entails for investors. → It has been subject to several changes which increasingly challenge the original design of the RO. → Future developments may introduce even more fundamental change for supporting renewable. → Over time risks have been reduced but not yet eliminated.

  2. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  3. Energy life-cycle analysis modeling and decision support tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoza, M.; White, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    As one of DOE`s five multi-program national laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develops and deploys technology for national missions in energy and the environment. The Energy Information Systems Group, within the Laboratory`s Computer Sciences Department, focuses on the development of the computational and data communications infrastructure and automated tools for the Transmission and Distribution energy sector and for advanced process engineering applications. The energy industry is being forced to operate in new ways and under new constraints. It is in a reactive mode, reacting to policies and politics, and to economics and environmental pressures. The transmission and distribution sectors are being forced to find new ways to maximize the use of their existing infrastructure, increase energy efficiency, and minimize environmental impacts, while continuing to meet the demands of an ever increasing population. The creation of a sustainable energy future will be a challenge for both the soft and hard sciences. It will require that we as creators of our future be bold in the way we think about our energy future and aggressive in its development. The development of tools to help bring about a sustainable future will not be simple either. The development of ELCAM, for example, represents a stretch for the computational sciences as well as for each of the domain sciences such as economics, which will have to be team members.

  4. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  5. Support mechanisms for renewable energies, their strengths and weaknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    There is an on-going debate in France over whether or not it is better to stay with the System actually in place to promote renewable energy penetration, notably wind and solar photovoltaic power in the overall energy mix. This System is one of guaranteed prices with compulsory purchase (feed-in tariffs, FIT); but it is increasingly called into question because of the perverse impacts that have become evident. (author)

  6. Atomic Energy Society of Japan's support activities on radiation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, K.

    2016-01-01

    Educational Committee of AESJ supports the education about nuclear energy and radiation for elementary, secondary and senior high school students. It also supports professional nuclear engineer education and international radiation education. (author)

  7. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  8. Public support for energy sources and related technologies: The impact of simple information provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobman, Elizabeth V.; Ashworth, Peta

    2013-01-01

    Increasing public awareness and understanding of alternative energy sources and related technologies is an essential component of informed decision-making regarding new options of generating energy for a low carbon future. The current study examined the influence of psychological factors (i.e., pro-environmental beliefs, and subjective norms) and the provision of factual information on public support for a range of energy sources and related technologies. A representative sample of 1907 Australians completed an on-line survey that measured perceptions of a range of climate change and energy issues. Results showed that support for renewables is stronger than support for traditional fossil-fuel based energy sources (i.e., coal or gas) or nuclear energy. The provision of factual information about generation cost and emissions significantly changed support ratings, particularly when cost information was provided. Regression analyses revealed that pro-environmental beliefs were significantly related to support ratings for alternative energy sources. Subjective norms, however, were the strongest positive explanatory factor, suggesting that social mechanisms may be key drivers of support for new and emerging energy sources and related technologies. - Highlights: • We examine support for a wide range of energy sources and technologies. • Support changes when information on cost and emissions is provided. • Pro-environmental beliefs and social norms positively relate to support

  9. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  10. Global War on Terrorism: Reported Obligations for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    ... based on DOD's monthly Supplemental and Cost of War Execution Reports. This report, which responds to this requirement, contains our analysis of DOD's reported obligations for military operations in support of GWOT through September 2008...

  11. The National Guard Meeting Its Obligation to Provide Capable Forces for Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellars, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    ... (warfighting versus domestic support/homeland security) be harmonized to best posture the Guard to meet both its state obligations and at the same time continue to play a pivotal role in joint warfighting and stability operations...

  12. Costs and profitability of renewable energies in metropolitan France - ground-based wind energy, biomass, solar photovoltaic. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    After a general presentation of the framework of support to renewable energies and co-generation (purchasing obligation, tendering, support funding), of the missions of the CRE (Commission for Energy Regulation) within the frame of the purchasing obligation, and of the methodology adopted for this analysis, this document reports an analysis of production costs for three different renewable energy sectors: ground-based wind energy, biomass energy, and solar photovoltaic energy. For each of them, the report recalls the context (conditions of purchasing obligation, winning bid installations, installed fleet in France at the end of 2012), indicates the installations taken into consideration in this study, analyses the installation costs and funding (investment costs, exploitation and maintenance costs, project funding, production costs), and assesses the profitability in terms of capital and for stakeholders

  13. Supporting Current Energy Conversion Projects through Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goals of current energy conversion (CEC) technology being developed today are to optimize energy output and minimize environmental impact. CEC turbines generate energy from tidal and current systems and create wakes that interact with turbines located downstream of a device. The placement of devices can greatly influence power generation and structural reliability. CECs can also alter the environment surrounding the turbines, such as flow regimes, sediment dynamics, and water quality. These alterations pose potential stressors to numerous environmental receptors. Software is needed to investigate specific CEC sites to simulate power generation and hydrodynamic responses of a flow through a CEC turbine array so that these potential impacts can be evaluated. Moreover, this software can be used to optimize array layouts that yield the least changes to the environmental (i.e., hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and water quality). Through model calibration exercises, simulated wake profiles and turbulence intensities compare favorably to the experimental data and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of a fast-running tool for future siting and analysis of CEC arrays in complex domains. The Delft3D modeling tool facilitates siting of CEC projects through optimization of array layouts and evaluation of potential environmental effect all while provide a common "language" for academics, industry, and regulators to be able to discuss the implications of marine renewable energy projects. Given the enormity of any full-scale marine renewable energy project, it necessarily falls to modeling to evaluate how array operations must be addressed in an environmental impact statement in a way that engenders confidence in the assessment of the CEC array to minimize environmental effects.

  14. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies, or... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65...

  15. Effectiveness of qualitative and quantitative security obligations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Padget, J.; Dechesne, F.; Dignum, V.; Aldewereld, H.

    Security policies in organisations typically take the form of obligations for the employees. However, it is often unclear what the purpose of such obligations is, and how these can be integrated in the operational processes of the organisation. This can result in policies that may be either too

  16. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees, and...

  17. Energy source perceptions and policy support: Image associations, emotional evaluations, and cognitive beliefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes Truelove, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most in-depth effort conducted to date to assess affective, emotional and cognitive perceptions of coal, natural gas, nuclear, and wind energy and the relationship between these perceptions and support for the energy sources. U.S. residents, recruited from a consumer panel, completed surveys assessing image associations, emotional reactions, and cognitive beliefs about energy sources and support for increased reliance on energy sources and local siting of energy facilities. The content of images produced by participants when evaluating energy sources revealed several interesting findings. Additionally, analysis of the image evaluations, emotions, and beliefs about each energy source showed that coal and nuclear energy were viewed most negatively, with natural gas in the middle, and wind viewed most positively. Importantly, these affective, emotional, and cognitive perceptions explained significant amounts of variance in support for each of the energy sources. Implications for future researchers and policy makers are discussed. - Highlights: ► Image associations, emotions, and beliefs about energy sources were measured. ► A dual-process model of energy support was proposed and tested. ► Coal and nuclear were viewed most negatively and wind was viewed most positively. ► The cognitive-affective model predicted support for each energy source.

  18. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision

  19. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-05-03

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision.

  20. Overview of contractual obligations of the know-how licensor under the Macedonian Law of obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashkova Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of a part of contractual obligations of the licensor of know-how and their regulation in the Macedonian legislation. Special emphasis will be placed on two obligations that contracting parties inevitably incorporate into their agreement: the licensor's obligation to transfer the know-how and to give the necessary instructions and information for its successful utilization, and the licensor's obligation to guarantee the material and legal properties of know-how. Thus, this paper is divided into two systematic sections, focusing on each of these obligations respectively and examining the solutions contained in the Macedonian Obligation Relations Act that are applicable in the regulation of these contractual obligations.

  1. Renewable energy (green ICT) support for mobile communications in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivor, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the telecommunication and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry has grown very fast with increasing appetites for modern value added services and gadgets which function without any break, delay or interferences. Currently, total worldwide mobile subscription......). This growth therefore requires more reliable and sustainable energy for effective operation. However, about nearly 1.6 billion people in the world do not have access to electricity and about 99 percent of this figure is from developing countries. This shows that about 1.3 billion people from Sub...

  2. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del

    2010-01-01

    CO 2 emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  3. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  4. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes. The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the certificate debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions. (author)

  5. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  6. Centralized supercomputer support for magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, D.; Tull, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed computers with large memories are vital to magnetic fusion energy research. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), transport, equilibrium, Vlasov, particle, and Fokker-Planck codes that model plasma behavior play an important role in designing experimental hardware and interpreting the resulting data, as well as in advancing plasma theory itself. The size, architecture, and software of supercomputers to run these codes are often the crucial constraints on the benefits such computational modeling can provide. Hence, vector computers such as the CRAY-1 offer a valuable research resource. To meet the computational needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established in 1974 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Supercomputers at the central computing facility are linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major fusion laboratories by a satellite communication network. In addition to providing large-scale computing, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes and data among the many fusion researchers in a cost-effective manner

  7. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pasquale, G; De Pasquale, D; Kim, SG

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%. (paper)

  8. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  9. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, G.; Kim, SG; De Pasquale, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%.

  10. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  11. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  12. Seminar on support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and on electricity markets evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Leinekugel Le Cocq, Thibaut; Najdawi, Celine; Rathmann, Max; Soekadar, Ann-Christin

    2013-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Seminar on support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and on electricity markets evolution. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on support instruments to renewable energy sources in a context of decentralized power generation and evolving market design. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of Support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and electricity market evolution in France (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Support mechanisms in Germany and in France. Similarities and Synergy potentials (Celine Najdawi); 3 - Keynote 'introduction to the French capacity market' (Thibaut Leinekugel Le Cocq); 4 - Power market design for a high renewables share (Max Rathmann); 5 - German electricity System and Integration of Renewable energies. The Current Discussion on the Necessity of Adapting the electricity Market Design (Ann-Christin Soekadar)

  13. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  14. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W; Schmitz-Borchert, H P [eds.

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  15. Renewable energy policy design and framing influence public support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Warshaw, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The United States has often led the world in supporting renewable energy technologies at both the state and federal level. However, since 2011 several states have weakened their renewable energy policies. Public opinion will probably be crucial for determining whether states expand or contract their renewable energy policies in the future. Here we show that a majority of the public in most states supports renewable portfolio standards, which require a portion of the electricity mix to come from renewables. However, policy design and framing can strongly influence public support. Using a survey experiment, we show that effects of renewable portfolio standards bills on residential electricity costs, jobs and pollution, as well as bipartisan elite support, are all important drivers of public support. In many states, these bills' design and framing can push public opinion above or below majority support.

  16. Measuring and monitoring energy access: Decision-support tools for policymakers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailu, Yohannes G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of African States have adapted energy access targets. In evaluating progress towards these goals, measuring and monitoring energy access becomes relevant. This paper reviews energy access indicators and identifies their utility and challenges in their application. By focusing on Africa, a broader framework for energy access measurement and monitoring is discussed, along with implementation barriers and potential solutions. To demonstrate the utility of energy access decision-support tool in Africa, a scenario analysis in five regional energy pools is conducted using the Energy Spending Model tool. Institutionalizing monitoring and decision-support tools can provide valuable feedback to policymakers aiming to design and implement effective energy access programs serving a growing population in Africa. - Highlights: ► Most African countries have adapted energy access targets. ► To monitor and evaluate performance, monitoring and decision-support tools are required. ► Framework for tool development should consider data, cost, political and other factors. ► Implementation constraints include technical, data, resource and urban/rural issues. ► Electricity Spending Needs model is one decision support tool that ties access targets to investment needs. ► Monitoring tools provide crucial feedback on Africa's energy access progress.

  17. The economics of a landing obligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder; Ståhl, Lisa

    By 2015 The European Common Fisheries Policy Reform includes a landing obligation in some fisheries and over the next few years all EU fisheries will be facing the obligation to land all catches. In spite of that, there is a lack of theoretical as well as empirical analyses of the consequences...... of a landing obligation. The paper includes an empirical analysis of the landing obligation’s impact on the Danish fishery in the short run. In the first part of the paper, we survey the fisheries economics literature for theoretical findings regarding behavioural aspects of a discard ban and we exploring gaps...... things, the analysis shows that the fisheries will suffer economic losses under the landing obligation if quotas are not increased with the historical discard rate. With quota top-ups however fisheries can experience economic gains which increase with reduced minimum sizes or by increasing selectivity....

  18. USAID Dollars Obligated and Dollars Spent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Displays obligations and disbursements by operating unit (OU) and sector, beginning with Fiscal Years 2009. The data was pulled from USAID's financial accounting...

  19. Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing domestic violence. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines the issue of domestic violence in Nigeria to determine the ...

  20. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerer, M.J.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland

  1. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M J; Wuestenhagen, R

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland.

  2. Community support for campus approaches to sustainable energy use: The role of 'town-gown' relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, Katherine A.; Stedman, Richard; Sol Hart, P.

    2011-01-01

    Across the United States, universities are grappling with challenges associated with adopting approaches to more sustainable energy use. One approach has been to develop energy-related projects in their local, host communities. Because host communities can play a major role in the successful planning and implementation of these projects, understanding the factors relating to their support is important. Building on research that suggests that procedural fairness is one such key factor, this study examines community members' support of six approaches a local university could implement to work towards a goal of carbon neutrality. The results of a mail survey (N=677) found that perceived fairness of campus decision makers was significantly related to community support for the proposed approaches; however, beliefs about the efficacy of the different approaches to address challenges associated with climate change had the strongest relationship with support. The results also suggest that residents prefer changes in the energy infrastructure, such as the development of wind power, over the purchase of carbon offsets. We discuss the results in terms of actions that universities may take to foster community engagement in decision-making for university-sponsored sustainable energy projects. - Research highlights: → Residents were surveyed about support of a local university's energy choices. → Perceived fairness of campus authorities related to local support. → Beliefs about ability of energy choices to address climate change predicted support.

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leach, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Energy performance and energy saving of life-support systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contemporary automation systems of buildings ensure the most efficient control automation for heating, ventilation, lighting, hot water supply systems. This leads to significant increase of operation efficiency and reduction of energy costs. The integrated energy saving processes and functions are optimized depending ...

  6. The 'special obligations' of the modern Hippocratic Oath for 21st century medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric; Bernabeo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Profound advances and discoveries in medicine have markedly improved the lives of many over the 50 years since the modern Hippocratic Oath was written. Regrettably, these advances were and continue to be implemented suboptimally and inequitably across the globe. 'Special obligations to all my fellow humans' is an important theme of the modern Oath. From this perspective, we reflect on the special obligations of the medical profession, and examine how these obligations have changed over the past 50 years. We draw from perspectives of the social contract, professionalism, quality improvement, patient safety and a group of 31 international colleagues involved in medical education as we examine these obligations for individual doctors, health care institutions and medical education systems. The perspectives of the 31 clinician-educators helped us to situate the meaning of the theme of 'special obligations' in the context of challenges facing medical education and health care in the 21st century. Improving the quality of care and patient safety, and reducing health care disparities are now paramount as 'special obligations' for doctors, health care systems and medical education organisations, and require us to work collectively and collaboratively in an increasingly interconnected world. In our view, traditions such as the Hippocratic Oath will be worthy of public support only when the medical profession demonstrates in meaningful and transparent ways that it is meeting its social and civic obligations to make the world, not just health care, a better place. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Regulatory changes to renewable energy support schemes: An international investment law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paleckaite, Gintare

    2014-01-01

    Thesist analyzes how regulatory changes related to renewable energy investment support schemes can be perceived under international investment law standards and how possible decisions of international investment law tribunals could impact investment in this sector. This research is based on case studies of two states: Spain and the Czech Republic and claims against them. These cases will assist in analyzing the effects of the amendment/revocation of renewable energy support schemes. Answers t...

  8. Department of Defense energy policy and research: A framework to support strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakos, Joshua K.; Quintanilla, Jose A.; Huscroft, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is the major consumer of energy within the Federal government, and it has been directed to implement cost cutting measures related to energy dependence through numerous Executive Orders and Congressional legislation. As a result, the DOD released an Energy Strategy which outlines ways to reduce energy requirements in order to meet both Presidential and Congressional mandates for energy security. With this research, we provide a historical review (1973–2014) of energy policy, legislation, and research. Additionally we identify gaps between strategy and research. The results show that DOD energy research lacks a unifying structure and guiding framework. We propose a knowledge management framework to unify and guide research efforts in direct support of the DOD Energy Strategy. - Highlights: •Unification of effort is needed to support strategic goals. •Provides the current state of DOD energy research. •Proposes a framework to guide DOD energy research. •Frames the DOD energy research context and landscape. •Promotes a unifying structure for DOD energy research.

  9. Renewable energies for the South. New support for clean energy investment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.; Schmitz-Borchert, H.P. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century there are still more than two billion people in the world without access to electricity and basic energy services. 'Energy poverty' impedes sustainable economic, social and environmental development of rural areas in developing countries. Large-scale diffusion of renewable energy technologies can help to overcome this situation. Major barriers are now beginning to be removed. This volume is the result of an international symposium on 'Renewable Energies for the South', held at the Science Park Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen/Germany. In took place on June 5-6, 2000 with more than 200 participants from 27 countries. The conference aimed at enhancing the dialogue between the multiple groups and actors involved in the development, transfer and application of renewable energy technologies. The following issues are covered in this book: - technology needs and framework conditions in developing countries - appropriate renewable energy technologies - financing renewable energy investment - capacity building and training programmes. (orig.)

  10. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  11. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  12. An Affinity-to-Commons Model of Public Support For Environmental Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, Ryan; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    As atmospheric CO_2 continues to rise above 450 PPM, policymakers struggle with uncertainty concerning predictors of citizen support for environmental energy policies (EEPs) and preferences for their design, topics which have received limited attention in empirical literature. We present an original model of policy support based on citizens’ affinity-to-commons: pathways by which individuals enjoy natural public goods that in turn shape preferences between alternative policy mechanisms. We evaluate this model using a survey of southern California electricity customers, with results indicating the model's utility in predicting public support of EEP. Stronger community ties are associated with preferences for “pull”-type subsidies, whereas stronger connections to natural commons are linked to support for both “pull” and “push”-type sanctions. Findings have implications for coalition building as advocates may engender support for green energy policy by framing sanctions as protecting natural commons, and framing subsidies either in this same way and/or as producing benefits for communities. - Highlights: • A commons-oriented model of citizen support for environmental energy policy is proposed (Thaler (2012)). • A factor analysis identifies local tax shifts, green subsidies, and energy taxes (Schultz et al. (1995)). • Community connections predict support for policies with employing subsidies (Sabatier (2006)). • Connection to nature predicts support for policies using both sanctions and subsidies. (Stern et al. (1999)).

  13. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states the cost

  14. Renewable energy support in Germany: Surcharge development and the impact of a decentralized capacity mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Traber, Thure; Kemfert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The German support for renewable energies in the electricity sector is based on the feed-in tariff for investors that grants guaranteed revenues for their renewable energy supply. Corresponding to differences of granted tariffs and respective market values, a surcharge on consumption covers differential costs. While granted tariffs are bound to fall with advances in renewable energy technologies, the market design and the flexibility of the system influence the expected market values of renew...

  15. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  16. Energy saving certificates: when the effectiveness of support... to energy efficiency remains to be proven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvement is one of of the key actions of the 'Grenelle de l'environnement' (French environmental policy). It is also one of the components of the 'three times twenty' objectives at the European level. In order to accelerate the action in this domain, France has bet on the Energy Saving Certificates (CEE) system. Simple in its principle, its implementation has revealed to be extremely costly with disappointing results. Some other paths could be explored

  17. Conditions applying to Australian uranium exports - safeguards obligations under NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotsey, W.B.

    1975-08-01

    The Australian Government's expressed desire to inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons and its wish to prevent Australia's uranium exports being used for manufacture of nuclear explosives are underwritten by Australia's formal international obligations. Australia is not free to export its material without paying due regard to supra-national requirements. This paper defines two safeguards regimes, one applying to countries such as Australia which are party to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the other to those which are not parties. The application of safeguards and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are briefly explained. Australia's obligations under the NPT and those stemming from specific undertakings to the IAEA are stated. The latter require Australia to ensure that Non-Nuclear Weapons States not party to the NPT give assurances that Australian uranium will not be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives and that they will permit verification by the IAEA. These obligations give rise to a set of minimum conditions applying to exports of Australian uranium which vary according to the NPT status of the importing countries. (author)

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPORT MECHANISM IN TURKEY: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO POLICYMAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GOZEN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Grand National Parliament passed a renewable energy promotion law that provides feed-in tariffs for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in 2005. This law was not attractive to investors due to the low level of feed-in tariffs. Then, in 2011, the promotion law was amended and a new support scheme integrated in the day-ahead market was introduced. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to explain the new support mechanism, analyze it from the financial perspective, and discuss the related key issues and challenges. In addition, to further improve the support mechanism, some recommendations have been made to policymakers.

  19. The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

  20. Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

  1. Renewable energy investments under different support schemes: A real options approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Meade, Nigel; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    -in tariff encourages earlier investment. Nevertheless, as investment has been undertaken, renewable energy certificate trading creates incentives for larger projects. In our baseline scenario and taking the fixed feed-in tariff as a base, the revenue required to trigger investments is 61% higher......This paper adopts a real options approach to analyze investment timing and capacity choice for renewable energy projects under different support schemes. The main purpose is to examine investment behavior under the most extensively employed support schemes, namely, feed-in tariffs and renewable...... energy certificate trading. We consider both multiple sources of uncertainty under each support scheme and uncertainty with respect to any change of support scheme, and we obtain both analytical (when possible) and numerical solutions. In a Nordic case study based on wind power, we find that the feed...

  2. Status Review of Renewable and Energy Efficiency Support Schemes in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This document forms the latest update to the regular CEER Status Review of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Support Schemes in Europe and builds on the previous CEER report C10-SDE-19-04a. The purpose of Status Review publications is to collect comparable data on RES support in Europe in order to provide policy-makers, regulators and industry participants with information on support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources, by technology and type of instrument (e.g. Feed-in tariffs and Green Certificates). To collect this data, a questionnaire was circulated to CEER members in July 2012, to explore the renewable electricity support schemes currently in place in Member States across Europe.

  3. Progress report to the Department of Energy in support of basic energy and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This progress report describes the accomplishments of the first and second years of the three year institutional grant received from the Department of Energy and describes the activities now envisioned for year three. Attachments detailing the highlights of the first and second years' accomplishments are included. Research areas include: light path of carbon reduction in photosynthesis; heat transfer in coal-ash slags; mechanism of plant cell enlargement in Gymnosperms, emulsion stability in enhanced oil recovery; selective transfer phenomenon in friction and wear; conceptual design of the Purdue Compact Torus/Passive Liner Fusion Reactor; integration of farm level alcohol production consistent with the economic and labor constraints of a farming operation, and newsmedia coverage of selected energy policy proposals. Separate abstracts have been prepared for selected attachments for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  4. Whistleblowing and the bioethicist's public obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2014-10-01

    Bioethicists are sometimes thought to have heightened obligations by virtue of the fact that their professional role addresses ethics or morals. For this reason it has been argued that bioethicists ought to "whistleblow"--that is, publicly expose the wrongful or potentially harmful activities of their employer--more often than do other kinds of employees. This article argues that bioethicists do indeed have a heightened obligation to whistleblow, but not because bioethicists have heightened moral obligations in general. Rather, the special duties of bioethicists to act as whistleblowers are best understood by examining the nature of the ethical dilemma typically encountered by private employees and showing why bioethicists do not encounter this dilemma in the same way. Whistleblowing is usually understood as a moral dilemma involving conflicting duties to two parties: the public and a private employer. However, this article argues that this way of understanding whistleblowing has the implication that professions whose members identify their employer as the public-such as government employees or public servants--cannot consider whistleblowing a moral dilemma, because obligations are ultimately owed to only one party: the public. The article contends that bioethicists--even when privately employed--are similar to government employees in the sense that they do not have obligations to defer to the judgments of those with private interests. Consequently, bioethicists may be considered to have a special duty to whistleblow, although for different reasons than those usually cited.

  5. Physicians' obligations in radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    Physicians have responsibilities to develop effective radiation programs that will (1) protect the public's physical and emotional health, (2) prevent and/or minimize illnesses and injury, and (3) treat and rehabilitate all exposed individuals. To accomplish these goals, physicians should understand the basic elements of radiation physics, radiation biology, benefit/risk, radiation regulations, nuclear power production, and world energy needs

  6. Building energy retrofit index for policy making and decision support at regional and national scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayatian, Fazel; Sarto, Luca; Dall'O', Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Machine learning is used for pre-processing, fine-tuning and post-processing data. •A new indicator is introduced to support building energy retrofit policies. •The presented indicator is evaluated by a case study of 4767 buildings. •Current energy indicators can misrepresent the building energy retrofit potential. -- Abstract: The vast data collected since the enforcement of building energy labelling in Italy has provided valuable information that is useful for planning the future of building energy efficiency. However, the indicators provided through energy certificates are not suitable to support decisions, which target building energy retrofit in a regional scale. Considering the bias of the energy performance index toward a building’s shape, decisions based on this index will favor buildings with a specific geometric characteristics. This study tends to overcome this issue by introducing a new indicator, tailored to rank buildings based on retrofitable characteristics. The proposed framework is validated by a case study, in which a large dataset of office buildings are assigned with the new index. Results indicate that the proposed indicator succeeds to extract a single index, which is representative of all building characteristics subject to energy retrofit. A new labeling procedure is also compared with the conventional classification of buildings. It is observed that the proposed labels properly partitions the dataset, according to buildings’ potential to undergo energy retrofit.

  7. A new tailored scheme for the support of renewable energies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moner-Girona, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Historically the promotion of renewable energy technologies in isolated areas has involved international donors or governments subsidising the initial capital investment. This paper proposes an alternative support mechanism for remote villages based on the generation of renewable electricity. This communication presents an evaluation of the Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme, a locally adapted variation of the Feed-in Tariff tailored for decentralised grids of developing countries. The RPT scheme stimulates the deployment of renewable energy technologies by paying for renewable electricity generated. A good-quality performance is secured since the support is given based on the electricity produced by renewables, not for the initial capital investment. The mechanism has been designed to provide a cost-effective scheme for the introduction of renewable energy technologies to remote villages, to provide sustainable and affordable electricity to local users, to make renewable energy projects attractive to policy-makers, and concurrently decrease financial risk to attract private sector investment. (author)

  8. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  9. Danida's support to the energy sector. Issues and contradictions with particular reference to Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardell, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Danida support to energy sector in Burkina Faso was limited, until 1995, to the electricity sub-sector which has directly benefited less than 5% of the Burkinabe population. Danida made no attempt to develop renewable and local energy resources during the period 1979-1995 although 92% of primary energy supply and 98% of household energy use is met by wood fuels. During 1996 Danida's energy sector programme did, however, include support to strengthen energy policy and planning in Burkina Faso. This will address both wood fuel production systems and the development of new and alternative sources of energy. Danida is currently investigating potential co-financing of a regional traditional energy sector programme with the World Bank and the Netherlands Development Cooperation. A pilot natural forest management project will be initiated in 1997 in the Central-West and Northern Regions of Burkina Faso. A Danida-funded Projet de Developpement Rural dans le Boulgou, initiated in 1996, also includes support to the development and management of natural forest resources. (au)

  10. A support approach for the conceptual design of energy-efficient cooker hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicconi, Paolo; Landi, Daniele; Germani, Michele; Russo, Anna Costanza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An eco-innovation approach to support the design of household appliances. •The research is focused on the energy labelling for kitchen hoods. •A software platform provides tools to configure and optimize new solutions. •A tool can calculate the energy efficiency indexes of a product configuration. -- Abstract: In Europe, kitchen hoods currently come with an energy label showing their energy efficiency class and other information regarding the energy consumption and noise level, as established by the European Energy Labelling Directive. Because of recent regulations, designs of cooker hoods must consider new issues, such as the evaluation of the energy efficiency, analysis of the energy consumption, and product lifecycle impact. Therefore, the development of eco-driven products requires Ecodesign tools to support eco-innovation and related sustainability improvements. The scope of the proposed research is to define a method and an agile and affordable platform tool that can support designers in the early estimation of product energy performance, including the calculation of energy efficiency indexes. The approach also considers the use of genetic algorithm methods to optimize the product configuration in terms of energy efficiency. The research context concerns large and small productions of kitchen hoods. The paper describes the methodological approach within the developed tool. The results show a good correlation between real efficiency values and calculated ones. A validation activity has been described, and a test case shows how to apply the proposed approach for the design of a new efficient product with an A-class Energy Efficiency Index.

  11. Research supported by the department of energy Task C: Experimental high energy physics. 1995 Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes work of the University of Oregon high-energy physics group related to the Stanford Linear Detector, LEP's OPAL detector, the NuTeV experiment at Fermilab, the SSC's GEM detector, and top-quark studies at the Next Linear Collider. 160 refs., 53 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Supporting energy initiatives in small communities by linking visions with energy scenarios and multi-criteria assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Stauffacher, Michael; Scholz, Roland W.

    2011-01-01

    Many decisions about future energy systems in small communities are based on the visions of several key actors about the ideal-type system. Although meaningful, such visions may not inclusively represent the objectives of all relevant actors. Moreover, the visions are mostly intuitively judged by these actors and reflect their experiences and concerns. Yet, analytical expertise provides essential information about the required decisions and their consequences. We argue that coming up with a number of alternative visions about a future energy system and addressing these visions from both intuitive and analytical perspectives leads to better-quality decisions. This paper presents a case study in the small Swiss community of Urnäsch, where actors from practice and academia collaborated in a transdisciplinary process to address the future energy system. Visions of these actors about the ideal-type energy system were linked both with energy scenarios that analytically specified options to implement these visions and with stakeholder-based multi-criteria assessment of the consequences. As a result, most of the involved actors adjusted their initial vision preferences. Thus, we believe this approach could lead to capacity building and formation of stable, informed preferences, which are necessary to support a transition in the coming decades. - Highlights: ► Linking energy visions with realistic options and their consequences. ► Novel methodology developed to support this. ► Applied in a case study whereby stakeholders revised visions in light of results. ► Energy initiatives in small communities are facilitated and supported analytically.

  13. Information Support of Optimal Control of Modes of Electric Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Gryniewicz-Jaworska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide necessary quality of electric energy and reliable supply and reduce environmental contamination as a result of energy units operation, renewable sources of energy (RSE, in particular solar electric stations (SES, wind electric stations (WES and small hydropower stations (SHES are intensively developed. The paper considers the conditions of optimality of renewable sources of energy (RSE functioning in electric systems, controllability of which is limited by the impact of non-stable weather conditions. The influence of control system information support on the efficiency of RSE usage is shown.

  14. Renewable energies supported by GIS and land management; Erneuerbare Energien unterstuetzt durch GIS und Landmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaerle, Martina (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on the support of renewable energy sources by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and land management. The first part of this book is addressed to actual land political and planning legal fundamentals of the energy policy turnaround as well as on future developments of the planning instruments. The second part of this book presents GIS based tools and concrete application examples which are very valuable for regional authorities in the implementation of the energy policy turnaround: solar plant cadastre, holistic potential analysis for all forms of renewable energy systems, visibility studies, flexible power grids and so forth.

  15. The obligation to contract in British law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Klappstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the obligation to contract is rarely looked upon. Without reason though, because it is neither outdated nor inoperable. Based on three common law doctrines the obligation to contract goes back to the Middle Ages. It has not lost its relevance, as it can still be found in modern statutory law, such as in the electricity and mail sector. What is more, it is a fundamental institution with a great impact. The analysis showed that the five chosen forms of obligations to contract bear analogical requirements but very similar rationales and economic consequences. It sets impaired market power right and it overstrikes irrational behaviour of market participants. As overall achievement it aligns the range of property, freedom of contract and freedom of competition.

  16. A field experiment of energy education using integrative learning support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Atsumu; Ito, Kyoko; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2002-01-01

    A new energy learning support system for higher education was the object of this experiment. The aim of this learning support system is to support students within an integrative study environment in which various personal skills and general knowledge on energy related issues are to be developed. The main goals of this learning tool for the students are to simulate their interest and creativity, to enhance awareness, to increase capability of researching on the subject and to improve problem-solving skills on energy related issues. The salient feature of this learning support system is that it is used for group learning by which each learner can develop the ability to reflect on the subject through mutual discussion. Moreover, in order to keep the attention of the students on the topic and provide them with a better assimilation of the curriculum, a personified agent is used as a cooperative associate who assists learners through natural communication, using voice conversation function in Japanese language. Then, the subject experiment has been conducted. Also, means of effective energy education are discussed in this research. As a conclusion, this learning support system is proven to be effective and the use of it for energy education is recommended. (author)

  17. Renewable energy diffusion in Asia: Can it happen without government support?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulal, Hari Bansha; Shah, Kalim U.; Sapkota, Chandan; Uma, Gengaiah; Kandel, Bibek R.

    2013-01-01

    The dramatically increasing population of Asia necessitates equally as dramatic increase in energy supply to meet demand. Rapidly increasing energy demand is a major concern for Asian countries because the increase in demand is being met through the increased use of fossil fuel supply, largely domestic coal and imported fuel. Renewable energy supply presents a lower emission pathway that could be a viable option for steering off the higher emissions path. However, several market, economic, institutional, technical, and socio-cultural barriers hinder countries in moving from high to low emission pathway. Following a discussion on the rising demand for energy in Asia and the prospects of partly satisfying it with renewable energy, we outline the reasons for government support to tackle the barriers for widespread diffusion of grid-based renewable energy. Additionally, we also discuss workable models for strategic government intervention to support diffusion of grid-based renewable energy in Asia. - Highlights: • Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies are identified. • Argues that renewable energy policy frameworks are inadequate in Asia. • Models for strategic government intervention are suggested

  18. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Winiarski, David W.; Jiang, Wei; McBride, Merle F.; Crall, C.

    2006-09-30

    The Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (AEDG-SR) was developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The guide is intended to offer recommendations to achieve 30% energy savings and thus to encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The baseline level energy use was set at buildings built at the turn of the millennium, which are assumed to be based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (refer to as the ?Standard? in this report). ASHRAE and its partners are engaged in the development of a series of guides for small commercial buildings, with the AEDG-SR being the second in the series. Previously the partnership developed the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings: Achieving 30% Energy Savings Over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, which was published in late 2004. The technical support document prepared by PNNL details how the energy analysis performed in support of the Guide and documents development of recommendation criteria.

  19. Developing a Decision Support Tool for Waste to Energy Calculations Using Energy Return on Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    began with. There are multiple methods to accomplish this process, from the standard V- models to complex waterfall methods, but ultimately each...required data and data sources. The team conducted stakeholder analysis and functional decomposition of the requisite model before constructing its...decomposition of the requisite model before constructing its additional module to the tool. This study shows the viability of waste-to-energy technologies to

  20. Promoting renewable energy through capacity markets: An analysis of the Russian support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    Most existing support schemes aim to stimulate the deployment of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector on the basis of the electricity output (MW h) of renewable energy installations. Support is anchored in the electricity commodity market. In contrast to this established approach, Russia intends to promote renewable energy through the capacity market. The idea is to remunerate investors for the installed capacity (MW) of their installations, in particular for the availability of their installations to produce electricity. This article argues that, contrary to the implicit consensus, a capacity-based approach to supporting renewable energy can provide an alternative to the current output-based schemes. Capacity-based schemes limit the incentive that the operators of renewable energy installations currently have under output-based schemes to deliver electricity to the grid even in periods of low demand. These schemes also provide investors with a more predictable income flow. However, to be successful, the regulation of capacity supply – currently designed for flexible power plants – needs to accommodate the specific production patterns of variable renewable energy installations. This paper examines ways to overcome this challenge in Russia and provides more general conclusions on the complex interaction between capacity markets and renewable energy investments.

  1. Conference on support mechanisms evolution and renewable energies integration in France and in Germany markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praetorius, Barbara; Cruciani, Michel; Schwarz, Virginie; Nabe, Christian; Mayer, Joerg; Vogel, Wolfram; Abegg, Janosch; Lioret, Sonia; Avedissian, Franck; Cosse, Julien; Woodhouse, Stephen; Bradbury, Simon; Mollard, Matthieu; Solal, Lucie; Nodari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the support mechanisms evolution and the renewable energies integration in France and in Germany markets. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the current support mechanisms in both countries and on their forthcoming legal modifications. The legal framework of direct renewable energy selling in the German market and the impacts and challenges of this model were addressed as well. Technical aspects of auction sales of electricity were approached too and illustrated with experience feedbacks from direct selling operators. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Tenders for Renewable energy and the German Energiewende - Perspectives, challenges, debates (Barbara Praetorius); 2 - Promotion of energy from renewable sources - A short analysis of the French public policy 2000 -2014 (Michel Cruciani); 3 - Support schemes for renewables in France and their evolution as foreseen in the energy transition law (Virginie Schwarz); 4 - Direct electricity selling on the wholesale market: legal framework and perspective - a French-German comparison (Christian Nabe); 5 - Self-consumption and power purchase Business framework in Germany (Joerg Mayer); 6 - Successful Integration of Renewable energies in the Market: the Role of the Power exchange (Wolfram Vogel); 7 - Earn money and do good by marketing renewables (Janosch Abegg); 8 - Proposals for a new electricity market design (Sonia Lioret)

  2. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  3. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, Benjamin [Sustainx, Incorporated, Seabrook, NH (United States)

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  4. Wind Turbines Support Techniques during Frequency Drops — Energy Utilization Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman B. Attya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The supportive role of wind turbines during frequency drops is still not clear enough, although there are many proposed algorithms. Most of the offered techniques make the wind turbine deviates from optimum power generation operation to special operation modes, to guarantee the availability of reasonable power support, when the system suffers frequency deviations. This paper summarizes the most dominant support algorithms and derives wind turbine power curves for each one. It also conducts a comparison from the point of view of wasted energy, with respect to optimum power generation. The authors insure the advantage of a frequency support algorithm, they previously presented, as it achieved lower amounts of wasted energy. This analysis is performed in two locations that are promising candidates for hosting wind farms in Egypt. Additionally, two different types of wind turbines from two different manufacturers are integrated. Matlab and Simulink are the implemented simulation environments.

  5. Preference Construction Processes for Renewable Energies: Assessing the Influence of Sustainability Information and Decision Support Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotada Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability information and decision support can be two important driving forces for making sustainable transitions in society. However, not enough knowledge is available on the effectiveness of these two factors. Here, we conducted an experimental study to support the hypotheses that acquisition of sustainability information and use of decision support methods consistently construct preferences for renewable power generation technologies that use solar power, wind power, small-scale hydroelectric power, geothermal power, wood biomass, or biogas as energy sources. The sustainability information was prepared using a renewable energy-focused input-output model of Japan and contained life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, electricity generation costs, and job creation. We measured rank-ordered preferences in the following four steps in experimental workshops conducted for municipal officials: provision of (1 energy-source names; (2 sustainability information; (3 additional explanation of public value; and (4 knowledge and techniques about multi-attribute value functions. The degree of changes in preference orders was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The consistency of rank-ordered preferences among participants was determined by using the maximum eigenvalue for the coefficient matrix. The results show: (1 the individual preferences evolved drastically in response to the sustainability information and the decision support method; and (2 the rank-ordered preferences were more consistent during the preference construction processes. These results indicate that provision of sustainability information, coupled with decision support methods, is effective for decision making regarding renewable energies.

  6. Methodology for the economic optimisation of energy storage systems for frequency support in wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Lewis; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Corchero-García, Cristina; Cruz-Zambrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of energy storage system with wind power plant for frequency response. • Energy storage option considered could be economically viable. • For a 50 MW wind farm, an energy storage system of 5.3 MW and 3 MW h was found. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for the economic optimisation of the sizing of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) whilst enhancing the participation of Wind Power Plants (WPP) in network primary frequency control support. The methodology was designed flexibly, so it can be applied to different energy markets and to include different ESS technologies. The methodology includes the formulation and solving of a Linear Programming (LP) problem. The methodology was applied to the particular case of a 50 MW WPP, equipped with a Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRB) in the UK energy market. Analysis is performed considering real data on the UK regular energy market and the UK frequency response market. Data for wind power generation and energy storage costs are estimated from literature. Results suggest that, under certain assumptions, ESSs can be profitable for the operator of a WPP that is providing frequency response. The ESS provides power reserves such that the WPP can generate close to the maximum energy available. The solution of the optimisation problem establishes that an ESS with a power rating of 5.3 MW and energy capacity of about 3 MW h would be enough to provide such service whilst maximising the incomes for the WPP operator considering the regular and frequency regulation UK markets

  7. Support services for the Office of Energy efficiency and renewable energy. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., under Contract No. DE-AC01-94CE34027, provides technical and economic analysis support services to the Advanced Utility Concepts Division (AUCD) of DOE. Energetics, Inc. is a subcontractor to R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc. The work performed under this contract is mainly for the DOE Hydrogen R&D Program, although a limited amount of activities are also undertaken for the DOE Battery Energy Storage Program.

  8. Industrial energy efficiency: the need for investment decision support from a manager perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Peter; Soederstroem, Mats

    2003-01-01

    Global competition, commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and a deregulated, integrated European electricity market will in all probability increase the demand for energy efficiency on the part of companies in Sweden. Investment decisions are an important part of meeting the new demands, because they decide the future efficiency of industrial energy systems. The objective of this study is to investigate, from a managerial perspective, the need to improve decision support in some industries, which can help to facilitate and improve investment decisions concerning energy efficiency. This work has been conducted through in-depth interviews with representatives for a number of energy-intensive companies and non-energy-intensive companies from different sectors. One need that was identified was the improvement of working methods in order to support the decision-making process. Here, external players seem to be playing an increasingly important role. Access to correct information, better follow-up activities, and transparent, understandable calculations are also considered to be important. The study will form the foundation for subsequent work on decision support and energy efficiency in industry

  9. Why Americans support nuclear energy. Development and characteristics of public opinion in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A convergence of factors in the past few years has boosted public support for nuclear energy, including good performance, energy/electricity supply concerns in 2001, more outspoken support by leaders in government and industry, and media attention to a Nuclear Renaissance. In the latest national poll, May 2-4, 2003, two-thirds of the public said they favoured the use of nuclear energy. The gap between those who favor (64%) and oppose (31%) nuclear energy is much greater now than it was 20 years ago. There is near consensus support among Americans for license renewal for nuclear power plants that continue to meet federal safety standards (80%). A solid majority (65%) also agrees that we should keep the option to build more nuclear power plants. But the public is divided on the question of whether we should definitely build them - 50% of the public agreed with this proposition, 44% disagreed, and 6% were unsure. The percentages agreeing that we should definitely build more nuclear power plants in the future peaked in 2001, when electricity shortages in California and elsewhere were widely reported. There is a good possibility of maintaining the positive public opinion climate and even increasing perceptions of the need to build more plants. The industry can maintain this momentum through performance, communications, and projecting a positive attitude. Research indicates that communicating about the clean air benefits of nuclear energy significantly increases favorable attitudes toward nuclear energy. (orig.)

  10. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  11. The social ascription of obligations to engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, J.S.; Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discovering obligations that are ascribed to them by others is potentially an important element in the development of the moral imagination of engineers. Moral imagination cannot reasonably be developed by contemplating oneself and one’s task alone: there must be some element of discovering the

  12. The evolution of the support scheme for promoting renewable energy sources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoae Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution of the support scheme for promoting renewable energy sources in Romania, following: the annual mandatory quotas of green certificate purchase and those achieved; the price of green certificates; the evolution of the RES-E installed capacity and implicitly of the investments in renewable energy sources; the structure of the installed power in RES-E (wind power plants, photovoltaic power plants, hydroelectric power plants with an installed capacity that is not larger than 10 MW, biomass power plants; the contribution of the renewable energy sources to the production of electricity in Romania.

  13. Are Physicians Obliged to Lead Environmental Sustainability Efforts in Health Care Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Climate change threatens health, health care, and the industries and resources upon which these depend. The growing prevalence and severity of its health consequences and economic costs are alarming health professionals and organizations as their professional obligations, grounded in the core value of health, include protecting against these harms. One means of fulfilling these obligations is to lead or support sustainability initiatives that are built upon current, reliable, accurate, and unbiased evidence and collaboratively tailored to meet specific needs and respond to specific contexts. We consider why and how health professionals and organizations should lead or support such initiatives. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Using Support Vector Machine to Forecast Energy Usage of a Manhattan Skyscraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R.; Boulanger, A.; Anderson, R.; Wu, L.

    2011-12-01

    As our society gains a better understanding of how humans have negatively impacted the environment, research related to reducing carbon emissions and overall energy consumption has become increasingly important. One of the simplest ways to reduce energy usage is by making current buildings less wasteful. By improving energy efficiency, this method of lowering our carbon footprint is particularly worthwhile because it actually reduces energy costs of operating the building, unlike many environmental initiatives that require large monetary investments. In order to improve the efficiency of the heating and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a Manhattan skyscraper, 345 Park Avenue, a predictive computer model was designed to forecast the amount of energy the building will consume. This model uses support vector machine (SVM), a method that builds a regression based purely on historical data of the building, requiring no knowledge of its size, heating and cooling methods, or any other physical properties. This pure dependence on historical data makes the model very easily applicable to different types of buildings with few model adjustments. The SVM model was built to predict a week of future energy usage based on past energy, temperature, and dew point temperature data. The predictive model closely approximated the actual values of energy usage for the spring and less closely for the winter. The prediction may be improved with additional historical data to help the model account for seasonal variability. This model is useful for creating a close approximation of future energy usage and predicting ways to diminish waste.

  15. A decision support model for reducing electric energy consumption in elementary school facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Decision support model is developed to reduce CO 2 emission in elementary schools. ► The model can select the school to be the most effective in energy savings. ► Decision tree improved the prediction accuracy by 1.83–3.88%. ► Using the model, decision-maker can save the electric-energy consumption by 16.58%. ► The model can make the educational-facility improvement program more effective. -- Abstract: The South Korean government has been actively promoting an educational-facility improvement program as part of its energy-saving efforts. This research seeks to develop a decision support model for selecting the facility expected to be effective in generating energy savings and making the facility improvement program more effective. In this research, project characteristics and electric-energy consumption data for the year 2009 were collected from 6282 elementary schools located in seven metropolitan cities in South Korea. In this research, the following were carried out: (i) a group of educational facilities was established based on electric-energy consumption, using a decision tree; (ii) a number of similar projects were retrieved from the same group of facilities, using case-based reasoning; and (iii) the accuracy of prediction was improved, using the combination of genetic algorithms, the artificial neural network, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this research can be useful for the following purposes: (i) preliminary research on the systematic and continuous management of educational facilities’ electric-energy consumption; (ii) basic research on electric-energy consumption prediction based on the project characteristics; and (iii) practical research for selecting an optimum facility that can more effectively apply an educational-facility improvement program as a decision support model.

  16. Effect of balance support on the energy cost of walking after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Lamoth, Claudine J.; Jarbandhan, Ameerani V.; Rijntjes, Danielle; Beek, Peter J.; van der Woude, Lucas H.

    Objective: To examine the influence of balance support on the energy cost of treadmill and overground walking in ambulatory patients with stroke. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Research laboratory at a rehabilitation center. Participants: Patients with stroke depending on a walking aid in daily

  17. Implementation of Auctions for Renewable Energy Support in Poland: a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Wendring, Paul

    This report deals with the planned implementation of auctions for Renewable Energy support in Poland from 2016 onwards. The report focuses on the implementation process and provides the necessary background information. Furthermore the planned auction design is described and discussed both from...... criteria, of appropriate auction formats and suitable design elements for RES auctions, as well as the analysis of past auction implementations....

  18. Support systems for the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - an investor perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2006-01-01

    Concern over climate change impacts and the projected depletion of fossil fuels has urged more governments to adopt policies that stimulate the diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RET). With an increasingly diverse suite of support instruments, the question emerges as to which instruments or

  19. Supporting interactive visual analytics of energy behavior in buildings through affine visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Matthias; Brewer, Robert S.; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    Domain experts dealing with big data are typically not familiar with advanced data mining tools. This especially holds true for domain experts within energy management. In this paper, we introduce a visual analytics approach that empowers such users to visually analyze energy behavior based......Viz, that interactively maps data from real world buildings. It is an overview +detail inter-active visual analytics tool supporting both rapid ad hoc explorations and structured evaluation of hypotheses about patterns and anomalies in resource consumption data mixed with occupant survey data. We have evaluated...... the approach with five domain experts within energy management, and further with 10 data analytics experts and found that it was easily attainable and that it supported visual analysis of mixed consumption and survey data. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of affine visual analytics for mixed...

  20. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  1. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Romania Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Energy efficiency improvements in the various end-use sectors constitute a very substantial saving potential, which presently is insufficiently addressed in Central and Eastern Europe. For that reason the SCORE concept has been initiated. SCORE stands for 'Supporting the Cooperative Organisation of Rational Energy Use'. SCORE is a Netherlands society to society programme, aiming at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries through projects and actions aiming at improvements in environmental protection and energy end-use sectors. SCORE is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in partnership with local agencies in Central and Eastern Europe. The SCORE Country Document is based on: Survey on the existing policies and measures for energy efficiency, identified barriers, and the priorities for energy efficiency improvement in the country. The survey was carried out among some of the most important actors in this area by interviews, supported by filling in a questionnaire in a common format. Review of the existing strategic and regulatory documents and policy papers, different information sources like studies, reports, Internet sites. In chapter 2 the qualitative and quantitative situation in the field of energy supply and consumption is presented. In chapter 3 several topics will be addressed to provide insight into the national energy efficiency and climate change policy, a review, of the actors, with their tasks and responsibilities, the domestic programmes and initiatives as well as the foreign assistance programmes and initiatives. Chapter 4 includes the bottlenecks and problems identified to improve the energy efficiency situation in Romania. In chapter 5 some remarks are made on the criteria for SCORE projects

  2. Concerted actions to support investments exploiting low-enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsis, P.; Papadopoulou, A.; Petrogona-Emmanouil, E.

    1996-01-01

    A brief outline is presented of the project 'Information and support to investors for establishment of plants exploiting geothermal energy' co-financed by the Directorate General for Energy of the European Commission in the context of ALTENER programme for promotion of renewable energy sources. The basic supporting products of this project are: 1) Information Guide on the Geothermal Energy Exploitation Possibilities in Greece: 2) Investment Guide for the Use of Geothermal Energy in Productive Activities in Greece: 3) A convenient and user-friendly software GAIN (Microsoft Access 2.0)) for designing and economic evaluation of investments for an 'ideal' geothermal plant . The following steps are executed by GAIN: representation of the entire plant; determination of the size and energy requirements of each respective uses; determination of the type of application installations (heating system); determination of equipment needed for the geothermal plant: series of calculations for economic evaluation. In addition, some organizational measures as training of personnel, demonstration activities, conferences etc. are also foreseen in the programme

  3. Singer's Utilitarian Account of Cosmopolitan Obligations: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based conception of cosmopolitan obligations. Singer's thesis, simply put, is that from the perspective of utilitarian and cosmopolitan considerations, the affluent owe a moral obligation to provide aid to the masses of the poor irrespective of whether ...

  4. 5 CFR 2635.809 - Just financial obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations. Employees shall satisfy in good faith their obligations as citizens, including all just financial... employee or reduced to judgment by a court. In good faith means an honest intention to fulfill any just...

  5. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  6. Winrock International's Renewable Energy Support Office (REPSO) network: success stories and lessons learned from the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azurdia-Bravo, I.; Panggabean, L.M.; Pereira, O.S.; Ramana, V.V.; Santibanez-Yeneza, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Winrock International's Clean Energy Group (CEG) is dedicated to the increased use of environmentally sustainable renewable energy technologies in a manner that enhances economic development. One specific objective of the CEG is to reduce the relative risks associated with investing in such technology options and to facilitate their widespread commercialization and use. A key component of the CEG's approach has been to establish a network of Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs) in those developing countries with the greatest current and projected growth in demand for electricity and related energy services. Through these locally staffed REPSOs, Winrock has built on-the-ground capacity in renewable energy, accelerated scale-up and commercialization of renewable energy technologies, improved access to rural energy services, and facilitated industry linkages. To date, the consortium of the CEG, the REPSO network, and all Winrock's private and public partners have facilitated the installation of more than 500 MW of on-grid capacity, roughly 7,000 off-grid systems, mobilized at least 50 businesses or joint ventures, and leveraged over 1 billion US dollars in clean energy financing. The following paper shares some of the major lessons learned in the institutional and technical capacity building of the REPSO network and in the projects and activities it has implemented. This paper presents recent noteworthy REPSO successes and results, and also describes Winrock and the REPSOs goals for the new Millennium. (author)

  7. Laboratory testing of a long expansion rock bolt support for energy-absorbing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkowski Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of rock support and reinforcement in underground mining is to maintain excavations safe and open for their intended lifespan. The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method both in ore and hard coal mining is rock bolt support. Very often, existing bolt support systems are not always capable of providing a reliable controlled performance. Therefore, in recent years energy-absorbing bolts which are exposed to dynamic loading, for example from rock burst caused by high rock stresses, earthquakes, or blasting have appeared. In this article particular attention was paid to short and long expansion bolts. Quasi-static tests of expansion bolts were carried out at the laboratory test facility in simulated mining conditions, especially for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. mines. In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM the main way to protect the room excavation is rock bolt support with a length from 1.2 m to 2.6 m. Rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is considered as additional support of excavations and is increasingly being used to reinforce the roofs. The comparisons of energy-absorbing short and long expansion bolts with a length of 1.8m, 3.6m and 5.2m were presented. In addition, for elastic and plastic range of each bolts were determined.

  8. Laboratory testing of a long expansion rock bolt support for energy-absorbing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of rock support and reinforcement in underground mining is to maintain excavations safe and open for their intended lifespan. The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method both in ore and hard coal mining is rock bolt support. Very often, existing bolt support systems are not always capable of providing a reliable controlled performance. Therefore, in recent years energy-absorbing bolts which are exposed to dynamic loading, for example from rock burst caused by high rock stresses, earthquakes, or blasting have appeared. In this article particular attention was paid to short and long expansion bolts. Quasi-static tests of expansion bolts were carried out at the laboratory test facility in simulated mining conditions, especially for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. mines. In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) the main way to protect the room excavation is rock bolt support with a length from 1.2 m to 2.6 m. Rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is considered as additional support of excavations and is increasingly being used to reinforce the roofs. The comparisons of energy-absorbing short and long expansion bolts with a length of 1.8m, 3.6m and 5.2m were presented. In addition, for elastic and plastic range of each bolts were determined.

  9. Changes in perceived filial obligation norms among coresident family caregivers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Takako; Muramatsu, Naoko; Higashino, Sadanori

    2014-10-01

    Japan introduced a nationwide long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in 2000, making long-term care (LTC) a right for older adults regardless of income and family availability. To shed light on its implications for family caregiving, we investigated perceived filial obligation norms among coresident primary family caregivers before and after the policy change. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine changes in perceived filial obligation norms and its subdimensions (financial, physical, and emotional support), using 2-wave panel survey data of coresident primary family caregivers (N = 611) in 1 city. The baseline survey was conducted in 1999, and a follow-up survey 2 years later. On average, perceived filial obligation norms declined (p family caregivers. In particular, physical support, which Japan's LTC reform targeted, declined significantly among daughters and daughters-in-law (p perceived filial obligation norms after the policy introduction than sons and daughters (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively), controlling for the baseline filial obligation and situational factors. Our research indicates declining roles of daughters-in-law in elder care during Japan's LTCI system implementation period. Further international efforts are needed to design and implement longitudinal studies that help promote understanding of the interplay among national LTC policies, social changes, and caregiving norms and behaviors. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  10. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike [Electricity North West Ltd., 304 Bridgewater Place, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6XG (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [RESOLVE, Centre for Environmental Strategy D3, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs. (author)

  11. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan; McBride, M.; Liu, Bing

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike; Jackson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs.

  13. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally...... important, the narrow set of circumstances warranting inter-vention against refusals is defined by competition law in accordance with its underlying principles of a predominantly economic nature. Hence, competition law should not be relied upon as a corrective in-strument to lacunas in other areas of law, e.......g. compulsory licenses un-der IP law. Below, some considerations regarding the obligation to supply under competition law are offered for the purpose of correcting the misunderstandings....

  14. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety standards. Prima facie evidence that safety standards have been met will be shown by the presence... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle safety obligations. 500.100 Section 500.100 Labor... § 500.100 Vehicle safety obligations. (a) General obligations. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural...

  15. Bystander Obligations at the Domestic and International Level Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328454559

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether States have a legal obligation to assist victims of serious breaches of fundamental obligations owed to the international community as a whole. This so-called ‘bystander State responsibility’ is compared with a similar legal obligation to assist victims at the domestic

  16. 12 CFR 208.101 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers...) Interpretations § 208.101 Obligations concerning institutional customers. (a) As a result of broadened authority... on their suitability obligations when making recommendations to institutional customers. (b) The...

  17. 12 CFR 997.5 - Termination of the obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of the obligation. 997.5 Section 997.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION OBLIGATIONS OF THE BANKS § 997.5 Termination of the obligation. (a) Generally. The Banks...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a reimbursement obligation. 27.1184... reimbursement obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an AWS entity... paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, indicates that a reimbursement obligation exists, the...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation. 27.1168... a Reimbursement Obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an... reimbursement obligation exists, the clearinghouse will calculate the reimbursement amount in accordance with...

  20. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a reimbursement obligation. 24.247... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse will... the Proximity Threshold test indicates that a reimbursement obligation exists, the clearinghouse will...

  1. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  2. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  3. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  4. 7 CFR 400.167 - Limitations on Corporation's obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on Corporation's obligations. 400.167... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement... Corporation's obligations. The Agreement will include the following among the limitations on the obligations...

  5. 7 CFR 1724.71 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1724.71 Section... Contract Forms § 1724.71 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  6. 24 CFR 266.415 - Mortgage lien and other obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determine, that all contractual obligations in connection with the mortgage transaction, including the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage lien and other obligations... Mortgage and Closing Requirements; HUD Endorsement § 266.415 Mortgage lien and other obligations. (a) Liens...

  7. 7 CFR 1726.301 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1726.301 Section... Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or loan guarantee under the... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  8. Building a Pre-Competitive Knowledge Base to Support Australia's Wave Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, R. K.; Hemer, M. A.; Symonds, G.; Rosebrock, U.; Kenyon, R.; Zieger, S.; Durrant, T.; Contardo, S.; O'Grady, J.; Mcinnes, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    A pre-competitive, query-able and openly available spatio-temporal atlas of Australia's wind-wave energy resource and marine management uses is being delivered. To provide the best representation of wave energy resource information, accounting for both spatial and temporal characteristics of the resource, a 34+yr numerical hindcast of wave conditions in the Australian region has been developed. Considerable in situ and remotely sensed data have been collected to support calibration and validation of the hindcast, resulting in a high-quality characterisation of the available wave resource in the Australian domain. Planning for wave energy projects is also subject to other spatial constraints. Spatial information on alternative uses of the marine domain including, for example, fisheries and aquaculture, oil and gas, shipping, navigation and ports, marine parks and reserves, sub-sea cables and infrastructure, shipwrecks and sites of cultural significance, have been compiled to complement the spatial characterisation of resource and support spatial planning of future wave energy projects. Both resource and spatial constraint information are being disseminated via a state-of-the-art portal, designed to meet the needs of all industry stakeholders. Another aspect currently impeding the industry in Australia is the limited evidence-base of impacts of wave energy extraction on adjacent marine and coastal environments. To build this evidence base, a network of in situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented.

  9. Active and reactive power support of MV distribution systems using battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    shaving and voltage support service from the perspective of Distribution System Operators (DSOs). An active power support algorithm is implemented and the effects of various load profiles as well as different Photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios on the operation of BESS and the optimal BESS converter......Adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) for provision of grid services is increasing. This paper investigates the applications of BESS for the grid upgrade deferral and voltage support of Medium Voltage (MV) distribution systems. A BESS is modelled in Matlab/Simulink to perform peak load...... size for peak load shaving are investigated. The BESS annual lifetime degradation is also estimated using a rainflow counting algorithm. A reactive power support algorithm embedded with Q-U droop control is proposed in order to reduce the voltage drop in a part of 10 kV distribution network of Nordhavn...

  10. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  11. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-06-15

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  12. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  13. Collateralised loan obligations (CLOs): A primer

    OpenAIRE

    Jobst, Andreas A.

    2002-01-01

    The following descriptive paper surveys the various types of loan securitisation and provides a working definition of so-called collateralised loan obligations (CLOs). Free of the common rhetoric and slogans, which sometimes substitute for understanding of the complex nature of structured finance, this paper describes the theoretical foundations of this specialised form of loan securitisation. Not only the distinctive properties of CLOs, but also the information economics inherent in the tran...

  14. Decision support for energy conservation promotion: an analytic hierarchy process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kablan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    An effective energy conservation program in any country should encourage the different enterprises, utilities and individuals to employ energy efficient processes, technologies, equipment, and materials. Governments use different mechanisms or policy instruments such as pricing policy (PP), regulation and legislation (RL), training and education, fiscal and financial incentives (FFI), and R and D to promote energy conservation. Effective implementation of energy conservation policies requires prioritization of the different available policy instruments. This paper presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based modeling framework for the prioritization of energy conservation policy instruments. The use of AHP to support management in the prioritization process of policy instruments for promoting energy conservation is illustrated in this research using the case study of Jordan. The research provided a comprehensive framework for performing the prioritization in a scientific and systematic manner. The four most promising policy instruments for promoting energy conservation in Jordan are RL (37.4%), followed by FFI (22.2%), PP (18.0%), and Training, education and qualification (14.5%). One of the major advantages of the use of the AHP approach is that it breaks a large problem into smaller problems which enables the decision-maker (DM) to have a better concentration and to make more sound decisions. In addition, AHP employs a consistency test that can screen out inconsistent judgements. The presented methodology of the research might be beneficial to DMs in other countries

  15. Danish heat atlas as a support tool for energy system models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In the past four decades following the global oil crisis in 1973, Denmark has implemented remarkable changes in its energy sector, mainly due to the energy conservation measures on the demand side and the energy efficiency improvements on the supply side. Nowadays, the capital intensive infrastru......In the past four decades following the global oil crisis in 1973, Denmark has implemented remarkable changes in its energy sector, mainly due to the energy conservation measures on the demand side and the energy efficiency improvements on the supply side. Nowadays, the capital intensive...... infrastructure investments, such as the expansion of district heating networks and the introduction of significant heat saving measures require highly detailed decision-support tool. A Danish heat atlas provides highly detailed database with extensive information about more than 2.5 million buildings in Denmark...... society after 2050. The present paper shows how a Danish heat atlas can be used for providing inputs to energy system models, especially related to the analysis of heat saving measures within building stock and expansion of district heating networks. As a result, marginal cost curves are created...

  16. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  17. Renewable energy in South Africa. Potentials, barriers and options for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegels, Anna [German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut fuer Entwicklungspolitik, Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous; even more so if a country is as fossil fuel based and emission intensive as South Africa. However, in an increasingly carbon constrained world and already now facing climate change impacts South Africa has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity soon and decidedly. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emissions problem. First steps have been taken by the South African government to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, however, they fail to show large-scale effects. This paper seeks to identify the relevant barriers to renewable energy investments and, based on experience from other countries, provide policy recommendations. The major barrier identified in the paper is based on the economics of renewable energy technologies, i.e. their cost and risk structures, two main factors in investment planning. As a solution, the South African government introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a feed-in tariff. The paper discusses the potential and possible shortcomings of this and other existing support schemes and identifies complementing measures on a national scale. (author)

  18. Renewable energy in South Africa: Potentials, barriers and options for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegels, Anna, E-mail: anna.pegels@die-gdi.d [German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut fuer Entwicklungspolitik, Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous; even more so if a country is as fossil fuel based and emission intensive as South Africa. However, in an increasingly carbon constrained world and already now facing climate change impacts South Africa has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity soon and decidedly. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emissions problem. First steps have been taken by the South African government to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, however, they fail to show large-scale effects. This paper seeks to identify the relevant barriers to renewable energy investments and, based on experience from other countries, provide policy recommendations. The major barrier identified in the paper is based on the economics of renewable energy technologies, i.e. their cost and risk structures, two main factors in investment planning. As a solution, the South African government introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a feed-in tariff. The paper discusses the potential and possible shortcomings of this and other existing support schemes and identifies complementing measures on a national scale.

  19. Renewable energy in South Africa: Potentials, barriers and options for support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegels, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous; even more so if a country is as fossil fuel based and emission intensive as South Africa. However, in an increasingly carbon constrained world and already now facing climate change impacts South Africa has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity soon and decidedly. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emissions problem. First steps have been taken by the South African government to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, however, they fail to show large-scale effects. This paper seeks to identify the relevant barriers to renewable energy investments and, based on experience from other countries, provide policy recommendations. The major barrier identified in the paper is based on the economics of renewable energy technologies, i.e. their cost and risk structures, two main factors in investment planning. As a solution, the South African government introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a feed-in tariff. The paper discusses the potential and possible shortcomings of this and other existing support schemes and identifies complementing measures on a national scale.

  20. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  1. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  2. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  3. Distance Support In-Service Engineering for the High Energy Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    FEL only) o Isoplanatic angle (if available) o Fried coherence length o Object distance o Dwell time o Laser spot size While many of the items...system and the HEL system. Acquisition Sensor Laser Subsystem Beam Shaping Sensor Suile . Range Finder -. Coarse Tracker . Fine Tracker Optical...distribution is unlimited DISTANCE SUPPORT IN-SERVICE ENGINEERING FOR THE HIGH ENERGY LASER by Team Raising HEL from a Distance Cohort 311-133O March

  4. Implementation of Auctions for Renewable Energy Support in the Netherlands and Denmark: A cooperation case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gephart, Malte; Kitzing, Lena; Tiedeman, Silvana

    This report deals with the potential implementation of opened auctions for Renewable Energy support in the Netherlands from 2017 on. The report focuses on the implementation process and provides the necessary background information. Furthermore the planned auction design is described and discussed...... of success criteria, of appropriate auction formats and suitable design elements for RES auctions, as well as the analysis of past auction implementations....

  5. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, M.Ö.; Krücker, D.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new-physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery-significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications.

  6. Stability of Thin Shell Wormholes in Born-Infeld Theory Supported by Polytropic Phantom Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Ali [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    In the framework of the Darmois-Israel formalism, the dynamical equations of motion of spherically-symmetric thin-shell wormholes supported by a polytropic phantom energy in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory are constructed. A stability analysis of the spherically-symmetric thin-shell wormhole by using the standard potential method is carried out. The existence of stable, static solutions depends on the values of some parameters.

  7. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, M.Ö., E-mail: ozgur.sahin@desy.de; Krücker, D., E-mail: dirk.kruecker@desy.de; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A., E-mail: isabell.melzer@desy.de

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new-physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery-significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications.

  8. Support for the 38th International Conference on High Energy Physics, 3-10 August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Kee [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-06-19

    The 38th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) held in Chicago from August 3 to 10, 2016 was for physicists from around the world to gather to share the latest advancements in particle physics, astrophysics/cosmology, and accelerator science and to discuss plans for major future facilities. DOE funding provided partial support for space rental audio-visual services for scientific presentations at the conference.

  9. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Liu, Bing; Winiarski, David W.; McBride, Merle F.; Suharli, L.; Walden, D.

    2006-11-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings (AEDG-SO), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small office buildings over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-SO is the first in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the New Buildings Institute (NBI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Each of the guides in the AEDG series will provide recommendations and user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers and owners of small commercial buildings that will encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The guides will provide prescriptive recommendation packages that are capable of reaching the energy savings target for each climate zone in order to ease the burden of the design and construction of energy-efficient small commercial buildings The AEDG-SO was developed by an ASHRAE Special Project committee (SP-102) made up of representatives of each of the partner organizations in eight months. This TSD describes the charge given to the committee in developing the office guide and outlines the schedule of the development effort. The project committee developed two prototype office buildings (5,000 ft2 frame building and 20,000 ft2 two-story mass building) to represent the class of small office buildings and performed an energy simulation scoping study to determine the preliminary levels of efficiency necessary to meet the energy savings target. The simulation approach used by the project committee is documented in this TSD along with

  10. Reliability of Wind Speed Data from Satellite Altimeter to Support Wind Turbine Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uti, M. N.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite altimeter has proven itself to be one of the important tool to provide good quality information in oceanographic study. Nowadays, most countries in the world have begun in implementation the wind energy as one of their renewable energy for electric power generation. Many wind speed studies conducted in Malaysia using conventional method and scientific technique such as anemometer and volunteer observing ships (VOS) in order to obtain the wind speed data to support the development of renewable energy. However, there are some limitations regarding to this conventional method such as less coverage for both spatial and temporal and less continuity in data sharing by VOS members. Thus, the aim of this research is to determine the reliability of wind speed data by using multi-mission satellite altimeter to support wind energy potential in Malaysia seas. Therefore, the wind speed data are derived from nine types of satellite altimeter starting from year 1993 until 2016. Then, to validate the reliability of wind speed data from satellite altimeter, a comparison of wind speed data form ground-truth buoy that located at Sabah and Sarawak is conducted. The validation is carried out in terms of the correlation, the root mean square error (RMSE) calculation and satellite track analysis. As a result, both techniques showing a good correlation with value positive 0.7976 and 0.6148 for point located at Sabah and Sarawak Sea, respectively. It can be concluded that a step towards the reliability of wind speed data by using multi-mission satellite altimeter can be achieved to support renewable energy.

  11. IAEA support of international research and development of materials for sustainable energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Andrej; Kaiser, Ralf; Simon, Aliz

    2013-01-01

    Full-text:The key mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is to promote the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology, verification as well as nuclear safety in the world. This includes a number of activities which aim to support the Member States and stimulate international cooperation in order for sustainable development. During the last 35 years, a well-established mechanism called the Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) has been effectively used to stimulate international research and scientific interaction among the Member States, covering various topics in the nuclear science and technology. Besides direct support of, so called coordinated research, the IAEA is also involved in organizing a number of highly specific international conferences and technical meetings which help to provide a broader platform for the specialist and experts in dedicated areas of nuclear science and technology. In view of support for renewable energy and its application, the IAEA organized series of meetings in 2009 (IEA France), 2010 (UQTR Canada) and 2011 (ANL USA) in order to discuss the scientific and technical issues of particular of national research initiatives related to the hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. All selected outputs of the meetings were published in a technical document publication series which are available to all member states. More recent initiatives are focus on the key nuclear techniques which are extremely valuable in research and development of new innovative materials, methods and technologies, characterization and performance testing of functional materials for innovative energy technologies and their application in sustainable energy sources (nuclear and non-nuclear). It is also important to underline that these programmatic activities are an integral part of the IAEA program on the Road to Rio+20: Applying Nuclear Technology for Sustainable Development. The paper summarizes the IAEA actions relevant to the

  12. Traffic-aware energy saving scheme with modularization supporting in TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu; Sun, Peng; Liu, Chuanbo; Guan, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) is considered to be a primary solution for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2). Due to the feature of multi-wavelength transmission of TWDM-PON, some of the transmitters/receivers at the optical line terminal (OLT) could be shut down to reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, a novel scheme called traffic-aware energy saving scheme with modularization supporting is proposed. Through establishing the modular energy consumption model of OLT, the wavelength transmitters/receivers at OLT could be switched on or shut down adaptively depending on sensing the status of network traffic load, thus the energy consumption of OLT will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, exploring the technology of optical network unit (ONU) modularization, each module of ONU could be switched to sleep or active mode independently in order to reduce the energy consumption of ONU. Simultaneously, the polling sequence of ONU could be changed dynamically via sensing the packet arrival time. In order to guarantee the delay performance of network traffic, the sub-cycle division strategy is designed to transmit the real-time traffic preferentially. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the energy consumption of the network while maintaining the traffic delay performance.

  13. A market for renewable energy credits in the Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in India has been promoted through a host of fiscal policies and preferential tariff for electricity produced from the same. The fiscal policies include tax incentives and purchase of electricity generated through renewable energy sources. The enactment of the Electricity Act 2003 (the Act) has lent further support to renewable energy by stipulating purchase of a certain percentage of the power procurement by distribution utilities from renewable energy sources. The renewable portfolio obligation as well as the feed-in tariff for power procurement has been specified by a number of State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) for the respective state under their jurisdiction. A feed-in tariff determined through a cost-plus approach under a rate of return framework lacks incentive for cost minimisation and does not encourage optimal utilisation of renewable energy resources in the country. Such regulatory provisions differ across states. The prevalent practice of fixing a renewable portfolio obligation along with cost-based feed-in tariffs disregards economic efficiency. The paper proposes nationally tradable renewable energy credits scheme for achieving the targets set by the respective SERCs as renewable portfolio obligation. This would reduce the cost of compliance to a renewable portfolio obligation, and would encourage efficient resource utilisation and investment in appropriate technologies. The paper highlights its advantages and implementation issues. This paper discusses regulatory developments for promotion of renewable energy in various Indian states. The paper also identifies a number of issues related to regulations concerning renewable portfolio obligation. (author)

  14. An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

  15. State Support for Clean Energy Deployment. Lessons Learned for Potential Future Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubert, Charles [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sinclair, Mark [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Proposed federal clean energy initiatives and climate legislation have suggested significant increases to federal funding for clean energy deployment and investment. Many states and utilities have over a decade of experience and spend billions of public dollars every year to support EE/RE deployment through programs that reduce the cost of technologies, provide financing for EE/RE projects, offer technical assistance, and educate market participants. Meanwhile, constraints on public expenditures at all levels of government continue to call upon such programs to demonstrate their value. This report reviews the results of these programs and the specific financial incentives and financing tools used to encourage clean energy investment. Lessons from such programs could be used to inform the future application of EE/RE incentives and financing tools. These lessons learned apply to use of distributed resources and the historical focus of these EE/RE programs.

  16. State Support for Clean Energy Deployment: Lessons Learned for Potential Future Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubert, C.; Sinclair, M.

    2011-04-01

    Proposed federal clean energy initiatives and climate legislation have suggested significant increases to federal funding for clean energy deployment and investment. Many states and utilities have over a decade of experience and spend billions of public dollars every year to support EE/RE deployment through programs that reduce the cost of technologies, provide financing for EE/RE projects, offer technical assistance, and educate market participants. Meanwhile, constraints on public expenditures at all levels of government continue to call upon such programs to demonstrate their value. This report reviews the results of these programs and the specific financial incentives and financing tools used to encourage clean energy investment. Lessons from such programs could be used to inform the future application of EE/RE incentives and financing tools. These lessons learned apply to use of distributed resources and the historical focus of these EE/RE programs.

  17. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  18. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health

  19. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  20. Danish heat atlas as a support tool for energy system models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Stefan N.; Karlsson, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The GIS method for calculating costs of district heating expansion is presented. • High socio-economic potential for district heating is identified within urban areas. • The method for coupling a heat atlas and TIMES optimization model is proposed. • Presented methods can be used for any geographical region worldwide. - Abstract: In the past four decades following the global oil crisis in 1973, Denmark has implemented remarkable changes in its energy sector, mainly due to the energy conservation measures on the demand side and the energy efficiency improvements on the supply side. Nowadays, the capital intensive infrastructure investments, such as the expansion of district heating networks and the introduction of significant heat saving measures require highly detailed decision-support tool. A Danish heat atlas provides highly detailed database with extensive information about more than 2.5 million buildings in Denmark. Energy system analysis tools incorporate environmental, economic, energy and engineering analysis of future energy systems and are considered crucial for the quantitative assessment of transitional scenarios towards future milestones, such as EU 2020 goals and Denmark’s goal of achieving fossil free society after 2050. The present paper shows how a Danish heat atlas can be used for providing inputs to energy system models, especially related to the analysis of heat saving measures within building stock and expansion of district heating networks. As a result, marginal cost curves are created, approximated and prepared for the use in optimization energy system model. Moreover, it is concluded that heat atlas can contribute as a tool for data storage and visualisation of results

  1. Renewable energy production support schemes for residential-scale solar photovoltaic systems in Nordic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Cao, Sunliang; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of production-based support schemes on the economic feasibility of residential-scale PV systems (1–10 kW) in Finland. This was done by calculating the payback time for various sizes of newly installed PV systems for a Finnish detached house with district heating. Three types of economic support schemes (guaranteed selling price, fixed premiums and self-consumption incentives) were tested in an hourly simulation. The load of the building was based on real-life measurements, while PV output was simulated with TRNSYS software. The energy results were post-processed with economic data in MATLAB to find the payback time. Hourly electricity prices from the Nordic energy market were used with PV system prices from Finnish companies. Unsubsidised residential PV systems in Finland had payback times of more than 40 years. The production-based support for PV generation needs to be two to three times the buying price of electricity, to make it possible to pay back the initial investment in 20 years. Low capacity systems with more than 50% self-consumption (under 3 kW) were favoured by self-consumption incentives, while high capacity systems with less than 40% self-consumption (over 5 kW) were favoured by the FIT-type support schemes. - Highlights: • Unsubsidised residential PV is uneconomical in Finland. • Support rate must be 2 times the electricity price for reasonable payback time. • Even using all electricity on-site is not profitable enough without support. • Assumed real interest rate had great influence on payback time. • Hourly electricity prices are much lower than average values from Finnish statistics

  2. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  3. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  4. The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems - Principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linkoeping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  5. Freeze-casting: Fabrication of highly porous and hierarchical ceramic supports for energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Gaudillere

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the freeze-casting ceramic shaping method and to show how its implementation could be useful for several energy applications where key components comprise a porous scaffold. A detailed presentation of the freeze-casting process and of the characteristics of the resulting porous parts is firstly given. The characteristic of freeze-cast parts and the drawbacks of conventional porous scaffolds existing in energy applications are drawn in order to highlight the expected beneficial effect of this new shaping technique as possible substitute to the conventional ones. Finally, a review of the state of the art freeze-cast based energy applications developed up to now and expected to be promising is given to illustrate the large perspectives opened by the implementation of the freeze-casting of ceramics for energy fields. Here we suggest discussing about the feasibility of incorporate freeze-cast porous support in high temperature ceramic-based energy applications.

  6. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.

  7. A hybrid decision support system for sustainable office building renovation and energy performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Yi-Kai [Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST) (China); Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University (United States); Gao, Peng [Department of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Tongji University (China); Wang, Jie [Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption of buildings accounts for around 20-40% of all energy consumed in advanced countries. Over the last decade, more and more global organizations are investing significant resources to create sustainably built environments, emphasizing sustainable building renovation processes to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. This study develops an integrated decision support system to assess existing office building conditions and to recommend an optimal set of sustainable renovation actions, considering trade-offs between renovation cost, improved building quality, and environmental impacts. A hybrid approach that combines A* graph search algorithm with genetic algorithms (GA) is used to analyze all possible renovation actions and their trade-offs to develop the optimal solution. A two-stage system validation is performed to demonstrate the practical application of the hybrid approach: zero-one goal programming (ZOGP) and genetic algorithms are adopted to validate the effectiveness of the algorithm. A real-world renovation project is introduced to validate differences in energy performance projected for the renovation solution suggested by the system. The results reveal that the proposed hybrid system is more computationally effective than either ZOGP or GA alone. The system's suggested renovation actions would provide substantial energy performance improvements to the real project if implemented. (author)

  8. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  9. Co-ordination of renewable energy support schemes in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power. The results are based on a deterministic partial equilibrium model, where two cases are studied. The first case covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their tradable green certificate (TGC) support schemes. The second, countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their TGC-support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising their RES-E support scheme already has a common liberalised power market. In this case, introduction of a common TGC-support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system. But if no such common power market exits, regionalising their TGC-schemes might, due to interactions, introduce distortions in the conventional power system. Thus, contrary to intentions, we might in this case end up in a system that is far from optimal with regard to efficiency and emissions. (au)

  10. Co-ordination of renewable energy support schemes in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.; Morthorst, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power. The results are based on a deterministic partial equilibrium model, where two cases are studied. The first case covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their tradable green certificate (TGC) support schemes. The second, countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their TGC-support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising their RES-E support scheme already has a common liberalised power market. In this case, introduction of a common TGC-support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system. But if no such common power market exits, regionalising their TGC-schemes might, due to interactions, introduce distortions in the conventional power system. Thus, contrary to intentions, we might in this case end up in a system that is far from optimal with regard to efficiency and emissions. (au)

  11. Support systems for the diffusion of renewable energy technologies-an investor perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    Concern over climate change impacts and the projected depletion of fossil fuels has urged more governments to adopt policies that stimulate the diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RET). With an increasingly diverse suite of support instruments, the question emerges as to which instruments or combinations are able to achieve faster, more substantial diffusion results. Although various support instruments were extensively addressed in policy studies, there is still no consensus. This is partly because many policy studies take a policy-maker approach in comparing support instruments, leaving relationships between policy design and policy results as a black box. This paper proposes an investor-oriented perspective to analyze the diffusion potential of support systems for RET. The main argument is that it is not the type of support instrument but rather its risk/profitability characteristics that influence investor behavior and the rate of diffusion. The two instruments most frequently discussed and compared are the feed-in-tariff and the quota model. The analysis in this paper concludes that policy design is crucial: while often feed-in tariffs are applauded and quota system feared, feed-in tariffs may also bring about disappointing diffusion results when poorly designed while quota systems may be also conceived as attractive instruments for independent power producers

  12. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 2 in support of doubling the global rate of energy efficiency improvement and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Kammen, Daniel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jewell, Jessica [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force Two which is dedicated energy efficiency and renewable energy objectives. The report shows that doubling the rate of energy efficiency improvements and doubling the share of energy from renewable sources by 2030 is challenging but feasible if sufficient actions are implemented. Strong and well-informed government policies as well as extensive private investment should focus on the high impact areas identified by the task force.

  13. Energy efficiency as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the best strategy for New Zealand to follow in order to meet obligations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The New Zealand government's current policy is to rely on the increased carbon storage in commercial tree plantings to meet 80% of FCCC obligations with the balance being met by policy measures including voluntary energy efficiency agreements with industry and enhanced state support for energy efficiency activities. If targets are not on track for achievement by 2000, the government will introduce a carbon charge in 1997. An alternative strategy involving microeconomic reforms in the electricity and transport sectors and tradable abatement obligations including credits for emission reductions and carbon storage is proposed. 1 fig., 11 refs

  14. A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Novello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.

  15. Engineering Support for Handling Controller Conflicts in Energy Storage Systems Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zanabria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems will play a major role in the decarbonization of future sustainable electric power systems, allowing a high penetration of distributed renewable energy sources and contributing to the distribution network stability and reliability. To accomplish this, a storage system is required to provide multiple services such as self-consumption, grid support, peak-shaving, etc. The simultaneous activation of controllers operation may lead to conflicts, as a consequence the execution of committed services is not guaranteed. This paper presents and discusses a solution to the exposed issue by developing an engineering support approach to semi-automatically detect and handle conflicts for multi-usage storage systems applications. To accomplish that an ontology is developed and exploited by model-driven engineering mechanisms. The proposed approach is evaluated by implementing a use case example, where detection of conflicts is automatically done at an early design stage. Besides this, exploitable source code for conflicts resolution is generated and used during the design and prototype stages of controllers development. Thus, the proposed engineering support enhances the design and development of storage system controllers, especially for multi-usage applications.

  16. Energy and climate hand-in-hand: Financing RES-E support with carbon revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano F.; Pazienza, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In Italy, the cost of support for renewable electricity (RES-E) is largely recovered through the “A3 surcharge”, which weighs heavily on electricity bills. Using household survey data, we show the A3 surcharge is markedly regressive. Carbon taxation in the non-ETS sector is envisaged as a means to reduce CO_2 emissions cost-effectively and generate revenue to lower the A3 surcharge. A non-ETS carbon tax would be less regressive than the A3 surcharge and its cost would be more evenly distributed across households. We calculate the revenue of a €20/tCO_2 non-ETS carbon tax would have allowed a cut in the A3 surcharge of about 68% in 2011, and 39% in 2012. The impact of the carbon tax plus the reduced A3 surcharge would have been less regressive, but the cost higher for most households. The restrictions imposed in the simulations mean the results are only appropriate to render first-round effects of the reform. Policy relevance: In the vast majority of the EU Member States, the cost of RES-E support is largely paid by electricity consumers, most often through specific surcharges. Rising electricity prices are a common concern given the implications for competitiveness and equity. The Member States facing this issue could conveniently address it through environmental tax reforms consistent with the Climate and Energy Package. Replacing RES-E surcharges with carbon taxes in the non-ETS sector would permit cost-effective reduction of CO_2 emissions while allocating the cost of RES-E support more equitably. The difference in regressivity would stem from the different consumption patterns of home fuels (including electricity) and motor fuels across income distribution. A cross-country comparison of energy household budget shares proves the structural nature of this difference between home fuels and motor fuels. Moreover, the notion that electricity consumers should pay for RES-E support is questioned on the grounds that electricity is a basic necessity good and RES

  17. Web technology to support work processes in energy policy research - A case study with energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, Peter; McMahon, James E.; Brown, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on a process to design and build a web-based system to assist staff in day-to-day management and contemporaneous documentation of their work. Other groups that want to use web technology to support their work could apply the approach presented here, but the design itself pertains to a particular set of issues in a unique context. Each user must apply the approach to identify their objectives and design a site to meet them. The main question that the Energy Efficiency Standards Group addressed was: ''How can we facilitate documentation of interim results and final products while conducting a complex, interdependent set of analyses by multiple authors under time pressures for delivering a final product?'' The approach to address this question includes categorization of the components of the work, discussions with staff, development of infrastructure support for documentation, implementation of the documentation process and integration with the workflow, and follow- up with staff. The search for a solution raised a number of issues such as the need for a thorough understanding of the work, consensus building by inclusion of key staff, and deliverable scheduling to allow for contemporaneous documentation. Documentation results vary among the product analyses, from extensive internal and external use to much slower adoption. Complaints include the length of the input forms and pressure from clients to deliver results. But with repeated demand for interim output, the need for thorough contemporaneous documentation still remains. Accordingly, as problems arise there is continued commitment among the staff to address them

  18. 77 FR 52353 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development AGENCY... would be used to issue Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy right-of-way (ROW) grants in order... renewable energy, but does not constitute a project easement. The ability of an ROW grantee to install such...

  19. 78 FR 47748 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ...-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development... will use Form 0009 to issue a renewable energy right-of- way (ROW) grant on the Outer Continental Shelf....gov/Renewable-Energy Program/ Regulatory-Information/Index.aspx. DATES: The ROW grant form will be...

  20. Creation and development of energy technologies and energy-policy support in Switzerland; Generierung und Uebernahme von Energietechnologien und energiepolitische Foerderung in der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvanitis, S.; Ley, M.

    2010-08-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of the 2009 Energy Technology Survey and the factors determining the adoption of energy-saving technologies in Swiss companies. Also, innovations in the area of energy efficiency and public support for energy efficiency technologies in Switzerland are discussed. This research project relies on a unique survey of Swiss enterprises in order to provide empirical insights on some relevant issues concerning the generation and use of energy-efficient technology. One of the questions addressed is: What are the determinants for the widespread adoption and application of such new technologies, once they have reached maturity?.

  1. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  2. A portfolio decision analysis approach to support energy research and development resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, Margaret; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Bates, Matthew E.; Bridges, Todd S.; Summers, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Research sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) aims to facilitate a clean and independent energy future for the nation. Strategic planning for energy research and development (R&D) can be complex and dynamic, in part due to federal budgetary constraints and volatility. Managing R&D funding to advance energy technologies, in spite of these challenges, is a crucial component of the nation's long term energy policy. This study demonstrates a portfolio decision analysis (PDA) approach to support R&D resource allocation decisions for the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's Carbon Capture and Storage R&D program. A multi-attribute value model uses technology readiness levels (TRLs) and other metrics to represent the overall objectives of the R&D program in order to evaluate alternative research portfolios given limited funding. Mathematical optimization identifies efficient funding allocations for each technology program area to maximize the multi-attribute value generated from the total budget. This is especially useful for responding to externally imposed budget changes. As the case study demonstrates, explicitly funding the most value-generating options leads to greater expected R&D programmatic value than typical strategies of equal or proportional distributions of a budget change among technology program areas. - Highlights: • Decision analysis can minimize the effect of a budget decrement on an R&D program. • Greater expected benefits are yielded by differentially funding technologies. • Budget scenario testing illustrates factors that influence value generation. • Coordinating with US DOE bridges gap between decision research and practice.

  3. Energy security of French armies. The oil support in the context of transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Ever since its inception on the eve of World War One, the concept of securing fuel supply has consistently proven its vitality to military operations. In France, this mission is handled by the Service des Essences des Armees (SEA) since 1945. By controlling the chain of fuel supply, the SEA has been able to serve as a key organization in supporting French armed forces integration within NATO as well as their operations overseas. However, the SEA is now facing new challenges due to both external hazards (both structural and contextual) and internal vulnerabilities which combine into a systemic 'energy risk' that needs to be addressed. In order to do so in the near future, French armed forces will have to fully embrace the challenges of energy transition, so as to turn internationally recognized concepts such as 'Green Defense' into operational reality. (author)

  4. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the spallation neutron source 1-MW beam operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B X; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Welton, R F; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    The H(-) injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the spallation neutron source 1 MW beam operation with ∼38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to ∼1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: (1) inconsistent dependence of the post-radio frequency quadrupole accelerator beam current on the ion source tilt angle and (2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  5. A decision support system for planning biomass-based energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frombo, Francesco; Robba, Michela [DIST, Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy); Renewable Energy Laboratory, Modelling and Optimization, Via A. Magliotto 2, 17100 Savona (Italy); Minciardi, Riccardo; Sacile, Roberto [DIST, Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) are recognized as valuable tools for environmental planning and management. In this paper, a geographic information system (GIS)-based EDSS for the optimal planning of forest biomass use for energy production is presented. A user-friendly interface allows the creation of Scenarios and the running of the developed decision and environmental models. In particular, the optimization model regards decisions over a long-term period (e.g. years) and includes decision variables related to plant locations, conversion processes (pyrolisis, gasification, combustion), harvested biomass. Moreover, different energy products and different definitions of the harvesting and pre-treatment operations are taken into account. The correct management of the forest is considered through specific constraints, security factors, and procedures for parcel selection. The EDSS features and capabilities are described in detail, with specific reference to a case study. Discussion and further research are reported. (author)

  6. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  7. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...... the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed...

  8. Support of experimental high energy physics research at the University of South Carolina, 1992--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, M.V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the activities of the University of South Carolina's high energy physics group during the three-year period of DE-FG02-92ER40719. The activities of the group began in 1980 under a predecessor grant from DOE, and continue today under a successor grant. The retirements of one grant in favor of another were for reasons of administrative convenience or necessity. The characterization of the report as open-quotes finalclose quotes is not reflective of the group's projects, which by-and-large continue with support from the successor grant

  9. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Mehmet Oezguer; Kruecker, Dirk; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) is promoted for new-physics searches in high-energy physics. We developed an interface, called SVM HEP Interface (SVM-HINT), for a popular SVM library, LibSVM, and introduced a statistical-significance based hyper-parameter optimization algorithm for the new-physics searches. As example case study, a search for Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider is given to demonstrate the capabilities of SVM using SVM-HINT.

  10. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, M.Oe.; Kruecker, D.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new-physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery-significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications. A new C++ LIBSVM interface called SVM-HINT is developed and available on Github.

  11. Performance and optimization of support vector machines in high-energy physics classification problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, M.Oe.; Kruecker, D.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we promote the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a machine learning tool for searches in high-energy physics. As an example for a new-physics search we discuss the popular case of Supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. We demonstrate that the SVM is a valuable tool and show that an automated discovery-significance based optimization of the SVM hyper-parameters is a highly efficient way to prepare an SVM for such applications. A new C++ LIBSVM interface called SVM-HINT is developed and available on Github.

  12. Auctions for renewable energy support - Taming the beast of competitive bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora Alvarez, David Fernando; Kitzing, Lena; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    countries. These insights are based on theoretical and empirical analysis (energy auctions in 12 European countries and 8 non-European countries), the use of state of the art simulation models and experiments, and through cooperation cases with some Member States providing tailor-made policy support...... in the implementation of auctions. AURES contributed to a strong knowledge-sharing with workshops, webinars, bi- and multilateral meetings, an interactive website and dedicated auction tools (AURES cash flow model and AURES auction designer). This final report covers a discussion of major findings and insights...

  13. Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.

  14. Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-15

    It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.

  15. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Holm, S

    1995-11-04

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation.

  16. Revising Sangiovanni's reciprocity-based internationalism: towards international egalitarian obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Heaney

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To whom do we owe obligations of socio-economic justice? How are such obligations generated? Internationalism denotes a range of approaches to these questions. This paper examines Andrea Sangiovanni's—an internationalist—response to these questions. Sangiovanni argues that we owe egalitarian obligations only to those in the state, and that egalitarian obligations are generated through relationships of ‘reciprocity’. His is a ‘reciprocity-based internationalism’ (RBI. RBI has two components—one normative and another empirical. In this paper, I will assume the normative component, but reject its empirical component. My rejection of the empirical component has normative implications for RBI, which generate egalitarian obligations beyond the state. In other words, my revision of RBI is an argument in favour of international egalitarian obligations not generated through cosmopolitanism, but through internationalism.

  17. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.; Holm, S.

    1995-01-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation. Images p1216-a p1216-b p1217-a PMID:7488907

  18. Basewide Energy Studies in Support of Energy Engineering Analysis Program for St. Louis Area Support Center, Granite City, Illinois; Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    .... BLAST runs were utilized to determine both the baseline energy consumption for each building as well as the energy savings generated if a particular energy conservation measure is implemented. Both the energy savings generated and the cost to implement it were utilized to run an economic analyses to determine an E/C ratio to be utilized in ranking these ECMs. This analysis was performed on a building basis for each ECM.

  19. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, J.; Holm, S.

    1995-01-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm ...

  20. Institutional review board perspectives on obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings to research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliwa, Catherine; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jones, Nathan; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    Researchers' obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings (GIFs) have been widely debated, but there has been little empirical study of the engagement of institutional review boards (IRBs) with this issue. This article presents data from the first extensive (n = 796) national survey of IRB professionals' understanding of, experience with, and beliefs surrounding GIFs. Most respondents had dealt with questions about GIFs (74%), but only a minority (47%) felt prepared to address them. Although a majority believed that there is an obligation to disclose GIFs (78%), there is still not consensus about the supporting ethical principles. Respondents generally did not endorse the idea that researchers' additional time and effort (7%), and lack of resources (29%), were valid reasons for diminishing a putative obligation. Most (96%) supported a right not to know, but this view became less pronounced (63%) when framed in terms of specific case studies. IRBs are actively engaged with GIFs but have not yet reached consensus. Respondents were uncomfortable with arguments that could be used to limit an obligation to return GIFs. This could indicate that IRBs are providing some of the impetus for the trend toward returning GIFs, although questions remain about the relative contribution of other stakeholders.Genet Med 18 7, 705-711.

  1. Earth Observations in Support of Offshore Wind Energy Management in the Euro-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.

    2017-12-01

    -Atlantic region. Further we explore the automatization of processes using different domains and datasets, which facilitate further research in evaluating and understanding renewable energy variability. AcknowledgementsThis work is supported by Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal, project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  2. From sectorial studies towards decision support through integral assessment of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.

    1999-01-01

    The public, opinion leaders and decision-makers ask for clear answers on issues concerning the energy sector and electricity generation in particular. Is it feasible to phase out nuclear power in countries extensively relying on nuclear electricity supply and simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions? What are the environmental and economic implications of enhanced uses of cogeneration systems, renewable sources and heat pumps? How do the various energy carriers compare with respect to accident risks? How would internalisation of external costs affect the relative competitiveness of the various means of electricity production? What can we expect from the prospective technological advancements during the next two or three decades? Which systems or energy mixes come closest to the ideal of being cheap, environmentally clean, reliable and at the same time exhibit low accident risks? The Swiss GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' provides answers to many issues in the Swiss and international energy arena. A systematic, multi-disciplinary, bottom-up methodology for the assessment of energy systems, has been established and implemented. It covers environmental analysis, risk assessment and economic studies, which are supported by the extensive databases developed in this work. Apart from technical and economic aspects an integrated approach needs to consider also social preferences. The applications of multi-criteria analysis within GaBE demonstrate the use of a framework that allows decision-makers to simultaneously address the often conflicting socio-economic and ecological criteria. Case studies are being conducted in order to evaluate the performance of energy systems with respect to sustainability. Based on these experiences EnergyGame, a tool primarily intended for communication but having a substantial analytical power, has been developed. It offers any interested user to evaluate the various electricity supply options by combining the

  3. Introducing the Brazilian program of technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency - Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Laercio A.; Palhares, Lilia C.; Dias, Fabio C.; Khlebnikov, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    As an active Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Brazil has applied substantial resources in order to maintain the best possible cooperation with the Agency, aiming at a continuous improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards system. Over the last decades a number of projects, involving the participation of high-level Brazilian professionals in the nuclear area, have already been jointly completed. To continue providing this voluntary support to the IAEA Department of Safeguards for research, development and implementation, in 2006 Brazil decided to accept the IAEA's invitation to participate in the IAEA Member States Support Programmes initiative, which currently includes 21 Member States. The Research and Development (R and D) Programme for Nuclear Verification is the IAEA reference in this regard, establishing the high priority needs and describing each recognized departmental project. The Programme is issued every two years. The 'Brazilian Support Programme (BRZ SP)' was established on the basis of a set of administrative procedures titled 'Cooperation Arrangements and Guidelines', agreed between the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the IAEA - Department of Safeguards. The scope of the BRZ SP includes: the participation in field tests and the evaluation of state-of-the-art technologies as requested by the IAEA for its safeguards applications; the training of safeguards personnel involved with safeguards implementation at both facility and State levels; laboratorial support in the area of destructive and nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials; the analysis of safeguards issues; information acquisition, analysis and evaluation; and the provision of human resources, such as experts and consultants to work directly with the IAEA Secretariat. The activities agreed under the BRZ SP are not restricted to CNEN staff members. Professionals from other Brazilian organizations may also be involved

  4. Supporting Energy Transitions and Miscanthus Program Development at the University of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Kayley Christina

    Miscanthus is a highly productive, low-input biofuel crop that supports agricultural diversification with improved performance for climate commitment, energy security, and water quality over first generation biofuels. Despite its high performance, no local or regional markets for the feedstock have formed in North America, and current climate-based productivity assessment methods lack the information farmers and decision-makers need to establish commercial scale bioenergy markets, programs, and thermal co-firing plans. This study develops a Miscanthus Suitability Rating and a transferable field-scale siting method, applied at 10 m resolution across the State of Iowa to assess miscanthus production potential and identify individual farms that are highly suitable for large-scale miscanthus cultivation while maintaining a majority of existing row cropping acreage. Results show that highly suitable fields within 50 miles (84 km) of each of Iowa's coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs) can displace up to 43% of current coal consumption. Every EGU in Iowa has land resource to produce local miscanthus to co-fire with other solid fuels at industry-leading levels without significantly impacting local row crop production. Seven of the state's smaller facilities could even operate exclusively on local miscanthus with advancements in densification technology. The energy evaluation tool developed in this work estimates the energy return on investment (EROI) of Iowa miscanthus for existing thermal generation facilities between 37 and 59, depending on transportation requirements and chemical field applications. This transition would diversify local agribusiness and energy feedstocks, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide a sustainable, dispatchable, in-state fuel source to complement wind and solar energy.

  5. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactively...... declaratively express timed provisions and obligations as causal relationships between events, and DCR states explicitly represent pending obligations. As key technical results, we show that enforceability of DCR policies is decidable, we give a sufficient polynomial time verifiable condition for a policy...... to be enforceable, and we give an algorithm for determining from a DCR state a sequence of actions that discharge impending obligations....

  6. Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Heo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC and the grid side converter (GSC are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS control algorithm and de-loaded (DL operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system.

  7. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weimin

    2012-01-01

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above ∼0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Høiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  8. Overview of the CEA R and D support to generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, Frank; Anzieu, Pascal; Billot, Philippe; Brossard, Philippe; Fiorini, Gian-Luigi

    2004-01-01

    As a result of an early technology road-map performed at the end of 2000, the CEA selected a sequenced development of advanced gas cooled high temperature nuclear systems as main focus for its R and D programme on future nuclear energy systems. The selection of this research objectives originates both from the significance of fast neutrons and high temperature for nuclear energy to meet the needs anticipated beyond 2020/2030, and from the significant common R and D pathway that supports both medium term industrial projects and more advanced versions of gas cooled reactors. The first step of the 'Gas Technology Path' aims to support the development of a modular HTR likely to meet international market needs around 2020. The second step is a Very High Temperature Reactor (> 950 deg. C) to efficiently produce, among others, hydrogen though thermo-chemical water splitting or to generate electricity with an efficiency above 50%. The third step of the Path is a Gas Fast Reactor that features a fast-spectrum helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel cycle, with a direct-cycle helium turbine for electricity production and full recycle of actinides. The paper succinctly presents the R and D program launched in 2001 by the CEA with industrial partners on the 'Gas Technology Path', which is destined to become the contribution of France to the development of the VHTR and the GFR within the next phase of the Generation IV Forum

  9. Overview of the CEA R and D support to generation IV nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, Frank; Anzieu, Pascal; Billot, Philippe; Brossard, Philippe; Fiorini, Gian-Luigi

    2004-07-01

    As a result of an early technology road-map performed at the end of 2000, the CEA selected a sequenced development of advanced gas cooled high temperature nuclear systems as main focus for its R and D programme on future nuclear energy systems. The selection of this research objectives originates both from the significance of fast neutrons and high temperature for nuclear energy to meet the needs anticipated beyond 2020/2030, and from the significant common R and D pathway that supports both medium term industrial projects and more advanced versions of gas cooled reactors. The first step of the 'Gas Technology Path' aims to support the development of a modular HTR likely to meet international market needs around 2020. The second step is a Very High Temperature Reactor (> 950 deg. C) to efficiently produce, among others, hydrogen though thermo-chemical water splitting or to generate electricity with an efficiency above 50%. The third step of the Path is a Gas Fast Reactor that features a fast-spectrum helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel cycle, with a direct-cycle helium turbine for electricity production and full recycle of actinides. The paper succinctly presents the R and D program launched in 2001 by the CEA with industrial partners on the 'Gas Technology Path', which is destined to become the contribution of France to the development of the VHTR and the GFR within the next phase of the Generation IV Forum.

  10. How Energy Metabolism Supports Cerebral Function: Insights from 13C Magnetic Resonance Studies In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sonnay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity. Shedding light on the role of astrocytes in brain metabolism, the earlier picture of astrocytes being restricted to a scaffold-associated function in the brain is now out of date. With the development and optimization of non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, several groups have worked on assessing cerebral metabolism in vivo. In this context, 1H MRS has allowed the measurements of energy metabolism-related compounds, whose concentrations can vary under different brain activation states. 1H-[13C] MRS, i.e., indirect detection of signals from 13C-coupled 1H, together with infusion of 13C-enriched glucose has provided insights into the coupling between neurotransmission and glucose oxidation. Although these techniques tackle the coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism, they lack chemical specificity and fail in providing information on neuronal and glial metabolic pathways underlying those processes. Currently, the improvement of detection modalities (i.e., direct detection of 13C isotopomers, the progress in building adequate mathematical models along with the increase in magnetic field strength now available render possible detailed compartmentalized metabolic flux characterization. In particular, direct 13C MRS offers more detailed dataset acquisitions and provides information on metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, and their role in supporting neurotransmission. Here

  11. Energy efficiency in existing buildings: investment gap, incentives and supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varenio, Celine

    2012-01-01

    successive analyses - causes, appearance of the energy efficiency gap, national tools, programs implemented at the local level - we conclude to a necessary strengthening of non-financial measures which support agents to initiate an investment dynamic and in the meanwhile to an increase of the reliability of economic tools, such as taxes or subventions. (author) [fr

  12. A decision support system for assessing offshore wind energy potential in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillings, Christoph; Wanderer, Thomas; Cameron, Lachlan; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Jacquemin, Jerome; Veum, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy (OWE) in the North Sea has the potential to meet large share of Europe’s future electricity demand. To deploy offshore wind parks in a rational way, the overall OWE potential has to be realistically determined. This has to be done on an international, cross-border level and by taking into account the existing man-made and nature-related uses of the North Sea. As spatial conflicts will arise between existing uses and the new OWE uses, a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed. Based on data of existing sea uses and calculation rules for spatial prioritisation analysis, the DSS helps in identifying areas that are (1) generally suitable for offshore wind power, (2) strictly excluded or (3) negotiable with respect to other existing sea uses. The combination of this conflict analysis together with cost assumptions for offshore wind farms and their expected electricity yield leads to identification of favourable areas for OWE deployment in the North Sea. This approach helps to reduce the conflict between offshore wind deployment and existing sea uses in the North Sea for future planning. The results can assist decision makers in developing transnational roadmaps for OWE. - Highlights: ► Decision Support System (DSS) to identify offshore wind energy (OWE) potential in the North Sea. ► Spatial analysis of existing sea use functions and offshore wind energy potential. ► Input parameters of DSS depend on the level of OWE spatial priority assumed by the user. ► DSS performs the required calculations and provides results in form of maps and statistics. ► DSS available after registration at (www.windspeed.eu).

  13. On A Recent Theory of 'Legal Obligation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by the late Bruno Leoni, was originally published in the Italian journal Il Politico in 1966. In the article, Leoni reviews H.L.A. Hart’s The Concept of Law (1961. Hart first analyzes the concept of law by resorting to the classical concept of “obligation.” But he later tries a “fresh start” by resorting to the concept of “secondary rules.” In his review, Leoni argues that the former attempt is confronted with serious difficulties, and that the latter attempt (to which professor Hart possibly resorts in view of overcoming some of said difficulties is ultimately inconsistent with the former

  14. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  15. [Facultative and obligate aerobic methylobacteria synthesize cytokinins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Shepeliakovskaia, A O; Laman, A G; Brovko, F A; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    The presence and expression of genes controlling the synthesis and secretion of cytokinins by the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium mesophilicum VKM B-2143 with the serine pathway and nonpigmented obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays VKM B-2221 with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 metabolism were shown using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR methods. The presence of the corresponding mRNA in M. mesophilicum cells grown on methanol or succinate suggests that the expression of these genes is constitutive. The cytokinin activity of culture liquid and its fractions was determined by a biotest with Amarantus caudatus L. seedlings. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis, we detected zeatin (riboside) in the culture liquid of both bacteria studied. The data obtained show that the aerobic methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that are able to utilize the single- and polycarbon compounds secreted by symbiotic plants and to synthesize cytokinins.

  16. From Non-market Support to Cost-Competitive Incentives. Wind Energy Commercialization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)

  17. Analysing the effectiveness of renewable energy supporting policies in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelink, Mirjam [Ecofys BV, P.O. Box 8404, NL-3503 RK Utrecht (Netherlands)] e-mail: m.harmelink@ecofys.nl; Voogt, Monique [Ecofys BV, P.O. Box 8404, NL-3503 RK Utrecht (Netherlands); Cremer, Clemens [Fraunhofer ISI, Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)] e-mail: Cremer@isi.fhg.de

    2006-02-01

    With several mid-term policies in place to support the development of renewables, the European Union (EU) seems on its way to increasing the share of renewable energy to the targeted 12% by the year 2010. It is however, yet unclear how effective these policies are, which technologies will see the largest growth and which countries will indeed be able to meet their targets. This article discusses a monitoring protocol that was developed to monitor this effectiveness and judge whether targets will be met. In a step-wise approach policy instruments are characterised and analysed, leading to a quantitative assessment of the likely growth in renewable energy production for each individual technology and country in case no policy changes occur. Applying this monitoring protocol at the EU-level we show that with the current policies in place renewable energy production will reach a share of 8-10% in 2010, and the share of electricity production will reach a level of 15-18% of total electricity consumption, whereas the target is 22.5%. Additional policies are clearly needed to achieve the ambitious targets set.

  18. Analysing the effectiveness of renewable energy supporting policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Voogt, Monique; Cremer, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    With several mid-term policies in place to support the development of renewables, the European Union (EU) seems on its way to increasing the share of renewable energy to the targeted 12% by the year 2010. It is however, yet unclear how effective these policies are, which technologies will see the largest growth and which countries will indeed be able to meet their targets. This article discusses a monitoring protocol that was developed to monitor this effectiveness and judge whether targets will be met. In a step-wise approach policy instruments are characterised and analysed, leading to a quantitative assessment of the likely growth in renewable energy production for each individual technology and country in case no policy changes occur. Applying this monitoring protocol at the EU-level we show that with the current policies in place renewable energy production will reach a share of 8-10% in 2010, and the share of electricity production will reach a level of 15-18% of total electricity consumption, whereas the target is 22.5%. Additional policies are clearly needed to achieve the ambitious targets set

  19. A new energy-absorbing bolt for rock support in high stress rock masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlie Chunlin Li [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    An energy-absorbing rock support device, called a D bolt, has been recently developed to counteract both burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions that occur during underground excavation. The bolt is a smooth steel bar with a number of anchors along its length. The anchors are firmly fixed within a borehole using either cement grout or resin, while the smooth sections of the bolt between the anchors may freely deform in response to rock dilation. Failure of one section does not affect the reinforcement performance of the other sections. The bolt is designed to fully use both the strength and the deformation capacity of the bolt material along the entire length. The bolt has large load-bearing and deformation capacities. Static pull tests and dynamic drop tests show that the bolt length elongates by 14-20% at a load level equal to the strength of the bolt material, thereby absorbing a large amount of energy. The impact average load of a 20 mm D bolt is 200-230 kN, with only a small portion of the load transferred to the bolt plate. The cumulative dynamic energy absorption of the bolt is measured to be 47 kJ/m. D bolts were tested in three deep mines. Filed measurements show that D bolts are loaded less than rebar bolts. This paper presents the layout and principle of the D bolt, and corresponding results from static, dynamic, and field tests.

  20. Does Flexible Arterial Tubing Retain More Hemodynamic Energy During Pediatric Pulsatile Extracorporeal Life Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance and energy transmission of flexible arterial tubing as the arterial line in a simulated pediatric pulsatile extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The ECLS circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump head, Medos Hilite 2400 LT oxygenator, Biomedicus arterial/venous cannula (10 Fr/14 Fr), 3 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) arterial tubing or latex rubber arterial tubing, primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 40%). Trials were conducted at flow rates of 300 to 1200 mL/min (300 mL/min increments) under nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes at 36°C using either PVC arterial tubing (PVC group) or latex rubber tubing (Latex group). Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. Mean pressures and energy equivalent pressures (EEP) were the same under nonpulsatile mode between the two groups. Under pulsatile mode, EEPs were significantly great than mean pressure, especially in the Latex group (P tubing retained more hemodynamic energy passing through it under pulsatile mode while mean pressures and pressure drops across the ECLS circuit were similar between PVC and latex rubber arterial tubing. Further studies are warranted to verify our findings. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Topography and surface free energy of DPPC layers deposited on a glass, mica, or PMMA support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Malgorzata; Chibowski, Emil

    2006-08-15

    An investigation of energetic properties of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) layers deposited on glass, mica, and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) surfaces was carried out by means of contact angles measurements (advancing and receding) for three probe liquids (diiodomethane, water, and formamide). DPPC was deposited on the surfaces from water (on glass and mica) or methanol (on PMMA) solutions. The topography of the tested surfaces was determined with a help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using the measured contact angles, the total apparent surface free energy and its components of the studied layers were determined from van Oss et al.'s (Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base components, LWAB) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approaches. It allowed us to learn about changes in the surface free energy of the layers (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) depending on their number and kind of support. It was found that the changes in the energy greatly depended on the surface properties of the substrate as well as the statistical number of monolayers of DPPC. However, principal changes took place for first three monolayers.

  2. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states; the cost savings potential of different cost reduction policies for reaching the 2020 RES target; the role of market risk exposure and market integration for RES deployment and the cost-efficiency of RES support; and the role and design of cross-country cooperation mechanisms for efficient RES target achievement. The analysis showed that the effectiveness and efficiency of RES support policies is still low in many European member states but that top runner countries have gained significant experience in tailored RES policy design. The key recommendations for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of RES support policies across Europe are: Reducing policy and market risks, particularly those that have no or little potential to trigger cost-optimised behaviour of RES generators Ensuring long-term commitment and increasing the stability of the regulatory framework for RES Against the background of the risk-averse financial environment and the new budgetary constraints of the recent financial crisis, it has become even more important for governments to take measures to reduce RES financing risks. Without such risk reduction, it seems unlikely that sufficient investments will be attracted to reach the EU 2020 targets. Furthermore, stable and risk sensitive policies could reduce the policy costs for achieving the target by up to 4 billion Euro per year. In addition to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of their national support instruments, policymakers should consider the increased use of cooperation mechanisms that could potentially further decrease the cost of European RES target achievement by 2-3 billion Euro per year, at least if the respective cooperation mechanisms do

  3. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  4. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  5. Marine Waves Energy: A spatio-temporal DSS-WebGIS to support the wave-energy potential assessment in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollino, Maurizio; La Porta, Luigi; Caiaffa, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    GIS technologies are able to provide a useful tool for estimating the energy resource from the sea waves, assessing whether this energy flux is exploitable and evaluating the social and environmental impacts in deep water and/or in the seaboard. The DDS-WebGIS 'Energy Waves' represents a tool for displaying and sharing geo spatial data and maps, as well as a valuable support for new installations planning, forecasting system and existing infrastructure management. [it

  6. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic

  7. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Sonnenschein@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Lünsdorf, Ontje, E-mail: Ontje.Luensdorf@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany); Bremer, Jörg, E-mail: Joerg.Bremer@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Tröschel, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Troeschel@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  8. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  9. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian, E-mail: ian.vazquez@tudor.lu; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was

  10. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was

  11. Governmental support for the energy-neutral construction market; Rijk ondersteunt markt bij stappen richting energieneutraal bouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, D. [Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    An overview of instruments and measures that the Dutch government can use to support energy-neutral construction. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de instrumenten en maatregelen waarmee de Nederlandse overheid de stappen richting energieneutraal bouwen ondersteunt.

  12. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  13. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  14. Third National Report on compliance with the Joint Convention Obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, hereinafter referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. This report is the third one of its kind. It is published in accordance with Article 32 of the Joint Convention and presents the measures taken by France to meet each of her obligations set out in the Convention. The facilities and the radioactive materials covered by this Convention are quite diversified in nature and are controlled in France by different regulatory authorities. Above a specific threshold of radioactive content, a facility is referred to as a 'basic nuclear facility' (installation nucleaire de base - INB) and placed under the control of the Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN). Below that threshold and provided that the facility involved is subject to the nomenclature of classified facilities for other purposes than their radioactive materials, any facility may be considered as a 'classified facility on environmental-protection grounds' (installation classee pour la protection de l'environnement - ICPE) and placed under the control of the Ministry for the Environment. Facilities that contain only

  15. Clay and clay-supported materials for clean energy storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dwindling fossil energy reserves together with the need to find cleaner energy sources have intensified investigations for alternative energy sources. Solar energy, batteries and hydrogen have featured prominently amongst the most promising...

  16. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    energy transition processes? For the research project this general question was broken down into four primary research questions: • How can communities anchor and monitor long-term energy transition visions in their communal development plans? • What tools and models are available for urban energy system analysis? • How can tools and models be adapted to the specific demands and boundary conditions in the case study communities to ensure long-term implementation of appropriate technologies and measures? • How does the practical implementation of the adapted tools work in the case study and what barriers must be overcome for long-term success? To answer these questions a combination of review of the current state of scientific literature of the thematic field with a practical application and evaluation of ‘real’ implementation projects was chosen. This appears to be a beneficial approach to scientific research in planning disciplines. The first research question is closely connected to urban planning and strategy. To anchor energy transition goals in these disciplines the potentials and consequences of political energy visions were studied. To monitor developments and progress existing indicator systems were reviewed and adapted to the needs of small- and medium-sized communities. For this overall target-definition the question of 'Exergy Thinking' in planning urban environments and energy systems was discussed. This basically means to create a deep understanding of the quality aspects in energy demand and supply systems and to be aware for better matching solutions. This approach opens many options for the integration of renewables in the heating and cooling supply. It showed that the definition of a clear long-term target or 'energy vision' supports the implementation of measures because it facilitates communication and controversy. The large number of available tools and scientific methods for the analysis and optimization of communal energy systems was

  17. The impact of regulatory obligations on fishers’ income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; J. Kaiser, Michel; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    as a marketing tool to identify fishers’ most and least preferred regulatory obligations in terms of the impact these obligations have on their income. Significant differences were identified in fishers’ preferences that depended on the regulatory measures fishers operated under at the time of the study (which...

  18. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yacht privileges and obligations. 4.94 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94 Yacht privileges and obligations...) A cruising license may be issued to a yacht of a foreign country only if it has been made to appear...

  19. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  20. 12 CFR 13.100 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers... GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES Interpretations § 13.100 Obligations concerning institutional customers... to institutional customers. (b) The OCC's suitability rule (§ 13.4) is fundamental to fair dealing...

  1. Engineering of obligate intracellular bacteria: progress, challenges and paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over twenty years have passed since the first report of genetic manipulation of an obligate intracellular bacterium. Through progress interspersed by bouts of stagnation, microbiologists and geneticists have developed approaches to genetically manipulate obligates. A brief overview of the current ge...

  2. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for asset... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset... measurement changes to the initial liability for the legal obligation recorded in account 230, Asset...

  3. 16 CFR 436.2 - Obligation to furnish documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Franchisors' Obligations § 436.2 Obligation to furnish documents. In connection with the offer or sale of a franchise to be located in the United States of America... to the address specified by the prospective franchisee by first-class United States mail at least...

  4. Displacement and gratitude: accounting for the political obligation of refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D'Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On what basis, and to what extent, are refugees obligated to obey the laws of their host countries? Consideration of the specific case of asylum-seekers generates, I think, two competing intuitions: (1 the refugee has a prima facie obligation to obey the laws of her host country and (2 none of the popularly canvassed substrates of political obligation—consent, tacit consent, fairness, or social role—is at all apt to explain the presence of this obligation. I contend that the unfashionable gratitude account of political obligation does the best job of accounting for the intuitions. As has been noticed by other commentators, obligations of gratitude are difficult to specify and subject to numerous cancelling conditions. I analyze these conditions in detail and conclude that if one accepts that gratitude is the basis of the political obligation of the refugee, then one must face up to just how frangible the obligation is. In particular, the obligation is conditional on the fair and generous treatment of refugees that is consistent with their dignity as human beings.

  5. [Long-term storage of obligate anaerobic microorganisms in glycerol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A I; Netrusov, A I

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the possibility of storing the cultures of obligate anaerobic microorganisms (clostridia. acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea) in 25% glycerol at -70 degrees C for a long time (up to 3 years). This method of storage is adequate to preserve cell viability in most obligate anaerobes.

  6. 7 CFR 400.166 - Obligations of the Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of the Corporation. 400.166 Section 400... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for... Corporation. The Agreement will include the following among the obligations of the Corporation. (a) The...

  7. 7 CFR 1755.27 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1755.27 Section 1755.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.27 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or...

  8. 29 CFR 4.146 - Contract obligations after award, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract obligations after award, generally. 4.146 Section 4.146 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Period of Coverage § 4.146 Contract obligations after...

  9. 49 CFR 371.10 - Duties and obligations of brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties and obligations of brokers. 371.10 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS BROKERS OF PROPERTY § 371.10 Duties and obligations of brokers. Where the broker acts on behalf of a person bound by...

  10. Supporting Structure of the LSD Wave in an Energy Absorption Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Akihiro; Hatai, Keigo; Cho, Shinatora; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2008-01-01

    In Repetitively Pulsed (RP) Laser Propulsion, laser energy irradiated to a vehicle is converted to blast wave enthalpy during the Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) regime. Based on the measured post-LSD electron number density profiles by two-wavelength Mach Zehnder interferometer in a line-focusing optics, electron temperature and absorption coefficient were estimated assuming Local Thermal Equilibrium. A 10J/pulse CO 2 laser was used. As a result, laser absorption was found completed in the layer between the shock wave and the electron density peak. Although the LSD-termination timing was not clear from the shock-front/ionization-front separation in the shadowgraph images, there observed drastic changes in the absorption layer thickness from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm and in the peak heating rate from 12-17x10 13 kW/m 3 to 5x10 13 kW/m 3 at the termination

  11. Recent progress in solution plasma-synthesized-carbon-supported catalysts for energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun Li, Oi; Lee, Hoonseung; Ishizaki, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely utilized as the electrode materials in energy conversion and storage technologies, such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In these systems, the oxygen reduction reaction is an important step that determines the overall performance. A novel synthesis route, named the solution plasma process, has been recently utilized to synthesize various types of metal-based and heteroatom-doped carbon catalysts. In this review, we summarize cutting-edge technologies involving the synthesis and modeling of carbon-supported catalysts synthesized via solution plasma process, followed by current progress on the electrocatalytic performance of these catalysts. This review provides the fundamental and state-of-the-art performance of solution-plasma-synthesized electrode materials, as well as the remaining scientific and technological challenges for this process.

  12. HEPLIB '91: International users meeting on the support and environments of high energy physics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstad, H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this meeting is to discuss the current and future HEP computing support and environments from the perspective of new horizons in accelerator, physics, and computing technologies. Topics of interest to the Meeting include (but are limited to): the forming of the HEPLIB world user group for High Energy Physic computing; mandate, desirables, coordination, organization, funding; user experience, international collaboration; the roles of national labs, universities, and industry; range of software, Monte Carlo, mathematics, physics, interactive analysis, text processors, editors, graphics, data base systems, code management tools; program libraries, frequency of updates, distribution; distributed and interactive computing, data base systems, user interface, UNIX operating systems, networking, compilers, Xlib, X-Graphics; documentation, updates, availability, distribution; code management in large collaborations, keeping track of program versions; and quality assurance, testing, conventions, standards

  13. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  14. Trust in Supervisor and Job Engagement: Mediating Effects of Psychological Safety and Felt Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Ameer A

    2017-11-17

    In the social context of job engagement, the role of trust in supervisor in predicting engagement of employees has received attention in research. Very limited research, however, has investigated the mechanisms mediating this dynamic relationship. To address this important gap in knowledge, the aim of this study was to examine psychological safety and felt obligation as two psychological mechanisms mediating the effect of trust in supervisor on job engagement. Drawing from job engagement and social exchange theories, the mediating roles of psychological safety and felt obligation in the trust-engagement relationship were empirically investigated in the Malaysian context. Using self-report questionnaires, data were collected from 337 nurses employed in a public hospital located near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results fully supported the proposed serial multiple mediator model. Trust in supervisor was indirectly related to job engagement via psychological safety followed by felt obligation. This study provides empirical evidence that trust in supervisor makes employees feel psychologically safe to employ and express their selves in their job roles. This satisfaction of the psychological safety need is interpreted by employees as an important socioemotional benefit that, in turn, makes them feel obligated to pay back to their organization through their enhanced level of job engagement. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.

  15. Energy Management Action Network (EMAK). A scoping study investigating the establishment and support of an international and domestic action network of energy management in industry. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel; Tanaka, Kanako; Gasc, Emilien

    2009-12-15

    The IEA has identified energy efficiency as essential to achieving a sustainable energy future. In order to improve energy efficiency in industry one of the priority areas for further action is the promotion of more and higher quality energy management (EM) activity. However, there are significant gaps in the current implementation of EM. One method of bridging these gaps would be the creation of an EM Action NetworK (EMAK) to bring practical support to energy managers, connect energy managers to energy policy makers, and interconnect these networks globally. The paper describes possible aims, activities, scope, structure, timelines and approaches related to EMAK and looks at specific tasks that would be important in the set-up and implementation.

  16. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Fatih [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Brew-Hammond, Abeeku [University of Science and Technology (Ghana

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  17. The obligate respiratory supercomplex from Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Kleinschroth, Thomas; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Baymann, Frauke; Neehaul, Yashvin; Hellwig, Petra; Richers, Sebastian; Vonck, Janet; Bott, Michael; Hunte, Carola

    2016-10-01

    Actinobacteria are closely linked to human life as industrial producers of bioactive molecules and as human pathogens. Respiratory cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3 oxidase are key components of their aerobic energy metabolism. They form a supercomplex in the actinobacterial species Corynebacterium glutamicum. With comprehensive bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis we show that genes for cyt bcc-aa3 supercomplex are characteristic for Actinobacteria (Actinobacteria and Acidimicrobiia, except the anaerobic orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales). An obligatory supercomplex is likely, due to the lack of genes encoding alternative electron transfer partners such as mono-heme cyt c. Instead, subunit QcrC of bcc complex, here classified as short di-heme cyt c, will provide the exclusive electron transfer link between the complexes as in C. glutamicum. Purified to high homogeneity, the C. glutamicum bcc-aa3 supercomplex contained all subunits and cofactors as analyzed by SDS-PAGE, BN-PAGE, absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Highly uniform supercomplex particles in electron microscopy analysis support a distinct structural composition. The supercomplex possesses a dimeric stoichiometry with a ratio of a-type, b-type and c-type hemes close to 1:1:1. Redox titrations revealed a low potential bcc complex (Em(ISP)=+160mV, Em(bL)=-291mV, Em(bH)=-163mV, Em(cc)=+100mV) fined-tuned for oxidation of menaquinol and a mixed potential aa3 oxidase (Em(CuA)=+150mV, Em(a/a3)=+143/+317mV) mediating between low and high redox potential to accomplish dioxygen reduction. The generated molecular model supports a stable assembled supercomplex with defined architecture which permits energetically efficient coupling of menaquinol oxidation and dioxygen reduction in one supramolecular entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrolyser and fuel cells, key elements for energy and life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstahler, Klaus; Funke, Helmut; Lucas, Joachim

    Both, Electrolyser and Fuel Cells are key elements for regenerative energy and life support systems. Electrolyser technology is originally intended for oxygen production in manned space habitats and in submarines, through splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells serve for energy production through the reaction, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte, between a fuel and an oxidant. Now combining both technologies i.e. electrolyser and fuel cell makes it a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS). In charge mode, i.e. with energy supplied e.g. by solar cells, the electrolyser splits water into hydrogen and oxygen being stored in tanks. In discharge mode, when power is needed but no energy is available, the stored gases are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under the formation of water that is stored in tanks. Rerouting the water to the electrolyser makes it a closed-loop i.e. regenerative process. Different electrolyser and fuel cell technologies are being evolved. At Astrium emphasis is put on the development of an RFCS comprised of Fixed Alkaline Electrolyser (FAE) and Fuel Cell (AFC) as such technology offers a high electrical efficiency and thus reduced system weight, which is important in space applications. With increasing power demand and increasing discharge time an RFCS proves to be superior to batteries. Since the early technology development multiple design refinements were done at Astrium, funded by the European Space Agency ESA and the German National Agency DLR as well as based on company internal R and T funding. Today a complete RFCS energy system breadboard is established and the operational behavior of the system is being tested. In parallel the electrolyser itself is subject to design refinement and testing in terms of oxygen production in manned space habitats. In addition essential features and components for process monitoring and control are being developed. The present results and achievements and the dedicated

  19. German support systems for onshore wind farms in the context of Polish acts limiting wind energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European energy system is undergoing a deep transition to low-emission energy sources, mainly wind farms. This transition is caused mostly by energy politics of European Union (EU and its goals in the topic of renewable energy. European wind energy is dominated by Germany that produces half of total wind energy in EU. The aim of this article is to present support systems for wind farms existing in Germany in the context of introducing in Poland the Act of 20 May 2016 on Wind Energy Investments limiting onshore wind farms localization and Act of 22 June 2016 introducing changes to the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (RES and some other acts. It is postulated to make amendments of acts regulating RES while considering German solutions.

  20. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire

    2016-06-02

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  1. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins. PMID:27250364

  3. Wormholes supported by phantom energy from Shan-Chen cosmological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    In the present paper, the exact solutions of spherically symmetrical Einstein field equations describing wormholes supported by phantom energy that violates the null energy condition from Shan-Chen background fluid are obtained. We have considered the important case of the model parameter ψ ∼ 1, which corresponds to the ''saturation effect'', and this regime corresponds to an effective form of ''asymptotic freedom'' for the fluids, but occurring at cosmological rather than subnuclear scales. Then we investigate the allowed range for the values of the model parameters g and ω when the spacetime metrics describe wormholes and discuss the possible singularities of the solutions, finding that the obtained spacetimes are geodesically complete. Furthermore, we construct two traversable wormholes through matching our obtained interior solutions to the exterior Schwarzschild solutions and analyze the traversabilities of the wormholes. Finally, we consider the case of anisotropic pressure and discover that the transverse pressure also crosses the phantom divide -1 with the growth of the wormhole dimension, and it tends to be the same as the radial pressure with the growth of the wormhole radius. (orig.)

  4. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  5. Supporting Urban Energy Efficiency with Volunteered Roof Information and the Google Maps API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Abdulkarim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Heat Energy Assessment Technologies (HEAT project uses high-resolution airborne thermal imagery, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA, and a Geoweb environment to allow the residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their houses, communities, and the city. To ensure the accuracy of these measures, the correct emissivity of roof materials needs to be known. However, roof material information is not readily available in the Canadian public domain. To overcome this challenge, a unique Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI application was developed using Google Street View that engages citizens to classify the roof materials of single dwelling residences in a simple and intuitive manner. Since data credibility, quality, and accuracy are major concerns when using VGI, a private Multiple Listing Services (MLS dataset was used for cross-verification. From May–November 2013, 1244 volunteers from 85 cities and 14 countries classified 1815 roofs in the study area. Results show (I a 72% match between the VGI and MLS data; and (II in the majority of cases, roofs with greater than, or equal to five contributions have the same material defined in both datasets. Additionally, this research meets new challenges to the GEOBIA community to incorporate existing GIS vector data within an object-based workflow and engages the public to provide volunteered information for urban objects from which new geo-intelligence is created in support of urban energy efficiency.

  6. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  7. Design and implementation of a marine animal alert system to support Marine Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Choi, Eric Y.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-08-08

    Power extracted from fast moving tidal currents has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. Device developers and utilities are pursuing deployment of prototype tidal turbines to assess technology viability, site feasibility, and environmental interactions. Deployment of prototype turbines requires permits from a range of regulatory authorities. Ensuring the safety of marine animals, particularly those under protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 has emerged as a key regulatory challenge for initial MHK deployments. The greatest perceived risk to marine animals is from strike by the rotating blades of tidal turbines. Development of the marine mammal alert system (MAAS) was undertaken to support monitoring and mitigation requirements for tidal turbine deployments. The prototype system development focused on Southern Resident killer whales (SRKW), an endangered population of killer whales that frequents Puget Sound and is intermittently present in the part of the sound where deployment of prototype tidal turbines is being considered. Passive acoustics were selected as the primary means because of the vocal nature of these animals. The MAAS passive acoustic system consists of two-stage process involving the use of an energy detector and a spectrogram-based classifier to distinguish between SKRW’s calls and noise. A prototype consisting of two 2D symmetrical star arrays separated by 20 m center to center was built and evaluated in the waters of Sequim Bay using whale call playback.

  8. Review. Freeze-casting: Fabrication of highly porous and hierarchical ceramic supports for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudillere, C.; Serra, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of structured ceramic porous support knows an important boom since more than a decade with the development of new shaping techniques. Among the most promising ones, the freeze-casting also called Ice-Tem plating allows the fabrication of ceramic parts exhibiting high porosity (>50%) and vertically aligned and hierarchically organized pores. Such structures were firstly conceived for biomedical applications like bone substitute and tissue engineering, but the distinctive features of freeze-cast structures have attracted the attention of diverse scientific fields, especially in high temperature ceramic-based energy production systems. Indeed, technologies like (a) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser Cell (SOEC), (b) gas separation (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}) by asymmetric supported membranes based on mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIEC) or hydrogen-permeable metals, and (c) Catalytic Membrane Reactor (CMR) systems present a porous component in their physical structure. This latest, presenting a tortuous pathway for gas access and as a consequence, a high transport limitation, is known to be a limiting component for the operation at high flow streams that would enable to reach industrial target. (Author)

  9. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  10. European renewable energy policy at crossroads. Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Doerte; Johansson, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred. (author)

  11. A real options approach to analyse wind energy investments under different support schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitzing, Lena; Juul, Nina; Drud, Michael; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Real options model for wind projects considering investment timing and sizing. • Introducing a capacity constraint in the optimisation. • Addressing several uncertainty factors while still providing analytical solution. • Comparative policy analysis of investment incentives from different support schemes. • Improved quantification of trade-off between fast deployment and large projects. - Abstract: A real options model is developed to evaluate wind energy investments in a realistic and easily applicable way. Considering optimal investment timing and sizing (capacity choice), the model introduces a capacity constraint as part of the optimisation. Several correlated uncertainty factors are combined into a single stochastic process, which allows for analytical (closed-form) solutions. The approach is well suited for quantitative policy analysis, such as the comparison of different support schemes. A case study for offshore wind in the Baltic Sea quantifies differences in investment incentives under feed-in tariffs, feed-in premiums and tradable green certificates. Investors can under certificate schemes require up to 3% higher profit margins than under tariffs due to higher variance in profits. Feed-in tariffs may lead to 15% smaller project sizes. This trade-off between faster deployment of smaller projects and slower deployment of larger projects is neglected using traditional net present value approaches. In the analysis of such trade-off, previous real options studies did not consider a capacity constraint, which is here shown to decrease the significance of the effect. The impact on investment incentives also depends on correlations between the underlying stochastic factors. The results may help investors to make informed investment decisions and policy makers to strategically design renewable support and develop tailor-made incentive schemes.

  12. Differential Transcriptional Activation of Genes Encoding Soluble Methane Monooxygenase in a Facultative Versus an Obligate Methanotroph

    OpenAIRE

    Angela V. Smirnova; Peter F. Dunfield

    2018-01-01

    Methanotrophs are a specialized group of bacteria that can utilize methane (CH4) as a sole energy source. A key enzyme responsible for methane oxidation is methane monooxygenase (MMO), of either a soluble, cytoplasmic type (sMMO), or a particulate, membrane-bound type (pMMO). Methylocella silvestris BL2 and Methyloferula stellata AR4 are closely related methanotroph species that oxidize methane via sMMO only. However, Methyloferula stellata is an obligate methanotroph, while Methylocella silv...

  13. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  14. Understanding Teenagers' Personal Contexts to Design Technology That Supports Learning about Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramides, Katerina; Craft, Brock; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Energy sustainability is prevalent in political and popular rhetoric and yet energy consumption is rising. Teenagers are an important category of future energy consumers, but little is known of their conceptions about energy and energy saving. We report on empirical research with two groups of teenagers. This is part of ongoing work to design…

  15. Safety Training: a right or an obligation?

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Safety Training programme currently offers around 50 classroom courses and 17 e-learning courses. Although anyone can attend any of these courses, some are compulsory for everyone working at CERN. In particular, “CERN Safety Introduction” and “Safety during LS1” are compulsory for all new arrivals.   The "Self-Rescue Mask" training course. Photo: Christoph Balle. However, depending on the type of activities, the type of workstation, the role you have been assigned (TSO, project leader, etc.) and/or the area where you will be working (e.g. confined spaces), you might be required to follow additional safety training provided by CERN. In accordance with the provisions of the CERN Safety Policy, members of the personnel must keep themselves informed of their obligations in terms of safety training and of the actions they must take to keep up to date. Most training courses are valid for three years, and as they reach the ...

  16. Oxygen-dependent growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M S; Zhulin, I B; Gapuzan, M E; Taylor, B L

    1997-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a sulfate-reducing bacterium classified as an obligate anaerobe, swam to a preferred oxygen concentration of 0.02 to 0.04% (0.24 to 0.48 microM), a level which also supported growth. Oxygen concentrations of 0.08% and higher arrested growth. We propose that in zones of transition from an oxic to an anoxic environment, D. vulgaris protects anoxic microenvironments from intrusion of oxygen.

  17. An Examination Of Marine Corps Energy Initiatives And The Supporting Manpower Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    energy-manager European Environment Agency. (2013). Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change : What does it take? EEA Technical Report...Energy Reduction Plans ................................................................9 3. Cultural Change ...Behavioral and Cultural Change ................................................31 3. Work Force Management

  18. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  19. Obligation for renewable electricity in the Netherlands. Outline of options and preconditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; Jansen, J.C.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Lensink, S.M.

    2006-12-01

    In August 2006, the MEP feed-in system was suspended to prevent excess budget claims while the 2010 target is expected to be met. A number of politicians suggest the time is right to change the feed-in system to an obligation scheme. On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs ECN has reviewed whether The Netherlands could be ready for a successful introduction of an obligation-based support scheme for renewable electricity in the Netherlands. This report is not a detailed study, but offers a survey of possibilities and preconditions. The question whether The Netherlands is ready for a successful introduction can be yes only when two conditions are met. Firstly, the government has to pursue a strategy of long term policy stability, essential for establishing a favourable investment climate. Secondly, a certificate market has to be set up that is able to function properly and efficiently (i.e. sufficient market liquidity). Excessive producers' surplus, under certain circumstances a side effect of an obligation based system, may be reduced using a hybrid approach combining direct subsidies and a quota obligation. This report describes that careful planning is required and hence a possible switch cannot be implemented before 2009 or 2010. The government plays an important role in establishing a.positive and stable investment climate. At the introduction of an obligation based scheme, the government should present an ambitious and broadly supported long term target. Commitment to maintain the obligation for at least fifteen to twenty years ahead is of key importance. In addition to a stable investment climate, it is also important to have a sufficiently transparent and liquid market for tradable green certificates. Whether this is achievable in the Netherlands remains open to investigation. The government has limited means at its disposal for providing sufficient market efficiency. Harmonisation of support schemes at the EU level is not to be expected in

  20. Modeling decision making as a support tool for policy making on renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannemi, Marco; García-Melón, Mónica; Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Gómez-Navarro, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on decision making models for the analysis of capital-risk investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. The aim of the work is to improve the support tools for policy makers in the field of renewable energy development. Analytic Network Process (ANP) helps to better understand capital-risk investors preferences towards different kinds of biomass fueled power plants. The results of the research allow public administration to better foresee the investors’ reaction to the incentive system, or to modify the incentive system to better drive investors’ decisions. Changing the incentive system is seen as major risk by investors. Therefore, public administration must design better and longer-term incentive systems, forecasting market reactions. For that, two scenarios have been designed, one showing a typical decision making process and another proposing an improved decision making scenario. A case study conducted in Italy has revealed that ANP allows understanding how capital-risk investors interpret the situation and make decisions when investing on biomass power plants; the differences between the interests of public administrations’s and promoters’, how decision making could be influenced by adding new decision criteria, and which case would be ranked best according to the decision models. - Highlights: • We applied ANP to the investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. • The aim is to improve the advising tools for renewable energy policy making. • A case study has been carried out with the help of two experts. • We designed two scenarios: decision making as it is and how could it be improved. • Results prove ANP is a fruitful tool enhancing participation and transparency

  1. Optimal Control Method for Wind Farm to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control with Minimized Wind Energy Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an optimal control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) based wind farm (WF) to support temporary primary frequency control. This control method consists of two layers: temporary frequency support control (TFSC) of the VSWT, and temporary support power optimal...... dispatch (TSPOD) of the WF. With TFSC, the VSWT could temporarily provide extra power to support system frequency under varying and wide-range wind speed. In the WF control centre, TSPOD optimally dispatches the frequency support power orders to the VSWTs that operate under different wind speeds, minimises...... the wind energy cost of frequency support, and satisfies the support capabilities of the VSWTs. The effectiveness of the whole control method is verified in the IEEE-RTS built in MATLABSimulink, and compared with a published de-loading method....

  2. Service and obligations of public service in the electrical sector law; Servicio universal y obligaciones de servicio publico en la Ley del Sector Electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuetara Martinez, J.M. de la; Gonzalez Sanfiel, A.

    1998-12-01

    Our article starts from the need of reconsidering the traditional public service concept; to this goal, the new categories universal service and public service obligations are useful instruments. After defining its notes, we identify them as different kinds of a common gender and separate then from other next categories, as are general interest services and policy obligations. Finally, we applied the obtained findings to the Electricity Sector, identifying an universal service in the supply of electrical energy to all the claimants and various concrete public service obligations in its principal sub sectors (production, transportation, distribution, trading and supply). (Author)

  3. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  4. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  5. Support vector machine in prediction of building energy demand using pseudo dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, S.; Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.; Elmitri, Mohamed; Lacarriere, B.; Corre, le O.

    2015-01-01

    Building’s energy consumption prediction is a major concern in the recent years and many efforts have been achieved in order to improve the energy management of buildings. In particular, the prediction of energy consumption in building is essential for the energy operator to build an optimal

  6. Membrane support of accelerated fuel capsules for inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin membrane to suspend an (inertial fusion energy) fuel capsule in a holder for injection into a reactor chamber is investigated. Capsule displacement and membrane deformation angle are calculated for an axisymmetric geometry for a range of membrane strain and capsule size. This information is used to calculate maximum target accelerations. Membranes must be thin (perhaps of order one micron) to minimize their effect on capsule implosion symmetry. For example, a 5 μm thick cryogenic mylar membrane is calculated to allow 1,000 m/s 2 acceleration of a 3 mm radius, 100 mg capsule. Vibration analysis (for a single membrane support) shows that if membrane vibration is not deliberately minimized, allowed acceleration may be reduced by a factor of four. A two membrane alternative geometry would allow several times greater acceleration. Therefore, alternative membrane geometry's should be used to provide greater target acceleration potential and reduce capsule displacement within the holder (for a given membrane thickness)

  7. A decision support system for assessing offshore wind energy potential in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, T.; Schillings, C. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Stuttgart (Germany); Cameron, L.; Veum, K. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tjalling van der Wal, J. [IMARES, Wageningen UR, Den Helder (Netherlands); Jacquemin, J. [GL Garrad Hassan, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Offshore wind energy (OWE) in the North Sea has the potential to meet large share of Europe's future electricity demand. To deploy offshore wind parks in a rational way, the overall OWE potential has to be realistically determined. This has to be done on an international, cross-border level and by taking into account the existing man-made and nature-related uses of the North Sea. As spatial conflicts will arise between existing uses and the new OWE uses, a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed. Based on data of existing sea uses and calculation rules for spatial prioritisation analysis, the DSS helps in identifying areas that are (1) generally suitable for offshore wind power, (2) strictly excluded or (3) negotiable with respect to other existing sea uses. The combination of this conflict analysis together with cost assumptions for offshore wind farms and their expected electricity yield leads to identification of favourable areas for OWE deployment in the North Sea. This approach helps to reduce the conflict between offshore wind deployment and existing sea uses in the North Sea for future planning. The results can assist decision makers in developing transnational roadmaps for OWE.

  8. Hanford site: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-06

    The primary purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records which pertains to studies of worker health and mortality funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford site. Additionally, the guide provides information on the location and classification of the records and how they may be accessed. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and the Hanford site, and Hanford`s organizational structure. It provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe pertinent records stored in various onsite offices, in Hanford`s Records Holding Area (RHA), and at the Seattle Federal Records Center (SFRC). Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the record Series descrimations, and information on accessing records repositories.

  9. Appropriate design of auctions for renewable energy support – Prequalifications and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiss, Jan; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Haufe, Marie-Christin

    2017-01-01

    Auctions are a promising tool to accomplish renewable energy support (RES). However, they involve diverse risks for the auctioneer and the bidders. The major risk for the auctioneer – with respect to the expansion target and the acceptance of auctions for RES in general – is the risk of non-realization: awarded bidders do not realize their projects. The main reasons are bidders' uncertainties concerning their project costs. The auctioneer can reduce the non-realization risk by taking various measures. The most discussed and implemented measures are financial and physical prequalifications and penalties. An evaluation of these measures has relevant implications for an appropriate auctions design for RES. The non-realization option induces lower bids. A suitable combination of financial and physical prequalifications can reduce the non-realization risk significantly, however, involves sunk costs. Counterintuitively, first-price auction and second-price auction lead to different expected award prices and different realization probabilities. Penalties bear a high risk of inefficient auction outcomes. The appropriate parametrization and combination of the measures is challenging. Under consideration of all implications, we recommend high financial and adjusted physical prequalifications to achieve a sufficiently high realization rate while maintaining efficiency. - Highlights: • The non-realization risk is a major problem of auctions for RES. • Designated measures are financial and physical prequalifications and penalties. • Prequalifications and penalties have different effects on auction outcome. • The non-realization option violates the revenue equivalence theorem. • We recommend high financial and adjusted physical prequalifications.

  10. Facultative and obligate methanotrophs how to identify and differentiate them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Dunfield, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic methanotrophs are metabolically unique bacteria that are able to utilize methane and some other C1-compounds as sole sources of carbon and energy. A defining characteristic of these organisms is the use of methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes to catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol. For a long time, all methanotrophs were considered to be obligately methylotrophic, that is, unable to grow on compounds containing C-C bonds. This notion has recently been revised. Some members of the genera Methylocella, Methylocystis, and Methylocapsa are now known to be facultative methanotrophs, that is, capable of growing on methane as well as on some multicarbon substrates. The diagnosis of facultative methanotrophy in new isolates requires a great degree of caution since methanotrophic cultures are frequently contaminated by heterotrophic bacteria that survive on metabolic by-products of methanotrophs. The presence of only a few satellite cells in a culture may lead to false conclusions regarding substrate utilization, and several early reports of facultative methanotrophy are likely attributable to impure cultures. Another recurring mistake is the misidentification of nonmethanotrophic facultative methylotrophs as facultative methanotrophs. This chapter was prepared as an aid to avoid both kinds of confusion when examining methanotrophic isolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 10 CFR 2.906 - Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data or national security information. 2.906 Section 2.906 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES... to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.906 Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information. It is the...

  12. Renewable energies in the United States: support policies and tendencies for research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Illustrated by figures, graphs and tables of data, nine articles give overviews of the present evolutions and tendencies for research and development in the energy sector in the United States of America. After a first article commenting the possible evolution of the energy model in this country, the authors are commenting the priority given to innovation for clean energies, the evolution of patents claimed by US companies, the smart-grid-based energy strategy, the evolution of the wind energy sector, the technological evolutions and decreasing prices of the solar energy, the large investments required for a large scale development of geothermal energy, the voluntary policy and the ambitious objectives in the field of bio-energies and bio-fuels, and California as a leader in the field of renewable energies

  13. Natural gas utilization in the electricity sector in a framework of supporting an energy diversification policy: the case of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto Wahyuputro, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has been trying to balance its economy, oil and gas (MIGAS) sector still has an important role. The revenue from exporting oil has been needed to sustain national economic development. For that reason, the GOI has determined to diversify and to develop alternative energy resources for domestic consumption. The alternative energy resources available are classified into non-renewable energy resources such as natural gas and coal; and renewable energy resources such as geothermal, biomass, solar energy, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), etc. Natural gas is one of the potential non-renewable energy resources available in Indonesia abundantly. The total potential reserves in Indonesia is estimated about 109.1 TSCF, which is including proven reserve of 80.2 TSCF. By the estimated production level of 2.0 TSCF per year for the fiscal year 1993/1994, these proven reserves can be still produced for 30 years more. Besides the reserves is available abundantly, the other advantage in developing natural gas for domestic consumption is a 'clean energy' rather than other fossil fuels. So that, it should be promoted to support the energy diversification and the clean environment policies. In the other side, electricity sector has a bigger opportunity than other sectors in supporting the energy diversification policy. There are several kinds of power generating plant which utilize various types of primary energy such as oil, gas, coal, geothermal, and hydro. Nevertheless, until this moment the utilization of natural gas in the electricity sector is still low of 15 percent. Recently, the growth of electricity demand in Indonesia is very high, especially in the Java-Bali grid system. There is a wide chance for natural gas to improve its role in electricity sector, and there is an economic variable which will determine the development of natural gas reserve, that is natural gas price itself. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  15. Resolving Conflicts between Beliefs, Obligations, Intentions, and Desires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, J.M.; Dastani, M.M.; Torre, L. van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a logical analysis of conflicts between informational, motivational and deliberative attitudes such as beliefs, obligations, intentions, and desires. The contributions are twofold. First, conflict resolutions are classi ed based on agent types, and formalized in an extension

  16. NSF Obligations for Top 200 Institutions by Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation — An text/xml file containing FY 2001 through FY 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF) obligations by institution for the top 200 recipients defined in terms of total...

  17. 47 CFR 76.56 - Signal carriage obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified local NCE station affiliated with a State public television network shall not be required to carry... stations in fulfillment of these must-carry obligations may do so, subject to approval by the franchising...

  18. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as gas plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected in rates and must be...

  19. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as carrier property and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...

  20. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as electric plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...

  1. Hybrid modeling to support energy-climate policy: Effects of feed-in tariffs to promote renewable energy in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proença, Sara; St Aubyn, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Feed-in tariffs have been the main policy instrument applied in Portugal for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources under the EU Directives on energy and climate regulation. In this paper, we provide an empirical impact assessment of the economic and environmental effects of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. Impact assessment of policy instruments plays a crucial role on decision-making process. For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium modeling approach, which represents a reliable tool to analyze the complex interactions between economic, energy, and environmental issues related to energy policies. Numerical simulations confirm the empirical evidence that the FITs policy implemented by Portugal was both an effective and a cost-efficient way to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and thus to achieve the national RES-E target of 45% in 2010. Results show relatively modest macroeconomic impacts indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. From an environmental perspective, the deployment of renewable energy source results in significant carbon emissions reductions. - Highlights: ► We provide an impact assessment of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. ► For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium model. ► Portugal's FITs policy proved to be a cost-efficient way to increase generation of renewable electricity. ► Results show relatively modest macroeconomic effects indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. ► The deployment of renewable energy sources results in significant carbon emission reductions

  2. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products. Revised target support document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-02-15

    In accordance with section 374 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), Pub. L. 94-163, the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) proposed industrial energy efficiency improvement targets for the ten most energy-consumptive manufacturing industries in the U.S. Following public hearings and a review of the comments made, the final targets for Fabricated Metal Products (SIC 34) were established and are described. Using 1972 data on the energy consumed to produce specific metal products, it was concluded that a 24% reduction in energy consumption for SIC 34 is a viable goal for achievement by 1980. (ERA citation 04:045006)

  3. Renewables and CHP with District Energy in Support of Sustainable Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Chris

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the powerful idea of connecting many energy users to environmentally optimum energy sources through integrated community energy systems. Such systems require piping networks for distributing thermal energy, i.e., district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. The possibilities and advantages of the application of integrated energy concepts are discussed, including the economic and environmental benefits of integrating localized electrical generating systems (CHP), transportation systems, industrial processes and other thermal energy requirements. Examples of a number of operating systems are provided. Some of the R and D carried out by the IEA Implementing Agreement on District Heating and Cooling is also described.

  4. THE SELLER'S OBLIGATION TO DELIVER THE GOODS ACCORDING TO CISG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the seller's obligations under the Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG and in particular the obligation to deliver the goods showing the main issues that arise in an international sale. We also wish to point the major innovations or improvements brought by the CISG in comparison to the European civil codes regulation and to conclude if the CSIG managed to revolutionize the tradition view on this issue.

  5. Novation as a method of termination of obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Perović Marko

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the issue of novation in contract law. Novation is a contract between the creditor and debtor in order to replace its existing obligation with a new one. Unlike the other methods of termination of obligations (e.g. fulfillment, compensation, remission of debt), novation extinguishes existing contractual relationship between the creditor and the debtor, so that among them arise a new contractual relationship, which in relation to the previous one, differs on t...

  6. Contractual and non-contractuall obligations in private international Law

    OpenAIRE

    Čejková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    67 8 Summary 8.1 Contractual and Non-contractual Obligations in Private International Law This thesis deals with the European international private law and discusses the current law-crash modification of contractual and non-contractual obligations. Characteristic of the European community is the absence of unification of the substantive law, which is compensated, by the unification of conflict standards. The unification of conflict standards, as an instrument of the international private law,...

  7. Legal Obligation in the Global Context. Some Remarks on the Boundaries and Allegiances Among Persons Beyond the State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlakos, George

    -, č. 16 (2012) ISSN 1028-3625 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : global legal order * legal obligation * coercion Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/21758/RSCAS_2012_16.pdf?sequence=1

  8. From a Pluralism of Grounds to Proto-Legal Relations: Accounting for the Grounds of Obligations of Justice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlakos, George

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 59-74 ISSN 1467-9337 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23955S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : responsibility of justice * pluralism * obligation of justice * Mathias Risse Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  9. Intracorporeal Heat Distribution from Fully Implantable Energy Sources for Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Computational Proof-of-Concept Study

    OpenAIRE

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as total artificial hearts and left ventricular assist devices, rely on external energy sources for their continuous operation. Clinically approved power supplies rely on percutaneous cables connecting an external energy source to the implanted device with the associated risk of infections. One alternative, investigated in the 70s and 80s, employs a fully implanted nuclear power source. The heat generated by the nuclear decay can be converted into ...

  10. Equipment sizing in a coal-fired municipal heating plant modernisation project with support for renewable energy and cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sizing of biomass fired cogeneration block is performed for existing heating plant. • Mathematical model for cogeneration block optimisation is presented. • Impact of financial support mechanisms on optimal solution is discussed. • Influence of short term variations of prices and support intensity is presented. • Different design parameters are suggested by economic and technical quality indices. - Abstract: The paper presents results of design parameters optimisation of a wood chips fired steam boiler based heat and power block in a sample project of coal fired municipal heating plant modernisation. The project assumes the conversion of the heating plant into a dual fuel heat and power plant. The problem that is presented is selection of cogeneration block structure and thermodynamic parameters taking into account financial support mechanisms for cogeneration and renewable energy technologies. There are examined energy conversion and financial performances of the project. The results show that without the financial support the project is not profitable although it generates savings of primary energy of fossil fuels. If an administrative incentives are applied the optimal technical solution is different than suggested by energy conversion efficiency or fossil fuel savings. Financial calculations were performed for Polish marked conditions in the years 2011 and 2014 showing the impact of relatively short term variations of prices and support intensity on optimal plant design parameters

  11. Economic analysis of different supporting policies for the production of electrical energy by solar photovoltaics in western European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusonchet, Luigi; Telaretti, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Within various renewable energy technologies, photovoltaics (PV) today attracts considerable attention due to its potential to contribute a major share of renewable energy in the future. However, PV market development is, undoubtedly, dependent on the political support of any given country. In this paper, after a brief analysis of national support policies in PV technology in western European Union (EU) countries, the authors perform an economic analysis of the main support mechanisms as implemented in the same countries, based on the calculation of the cash flow, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) indices. The analysis shows that in some situations support policies can be inconvenient for the owner of the PV-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give rise to significantly different results. The analysis carried out in this work could help: ·to assess the impact of PV energy policies in different western European member states; ·renewable energy companies to identify potential PV markets and investigate the policy landscape across western EU countries.

  12. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-09-30

    Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

  13. Developing support schemes for electric renewable energy in France: how to reconcile integration and deployment challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Ruedinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The reform for a greater integration of support schemes in the electricity market is not a marginal development, and should allow for a transition period for market actors to adapt. Lessons from the experience of neighboring countries will be valuable, especially in view of greater regional harmonization in the future. Better integration of solutions for reducing demand and greater system flexibility would also be advisable going forward. Finally, it is also essential to evaluate the impact of the reform on the risk of electricity market concentration and a reduced diversity of actors; as well as of the potential increase in barriers to entry which could hinder the emergence of collaborative or citizen projects, as these are crucial for improving project acceptance and sharing RES costs. Through stronger exposure to market signals, market premia can assist the technical and economic integration of renewable energy (RES). The resultant advantages in terms of improvements in forecasting and marketing tools, negative price management and support for more valuable technologies and practices in the system closely depends, however, on the precise calibration of the mechanisms involved. To address this, it seems essential to learn from the experiences of neighboring countries and to plan an adequate transition period for all actors to adapt to the change in regulation. The rise in transaction costs and risk premia can lead to additional costs under the new mechanisms. Direct costs, which are linked to the marketing of electricity and to rules aimed at curtailing negative prices, remain limited. However, a cost-benefit analysis must consider the impact of changes in regulation on risk perception and the cost of capital for financing projects - a determinant factor in the economic viability of the project. This further implies a need to consider complementary measures aimed at reducing the financial risks to limit production costs and incremental costs for society. The push

  14. Ice monitoring program in support of Sakhalin Energy's offshore oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington, R. [CANATEC Associates International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Keinonen, A. [AKAC Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Tambovsky, V.; Ryabov, S. [Environmental Company of Sakhalin, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation); Pishchalnik, V. [Russian Academy of Science, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation)]|[Far East Geological Inst., Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation). Sakhalin Dept.; Sheikin, I. [Arctic and Antarctic Research Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Brovin, A. [ABIC Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    The Sakhalin Energy Investment Company (SEIC) has been producing oil at the Molikpaq platform off the east coast of Sakhalin Island since 1999. The Molikpaq oil production occurs during the open water summer season. When ice begins to form in late November, an Ice Management Team begins to monitor conditions at the site to ensure a safe operation. This paper described the ice monitoring program designed to provide extensive ice and environmental data to support risk management and allow the planning of safe oil production operations using a Single Anchor Leg Mooring( SALM) system, Floating Storage and Offloading System (FSO), and export tankers in ice. The following 2 key aspects of the in-ice operations were covered: ice management to protect the offshore loading operation on a minute by minute basis in moving ice, and also ice forecasting, to determine when any unmanageable ice might approach the tanker loading site and cause the shut down of operations in the fall and during the startup of operations in the spring. The forecasting of ice drift, ice formation and growth in the fall and ice decay in the spring were discussed. It was noted that in the last few years, the date on which ice first appears is getting later. Operations cease for the winter before the ice is forecast to become a problem for the operations. The Ice Management Team returns to the site in May when the ice melts and and is no longer harmful to the operations. The Ice Management Team consists of 9 individuals with several years of operational ice experience. Their tasks include data collection from satellite images; helicopter ice reconnaissance; ice breaker ice maps; radar ice maps and ice drift; and, ice drift analysis using terra MODIS satellite images. A daily or twice daily weather forecast is provided by a commercial weather forecasting company. These forecasts provide the winds, gusts, cloud cover, air temperature, wind wave and swell for every 6 hours for the first 3 days, then every

  15. Lessee's obligations under the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Obligations of a lessee under the present day freehold petroleum and natural gas lease are described. The effect of recent cases relating to fiduciary and good faith duties on the lessee's obligations are also examined. Every lease under the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) must specifically deal with rights to be granted, the obligations to drill, royalties, the length of the primary term, the amount of the rental rights, rights to pool, and offset obligations. In Alberta, the most accepted petroleum and natural gas lease form is the CAPL 91. This form is presently being revised to create the 1998 version. The contents of this discussion included: (1) historical lease interpretation, (2) fiduciary obligations, (3) the definition of the doctrine of good faith, (4) implied and express covenants, (5) application of the default clause and (6) force majeur provisions. Although Alberta law does not recognize the doctrine of good faith, nevertheless the court will review the obligations of the lessee and if they do not feel that the lessee has acted fairly with respect to the lessor and damages have resulted, the court will find for the lessor

  16. Methodology for Prioritization of Investments to Support the Army Energy Strategy for Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    kind of energy source onto its own footprint. Whether this is a solar, wind, biomass, geothermal , or any other kind of renewable energy source, it...more common. Right now extortion and disgruntled employers are the attacked and not sophisticated enemies such as China . Our current nation power...users to: • Estimate the NPV cost of energy (COE) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a range of solar, wind and geothermal electricity generation

  17. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair; Ashok Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method usi...

  18. Filling the gaps: Policy supports and interventions for scaling up renewable energy development in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    SIDS have both opportunities and challenges – economic, social and environmental vulnerability – for low carbon development. Economically, they are highly dependent on international trade; they have limited domestic markets, too small to provide significant scale economies; their exports are constraint by their isolation and remote location. We provide an overview of current energy situation in SIDS, their goals to adopt low carbon economic development paths, policies already in place or required to achieve the goals and challenges to implement their plans and strategies. The focus is on energy policy landscape that needs to be addressed in order to scale-up renewable energy technologies needed to stimulate low carbon economic growth. We find that SIDS face four key barriers to renewable energy development: information to improve the energy information network by strengthening existing information systems and building awareness of renewable energy; financing mechanisms for renewable energy projects, including regional loan structures and technical assistance to banks; policy supports to implement regulatory frameworks that enable renewable energy development; and building technical capacity among players in the renewable energy field. We recommend “policy enablers” that underlie what could positively impact on renewable energy goals and more broadly energy efficiency and climate change. - Highlights: • Incentive based policies are required to stimulate investment and reduce transaction costs. • Sustained, consistent long term policy outlooks to support achieving targets are often absent. • Gaps in technical data, resource assessments and local capacity hinders strong policy decisions. • Coordination by public and private actors across the value chain increases renewables deployment.

  19. Diffusion of solar energy use in the urban built environment supported by new design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenhuizen, Marina; Schoonman, Joop; Reinders, Angèle

    2012-01-01

    Places of large potentials of sustainable energy production and places of energy consumption are often very different and separated by large distances across the globe. This paper first discusses potentials of solar technology in terms of global availability using PV technology and actual energy

  20. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  1. Innovations in greenhouse systems - Energy conservation by system design, sensors and decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Balendonck, J.; Dieleman, J.A.; Gelder, De A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Visser, De P.H.B.; Zwart, De H.F.

    2017-01-01

    The targets for energy saving in Dutch horticulture are high. Research follows the two lines: total energy reduction and sustainability. The principles for that are: maximum use of natural sunlight (free energy input to greenhouse, free light for crop growth and production); maximum insulation

  2. Savannah River Site's H-Canyon Facility: Impacts of Foreign Obligations on Special Nuclear Material Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These ''123 agreements'' are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  3. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.

    1986-01-01

    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  4. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  5. Export support of renewable energy industries, grant number 1, deliverable number 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-14

    The United States Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), a consortium of six industry associations, promotes the interests of the renewable energy and energy efficiency member companies which provide goods and services in biomass, geothermal, hydropower, passive solar, photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind, wood energy, and energy efficiency technologies. US/ECRE`s mission is to catalyze export markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies worldwide. Under this grant, US/ECRE has conducted a number of in-house activities, as well as to manage activities by member trade associations, affiliate organizations and non-member contractors and consultants. The purpose of this document is to report on grant coordination and effectiveness.

  6. Export support of renewable energy industries. Task number 1, deliverable number 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-14

    The United States Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), a consortium of six industry associations, promotes the interests of the renewable energy and energy efficiency member companies which provide goods and services in biomass, geothermal, hydropower, passive solar, photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind, wood energy, and energy efficiency technologies. US/ECRE`s mission is to catalyze export markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies worldwide. Under this grant, US/ECRE has conducted a number of in-house activities, as well as to manage activities by member trade associations, affiliate organizations and non-member contractors and consultants. The purpose of this document is to report on task coordination and effectiveness.

  7. Interference of regional support policies on the economic and environmental performance of a hybrid cogeneration-solar panel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Dries; Van Passel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses unintentional interference between different public policies promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper develops a methodology to study the interference by analysing the economic and technical behaviour of a hybrid energy system. The hybrid energy system in this case consists of an existing cogeneration unit extended with a new installation of thermal solar panels. This puts two complementary heating technologies in juxtaposition. The two technologies are supported with distinct regional support instruments in each region. The design and operation of the energy system is optimised from the point of view of the investor according to the different support instruments. The optimal configuration is analysed as well as its effect on reduced CO 2 -emissions during the lifetime of the project. The methodology is applied to a case-study for two neighbouring regions, the Netherlands and Flanders. The policies in the Netherlands show a beneficial synergy. In Flanders, the hybrid energy system is not interesting, indicating unbalanced high support for cogeneration in this case. From the point of view of the authorities, a more balanced regional policy as in the Netherlands provides a larger CO 2 -emission reduction for a smaller cost. - Highlights: ► Study of interference between various public policies by analysing a hybrid energy system. ► A methodology based on maximum value for the investor based on different public policies. ► Case study in the Netherlands show policies with a beneficial synergy. ► Situation in Flanders indicates unbalanced policies and larger cost for CO 2 -emission reduction.

  8. Planning and constructional instruments that support an energy-efficient supply of heat; Planungs- und Bauinstrumente zugunsten einer energieeffizienten Waermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, P.; Bonnet, C. [Planair SA, Bureau d' ingenieurs SIA, La Sagne (Switzerland); Hoesli, B.; Wuethrich, M. [Hesse und Schwarze und Partner, Buero fuer Raumplanung AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gerheuser, F. W. [Polis, Politikberatung und Sozialforschung, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Cantons of Basel-Stadt, Berne, Geneva and Zurich presents the results of a study that examined how regulations in the planning and construction areas can be used to support the saving of energy, its efficient use and how the proportion of renewable sources of energy can be increased. Topics discussed include dense building, passive energy generation, obligatory refurbishing of existing building with high energy consumption, use of the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard for new and refurbished buildings, aid for energy refurbishment, co-ordination of the use of district heating, definition of intensive-farming areas, development of energy concepts with restrictions on energy consumption and carbon dioxide production as well as aids for negotiation and the development of target agreements. The report suggests an order of priority in which the measures should be considered and makes suggestions for action to be taken in various areas.

  9. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  10. Locally Integrated Energy Sectors supported by renewable network management within municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostevšek, Anja; Petek, Janez; Čuček, Lidija; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev

    2015-01-01

    The decarbonisation of energy systems is one of the important issues of the present energy policies. One of the ways of achieving this is to focus on local energy systems, thus ensuring as much as possible their heat and power self-sufficiency by applying local renewable resource integration and transformation of the renewable energy. Increasing the share of renewables within the local energy balance could be accomplished by using a variety of approaches. One possibility is combining the Locally Integrated Energy Sectors' concept with the novel management and organisation of a renewables-based network. As a first priority, the proposed comprehensive approach focuses on increasing the energy efficiency of municipal heat and power systems using the Locally Integrated Energy Sectors' concept, which is followed by the integration of renewable energy sources with the establishment of a renewable-based network. The proposed approach is illustrated by a case study of district heating based on wood biomass for the municipality Ormož, Slovenia by integrating various end-users from different sectors. - Highlights: • The paper presents a new approach for accelerated inception of RES in municipalities. • LIES with RES network increases energy efficiency and accelerates RES integration. • A demonstration case of district heating on wood biomass within Ormož was performed.

  11. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  12. Support of experimental high energy physics research at the University of South Carolina. Final technical report, 1980--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childers, R.L.; Darden, C.W.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Twelve years of support by the US Department of Energy have turned a two man team with no equipment and no graduate students working on a single experiment into an active group of four professors, one post-doctoral research associate and three graduate students working with appropriate equipment on three major experiments and several other projects. 162 references

  13. A public choice view on the climate and energy policy mix in the EU — How do the emissions trading scheme and support for renewable energies interact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Strunz, Sebastian; Lehmann, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the rationale for an energy policy mix when the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is considered from a public choice perspective. That is, we argue that the economic textbook model of the ETS implausibly assumes (1) efficient policy design and (2) climate protection as the single objective of policy intervention. Contrary to these assumptions, we propose that the ETS originates from a political bargaining game within a context of multiple policy objectives. In particular, the emissions cap is negotiated between regulators and emitters with the emitters' abatement costs as crucial bargaining variable. This public choice view yields striking implications for an optimal policy mix comprising RES supporting policies. Whereas the textbook model implies that the ETS alone provides sufficient climate protection, our analysis suggests that support for renewable energies (1) contributes to a more effective ETS-design and (2) may even increase the overall efficiency of climate and energy policy if other externalities and policy objectives besides climate protection are considered. Thus, our analysis also shows that a public choice view not necessarily entails negative evaluations concerning efficiency and effectiveness of a policy mix. - Highlights: • We analyze the interaction of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and support policies for RES. • Stylized framework with emission cap as variable to be negotiated between regulators and emitters. • RES-support contributes to a more stringent emission cap and may even increase overall efficiency

  14. Nuclear knowledge portal to support licensing and control nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Elizabeth; Braga, Fabiane

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Knowledge economy moves the axis of the wealth and the development of the traditional industrial sectors - abundant in labour, raw material and capital - to areas whose products, processes and services are rich in technology and Knowledge. Even on research areas as nuclear energy where the goods are based on high technology, the capacity to transform information on Knowledge, and Knowledge on decisions and actions are extremely important. Therefore, the value of the products from these areas depends on the percentage of the innovation, technology and the intelligence attributed incorporated by them. The OECD report observes that back in 2002, more than 60% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the developed nations should be credited to the Knowledge usage. The report highlights the fact that the increasing reduction of the costs and the easy access to information show clearly a growing of the Knowledge participation in generating wealth for the organizations, regions and countries. This means that the management today shall use the organization's existent Knowledge to generate better results. The organizations, private or publics, must be productive, and the main point to determine the technological innovation and the increasing of productivity is knowledge management. Therefore, we cannot feel contented simply by generating new Knowledge, or making the research for the research itself, or, yet, by simply collecting information and saving them. Without innovation capacity, such as to create new products, new process or new services, organizations will not survive in the knowledge society. Many authors have proposed models of Knowledge management, such as Sveiby, Stewart and Edvinsson, the pioneers of Knowledge Management. For these authors, the value of the enterprises full of in Knowledge is no longer related to its tangible goods, such as buildings and machinery, but is being now quoted by its intangible goods. The models emphasizing the

  15. A load predictive energy management system for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system in solar application using the Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Yen Yee; Lee, Lam Hong; Shafiabady, Niusha; Isa, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel energy management system (EMS) for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is implemented. • It is a load predictive EMS which is implemented using Support Vector Machine (SVM). • An optimum SVM load prediction model is obtained, which yields 100% accuracy in 0.004866 s of training time. • The implemented load predictive EMS is compared with the conventional sequential programming control. • This methodology reduces the number of power electronics used and prolong battery lifespan. - Abstract: This paper presents the use of a Support Vector Machine load predictive energy management system to control the energy flow between a solar energy source, a supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage combination and the load. The supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is deployed in a solar energy system to improve the reliability of delivered power. The combination of batteries and supercapacitors makes use of complementary characteristic that allow the overlapping of a battery’s high energy density with a supercapacitors’ high power density. This hybrid system produces a straightforward benefit over either individual system, by taking advantage of each characteristic. When the supercapacitor caters for the instantaneous peak power which prolongs the battery lifespan, it also minimizes the system cost and ensures a greener system by reducing the number of batteries. The resulting performance is highly dependent on the energy controls implemented in the system to exploit the strengths of the energy storage devices and minimize its weaknesses. It is crucial to use energy from the supercapacitor and therefore minimize jeopardizing the power system reliability especially when there is a sudden peak power demand. This study has been divided into two stages. The first stage is to obtain the optimum SVM load prediction model, and the second stage carries out the performance comparison of the proposed SVM-load predictive

  16. RE Data Explorer: Supporting Renewable Energy Zones to Enable Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet overviews the benefits of using the RE Data Explorer tool to analyze and develop renewable energy zones. Renewable energy zones are developed through a transmission planning and approval process customized for renewable energy. RE Data Explorer analysis can feed into broader stakeholder discussions and allow stakeholders to easily visualize potential zones. Stakeholders can access pertinent data to inform transmission planning and enable investment.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  18. Ancillary services in Smart Grids to support distribution networks in the integration of renewable energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    2014 - 2015 In recent years, progresses have been made in developing cleaner and more efficient technologies to produce, transmit and distribute energy. Pledges made in the recent summit in Paris (21°conference of the parties - COP21, Paris 2015) and Marrakech (COP22, Marrakech 2016) on climate changes promise to give new impetus to the move towards a lower-carbon and more efficient energy system. Nowadays, mandatory energy efficiency plans are expanding worldwide to cover over a quarter o...

  19. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  20. Territorial authorities, stakeholders of participative and citizen projects of renewable energy. From support to management: how to do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peullemeulle, Justine; Duval, Joakim; Boumard, Erwan; Leclercq, Michel; Paraiso, Jean-Eric; Foulon, Arno; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Mouhamad, Sakina; Leclercq, Michel; Poize, Noemie; Duffes, Thomas; Billard, Marianne; Leyendecker, Manon; Jourdain, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    This publication aims at being a guide for public actors in the implementation and management of participative and citizen projects of renewable energy. It first outlines context and stakes for territorial authorities and citizen, both considered as actors of a democracy of energy. In the next chapter, and by referring to actual examples, it describes the approach to a citizen-based project, and more precisely how a local authority can support the emergence of projects, as well as citizen initiatives, how it is involved in the development phase, and in the building phase. The next chapter highlights lessons which can be learned from a set of current experiments and situations: how can citizen make authorities participate to a project they initiated, how can authorities can make citizen participate to a project they initiated, which actions to implement when a developer wants to intervene on a territory, case of local authorities supporting the local policy of development of citizen renewable energies

  1. Fiscal and tax policy support for energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongyan

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings (EERERB) in China's northern heating region is an important component of the national energy strategy. The main content and related subject in EERERB performance is the basis of understanding and developing targeted policies. So, this paper designed the content system of EERERB. And then, provided a cost-benefit analysis on related subjects, assessed the government's function in EERERB, and come to the conclusion that the Chinese government should increase fiscal fund investment and implement more fiscal and tax incentive policies. Moreover, in view of China's current policy, which lacks long-term mechanism and flexibility, this paper proposed specific policy recommendations, including clarifying the government's corresponding responsibilities at all levels and increasing the intensity of the central government's transfer payments. It further proposed targeted financial and tax policies for supporting and encouraging heating enterprises and owners, as well as policies to cultivate energy-saving service markets and to support the ESCO.

  2. Forecasting energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Greece. An evaluation of the consequences of the Community Support Framework II and natural gas penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, N.M.; Kalyvitis, S.C.; Lalas, D.P.; Pesmajoglou, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the future demand for energy and the trajectory of CO2 emissions level in Greece, taking into account the impact of the Community Support Framework (CSF) II on the development process and the penetration of natural gas, which is one of the major CSF II interventions, in the energy system. Demand equations for each sector of economic activity (traded, non-traded, public and agricultural sector) and for each type of energy (oil, electricity and solid fuels) are derived. The energy system is integrated into a fully developed macroeconometric model, so that all interactions between energy, prices and production factors are properly taken into account. Energy CO2 forecasts are then derived based on alternative scenarios for the prospects of the Greek economy. According to the main findings of the paper the growth pattern of forecast total energy consumption closely follows that of forecast output showing no signs of decoupling. As regards CO2 emissions, they are expected to increase with an annual average rate, which is higher than world forecasts. 17 refs

  3. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in the recent years. Therefore, a lot of concerns related to the reliable operation of the power system have been addressed. An attractive solution to minimize the limitations faced by the wind power grid integration, and thus...... to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power...

  4. Trade Disputes over Renewable Energy Supporting Policies: Recent Cases, WTO Rules, and Possible Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xianli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concerns about climate change impacts and the high oil prices have made many countries include promoting renewable energy use their national sustainable development strategies. One frequently mentioned barrier to increasing the transition toward renewable energy in many countries is lack...... change mitigation actions under the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’. So it would be logic to assume that if a country helps lower the prices of renewable energy technologies and somehow subsidies the renewable energy use in other countries, such efforts will be more than welcome...

  5. Expected role of nuclear science and technology to support the sustainable supply of energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, Soedyartomo; Aziz, Ferhat

    2008-01-01

    Energy resources are available in Indonesia but small per capita. The increase of oil price and its reserve depletion rate dictates to decrease the oil consumption. Therefore, it is imperative to increase the shares of other fossils as well as the new and renewable sources of energy in various energy sectors substituting the oil. The introduction of nuclear power plant becomes more indispensable, although the share is to be small but significantly important for electric generation in Java-Madura-Bali grid. Nuclear technology can have also important role enabling the increase of the shares of renewable, e.g. geothermal, hydro and bio-fuels as well as fossil energies to meet more sustainable energy mix sufficing the energy demand to attain intended economic and population growths while maintaining the environment. The first introduced nuclear power plant is to be the proven ones, but the innovative nuclear energy systems being developed by various countries will eventually also be partially employed to further improve the sustainability. The nuclear science and technology are to be symbiotic and synergistic to other sources of energy to enhance the sustainable supply of energy. (author)

  6. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-08-05

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD(+)/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments.

  7. Exploration of government policy structure which support and block energy transition process in indonesia using system dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destyanto, A. R.; Silalahi, T. D.; Hidayatno, A.

    2017-11-01

    System dynamic modeling is widely used to predict and simulate the energy system in several countries. One of the applications of system dynamics is to evaluate national energy policy alternatives, and energy efficiency analysis. Using system dynamic modeling, this research aims to evaluate the energy transition policy that has been implemented in Indonesia on the past conversion program of kerosene to LPG for household cook fuel consumption, which considered as successful energy transition program implemented since 2007. This research is important since Indonesia considered not yet succeeded to execute another energy transition program on conversion program of oil fuel to gas fuel for transportation that has started since 1989. The aim of this research is to explore which policy intervention that has significant contribution to support or even block the conversion program. Findings in this simulation show that policy intervention to withdraw the kerosene supply and government push to increase production capacity of the support equipment industries (gas stove, regulator, and LPG Cylinder) is the main influence on the success of the program conversion program.

  8. Contractual obligations and the sharing of confidential health information in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L

    2008-09-01

    As an employee, a sports doctor has obligations to their employer, but also professional and widely accepted obligations of a doctor to the patient (in this case the individual team member). The conflict is evident when sports doctors are asked by an athlete to keep personal health information confidential from the coach and team management, and yet both doctor and athlete have employment contracts specifying that such information shall be shared. Recent research in New Zealand shows that despite the presence of an employment contract, there appears to be a wide range of behaviours among sports doctors when an athlete requests that information about them be kept from team management. Many seem willing to honour requests to keep health information about the athlete confidential, thereby being in breach of the employment contract, while others insist on informing team management against the wishes of the athlete. There are a number of potential solutions to this dilemma from forcing doctors to meet their contractual obligations, to limiting the expectations of the employment contract. This paper suggests that at times it may be appropriate to do both, making the position of the doctor clearer and supporting the ability of this group to resist pressure by coaches and management through having a robust code of ethics.

  9. Simulation to support passive and low energy cooling system design in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the passive and low energy cooling technologies in the Czech Republic. The role of computer simulation in low energy building design and optimization is discussed. The work includes buildings and systems analysis as well as climate analysis in order to estimate the potential of

  10. Primary frequency regulation supported by battery storage systems in power systems dominated by renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turk, Ana; Sandelic, Monika; Noto, Giancarlo

    2018-01-01

    replaced by intermittent renewable generators. Therefore, maintaining system quality and stability in terms of power system frequency control is one of the major challenges that requires new resources and their system integration. Battery energy storage systems (BESS), as fast-acting energy storage systems...

  11. The Role of Institutional Support in Energy Technology Diffusion in Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.L.; van Groenendaal, W.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    In the past China's rural areas, home to 70% of its population, suffered energy shortages.China's indigenous energy resources are limited, with the exception of coal.The widespread use of coal requires large investments in production and transport -making it costly-, and degrades the environment.As

  12. Regional and International Networking to Support the Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavansiri, Direk; Bull, Trevor

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand is a new regulatory agency. The structure of the energy sector; the tradition of administration; and, the lack of access to experienced personnel in Thailand all pose particular challenges. The Commission is meeting these challenges through regional and international networking to assist in developing policies and procedures that allow it to meet international benchmarks.

  13. Diffusion of solar energy use in the built environment supported by new design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenhuizen, Marina; Schoonman, Joop; Reinders, Angèle

    2014-01-01

    Places of large potentials of sustainable energy production and places of large energy consumption are often very different and separated by large distances across the globe. This paper first discusses potentials of solar technology in terms of global availability using PV (photovoltaic) technology

  14. Simulation-based support for integrated design of new low-energy office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    . The method uses the energy frame concept to express the constraints of the optimisation problem, which is then solved by minimising the costs of conserving energy in all the individual energy-saving measures. A case example illustrates how the method enables designers to establish a qualified estimate...... a method for making informed decisions in the early stages of building design to fulfil performance requirements with regard to energy consumption and indoor environment. The method is operationalised in a program that utilises a simple simulation program to make performance predictions of user......-defined parameter variations. The program then presents the output in a way that enables designers to make informed decisions. The method and the program reduce the need for design iterations, reducing time consumption and construction costs, to obtain the intended energy performance and indoor environment. Paper...

  15. Advances in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBeare

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. These bacteria include Chlamydia spp., which causes millions of cases of sexually transmitted disease and blinding trachoma annually, and members of the α-proteobacterial genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Orientia and Rickettsia, agents of serious human illnesses including epidemic typhus. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has also been considered a prototypical obligate intracellular bacterium, but recent host cell-free (axenic growth has rescued it from obligatism. The historic genetic intractability of obligate intracellular bacteria has severely limited molecular dissection of their unique lifestyles and virulence factors involved in pathogenesis. Host cell restricted growth is a significant barrier to genetic transformation that can make simple procedures for free-living bacteria, such as cloning, exceedingly difficult. Low transformation efficiency requiring long term culture in host cells to expand small transformant populations is another obstacle. Despite numerous technical limitations, the last decade has witnessed significant gains in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria including allelic exchange. Continued development of genetic tools should soon enable routine mutation and complementation strategies for virulence factor discovery and stimulate renewed interest in these refractory pathogens. In this review, we discuss the technical challenges associated with genetic transformation of obligate intracellular bacteria and highlight advances made with individual genera.

  16. Regular periodical public disclosure obligations of public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public companies in the capacity of capital market participants have the obligation to inform the public on their legal and financial status, their general business operations, as well as on the issuance of securities and other financial instruments. Such obligations may be divided into two groups: The first group consists of regular periodical public disclosures, such as the publication of financial reports (annual, semi-annual and quarterly, and the management's reports on the public company's business operations. The second group comprises the obligation of occasional (ad hoc public disclosure. The thesis analyses the obligation of public companies to inform the public in course of their regular reporting. The new Capital Market Law based on two EU Directives (the Transparency Directive and the Directive on Public Disclosure of Inside Information and the Definition of Market Manipulation regulates such obligation of public companies in substantially more detail than the prior Law on the Market of Securities and Other Financial Instruments (hereinafter: ZTHV. Due to the above the ZTHV's provisions are compared to the new solutions within the domain of regular periodical disclosure of the Capital Market Law.

  17. Summary of a survey on the public perception of nuclear energy. Study on the social support among citizens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, M.; Haufe, M.; Wendte, R.; De Jonge, J.; Merkx, P.

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the title study is to obtain a representative and independent image of the conceptions and opinions among the Dutch population with regard to nuclear energy in 2009 in general and with regard to four nuclear energy scenarios from the Energy report in particular: (1a) No new nuclear power plants; (1b) no new nuclear power plants unless inherently safe; (2) Replace the Borssele plant in 2033; (3) new nuclear power plants after 2020 (in addition to replacing Borssele). The study consisted of a qualitative and a quantitative component. Moreover, part of the PQR (Partners in Quality Research) study of 2006 was replicated and supporting literature study was conducted on the state of affairs with regard to the public perception of nuclear energy and plants in other countries. [nl

  18. Renewable electricity generation: supporting documentation for the Renewables Advisory Board submission to the 2006 UK energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Advisory Board (RAB) is an independent, non-departmental public body, sponsored by the DTI, which brings together representatives of the renewable sector and the unions. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources offers a range of advantages to the UK electricity-generating sector. This document, prepared as supporting documentation for the RAB submission to the 2006 Energy Review, examines the role of renewable energy in improving security of supply, lowering financial risk for energy portfolios, and reducing electricity cost volatility and fuel costs for the UK. Key topics addressed in this report include: resource security; security of supply; price security; and operational security. Also covered are variability patterns, financial costs and benefits of renewable generation. Maintaining the option and flexibility of future renewables development has a real option value, with overseas evidence showing that this can be significant

  19. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Box Retail -- 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of medium box retail buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The recommendations are given by climate zone and address building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems, HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, service water heating, plug loads, and photovoltaic systems. The report presents several paths to 50% savings, which correspond to different levels of integrated design. These are recommendations only, and are not part of a code or standard. The recommendations are not exhaustive, but we do try to emphasize the benefits of integrated building design, that is, a design approach that analyzes a building as a whole system, rather than as a disconnected collection of individually engineered subsystems.

  20. Simulation based decision support for strategic communication and marketing management concerning the consumer introduction of smart energy meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen STRAGIER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication and marketing professionals make strategic decisions in highly complex and dynamic contexts. These decisions are highly uncertain on the outcome and process level when, for example, consumer behaviour is at stake. Decision support systems can provide insights in these levels of uncertainty and the professional process of decision making. However, literature describing decision support tools for strategic communication and marketing management that provide clear insights in uncertainty levels is lacking. This study therefore aims at developing a consumer behaviour simulation module as an important element of such a future decision support tool. The consumer behaviour simulation we propose in this paper is based on data collected from a survey among 386 households with which a behavioural change model was calibrated. We show how various decision scenarios for strategic communication and marketing challenges can be explored and how such a simulation based decision support system can facilitate strategic communication and marketing management concerning the introduction of a smart energy meter.